Update: 2017-08-25 06:42 PM -0400


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893, http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg ;
1929, http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/macdonell/ 110416 , 110611 

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{da.sha.} : changes to Pal: {da.a.}

Collection of material for my upcoming note on: "Fricatives in Sanskrit and Pali".
Look for relations between:
(IPA representation is on Bur-Myan pronunciation and is not on Skt-Dev.)
  {da.sa.} /da.ca/ दच : coda of second syllable is palatal plosive-stop
  {dar~sha.} /da.ʃra/ दर्श : coda of second syllable has repha 
  {da.sha.} /da.ʃa/ दश : coda of second syllable is dental fricative-sibilant 
  {da.Sa.} /da.sa/ दष : coda of second syllable is dental fricative-sibilant  
  {da.a.} /da.θa/ दस : coda of second syllable is dental fricative-thibilant 
Relate to Skt: {dak~Sa.} /dak.sa/ --> Pal: {dak~hka.} /dak.kʰa/ .
(IPA representation is on Skt-Dev and Eng-Lat)
  {S~ka.} /ska./ ष्क : refer to pronunciation of English <skin>,
  {S~ta.} /sta./ ष्त , {S~na.} /sna./ ष्न : refer to pronunciations of English <stand> & <snap>,
  {S~pa.} /spa./ ष्प , {S~ma.} /sma./ ष्म : refer to pronunciations of English <spit> & <smart>
  {S~la.} /sla./ ष्ल , {S~wa.} /swa./ ष्व : possible confusion because {la.} & {wa.} are medial formers.

UKT notes :
Adventures of Ten Princes Darbha grass Darpitapura

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दर्प darpa [ darp-a ]
-- m. wildness, wantonness, impu- ( end p116c3 ) (p117c1-top )
dence, arrogance, pride (in, in. or --): -ka, m. id.; Kma.


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दर्पण darpana [ darp-ana ]
-- m. (causing pride), mirror, often -- in titles of books: -maya, a. consisting of mirrors.

दर्पणिका darpanika [ darpan-ik ] f. mirror.


-- m. N.

दर्पितपुर darpitapura [ darpita-pura ]
-- m. N. of a city.

See my note on Darpitapura - the City of Pride


दर्भ darbha [ darbh- ]
-- m. tuft of grass; sacrificial (esp. Kusa) grass (used for strewing, wiping, and other purposes).

दर्भमय darbhamaya [ darbha-mya ]
-- a. () made of Darbha grass; -musht, m. f. handful of Darb a grass; -ski (or ), f. sharp point of Darbha grass; -stamb, m. bunch of Darbha grass.

See my note on Darbha grass

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-- m. N.

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दर्व darva [ darva ]
-- m. spoon.

[drvi] (also ) -- f. id.; serpent's hood

दर्विभृत् darvibhrt [ darvi-bhrit ]
-- m. hooded serpent.

-- m. id.

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[drs-a] (or -a), -- looking at, regarding (--); m. appearance, new moon, day or or festival of new moon.

दर्शक darsaka [ darsa-ka ]
-- a. seeing, getting sight of (g.); causing to be seen, showing, pointing out, exposing, making evident (g., --): lohi tasya --, causing blood to flow, drawing blood.

दर्शत darsata [ dars-at ] V.
-- fp. visible; conspicuous, beautiful.


दर्शन darsana [ dars-ana ]
-- a. () --, seeing, looking at; knowing; showing, teaching; n. 1. with active meaning: seeing, looking at, beholding; sight of, meeting with, visiting, attendance at (-- or g.); adoration (of, g.); eyesight; review of (g.); inspection, investigation of (--); foreseeing (--); perception, understanding, in sight; recognition of (--); opinion, intention; doctrine, philosophical system; 2. with ps. meaning: becoming or being visible, appearance, presence, attendance (in court); occur rence, mention (esp. in a standard work); ap parition, vision; 3. with cs. meaning: showing; with concrete meaning: eye; it is often -- a. having a -appearance, looking --; -m d, show oneself.


दर्शनगोचर darsanagocara [ darsana-gokara ]
-- m. range of vision; -patha, m. id.: -gata, pp. visible; -pla, m. N.; -vat, a. endowed with sight; -vishaya, m. being within range of any one's (g.) vision.

दर्शनान्तरगत darsanantaragata [ darsana‿antara-gata ]
-- pp. being within sight, visible; -‿artha, a. intending to visit: -m, ad. on a visit; -‿varana, n. envelopment of sensual perception.


दर्शनीय darsaniya [ dars-an&isharp;ya ]
-- fp. visible; worthy to be seen, beautiful, handsome; to be shown; to be produced in court.

दर्शपूर्णमास darsapurnamasa [ darsa-prna-ms ]
-- m. du. new and full moon; new and full moon sacrifice.

-- abs. repeated , on each occasion of seeing


दर्शयितव्य darsayitavya [ dars-ayitavya ]
-- fp. to be shown; -ayitu-kma, a. wishing to show; -ayi-tri, m. shower of (g.); guide.

दर्शिन् darsin [ dars-in ]
-- a. (--) seeing, looking at, regarding; having seen; knowing, understanding; experiencing or having experienced; receiving (revenue); composing or having composed; showing. ( end p117c1 )

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[DAL] I. P.
-- dala , burst (int.); cs, dlaya , cause to burst; disperse; grind: pp. dalita , (simple & cs.) burst, cleft, rent, torn; dispersed; destroyed. vi , burst asunder, ...


दल dala [ dal-a ]
-- n. fragment, piece; part; half; leaf, petal (that which unfolds itself); -ana, n. bursting (int.); breaking, crushing, shattering; annihilation.

दलशस् dalasas [ dala-sas ]
-- ad. in pieces: with y, go to pieces.

दलादित्व daladitva [ dala‿di-tva ]
-- n. state of a leaf, etc.

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दव dava [ dav-a ]
-- m. [√du] forest fire: -thu, m. burning, pain; inflammation; -‿agni, m. fire of a burning forest; -‿anala, m. id.

-- I prs. sg. impv., only form of √du (?) = √I. div, gamble

दविष्ठ davistha [ dv-ishtha ]
-- spv. (of dra) remotest; -yas, cpv. very distant; very long: n. ad. further.

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-- v. [DAMS]

दशक dasaka [ dasa-ka ]
-- a. containing ten, tenfold; -kantha, m. (ten-necked), ep. of Rvana: -‿ari, m. enemy of Rvana, ep. of Rma; -kamdhara, m. (ten-necked), ep. of Rvana; -kumra-ka ri-ta or -tra, n. Adventures of the Ten Princes , title of a novel by Dandin; -guna, a. tenfold, ten times greater or more: -m, ad.; -gun ita, pp. multiplied by ten; -grma-pati, m. chief of ten villages; -grm, f. aggregate of ten villages.

UKT: See my note on Adventures of the Ten Princes or Dashakumaracharita (दशकुमारचरित Daśa-kumāra-carita )


दशग्रीव dasagriva [ dasa-grva ]
-- m. ten-necked, ep. of Rvana.

दशग्व dasagva [ dsa-gva ]
-- a. consisting of ten.

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दशत् dasat [ dast ]
-- f. decade.

दाशतय dasataya [ dsa-taya ]
-- a. () tenfold, consisting of ten divisions; , f. pl. the texts of the ten Mandalas of the Rig-veda.

दशति dasati [ dasa-ti ]
-- f. decade.


दशदशिन् dasadasin [ dasa-dasin ]
-- a. consisting of repeated decades; -dis, f. sg. the ten quarters.

दशधा dasadha [ dasa-dh ]
-- ad. in ten parts, tenfold.


दशन् dasan [ dsan (also n) ]
-- a. pl. ten.

दशन dasana [ das-ana ]
-- m. tooth: -ka, little tooth; -kkhada, m. lip; -pada, n. mark of teeth, bite; -vyaya, m. loss of teeth; -‿amsu, m. pl. brightness of the teeth.


दशपल dasapala [ dasa-pala ]
-- n. sg. ten palas; a. weighing ten palas; -pura, n. N. of a city: , f. id.; -prva-ratha, m. paraphrase of the N. Dasaratha; -bandha, m. tenth part: -ka, -- a. id.


दशम dasama [ dasa-ma ] a. () tenth; n. tenth part; &isharp;, f. (sc. tithi) tenth day in a fortnight; tenth stage of life, i. e. 90-100 years of age: () stha, a. being in the tenth stage, above 90 years old.


दशमास्य dasamasya [ dsa-msya ]
-- a. ten months old; -mukha, m. (ten-faced), Rvana: -ripu, m. Rvana's foe, ep. of Rma; -yogan, f. dis tance of ten yoganas; -ratha, m. N. of several kings, esp. of Rma's father, sovereign of Ayodhy; -rasmi-sata, m. (thousand-rayed), sun; -rtra, m. n. period of ten days: , a. lasting ten days; m. festival of ten days; -a‿ri- ka, having ten verses; -rpa, n. sg. the ten kinds of dramas; T. of a treatise on rhetoric by Dhanamgaya (tenth century): -ka, n. id.; -lakshana-ka, a. having ten characteristics, tenfold; -varsha, -varshya, a. ten years old; -vrshika, a. () id.; lasting ten years; occurring after ten years; -vidha, a. tenfold; -sat, n. 110; 1000: , f. 1000; -sata-kara-dhrin, a. having a thousand rays (moon); -sata‿ak- sha,
( end p117c2 ) (p117c3-top )
a. thousand-eyed (Indra); -siras, a. ten-headed; -srsha, a. id.; m. Rvana; -shas ra, a. consisting of ten thousand; n. ten thousand.

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[dasas-y] P.
-- serve, honour; help; gratify (d.).

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दशा dasa [ das- ]
-- f. fringe, border, skirt, hem of a garment; wick (of a lamp); condition of life, lot, age, state: -‿anta, m. end of a wick; end of life; extreme old age; -paripka, m. revolution of fortune.

दशांश dasaṃsa [ dasa‿amsa ]
-- m. tenth part; -‿akshara, a. decasyllabic; -‿aṅgula, a. ten fingers (= inches) long; -‿nana, m. (ten-faced), ep. of Rvana; -‿antarushy, n. distance of ten stations; -‿abda‿khya, a. of ten years standing.


दशार्ण dasarna [ dasrna ]
-- a. decasyllabic; m. pl. N. of a people; sg. king of Dasrna.

दशार्ध dasardha [ dasa‿rdha ]
-- a. pl. five.

दशार्ह dasarha [ dasrha ]
-- m. Krishna: pl. N. of a people.


दशालम्बिन् dasalambin [ das‿lambin ]
-- a. hanging down with the skirt=dragging.

दशावर dasavara [ dasa‿avara ]
-- a. consisting of ten at least; -‿sya, a. ten-mouthed; m. Rvana; -‿ah, m. period of ten days.

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UKT: {da.shi.} is Romabama for the disyllabic /da.ʃi/. The official orthography for this sound by MLC (Myanmar Language Commission) is {da.rhi.}. Using the dental approximant {ra.} /ɹ/ does not lead to the sound of /ʃ/. -- UKT120403


दशिन् dasin [ das-n ]
a. tenfold; m. lord of ten villages.

-- m. pl. N. of a people

दशेश dasesa [ dasa‿sa ]
-- m. ruler of ten villages.

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दष्ट dasta [ dash-ta ]
= द ष ् ट
-- pp. (√dams); n. bite.

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[DAS] IV. P.
-- dsya (V.) suffer want, waste away; languish; pr. pt. I. .  dsamna ; cs. . dasaya , cause to languish, exhaust. upa , be exhausted, fail; be lacking to (ab., g.); cs. P. -dsaya , cause to fail or cease.


दस्म dasma [ dasm ] -- a. working wonders, marvellous.


दस्यु dasyu [ ds-yu ]
-- m. class of demons hostile to the gods and frequently represented as being over- come by Indra and Agni, fiend, foe of the gods, unbeliever (V.); man of non-Brhmanical tribes; robber.

दस्र dasra [ das-r ]
-- a. working wonders; m. N. of one of the Asvins.

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[DAH] I. P. (E. also )
-- dha , burn, consume with fire; cauterize; destroy; formant, agitate; ps. to be burned; be destroyed : to be consumed with inward fire; be tortured; pp. ...







दहन dahana [ dah-ana ]
-- a. () burning, consuming with fire; destroying (gnly. --); m. fire, Agni (f. -- a. ); n. burning: -karman, n. act of burning; -garbha, a. having inward fire, flashing with anger (eyes); -‿tmaka, a. whose nature consists in burning or causing grief.

दहरdahara  [ dah-ara ]
-- a. [√dabh] small, subtile; m. mouse, musk-rat.

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UKT: p117c3-b12 moved to next file.

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UKT notes

Adventures of Ten Princes

aka Dashakumaracharita (दशकुमारचरित Daśa-kumāra-carita )
From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dashakumaracharita 120402

Dashakumaracharita (Daśa-kumāra-carita दशकुमारचरित). The narrative of ten young men) is a prose romance in Sanskrit, attributed to Dandin (दण्डिन) in the 7th century CE. However, as discussed below, there is some obscurity surrounding its textual tradition, the identity of the author and the date of composition.

It describes the adventures of ten Kumaras, i.e., young men, (all of whom are either princes or sons of royal ministers), as narrated by the men themselves. (But there are irregularities in the text; see below.) These narratives are replete with accounts of demigods, ghosts, prostitutes, gamblers, intrigues with voluptious women, astonishing coincidences, cockfights, anthropophagy, sorcery, robberies, murders and wars. The reader is treated to some very striking passages; for instance, a seductive young girl (all of whose anatomical features are very frankly described) deftly prepares a fragrant meal of rice-gruel and vegetables for her prospective suitor (in D-VI).

UKT: anthropophagus  n. pl. anthropophagi (-j)
-- A person who eats human flesh; a cannibal
-- http://www.thefreedictionary.com/anthropophagy 120402

The text contains a specimen of lipogrammatic writing (a species of constrained writing). At the beginning of the 7th chapter of Dsc., Mantragupta (मंत्रगुप्त) is called upon to relate his adventures. However, during the previous night of vigorous lovemaking, his lips have been nibbled several times by his beloved; as a result they are now swollen, making it painful for him to close them. Thus, throughout his narrative, he is compelled to refrain from using any labial consonants ({pa.} प, {hpa.} फ, {ba.} ब, भ {Ba.}, म {ma.}).

Editions of the original Sanskrit text have been published by Agashe,[1] Godbole and Parab,[2] Kale,[3] and Wilson.[4] The work has been translated into English by Haksar,[5] Jacob,[6] Kale,[3] Onians,[7] and Ryder.[8] In particular, the edition by Kale includes the original in Sanskrit, a literal English translation, as well as an extensive commentary on the stylistic and historical aspects of the text. In her translation of the lipogrammatic chapter, Onians omits the labial roman letters 'b', 'm' and 'p'. (E.g., she uses the circumlocution 'honey-creator' instead of 'bumblebee'). There is a translation into German by Mayer.[9]

Critical commentaries on the text have been written by, inter alia, Gupta [10] and Pankaj.[11] A more extensive bibliography may be found in Onians.[7]

The author

Nothing specific about the author's life is known with any degree of confidence. He is traditionally regarded as also the author of Kavyadarsha (काव्यादर्श), a manual on poetry and rhetoric. However, Agashe [1] doubts this attribution on the grounds that the two works differ very widely in style and tone. Since a poet Dandin (presumably distinct from a prose writer) is also mentioned in sundry ancient Indian texts, he is led to conjecture the existence of at least three distinct Dandins. Since Dandin (literally, a staff-bearer) is also a common adjective for ascetics or religious mendicants, Wilson [4] doubts whether it is the author's proper name at all.

On the other hand, Kale [3] accepts that Kvy. and Dsc. have been written by the same person. On the basis of textual evidence from the Dsc., he opines that the author must have lived earlier than the Mohammedan invasion of India, i.e., before the 11th century. Moreover, since the Kvy. refers to the Prakrit poem Setubandha (सेतुबंध) composed in the 5th century, he is led to 6th-8th century as the most probable time of composition. (This remains in some tension with the fact that Dsc. is not referred to by any other text until the 10th century.[1] There is also a conflicting tradition, generally considered unreliable,[3] which makes Dandin a contemporary of Kalidasa.)

Based on certain descriptions in the Dsc., Kale further conjectures that Dandin must have lived in, or at least must have been familiar with, the Vidarbha region of India.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

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Darbha grass

From: http://www.indianetzone.com/35/kusha_sacrificial_grass.htm 120402

Kusha is another name of darbha grass. This is sacrificial grass which, on occasion of offerings made to the gods, is placed upon the ground as a seat for them, having its tips towards the east.

UKT: End of stub.

From: Three important Vedic grasses by S. Mahdihassan,  in Indian Journal of History of Science, 22 (4): 286-291 (1987) - http://www.new.dli.ernet.in/rawdataupload/upload/insa/INSA_1/20005abf_286.pdf 120402

During the times Ṛgveda (RV) was being finally compiled i.e. about 2000 B.C., the Aryans were in India but had remained pastoral people or nomads. Their worship consisted of sacrifices to the gods they had conceived, and to perform sacrifices they used to construct an altar, or Vedi , of grass. The alter was a bundle of grass cut at either end and the bundle was given the shape of a rectangular stool. Marshall (fn01) illustrates a bundle of Soma plant which is ephedra, and two hundles of grass whcih the grass cutter Swatika had brought as offering to Buddha. Both these pictures have been reproduced and discussed by me in an earlier article (fn02). The same grass was used to cover the Vedi on which objects of sacrifice were placed. At the same time it was spread on the ground around the alter for the persons offering sacrifice to sit upon. It was further imagined that the gods to which the sacrifices were offered were also present during the sacrifice and it was imperative to make it sacred. Ṛgveda speaks of "sacred grass" which we must interpret as being Desmostachya bipinnata . In Sanskrit and Hindi it is called Kusa. Its former scientific name was Eragnostis cynosuroides .

... ... ...

The three grasses would be as follows:

1. Desmostachya bipinnata, Skt: Kusa, Vernacular: Kuśa
2. Imperata cylindrica, Skt: Darbha, Venacular: Dabh
3. Panicun dactylon, Skt: Durva, Vernacular: Dub

The author is most grateful to Prof. P.V.Sharma of Varanasi for his deep interest and kind help in this work.

References and notes
fn01. Marshall, Sir John, The Buddhist Art of Gandara, 1916
fn02. Mahdihassan, S., Soma in the Light of Comparative Pharmacology, Etymology and Archaelogy, Janus , 61 , 91-102 , 1974
... ... ...

UKT: End of excerpt.

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Darpitapura - the City of Pride

Excerpt from: Rajatangini of Kalhana , http://archive.org/stream/RajataranginiOfKalhana-English-JogeshChunderDuttVolumes12/Rajatarangini-JogeshChunderDuttVol1_djvu.txt -- 120402

On p70 of "Kings of Kashmir" :

"There was not a town or village, or island, or river, or sea, where he did not raise triumphal monuments. These monuments he named according to the event or the time. When he set out on his expedition, he felt certain of conquest, and built a town named Sunishchitapura, or the " City of Certainty." When in his pride of conquest, he built another named Darpitapura, or the " City of Pride," in which he set up an image of Keshava. And when his conquests were over, and he was enjoying*'the fruits of his victories, he raised another city ' which he named Phalapura (phala signifying fruit or effect). He completed Parnotsa and built a house for amusement named Xrirfcrima, the name indicating the purpose' of the building. ... "

UKT: As usual texts from Archive.org are informative, but because
of errors of scanning and digitization are very annoying to read.

See also: Rājatarangiṇī (Rājataraṃgiṇī "The River of Kings") is a metrical historical chronicle of north-western Indian subcontinent, particularly the kings of Kashmir, written in Sanskrit by Kashmiri Brahman Kalhaṇa in 12th century CE.[1] -- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rajatarangini 120402

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