Update: 2012-06-22 07:57 PM +0630


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893, http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg ;
1929, http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/macdonell/ 110416 , 110611 

downloaded and edited by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , http://www.softguide.net.mm

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{dak~Sa.} -> Pal: {dak~hka.}
{dak~Si.Na.} --> Pal: {dak~hki.Na.} 

UKT notes :
Southern direction

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द d [ 1. da ]
-- a. (--) giving, bestowing, imparting; producing, yielding; indicating.

द d [ 2. da ]
-- a. cutting off, destroying (--)



[DAMS] I. P. (.)
-- dsa , bite; pp. dashta , bitten; cs. damsaya , cause to be bitten by (in.); provide with armour; cs. of intv. danda-aya , P. cause to be bitten severely. ...


दंश daṃsa [ dams-a ]
-- m. bite; stinging insect, gadfly; -aka, m. N. of a prince; -ana, n. biting; bite; coat of mail.

दंष्ट्र daṃstra [ dmsh-tra ]
-- m., , f. tusk, fang.

दंष्ट्रिन् daṃstrin [ damshtr-in ]
-- a. possessed of fangs; m. animal with fangs, beast of prey.


-- only cs. damsya , be wonderous

दंसन daṃsana [ dams-na ]
-- n., , f. wondrous deed, power, or skill.

दंसु daṃsu  [ dms-u ]
-- a. of wondrous power (--): -pat n, f. having a lord of wondrous power.

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{dak~Sa.} -> Pal: {dak~hka.}

UKT: This section should also be viewed as the formation of phoneme {dak} /dk/ (i.e. {da.} /k/ with {ka. t} /k/ ), keeping in mind that English rarely uses the /a/. Our languages particularly Burmese are more open and more frontal than those used by the native English speakers.


-- dksha , P. satisfy or suit any one (d.); . be able, skilful, or strong; cs. P. dakshya , make efficient


दक्ष daksa [ dksh-a ]  {dak~Sa.}
= द क ् ष
Skt: -- a. able, active, dexterous, skilful, clever (with lc., --); suitable for (--); right (not left); m. activity, capacity, power, aptitude; will; N. of an ditya; N. of a Pragpati; N. of a legislator: -sya‿ayana, n. (sacrifice of the) winter solstice. - Mac115c1
Pal: {dak~hka.}
- - UHS-PMD0456

UKT from UHS: mfn. clever, skilful


दक्षक्रतु daksakratu [ daksha-krat ]
-- m. du. will and understanding; -t, f. dexterity, cleverness; activity; -pitri, a. pl. (str. st. also -pitr), having Daksha as a father; possessing or bestowing abilities; -vihit, f. kind of song; -sut, f. daughter of Daksha: pl. wives of the moon.

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{dak~Si.Na.} --> Pal: {dak~hki.Na.}


दक्षिण daksina [ dksh-ina (also ) ]
Skt: -- a. able, clever, dexterous; right; southern (because when looking east the right hand is towards the south); south (wind); upright, honest; amiable, obliging; m. right hand or arm; m. n. right side; south; , f. (sc. go), a good i. e. milch cow, (being the original) sacrificial fee; fee; gift; personified as the wife of Sacrifice. - Mac115c1
Pal: {dak~hki.Na.}
- - UHS-PMD0456

UKT from UHS: mfn. clever, right hand side, happened in southern direction
See my note on the importance of the Southern direction in Bur-Myan culture.


दक्षिणजान्वक्त daksinajanvakta [ dakshina-gnu‿akta ]
-- pp. having the right knee bent.

दक्षिणतस् daksinatas [ dakshina-ts ]
-- ad. on or from the right (of, g.); southwards; from the south; to the south (of, g.): (-tah) kri, place any one on the right hand (in token of respect); -ts kaparda, a. wearing a braid of hair on the right.


दक्षिणपश्््चार्ध daksinapascardha [ dakshina - paska‿ardha ]
-- m. south-west side; -paskima, a. south-western; -prva, a. south-eastern: , f. south-east.

दक्षिणा daksina [ dakshin&asharp; ]
-- ad. to the right or south wards (of, ab.).

दक्षिणाग्नि daksinagni [ dakshina‿agni ]
-- m. southern sacrificial fire; agra, a. pointed southward. ( end p115-2c1 )

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दक्षिणात् daksinat [ dakshint ]
-- ab. ad. from or on the right; from the south, southern.


दक्षिणाद्वार daksinadvara [ dakshin-dvra ]
-- n. door towards the south; a. having the door towards the south; -patha, m. tract in the south, Deccan; a‿apara, a. south-western; -pratyak, a. south-western; n. -pratyak, ad. towards the south-west; f. -pratk, south-west; (&asharp;)-pra vana, a. sloping towards the south; a‿abhi mukha, a. () facing southward: -m, ad. southwards; -mukha, a. id.


दक्षिणायन daksinayana [ dakshina‿ayana ]
-- n. southern path (i. e. to the realm of death); southerly course of the sun, the half-year in which the sun moves from north to south (from summer to winter solstice); commencement of the sun's southward course = summer solstice (in the month shdha): -samkrnti, f. entrance of the sun on the southerly course, summer solstice.


दक्षिणारण्य daksinaranya [ dakshina‿aranya ]
-- n. Southern Forest, N. of a forest, probably in the Deccan.

दक्षिणावत् daksinavat [ dkshin-vat ]
-- a. able; abounding in gifts, pious.


दक्षिणावर्त daksinavarta [ dakshina‿varta ]
-- a. turned southward; being on its southern course (sun); m. Deccan.

दक्षिणाशिरस् daksinasiras [ dakshin-siras ]
-- a. having the head turned southward.

दक्षिणाहि daksinahi [ dakshin-hi ]
-- ad. far to the right or south, of (ab.).

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-- place on the right, walk round any one (ac.) keeping him on the right (as a token of respect)

दक्षिणीय daksiniya [ dakshin-&isharp;ya ]
-- a. worthy of or suitable for a sacrificial gift; worthy to be honoured.


दक्षिणेतर daksinetara [ dakshina‿itara ]
-- a. left.

दक्षिणेन daksinena [ dkshinena ]
-- in. ad. to the right or south, of (ac.).

दक्षिणैस् daksinais [ dakshinais ]
-- in. pl. ad. on the right.


दक्षिणोत्तर daksinottara [ dakshina‿uttara ]
-- a. right and left, southern and northern: -bhym pni bhym, with the two hands, the right being uppermost; -‿uttna, a. holding the right hand palm upwards; du. with pn, the two hands with the right turned palm upwards.

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UKT note: In Bur-Myan, and probably in Pal-Myan voiced consonants -- the c3 in the akshara matrix -- are not killed. It is usually the tenuis wag-consonants - {ka.} {sa.} {Ta.} {ta.} {pa.} - that are killed. Here we are finding {g} because we are dealing with Sanskrit.


दग्ध dagdha [ dag-dha ]
=   द ग ् ध
-- pp. (√dah) burned, consumed; pained, tortured, distressed; fatal; wretched, good for nothing; cursed, damned: -gathara, n. accursed belly.

दग्धव्य dagdhavya [ dag-dhavya ]
-- fp. to be burned.


-- m. consumer of (ac.); -dhr , m. id. with g.

दग्धोदर dagdhodara [ dagdha‿udara ]
-- n. accursed belly.


[DAGH] V. P.
-- dagh-no-ti , reach to.

दघ्न daghna [ dagh-n ]
=  द घ ् न
-- a. (&asharp;, ) reaching to (--).

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UKT: Here the {sa.} च used is the plosive-stop. It is not {Sa.} ष - the hisser-fricative. Therefore the killed-consonant is {c} /c/ and not {S} /s/.
   It is to be noted that Bur-Myan being a totally thibilant language is free of hissing sounds in the coda. However, Romabama, to incorporate sibilant languages such as Sanskrit, has to recognise the hissing sounds. I was in a dilemma whether to introduce a new grapheme or not. If I were to adopt a grapheme similar to Devanagari ष , inter-transcription between Burmese and English would become chaotic. Because of that reason Romabama differentiates between च and ष only in the coda but not in the onset. English is an intermediate language because it uses the thibilant /θ/ as in <thorn> /θɔːn/ (US) /θɔːrn/ (DJPD16-535)
   Another point you should remember is that our languages being Abugidas - formerly known as alphasyllabaries uses rimes as fundamental units. Because of this I have to take notice of the influence of the coda on the peak or nuclear vowel. In {dic} the vowel has been changed from {a} to {i}. -- UKT120330


दच्छद dacchada [ dak-khada ]
=  द च ् छ द  
-- m. (teeth-cover), lip.

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दण्ड danda [ dand ] 
=  द ण ् ड
Skt: -- m. (n.) staff, stick; mace, club ( end p115c2 ) (p115-2c3-top )
(to which the elephant's trunk and human arms and thighs are often compared); stalk; handle; flagstaff (on a carriage); pole (as a measure of length = 4 cubits); rod = symbol of violence, force of arms, military power, army; mastery of, complete control over (g., --); sceptre (as symbol of judicial power), punishment (corporal chastisement, admonition, fine): gupta --, secret fine=blackmail; vaitas --, reedlike staff=membrum virile. -- Mac115c2
Pal: {dN~a.}
- - UHS-PMD0458

membrum virile - n. 1. the penis -- http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/membrum_virile 120330 

UKT from UHS: m. javelin, spear, stick, fine, punishment, handle, staff .
   See my note on fasces - the Roman symbol of power: a bundle of sticks signifying the corporal punishment and an axe the capital.


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दण्डक dandaka [ danda-ka ]
-- m. handle; pole, flagstaff (on a car); n., , f. N. of a forest in the Deccan; m. pl. inhabitants of the Dandaka forest; sg. N. of a prince; -karman, n. punishment.

-- m. kind of dysentery


दण्डकाष्ठ dandakastha [ danda-kshtha ]
-- n. wooden staff; -ghna, a. striking with a staff, committing assault; -kakra, n. detachment of an army -tdana, n. chastisement with a stick; -tva, n. condition of a staff; -dsa, m. slave for (non-payment of) a fine, one who serves out a fine; -dhara, a. wielding the rod or sceptre over, punishing, chastising (g.); m. prince, king; judge, magistrate; leader of a troop; ep. of Yama: -‿adhipati, m. chief of judges, king; -dhra, a. wielding the rod, exercising judicial authority: -ka, a. id.; -dhrana, n. bearing of a staff; employment of force; chastisement.


दण्डन dandana [ dnd-ana ]
-- n. beating, punishing.

दण्डनायक dandanayaka [ danda-nyaka ]
-- m. judge; leader of a troop; -niptana, n. causing the rod to descend, punishment (of, g.); -niyoga, m. award of punishment; -nti, f. administration of justice, science of government.


दण्डनीय dandaniya [ dand-anya ]
-- fp. punishable.

-- m. judge: -tva , n. office of judge, administration of justice


दण्डपाणि dandapani [ dand-pni ]
-- a. holding a staff in one's hand; m. policeman; ep. of Yama; -pta, m. (descent of the rod), punishment, chastisement; -ptana, n. castigation; -p rushya, n. assault: du. bodily chastisement and admonition; -pla, m. guardian of justice, judge: -t, f. abst. n.; -plka, m. guardian of justice, judge; -psaka, m. policeman, watchman; -pranma, m. prostration at full length like a staff; -pradna, n. presentation of the staff (at investiture); -bhaya, n. fear of the rod; -bhg, a. liable to punishment; -bhrit, a. wielding the rod; m. ep. of Yama; -mukhya, m. leader of an army.


दण्डय dandaya [ danda-ya ] den. P. punish: pp. dand ita: guptena dandena--, blackmailed.

p115-2c3-b07 moved to the following file.

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UKT notes

Fasces - the Roman symbol of power

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cincinnatus 120330

Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus (520 BC 430 BC) was an aristocrat and political figure of the Roman Republic, serving as consul in 460 BC and Roman dictator in 458 BC and 439 BC.[1]

UKT note: The noble Roman was shown with his right hand holding the fasces and his left holding the simple farm plough.
   The dedication reads, "With one hand he returns the fasces, a symbol of power as appointed dictator of Rome. His other hand holds the plow, as he resumes the life of a citizen and farmer."

Cincinnatus was regarded by the Romans, especially the aristocratic patrician class, as one of the heroes of early Rome and as a model of Roman virtue and simplicity.[citation needed] He was a persistent opponent of the plebeians.[citation needed] When his son was convicted and condemned to death, Cincinnatus was forced to live in humble circumstances, working on his own small farm, until an invasion caused him to be called to serve Rome as dictator, an office which he immediately resigned after completing his task of defeating the rivaling tribes of the Aequians, Sabines, and Volscians. He lived approximately around the time that Lucius Junius Brutus did.

His immediate resignation of his absolute authority with the end of the crisis has often been cited as an example of outstanding leadership, service to the greater good, civic virtue, lack of personal ambition and modesty. As a result, he has inspired a number of organizations and other entities, a number of which are named for him.

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Southern direction

- by UKT 120329
-- I intend to ask one of my peers to rewrite this note checking the facts.

The Southern direction is the most auspicious direction in the Burmese Buddhist culture which is accepted by all Bur-Myan regardless of their religion. It is the Mangala {mn~ga.la} direction.

The Southern-direction is so important that many Burmese Buddhist families would have an image of Buddha carved from a southern branch of the Bo tree under which the Buddha had attained enlightenment. The image is known as {dak~hki.Na.a-hka} and it  is supposed to offer protection against fire.

The Southern-gate of the Mandalay Palace and the bridge across the moat are also known by the name {mn~ga.la}.

Here we must remember that by "Mandalay Palace", I mean the palace proper together with all the buildings used by the king and queens, together with the quarters of the important ministers or secretaries of the king. The whole complex is enclosed within a square wall which itself is enclosed within a deep moat. The whole complex is technically a {mro.}. What you see outside the {mro.} are the living quarters of the ordinary people.

The Westerns were housed during the days of the kingdom on the Western side which is not considered to be auspicious. The cemetery and the execution ground were located in the West. On the Eastern side were the monasteries, and on the North the artesians. On the north-east is the Mandalay Hill. Whenever the king exit he used the Southern-gate.

It is alleged - in a song - that King Thibaw and Queen Supaya Lat -- his queen, after being made prisoners by the British at the end of the Third Anglo-Burmese War, were taken out through the Western-gate in an ordinary British army box-cart known as {bi-ro.}. It alleged that the British did everything they could to make all Burmese feel that they were now its inasupious "slaves". This song had created an intense hatred in the hearts of most Burmese before the Second World War.

I have been told that the facts in the song were wrong by Daw Ma Ma Gyi the daughter of the late U Tokegale from an eye-witness account. When Daw Ma Ma Gyi told me the story it was in the closing years of 1960s in Mandalay. [Note: U Tokegale was one of the scholars sent by Queen Supaya Lat to study in Paris. U Tokegale was the nephew of Thanchakwun, the ambassador of the Burmese Kingdom to France at the time of Annexation.] I myself doubt that the British would have used bullocks to draw the carriage because they had every reason to fear that a few die-hard Burmese would attempt to rescue their king.

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