Update: 2017-08-25 06:37 PM -0400


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893, http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg ;
1929, http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/macdonell/ 110416 , 110611 

downloaded and edited by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , http://www.softguide.net.mm

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{da.ya.} : {d} - the problematic front open-mid sound

UKT note: You will see an example of confusion because of the misuse of {::ting} in Skt-Dev and the subsequent transliteration. UHS indicated that the Skt spelling has an /m/ sound. We must remember that {::ting} sound is free from both /n/ or /m/ colouring.

दंपति dampati [ dm-pati ]
Skt: -- m. master of the house: du. master and mistress, man and wife, pair, couple. -- Mac116c3
Pal: {dm~pa.ti.}
- - UHS-PMD0461
UKT from UHS: m. master of the house, husband and wife

UKT notes :
Damayanti - the beauty Front-mid vow problem

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दण्डयात्रा dandayatra [ danda-ytr ]
-- f. military expedition: -kihna, n. signal for marching to war, -patha, m. military road, -lagna, n. astrologically auspicious moment for marching out to war; -yoga, m. infliction of punishment; -lesa, m. small fine; -vat, a. bearing a staff; having a handle; possessing a great army; -vadh, m. capital punishment; -vkika, ( end p115c3 ) (p116c1-top )
a. corporal or verbal (injury); -vhin, m. policeman, watchman; -vikalpa, m. choice of punishment (with g. of object); -vyha, m. array in columns; -hasta, a. holding a staff in the hand.


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दण्डाघात dandaghata [ danda‿ghta ]
-- m. pl. blows with a staff.


दण्डाधिप dandadhipa [ danda‿adhipa ]
-- m. chief justice; -‿adhipati, m. id.; -‿anka, n. detachment of an army; -‿ppa-nyya, m. manner of the stick and the cake (if the mouse has eaten the stick she must have eaten the cake also): ab.= as a matter of course from what precedes.


-- (--) well-pole

दण्डावयव dandavayava [ danda‿avayava ]
-- m. detachment of an army.


दण्डिक dandika [ dand-ika ]
-- a. punishing; m. policeman; -ik, f. stick, staff; -n, a. bearing a staff; m. Brhman mendicant; janitor, warder; official who clears the way; ep. of Yama; N. of the author of the Dasakumrakarita and of the Kvydarsa (sixth century A. D.).


दण्डोद्यम dandodyama [ danda‿udyama ]
-- m. raising of the staff, threatening any one (--) with a stick: pl. employment of forcible means.

दण्ड्य dandya [ dand-ya ]
-- fp. to be punished; worthy of punishment; to be made to pay or fined (with ac. of amount); liable to forfeit (--).

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दत् dat [ dt ]
= द त ् --> {dt}
-- m. [(a)d-at, pr. pt. eater] tooth (nm. dan): -- a. f. -.

दत्त datta [ dat-t ] {dt~ta.}
= द त ् त
Skt: -- pp. of √d; m. N. (often --); n. giving: -ka, a. given to be adopted (son). - Mac116c1
Pal: {dt~ta.}
- - UHS-PMD0458

UKT from UHS: - . mfn. giving. . mfn. stupidity. m. a stupid person


दत्तकर्ण dattakarna [ datta-karna ]
-- a. giving ear or listening to (--); -drishti, a. directing one's gaze to, looking at (abs. or with lc.); -prva‿uk ta-spa-bh, a. threatening with the curse already mentioned; -sulk, a. f. for whom the nuptial fee has been paid.

दत्तातङ्क dattatanka [ datta‿taṅka ]
-- a. giving a fright to (g.); -‿tman, a. who has offered himself for adoption (son); -‿a-pradn-ika, a. relating to the non-delivery of a present.


दत्ति datti [ dat-ti ]
-- f. gift, present.

दत्तोत्तर dattottara [ datta‿uttara ]
-- a. to which an answer has been given.


दत्‍ित्रम datitrama [ dat-trima ] a. received by donation, adopted (son or slave).

दत्त्वा dattva [ dat-tv ]
-- gd. of √d.

दत्र datra [ d-tra ]
-- n. property: pl. goods: -vat, a. wealthy.

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ददाति dadati [ dad-ti ]
-- m. gift.

ददृशानपवि dadrsanapavi [ da-dris-n-pavi ]
-- a. whose wheel-tracks have appeared.

दद्रु [da-dr-u], दद्रू dadru [da-dr-],
-- f. [√dr, crack] kind of cutaneous eruption.

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दध् dadh [ da-dh ]
-- weak pr. base of √dh.

दधन् dadhan [ da-dh-n ]
-- weak base of ddhi.


दधि dadhi [ d-dh-i ]
-- n. [√dhe] sour milk, curds.

दधिकर्ण dadhikarna [ dadhi-karna ]
-- m. Curd-ear, N. of a cat (i. e. having milk-white ears).

दधित्थ dadhittha [ dadhi-t-tha ]
-- m. a tree (so called from the taste of the fruit); -draps, m. sg. pl. whey made of sour milk.


दधिपुच्छ dadhipuccha [ dadhi-pukkha ]
-- m. Curd-tail (i. e. having a milk-white tail), N. of a jackal; -prishtaka, a kind of mixture with curds; -bhnda, n. pot of sour milk; -manda, m. sour cream; -saktu, m. pl. meal mixed with curds; -sambhava, a. produced from curdled milk.

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दधृष् dadhrs [ da-dhrish ]
-- a. (nm. m. f. n. k) bold; n. -dhrk, ad. firmly, closely.

दधृष्वान् dadhrsvan [ da-dhrish-vn ]
-- pf. pt. having dared or undertaken.


दध्यन्न dadhyanna [ dadhi‿anna ]
n. rice cooked with curdled milk; -‿dana, n. pap prepared with curdled milk.

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-- f. N. of a daughter of Daksha and the mother of the Dnavas.

दनुकबन्ध danukabandha [ danu-kabandha ]
-- m. N. of a demon; -ga, m. a Dnava.


दन्त् dant [ dnt ]
-- m. (strong base of dt, only nm. dan) tooth.

दन्त danta [ dnt-a ]
-- m. (n.) tooth; tusk, ivory (f. -- a. , ): -ka, (-- a.) tooth; -ghta: -ka, m. worker in ivory; -ghta, m. bite.


दन्तच्छद dantacchada [ danta-kkhada ]
-- m. (tooth-covering), lip; -ganman, n. growth of the teeth; -gta, pp. having teethed; -dyut, f. glitter of the teeth; -dhva, m. cleansing the teeth; -dhv ana, n. id.; splint of wood chewed for cleaning the teeth; -pattra, n. kind of ear ornament: i-k, f. id.; -pklik, f. doll of ivory; -pli, f. ivory sword hilt; -prakshl ana, n. cleansing of the teeth; means for cleansing the teeth; -praveshta, m. (?) ring round an elephant's tusk; -bhaṅga, m. breaking or splitting of the teeth; -maya, a. made of ivory; -mmsa, n. gum; -ml, n. root of a tooth; -mlya, a. dental (letter); -rak an, f. cleansing of the teeth; -vakra, m. N. of a prince; -vsas, n. (cover of the teeth), lip; -vn, f. chattering of the teeth (lit. teeth-lute): -m vdaya, play the teeth lute=have chattering of the teeth (from cold); -veshta, m. gum: du. gums; -vypra, m. working in ivory; -suddhi, f. cleansing the teeth; -sodhana, n. id.; -samgharsha, m. grinding of the teeth.


दन्ताग्र dantagra [ danta‿agra ]
-- n. point of a tooth.

दन्तादन्ति dantadanti [ dant-danti ]
-- ad. tooth against tooth=tooth and nail (of combatants).


दन्तान्तर dantantara [ danta‿antara ]
-- n. space between the teeth: -‿adhishthita, pp. stuck between the teeth; -‿li, f. row of teeth; -‿lika, f. bridle; -‿val, f. row of teeth.

दन्तावल dantavala [ dant-vala ]
-- m. elephant.


दन्तिन् dantin [ dant-n ]
-- a. tusked; m. elephant; -ila, m. N.; -ura, a. having prominent teeth; uneven; thickly studded with, full of (--); ugly: -t, f. ugliness.

दन्तुरय danturaya [ dantura-ya ]
-- den. P. stud or fill with: pp. danturita, studded with, full of (--).


दन्तोलूखलिक dantolukhalika [ danta‿ulkhal-ika ]
-- a. using his teeth as a pestle; -‿ulkhalin, a. id.

दन्त्य dantya [ dant-ya ]
-- a. dental (letter); good for the teeth.

दन्दशूक dandasuka s [ dan-das-&usharp;ka ]
-- a. mordacious; m. kind of snake.

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[DABH], [DAMBH], (V.) P. I.
-- dbha , V. dabhno , injure, hurt; deceive; cs. dambhya , P. . avert ; des. dipsa , P. wish to hurt or destroy.

दभीति dabhiti [ dabh-&isharp;ti ]
-- m. injurer, foe; N.


दभ्य dabhya s [ dbh-ya ]
-- fp. who can be deceived; meant to deceive.

दभ्र dabhra [ dabh-r ]
-- a. little, insignificant: -m, ad. dimly; n. distress.

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[DAM], IV. P.
-- damya , be tame; tame, subdue; pp. dnt , tame, gentle; calm, tranquil, having one's passions subdued; ca. damya , P. tame, break in; control, subdue; pp. damita , tamed, subdued.

[dm] , house (only - and g. pl. damam )

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दम dama [ 1. dm-a ]
-- m. n. house, abode, home.

दम dama [ 2. dam- ]
-- a. taming, subduing (--); m. self-control; punishment, fine; Victor, N. of one of Damayant's brothers and of other men.

See my note on Damayanti (दमयन्ती) - the beauty which even the gods wish to marry 


दमक damaka [ dama-ka ]
-- a. taming, breaking in, training (--).

-- n. N. of a king ; -ga , -suta , m. pat. of Sisupla.


दमन damana [ dam-ana ]
-- a. () taming, subduing (--); m. horse-tamer, charioteer; Vincent, N. of one of Damayant's brothers; n. subduing; chastising.


-- m. N. of a man and of a jackal

दमयन्ती damayanti [ dam-ay-ant- ]
-- f. (cs. pr. pt.) Victoria, N. of Nala's wife.

-- m. tamer, chastiser


दमिन् damin [ dam-in ]
-- a. self-controlled; subduing (--).


दंपति dampati [ dm-pati ]
Skt: -- m. master of the house: du. master and mistress, man and wife, pair, couple. -- Mac116c3
Pal: {dm~pa.ti.}
- - UHS-PMD0461

UKT from UHS: m. master of the house, husband and wife
  Note: Here is an example of confusion because of the misuse of {::ting} in Skt-Dev and the subsequent transliteration. UHS indicated that the Skt spelling has an /m/ sound. {::ting} sound is free from both /n/ or /m/ colouring.


दम्भ dambha [ dambh-a ]
-- m. fraud, dissimulation, hypocrisy, deceit; -aka, a. deceiving, deluding (--); -ana, a. injuring (--); n. deceiving, deceit.

दम्भमुनि dambhamuni [ dambha-muni ]
-- m. hypocritical ascetic.


दम्भिन् dambhin [ dambh-in ]
-- a. deceitful; m. deceiver, cheat, hypocrite, dishonest man.


-- m. N. of a king

दम्भोलि dambholi [ dambholi ]
-- m. Indra's thunderbolt: -pta, m. descent of Indra's thunderbolt.

दम्भोलिपाताय dambholipataya [ dambholi-pt-ya ]
-- den. . descend like Indra's thunderbolt.


दम्य damya [ dam-ya ]
-- fp. to be broken in; m. young bull yet to be tamed or trained.

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The problem of front mid vowels

by UKT 120402

I am curious about the sound of दय् = {d} . It is {da.} द followed by killed-{ya.} य् (note the viram).

The vowel sound following the consonant {da.} द is a front open mid-vowel absent in English and Pali, but very prominent in Burmese. See Comparison of Devanagari, IPA, and Myanmar vowels /ɛ/ MC-indx.htm . IPA /ɛ/ is represented in Romabama as {}. The phoneme {d} is the modal tone {d} of Bur-Myan .

Bur-Myan front open-mid: creak {d.}; modal {d}; emphatic {d:}
Bur-Myan front closed-mid: creak {d.}; modal {d}; emphatic {d:}

Skt-Dev: There are two mid vowel sounds.
We get {d} दे from close-vowel ए , and
            {d} दै from open-vowel ऐ .

I hesitate to use IPA to show these sounds because IPA was originally designed for French and English, and I feel it has failed to convey the Bur-Myan sounds reliably. This problem is very important in reciting the Pali texts in Myanmar.

Go back front-mid-vow-note-b

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दय् [ DAY] I. .
-- dya , divide; allot; possess; have compassion on, sympathise with (ac., g.) : pp. dayita , q. v. nir-ava , satisfy any one (ac.) with (in.), from (ab.).


दया daya [ day- ]
-- f. sympathy, compassion, with (g., lc., --): -m kri, have compassion on (g. or lc.); -‿rdra-bhva, m. compassionate tenderness.

दयालु dayalu [ day-l ]
-- a. compassionate, towards (lc.): -t, f., -tva, n. compassion for (lc.).

दयावत् dayavat [ day-vat ]
-- a. compassionate towards (g., lc.).


दयित dayita [ day-ita ]
-- pp. (√day) beloved, dear; m. lover, husband; , f. mistress, wife: -maya, a. devoted to his beloved.

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दर dara [ dar-a ] a. --, cleaving, shattering; --, a little (also -m); m., , f. cleft, hole, cave; m. fear.

दरण darana [ dar-ana ]
-- n. bursting, breaking.


[dard], [darada]
-- m. pl. N. of a people

See my note on Darada - the people


दरिद्र daridra [ dr-i-dra (also--dra) ]
-- a. [intv. √dr] strolling; mendicant, poor; lacking (in. or --); m. beggar.

दरिद्रता daridrata [ daridra-t ]
-- f. poverty; -tva, n. id.

दरिद्रा daridra [ DAR-I-DR ] v.  [DR], run.


दरीमुख darimukha [ dar-mukha ]
-- n. cave of a mouth; mouth of a cave; mouth-like cave.

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{dar} - repha


दर्दुर dardura [ dar-dur-a ] {dar~du.ra.}
-- m. [intv. √dr] frog; flute; N. of a mountain-range in the South; N.: -ka, m. N. of a gambler.

UKT: p116c3-b18 has been moved to the next file.

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UKT notes

Damayanti दमयन्ती 

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Damayanti 120331

Damayanti (दमयन्ती), a character in Hindu mythology, was the princess of Vidarbha Kingdom, who married king Nala, of Nishadha Kingdom, and their story is told in the Mahabharata.

The story

Damayanti was a princess of Vidarbha Kingdom. She was of such beauty and grace that even the gods could not stop from admiring her. She fell in love with Nala simply from hearing of his virtues and accomplishments from a golden swan. [UKT ]

When it came time for Damayanti to choose her husband at a swayamvara, gods, princes and kings came to seek her hand. The Gods Indra, Agni, Varuna and Yama were on their way for attendance when they meet Nala. They order him to be their messenger and to go inform Damayanti that she must choose one of them as husband. [UKT ]

Nala first refuses, saying he is himself interested in her, but he finally accepts the mission. On seeing him, Damayanti agrees to pay her respects to the gods, but she insists on choosing only Nala for her husband. The Gods then each disguise themselves as Nala, and ask Damayanti to choose amongst them. Damayanti sees through them each time, as she is aware that her true beloved one is a human being and cannot be perfect, which sets him apart from the gods. [UKT ]

The demon Kali [the Asura ruler of Kali Yuga], the personification of Kali yuga, also wants to marry Damayanti. On his arrival, he is unaware that he is too late for the swayamvara. He runs into the gods and they tell him how she has chosen Nala in their place. Kali then angrily vows to cause the fall of Nalas kingdom through his propensity for gambling.

Damayanti and Nala are happily married and have two children. Kali enters the palace as a servant, and for twelve long years keeps watch for any little imperfection by which he can strike against Nala. [UKT ]

One day, Nala, in a rush to make his prayer defiles himself by not washing his feet, thereby allowing Kali to bewitch his soul. In games of dice with his brother Pushkara, he loses his kingdom, forcing Nala and Damayanti to live in poverty in the forest. Birds fly away with the only garment Nala possessed. After all these misadventure, Nala starts worrying for Damayanti and, obscured by Kali, resolves to abandon her in order to protect her from his bad luck. Damayanti finds herself alone in the forest and invokes a curse on those who have caused the downfall of her husband. Nala, meanwhile, rescues the Snake King Nāga Karkotaka from a fire. As a result, Nāga Karkotaka bites him in rewards. As Nala seeks an explanation, Nāga Karkotaka says that the poison will only take effect when it is perfect. Nala survives the bite, but the venom turns him into an unrecognizable dwarf named Bahuka, who serves as a charioteer to the Ayodhya King Rituparna.

Damayanti takes refuge in the palace of the Princess of Chedi, offering to serve her, only not as a servant; to which the Princess of Chedi replies that she can be her host. Damayanti is finally discovered and taken back to her father's house where she is reunited with her children. They search for Nala, but cannot find him. Damayanti starts thinking that the only way Nala will come back would be for fear that she would not be his wife anymore. Thus she requests a fake second swayamvara. She is still of such irresistible beauty that many kings attend. Nala's master also wants to go to the swayamvara, and Nala accompanies him. On their journey to the swayamvara, the king instructs the dwarf in the techniques of gambling. When King Rituparna reveals to him the supreme skill of controlling the dice, finally the poison take effect and Bahuka vomits Kali from his body and imprisons him temporarily in a tree. Damayanti is persuaded that the dwarf is Nala because of the flavor of a dish that he cooked for her. The pair are reunited and Nala is transformed from a dwarf into his familiar form. He uses the knowledge of gambling he has learned to regain everything he had lost.

She forgives him for having abandoned her in the forest, and he forgives her for having organised another swayamvara.

They live happily ever after.

Nalacharitham attakatha, written by Unnayivaryar, is played through Kathakali.The story is divided into four parts as to be played in four days.The veshas of this are Nalan-pacha Damayanthi-minukk Sage Narada-Minukk


It is described as a tale of luck, The hero gets through good luck, bad luck, and good luck again, and at all times remains true to the Dharma. She on the other part represents bliss. She chooses the human amongst the gods, and does she have to do it again, she chooses the same again.

Go back Damayanti-note-b

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From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daradas 120401

Darada [UKT believes Wiki has used the Anglicised plural form with <s>, because of which <s> has been omitted] were a people who lived north and north-east to the Kashmir valley. This kingdom is identified to be the Gilgit region in Kashmir along the river Sindhu or Indus. They are often spoken along with the Kambojas. The Pandava hero Arjuna had visited this country of Daradas during his northern military campaign to collect triubute for Yudhisthira's Rajasuya sacrifice.

Darada in present times

Daradas in present times are found as Daral (दराल) Dharal (धराल) Darad (दराड़) Darar (दराड़) as gotra of Jats originated from country named Darada (दरद). These people when came to Haryana were known as Daral. These people were inhabitant of country Darada. Mahabharata mentions about Darad kshatriyas in Dron Parva.[24] They are Chandravanshi Jats, descendants of Yayati's son Druhyu.[25] Dilip Singh Ahlawat has mentioned it as one of the ruling Jat clans in Central Asia.[26]

UKT: I have omitted many portions of the original article.

Go back Darada-note-b

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