Update: 2017-08-25 06:47 PM -0400


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893, http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg ;
1929, http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/macdonell/ 110416 , 110611 

downloaded and edited by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , http://www.softguide.net.mm

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{dar} - repha
{dan} : Note {king:si:} vowel { }

UKT notes :
Kshemagupta and Didda Turtles all the way down

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-- m. N. of Krishna's charioteer


दारुकर्मन् darukarman [ dru-karman ]
-- n. wood-carving; -kritya, n. function of wood; -ga, a. wooden.

दारुण daruna [ dr-na (or ) ]
-- a. (, ) hard (not soft); sharp (wind); rough, harsh, severe (speech, temper, person); violent, intense (pain etc.); painful (birth); terrible; n. harshness, severity.


दारुणता darunata [ druna-t ]
-- f. harshness; terribleness; -‿tman, a. hard-hearted, cruel.

दारुण्य darunya [ drun-ya ]
-- n. hardness.


दारुपर्वत daruparvata [ dru-parvata ]
-- m. N. of a palace; -phalaka, n. shutter; -mya, a. () wooden; -varman, m. N.; -sesha, a. containing only wood besides.

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{dar} - repha



दार्ढ्य dardhya [ drdh-ya ]
= द ा र ् ढ ् य
-- n. firmness; stability, stead fastness; confirmation.


दार्दुर dardura [ drdura ]
= द ा र ् द ु र
-- a. () relating to a frog.

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दार्भ darbha [ drbha ]
= द ा र ् भ
-- a. () made of Darbha grass.



दार्वdarva  [ drv-a ]
=  द ा र ् व
-- a. () wooden; m. pl. N. of a people.

दार्वाघाट darvaghata [ dru‿ght ]
-- m. woodpecker.

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दार्श darsa [ drs-a ]
-- m. new-moon sacrifice; a. () relating to the --; -ika, a. () relating to the new-moon (sacrifice).

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दार्ष्टान्तिक darstantika [ drshtnt-ika ]
=  द ा र ् ष ् ट ा न ् त ि क
-- a. elucidated or elucidating by an example or simile (drish tnta).

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दालन dalana [ dl-ana ]
-- n. crumbling off (of the teeth).

दालि dali [ dli ]
-- f. peeled grain.

दालिम dalima [ dlima ]
-- m. pomegranate tree.

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दाव dava [ dv ]
-- m. (forest) conflagration; m. n. forest: -dahana, m. forest fire; -‿agni, m. fire of a burning forest; -‿anala, m. id.

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[DS] (V.) P. I.
-- dsati , II. dshti , V. dsnoti , worship a god (d.) with (in.); offer reverently; bestow; cs. dsaya , offer

दाश dasa [ dsa ]
-- m. fisherman, boatman, ferry man, sailor.


दाशतय dasataya [ dsataya ]
-- a. () tenfold; belonging to the tenfold Rig-veda.

दाशपति dasapati [ dsa-pati ]
-- m. chief of fishermen.


दाशरथि dasarathi [ dsarath-i ]
-- m. pat. N.: du. Rma and Lakshmana.


दाशराज्ञ dasarajna [ dsa-rg ]
-- n. battle of the ten kings.


दाशार्णक dasarnaka [ dsrnaka ]
-- a. (ik) belonging to the Dasrnas.


दाशार्ह dasarha [ dsrha ]
-- a. belonging to Dasrha (Krishna); m. ep. of Krishna; king of the Dasrhas.


दाशुषे dasuse [ ds-sh-e ]
-- d. of dsvs (pf. pt. of √ds), pious.

दाशेरक daseraka [ dsera-ka ]
-- m. fisherman: pl. N. of a people.

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[DS] I. P.
-- dsa , (V.) only with abhi , bear ill-will to, persecute


दास dasa [ 1. ds- ]
-- m. foe; demon; infidel (V.); slave; servant.

दास dasa [ 2. ds-a ]
-- a. () hostile; demoniac; impious; m. foe, demon, infidel.


दासजन dasajana [ dsa-gana ]
-- m. slave; domestics; -gvana, a. who lives like a slave, living by slavish work; -t, f., -tva, n. slavery, bon dage; -ds, f. female slave of a slave; () pravarga, a. having a crowd of slaves; -var ga, m. domestics.

दासी dasi [ ds ]
-- f. female slave: dsyh putra, m. son of a slave (also as a term of abuse). ( end p119c1 )

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-- enslave

दासीदास dasidasa [ ds-dsa ]
-- n. sg. female and male slaves; -putra, m. son of a slave; -bhva, m. condition of a female slave.


दासेरक daseraka [ dseraka ]
-- m. (young) camel; , f. female camel.

दास्य dasya [ ds-y ]
-- m. bondage, servitude; service, work of slaves.

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दाह daha [ dh-a ]
-- m. burning, conflagration; cauterising; being burnt; inward heat, feverish heat: dism dha, preternatural redness of the sky.


दाहक dahaka [ dha-ka ]
-- a. (ik) burning, setting on fire.

दाहज्वर dahajvara [ dha-gvara ]
-- m. burning fever.

दाहन dahana [ dh-ana ] -- n. causing to be burnt.


दाहात्मक dahatmaka [ dha‿tmaka ]
-- a. inflammable, burning, scorching; -‿tman, a. id.

दाहिन् dahin [ dh-in ]
-- a. burning, setting on fire; flaming; burning hot.

दाहुक dahuka [ dh-u-ka ]
-- a. burning; m. conflagration.

दाह्यdahya  [ dh-ya ]
-- fp. to be burned.

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दिक्क [dik-ka]
-- -- =  dis


दिक्कन्या dikkanya [ dik-kany ]
-- f. quarter of the sky as a maiden; -karin, m. elephant of the quarters (supporting the earth at one of the four or eight points of the compass); -knt, -kmin, f. quarter of the sky as a maiden; -kakra, n. horizon: -vla, n. surrounding horizon; -khabda, m. word expressive of direction; -ta- ta, m. brink of the compass, horizon, extreme distance; -pati, m. regent of a quarter; -pa tha, m. horizon, extreme distance; -pla, m. guardian of a quarter; -prekshana, n. looking about in all directions (in fear); -sundar, f.=dik-kany.

See my note on the expression Turtles all the way down

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दिगधिप digadhipa [ dig-adhipa ]
-- m. regent of a quarter; -anta, m. end of the horizon, end of the world, extreme distance; -antara, n. another region; foreign parts; a particular quarter (w. paski metara, the east): pl. all the quarters; -am bara, a. clad with the quarters only, stark naked; m. naked mendicant monk, esp. among the Jains: , f. ep. of Durg.


दिगम्बरत्व digambaratva [ dig-ambara-tva ]
-- n. nakedness.


दिग्गज diggaja [ dig-gaga ]
-- m. elephant of the quarters; -gaya, m. conquest of the world; -dha, m. preternatural redness of the horizon; -deva t, f. deity of a quarter; -desa, m. remote region.


दिग्ध digdha [ dig-dha ]
-- pp. of √dih; m. poisoned arrow.


दिग्भाग digbhaga [ dig-bhga ]
-- m. point of the compass; -vadh, f.=dik-kany; -vasana, n. naked ness; -vrana, m. elephant of the quarters; -vsas, a. clad in the quarters, stark naked; -vigaya, m. conquest in all directions, world conquest; -vibhga, m. point of the compass, quarter of the sky; -vilokana, n. looking about in all directions (in fear); -vyghr ana, n. sprinkling of the quarters; -vypin, a. pervading the quarters, extending in all directions.

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UKT: How would I pronounce ? It is a very uncommon spelling in Bur-Myan. The only word I can think of at present is {lan} 'sex, gender, etc.'  spelled in Romabama with the {king:si:}-vowel { }. See MED2006-451 for {lan}. Yet I cannot use the pronunciation guide given by MLC /lein/, because it is an open sound and should be spelled with <a> instead of <e>. {lan} has the same pronunciation as / {lain}/ without a {g}-ending or {n}-ending. I am waiting for comments from my peers. -- UKT120406


दिङ्नाग dinnaga [ diṅ-nga ]
-- m. elephant of the quarters; -ntha, m. regent of a quarter; -mand ala, n. circle of the quarters, horizon; -m taṅga, m. elephant of the quarters; -mtra, n. mere indication, mere example; -mukha, n. point of the compass; place, location; -moha, m. bewilderment as to the cardinal points.

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दित dita [ di-ta ]
-- pp. of √2. d and √3. d.


दिति diti [ 1. d-ti ]
-- f. distribution; liberality. ( end p119c2 )(p119c3-top )

दिति diti [ 2. d-ti ]
-- f. N. of a goddess (a word evolved from Aditi); C. a daughter of Daksha, wife of Kasyapa, and mother of the Daityas.

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-- m. son of Diti, a Daitya.

दित्यवह् didrksu [ ditya-vh ]
-- m. (nm. -vt) two-year-old bull; dityauh&isharp;, f. two-year-old cow.

दित्सा ditsa [ dit-s ]
-- f. desire to give; -s, des. a. willing to give, grant, or perform.


दिदी didi [ did ]
-- v. √2. d.

दिदृक्षा didrksa [ di-drik-sh ]
-- f. desire to see.

दिदृक्षु dityavah [ di-drk-shu ]
-- des. a. desirous to see, examine, or inspect (ac.).


दिद्दा didda [ didd ]
-- f. N. of a princess of Cashmere: -kshema, m. ep. of Kshema-gupta; -pla, m. N.; -pura, n. N. of a city; -sv min, m. N. of a temple.

See my note on Kshemagupta and Didda
mentioned in Rājatarangiṇī (Rājataraṃgiṇī "The River of Kings") by Kalhaṇa (2th century CE)


दिद्युत् didyut [ di-dyt ]
-- a. flashing; f. missile; Indra's thunderbolt.

दिधक्षा didhaksa [ di-dhak-sh ]
-- f. desire to burn; -shu, des. a. wishing to burn or destroy.


दिधिषु didhisu [ di-dhi-sh ]
-- a. wishing to obtain; courting; m. suitor, husband; brev;, f. woman remarried; unmarried woman having a younger married sister: ()-pati, m. husband of a (brother's) widow; husband of a woman married after her younger sister.

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दिन dina [ 1. din ]
-- pp. of √2. d.

दिन dina [ 2. dna ]
-- n. day: -kara, m. (day-making), sun; N.; -kartavya, n. daily observance; -kartri, m. (day-maker), sun; -krya, n. daily observance; -krit, m. sun; -kritya, n. =-krya; -kshaya, m. decline of day, even ing; -naktam, ad. day and night; -ntha, m. (lord of day), sun; -pati, m. id.; -bhartri, m. id.; -mani, m. id. (gem of day); -mukha, n. day-break.


दिनागम dinagama [ dina‿gama ]
-- m. day-break; -‿di, m. id.; -‿adhintha, m. sun; -‿adhsa, m. sun; -‿anta, m. evening; -‿ardha, midday; -‿avasna, n. close of day, evening.

दिनेश dinesa [ dina‿sa ]
-- m. sun; -‿svara, m. id.

दिनोदय dinodaya
-- [ dina‿udaya ] m. day-break.


दिन्नाग्राम dinnagrama [ dinn-grma ]
-- m. N. of a village.

दिप्सु dipsu [ dip-s ]
-- des. a. wishing to harm (√dabh).

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दिलीप [dilpa]
-- m. N. of a king, son of Amsumat and ancestor of Rma.

UKT addition: दिलीप Dilipa was a king of the Solar dynasty, the son of Amshuman, and an ancestor of Rama. He is the father of Bhageeratha. -- http://www.apamnapat.com/entities/Dilipa.html 120406



दिव् div [ 1. DIV ] IV.
-- divya , cast, throw; radiate, shine; throw dice, play at dice (in.) with any one (in.) for (in. or d.); ...

दिव् div [ 2. DIV ] I.
-- -dva ; pp. dyna , tormented. pari , lament; pp. pridyna , wretched; cs. ...

दिव् div [ 3. dv ]
-- m. f. (nm. dyas; middle base dy) heaven; m. radiance, brilliance; day; -am gam or y, go to heaven; die; dybhih, for days, for a long time.


दिव diva [ div- ]
Skt: -- n. heaven; day, only in dive dive, day by day. -- Mac119c3
Pal: {di.wa.}
- - UHS-PMD0472

UKT from UHS: n. deva village, day, sky
   Note the usage of the term {nt rwa} 'deva village' instead of {nt pr} 'deva  country' or 'deva capital'. It reminds me of the story of {hkon-tau} {maung-kya.pn:} of the Ava period who remindeded his rivals the lawyers at the royal arbitration court that their abode could not be but a "village" when compared to the abode of Sakkra who resided in {nt rwa}. -- UKT120407

दिवंगम divangama [ divam-gama ]
-- a. going or leading to heaven.

दिवस divasa [ dv-as-a ]
-- m. heaven, day. ( end p119c3 )

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UKT notes

Below is the original navigation of Mac-Chicago, and will not work unless you are online.
If you are just a user, use Windows navigation.

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The entries were given not only in HTML (which is very misleading) but also in simple ASCII which can be easily related to IAST . I am removing the so-called HTML which were in [...] and substituting simple ASCII.

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Kshemagupta and Didda

Excerpts from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rajatarangini 120406
UKT: I have added Skt-Dev after some of the names. These are all from various Wiki sources which I have accessed from the links given in this text.

Rājatarangiṇī  ( Rājataraṃgiṇī "The River of Kings") is a metrical historical chronicle of north-western Indian subcontinent, particularly the kings of Kashmir, written in Sanskrit by Kashmiri Brahman Kalhaṇa  ( कल्हण ) in 12th century CE. [1]

The work generally records the heritage of Kashmir, but 120 verses of Rājatarangiṇī describe the misrule prevailing in Kashmir during the reign of King Kalash, son of King Ananta Deva of Kashmir. Although the earlier books are inaccurate in their chronology, they still provide an invaluable source of information about early Kashmir and its neighbors in the north western parts of the Indian subcontinent, and are widely referenced by later historians and ethnographers.


The broad valley of Kashmir, also spelled Cashmere [2] is almost completely surrounded by the Great Himalayas and the Pir Panjal range.

Kalhana states that the valley of Kashmir was formerly a lake. This was drained by the great rishi or sage, Kashyapa (कश्यप kaśyapa), son of Marichi, son of Brahma (ब्रह्मा brahmā) , by cutting the gap in the hills at Baramulla (Varaha-mula). Vraha (in Kashmiri Boar), Mulla (in Kashmiri Molar).

UKT: Rishi Kashypa कश्यप kaśyapa is important for Bur-Myan because he was an ancient sage (rishis), who is one of the Saptarshis in the present Manvantara ... [the following is from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kashyapa 120406 ]
   "He was the father of the Devas, Asuras, Nagas [ and all of humanity. [UKT ]

I have come across the suggestion that the term "Naga" was applied to all ancient peoples who worship the mythical {na.ga:}, and since Bur-Myan had been {na.ga:}-worshipers before King Anawratha, the term can be applied to Bur-Myan. -- UKT120406

"He married Aditi, with whom he fathered Agni, the Adityas, and most importantly Lord Vishnu took his fifth Avatar as Vamana, the son of Aditi, in the seventh Manvantara.[2] With his second wife, Diti, he begot the Daityas. Diti and Aditi were daughters of King Daksha Prajapati and sisters to Sati, Shiva's consort. Kashyap received the earth, obtained by Parashurama's conquest of King Kartavirya Arjuna and henceforth, earth came to be known as "Kashyapi".

"He was also the author of the treatise Kashyap Samhita, or Braddha Jivakiya Tantra, which is considered, a classical reference book on Ayurveda especially in the fields of Ayurvedic pediatrics, gynecology and obstetrics.[3] It can be safely assumed that there were many Kashyaps and the name indicates a status and not just one individual."


The kings of Kashmir described in the Rājatarangiṇī can be roughly grouped into dynasties as in the table below. Notes in parentheses refer to a book and verse. Thus (IV.678) is Book IV verse 678.

UKT: In dynasty of Mauriyas we find;
   "The Maurya Empire was a geographically extensive and powerful political and military empire in ancient India, founded by Chandragupta Maurya in Magadha, in 322 BCE. His grandson Ashoka the Great (273-232 BCE) built many stupas in Kashmir, and was succeeded by his son Jalauka."

UKT: After many dynasties, in Divira dynasty is mentioned:
   "After a young son of Yashaskara, Pravaragupta, a Divira (clerk), became king. His son Kshemagupta married Didda, daughter of Simharaja of Lohara. After ruling indirectly and directly, Didda (980-1003 CE) placed Samgramaraja, son of her brother on the throne, starting the Lohara dynasty."

UKT: The last dynasty mentioned in Wikipedia article is the Lohara dynasty.

Go back Kshema-Didda-note-b

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Turtles all the way down

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turtles_all_the_way_down 120405

"Turtles all the way down" is a jocular expression of the infinite regress problem in cosmology posed by the "unmoved mover" paradox. The phrase was popularized by Stephen Hawking in 1988. The "turtle" metaphor in the anecdote represents a popular notion of a "primitive cosmological myth", viz. the flat earth supported on the back of a World Turtle.

A comparable metaphor describing the circular cause and consequence for the same problem is the "chicken and egg problem". Another metaphor addressing the problem of infinite regression, albeit not in a cosmological context, is Quis custodiet ipsos custodes? The same problem in epistemology is known as the Mnchhausen Trilemma.


The origins of the turtle story are uncertain. The most widely known version appears in Stephen Hawking's 1988 book A Brief History of Time, which starts:

A well-known scientist (some say it was Bertrand Russell) once gave a public lecture on astronomy. He described how the earth orbits around the sun and how the sun, in turn, orbits around the center of a vast collection of stars called our galaxy. At the end of the lecture, a little old lady at the back of the room got up and said: "What you have told us is rubbish. The world is really a flat plate supported on the back of a giant tortoise." The scientist gave a superior smile before replying, "What is the tortoise standing on?" "You're very clever, young man, very clever," said the old lady. "But it's turtles all the way down!" - [1]

There is an allusion to the story in David Hume's Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion (published in 1779):

How can we satisfy ourselves without going on in infinitum? And, after all, what satisfaction is there in that infinite progression? Let us remember the story of the Indian philosopher and his elephant. It was never more applicable than to the present subject. If the material world rests upon a similar ideal world, this ideal world must rest upon some other; and so on, without end. It were better, therefore, never to look beyond the present material world. - [2]

In 1905, Oliver Corwin Sabin, Bishop of the Evangelical Christian Science Church, wrote:

The old original idea which was enunciated first in India, that the world was flat and stood on the back of an elephant, and the elephant did not have anything to stand on was the world's thought for centuries. That story is not as good as the Richmond negro preachers who said the world was flat and stood on a turtle. They asked him what the turtle stood on and he said another turtle, and they asked what that turtle stood on and he said another turtle, and finally they got him in a hole and he said. "I tell you there are turtles all the way down." - [3]

In J. R. (Haj) Ross's 1967 linguistics dissertation, Constraints on Variables in Syntax, the scientist is identified as the Harvard psychologist and philosopher William James. Of the story's provenance, Ross writes:

I have been unable to find any published reference to it, so it may be that I have attributed it to the wrong man, or that it is apocryphal. Be that as it may, because of its bull's-eye relevance to the study of syntax, I have retold it here.[4][5] 

This quote also appears in Robert Anton Wilson's Prometheus Rising (1983); he attributes the story to William James:

William James, father of American psychology, tells of meeting an old lady who told him the Earth rested on the back of a huge turtle. "But, my dear lady", Professor James asked, as politely as possible, "what holds up the turtle?" "Ah", she said, "that's easy. He is standing on the back of another turtle." "Oh, I see", said Professor James, still being polite. "But would you be so good as to tell me what holds up the second turtle?" "It's no use, Professor", said the old lady, realizing he was trying to lead her into a logical trap. "It's turtles-turtles-turtles, all the way!" - [6]

Additionally, Stephen Fry, in an episode of the BBC's comedy-quiz show QI (Series 1, episode 2), attributes the turtles anecdote to an exchange between an elderly lady and William James. Also, David Sloan Wilson does the same in his book Evolution for Everyone (Delacorte, 2007): 133.

UKT: More in Wikipedia article

Go back Turtles-note-b

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