Update: 2012-06-22 07:55 PM +0630


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893, http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg ;
1929, http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/macdonell/ 110416 , 110611 

downloaded and edited by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , http://www.softguide.net.mm

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{tau:} :
   UKT: I still have doubts about the transcription of back mid-vowels
   and I might have to change {tau:} --> {to} -- 120325
{tya.} : pronunciation problem due to POA (place of articulation)

UKT notes :
Indian calendar - Vedic months Mid-vowels of Burmese and Sanskrit

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See my note on Mid-vowels of Burmese and Sanskrit
See p059-2.htm for {:} and p074.htm for {k:}


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ते te [ te ]
-- enc. d., g. of tvam.

-- m. N.


तेजन tejana [ teg-ana ]
-- n. sharpening; kindling; point, arrow-head; shaft of an arrow; reed, cane; , f. bundle of reeds, matting; bunch, roll, twist.


तेजस् tejas [ tg-as ]
-- n. sharpness; edge; heat, fire, bright flame, light, brilliance (sg. & pl.); splendour, beauty; energy, vigour, force, vitality, strength; violence; influence; mental, moral, or magical power; dignity, majesty, glory; distinguished personage; semen virile; passion in philosophy (=ragas).


तेजस्काम tejaskama [ tgas-kma ]
-- a. desirous of manly vigour; aiming at dignity or distinction; -vat, a. brilliant, splendid, glorious: -, f. N. of a princess; -vi-t, f. energy; dignity, majesty; -vi-tva, n. splendour; -vn, a. sharp; bright; strong, energetic; dignified; glorious.

-- m. N. of a man


तेजिष्ठ tejistha [ tg-ishtha ]
-- spv. brightest; very brilliant.


तेजोद्वय tejodvaya [ tego-dvaya ]
-- n. sun and moon (the two lights); consisting of light or splendour; -maya, a. () brilliant, radiant; powerful; -rpa, a. formed of pure splendour or radiance; -vat, a. bright; brilliant; -vritta, n. dignified behaviour, energetic action.


तेदनि tedani [ tedani (or &isharp;) ]
-- f. (coagulated) blood.


तेन tena [ tna ]
-- in. (of ta) ad. thither; thus; therefore (corr. yatah, yad, yasmt, yena); tena hi, then.

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तैक्ष्ण्य taiksnya [ taikshn-ya ]
-- n. sharpness; burning heat; pungency; severity, harshness.

तैजस taijasa [ taigas-a ]
-- a. () consisting of light, brilliant; consisting of metal.


तैतिल taitila [ taitila ]
-- m. deity.

तैत्तिर taittira [ taittira ]
-- a. () produced from partridges; descended from Tittiri.


तैत्तिरीय taittiriya [ taittirya ]
-- m. pl. N. of a school of the Yagur-veda: -ka, a. belonging to the school of the Taittiryas; -prtiskhya, n. Prtiskhya of the Taittiryas; -yagur-veda, m. the Yagur-veda of the Taittiryas; -skh, f. the school of the Taittiryas; -samhit, f. the Samhit of the Taittiryas; -‿ranyaka, n. an ranyaka of the Taittiryas; -‿upani shad, f. the Taittirya Upanishad.


तैमिररोग taimiraroga [ taimira-roga ]
-- m. cataract (of the eye).

तैमिरिक taimirika [ taimir-ika ]
-- a. suffering from cataract (timira).

तैमिर्य taimirya [ taimir-ya ]
-- n. darkening (of the eyesight).


तैर्थिक tairthika [ tairth-ika ]
-- a. heretical; m. worthy person; n. water from a holy bathing-place.

तैर्यग्योन tairyagyona [ tairyag-yona ]
-- a. of animal origin; m. animal.


तैल taila [ tail ]
-- n. sesamum oil; oil (sometimes pl.).

तैलकार tailakara [ taila-kra ]
-- m. oil-grinder; -pa-ka, m. oil-drinking beetle, cockroach; -parnika, m. kind of sandal tree; -ptra, n. vessel for oil; -pyin, m. kind of beetle; -pradpa, m. oil-lamp; -yantra, n. oil-mill.

तैलिक tailika [ tail-ika ]
-- m., , f. oil-grinder.


तैल्वक tailvaka [ tailvaka ]
-- a. made from the Tilvaka tree.


तैष taisa [ taisha ]
-- a. () relating to the lunar mansion Tishya; m. N. of a month; , f. day of full moon in the month Taisha.

See my note on Indian Calendar



तोक toka [ tok ]
-- n. progeny, offspring, race; child. ( end p112c1 )

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तोक्म tokma [ tok-ma ]
-- m. green blade of cereals, esp. barley; young sprout.


तोटक totaka [ totaka ]
-- a. quarrelsome; n. angry speech; a metre; kind of play.

तोत्‍त्र tottra [ tt-tra ]
-- n. goad (for driving cattle).


तोद toda [ tod- ]
m. goader, driver; sting; -ana, n. stinging; -ya, n. kind of cymbal.


तोमर tomara [ tomara ]
-- m. n. javelin.

-- m. N.


तोय toya [ tya ]
-- n. water: -m kri, offer a libation of water to the dead (g.).


तोयकण toyakana [ toya-kana ]
-- m. drop of water; -kar man, n. libation of water to the dead; -krd, f. sporting in the water; -kara, a. moving in the water; m. aquatic animal; -ga, a. growing or living in the water; n. lotus: -‿aksh, f. lotus-eyed maiden; -da, m. rain cloud: -‿atyaya, m. autumn; -dhara, a. water-bearing; -dhra, m., , f. stream of water; -dhi, m. ocean; -maya, a. () consisting of water; -mtra‿avasesha, a. having nothing but water left (in them); -muk, m. cloud; -yantra, n. water-clock; -rg, m. ocean (lord of waters); -rsi, m. pond, lake; sea; -vat, a. supplied with or surrounded by water; -vha, m. rain-cloud.


तोयाग्नि toyagni [ toya‿agni ]
-- m. submarine fire; -‿agali, m. two handfuls of water (in honour of the dead); -‿dhra, m. reservoir, pond; -‿laya, m. ocean; -‿saya, m. reservoir, lake; -‿utsarga, m. discharge of water.


तोरण torana [ torana ]
-- n. arched portal, triumphal arch: -mna, m. N.


तोलक tolaka [ tola-ka ]
-- n. (?) a weight (=2 snas).

तोलन tolana [ tol-ana ]
-- n. lifting; weighing (with, saha); -ya, fp. to be weighed.


तोष tosa [ tosh- ]
-- m. satisfaction, pleasure (in, g., lc., --); -ana, a. () appeasing, satisfying, de lighting; n. id.; -in, a. (--) content with, liking; satisfying, gladdening.


तोसुन् tosun [ tos-un ]
-- inf. ending -tos.

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तौग्र्य taugrya [ taugr-y ]
-- m. son of Tgra (Bhugyu).

तौर्यत्रय tauryatraya [ taurya-traya ]
-- n. (triad of music), music, song, and dance.

तौल्य taulya [ taul-ya ]
-- n. weight.

तौषार tausara [ taushra ]
-- a. produced by snow.


त्मन् tman [ tmn ]
-- m. vital breath; one's self: in. tmn and lc. tmn = pcls. certainly, at least, even, also (generally emphasizing pre ceding word); often with uta or ka, and also, and certainly; with iva or n, just as; with dha, and even.

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UKT: We will analyse the problem of pronunciation of {tya.} /də.ja/ more fully in p126.htm

त्य tya [ ty ]
-- prn. that; that well-known (ille).


त्यक्तजीवित tyaktajivita [ tyakta-gvita ] a. abandoning (= risking) one's life, brave; -‿tman, a. despairing of himself.

त्यक्तव्य tyaktavya [ tyak-tavya ]
-- fp. to be abandoned; to be despaired of; to be sacrificed.


त्यक्ताग्नि tyaktagni [ tyakta‿agni ]
-- a. neglecting the (sacred) fire.

त्यक्तुकाम tyaktukama [ tyaktu-kma ]
-- a. wishing to leave.


-- m. one who abandons (g.) or sacrifices (ac.).

त्यक्त्वा tyaktva [ tyak-tv ]
-- gd. (√tyag) disregarding= except.


[TYAG] [(a) ti‿ag] I. P. (.)
-- tyaga , leave, forsake; abandon; disown; expose (a child); quit (a place); avoid (a person); let a lone, spare; give up, renounce, (p112c3-top ) abandon, throw, or give away;  neglect; ignore
( end p112c2 ) - kalevaram , tanum or deham -, die; givitam , prnn or svsa - , id. or risk one's life; ps. be forsaken by (in.) = get rid of; pp. ...  





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-- a. (-) abandoning, giving up; offering.

त्यजन tyajana [ tyag-ana ]
-- n. desertion.

त्यजस् tyajas [ tyag-s ]
-- m. offspring.


त्यद् tyad [ ty-d ]
-- nm. ac. n. of tya; ad. as is well known, indeed (always preceded by ha or ysya ).


त्याग tyaga [ tyg- ]
-- m. abandonment, desertion; quitting; giving up, sacrifice, renunciation; liberality: -karma-samanvita, pp. linked with charity; -sla, a. liberal: -t, f. liberality.


त्यागिता tyagita [ tygi-t ]
-- f. liberality.

त्यागिन् tyagin [ tyg-in ]
-- a. abandoning, deserting; sacrificing: tmanah, throwing away one's life, suicide; --, giving up, rejecting, renouncing.

त्याजक tyajaka [ tyg-aka ]
-- a. abandoning, refusing; -ana, n. giving up, renunciation; -ya, fp. to be abandoned, -deserted, -cast off; -shunned; -given up or away.

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[TRAP] I. .
-- trapa , be embarrassed or ashamed; cs. trapaya , P. cause to be embarrassed or ashamed.

त्रपा trapa [ trap- ]
= त ् र प ा
-- f. embarrassment, shame.


त्रपु trapu [ trp-u ]
-- n. tin.


त्रय traya [ tray- ]
-- a. () threefold, triple: tray vidy&asharp;, the threefold knowledge, knowledge of the three Vedas; n. triplet, triad; , f. id.; the three Vedas; the Buddhist triad, Buddha, Dharma, and Samgha; summit.


त्रयस्त्रिंश trayastriṃsa [ trayas-trims ]
-- a. (&isharp;) thirty-third.

त्रयस्त्रिंशत् trayastriṃsat [ tryas-trimsat ]
-- f. thirty-three.


त्रयीधामवत् trayidhamavat [ tray-dhma-vat ]
-- a. whose light consists of the three Vedas; ep. of the sun; -maya, a. () consisting of or based on the three Vedas.


त्रयोदश trayodasa [ trayo-das ]
-- a. () thirteenth; , f. thirteenth day of the fortnight.

त्रयोदशधा trayodasadha [ trayodasa-dh&asharp; ]
-- ad. thirteenfold, in thirteen parts.


त्रयोदशन् trayodasan [ tryo-dasan (or sn) ]
-- num. thirteen.

त्रयोदशर्च trayodasarca [ trayodasa‿rik ]
-- a. having fourteen verses.


त्रयोविंश trayoviṃsa [ trayo-vims ]
-- a. (&isharp;) twenty-third.

त्रयोविंशति trayoviṃsati [ tryo-vimsati ]
-- f. twenty-three.


[TRAS] I. P.,
-- trsa , IV. (E. also .) trasya , tremble or quake, at, be afraid of (in., ab., g.) : pp. trsaya , P. (E. also .) shake; frighten, scare, apa , start back, flee. ud , pp. ...

त्रस trasa [ tras-a ]
= त्रस
-- a. moving; n. living creature: ()-dasyu, m. (at whom demons tremble), N. of a generous prince, favourite of the gods; -renu, m. mote in a sun-beam. ( end p112c3 )

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UKT notes

Below is the original navigation of Mac-Chicago, and will not work unless you are online.
If you are just a user, use Windows navigation.

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The entries were given not only in HTML (which is very misleading) but also in simple ASCII which can be easily related to IAST . I am removing the so-called HTML which were in [...] and substituting simple ASCII.

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Indian calendar - Vedic months

Excerpts from Glimpses from Ancient India, Part 2
http://dpuckjoe.wetpaint.com/page/GLIMPSES+FROM+ANCIENT+INDIA+PART+2 120323
UKT: I have to do a bit of editing.

The Indian calendar [month] is of 29.5 days. The month is divided into two halves called Paksha of 15 Thithees (Lunar days) each. The first half beginning with full moon and was called Purnimavasya and the second half beginning with new moon was called Amavashya or Bahaulvashya.

The fortnight beginning with the new moon was called Shuklpaksha and the dark half is called Krishnapaksha.

The calandar normally consists of 12 lunar months. This makes only 354 days, thus to cater for the difference with a solar year, a thirteenth month was added to the calendar after each 30 lunar months. This leap month was called Dvitiya Asadha or DvitiyaSravanna. It was added after asadha or sravanna month. Thus each second or third year had thirteen months.

Names of the months: 01. Chaitra (March - April), 02. Vaishakh (April - May), 03. Jyaistha (May - June), 04. Ashadh (June - July), 05. Sharavan (July - August), 06. Bhadrapada or Parusthapada (August - September), 07. Ashivan or Asvayuja (September - October), 08. Kartikka (October - November), 09. Margasirsha or Agrahayana (November - December), 10. Pausa or Taisa (December - January), 11. Magha (January-February), and 12. Phalgun (February - March).
   However during Vedic times the months were called Madhu, Madhava, Shukra, Suchi, Nabhas, Nabhasya, Isa, Urja, Sahas, Tapas and Tapashya.

The correspondence between the modern names and Vedic names are:
01. Chaitra - Madhu , 02. Vaisakha - Madhav, 03. Jyeshta - Sukra, 04.  Ashadha - Suchi,
05.  Sravana - Nabha, 06. Bhadrapada - Nabhasya, 07. Asvina - Isha, 08. Kartika - Urja,
09. Margaseersha - Saha,  10. Pausha - Sahasya, 11. Magha - Tapa, 12. Phalguna - Tapasya
Extra/ impure month: Adhikamasa - Maliplucha
-- Ancient Indian Astrology http://www.ancientindianastrology.com/cmsa/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=115:vedic-month-names&catid=38:sayana-jyotisha&Itemid=60 - 120323

The seasons: a group of two months was called Ritu. The six seasons were Vasantha ( Spring, March - May), Grishma (Summers, May - July), Varsha (Rains, July - September), Sarad (Autumn, September - November), Hemantha (Winters, November - January), and Sishir (Cool season, January - March.)

Indian dates are normally given in the order of month, paksha and tithi and the abbreviation sudi or badi is used for the bright or dark halves of the month e.g. Chaitra sudi 7 means , seventh day from the new moon of the month of Chaitra .

The various Era's followed by Indians are : 
Vikramaditya Era - this started in 58 BC. It was started by Emperor Vikramaditya to celebrate his victory over the Sakas and driving them out of Ujjain.
Sakas Era - This was started by a Saka King on his return to Ujjain in 78 AD.
Gupta Era - started by Emperor Chandra Gupta in 320 AD.
Harsh era - Started by Raja Harshavardhana of Kannauj in 606 AD.
Kalachuri Era - Started in 248 AD by a small dynasty of Central India called Traikutaka.
Lakshmana Era - Started in Bengal in 1119 AD.
Lichivi and Nevar Era of Nepal started in 110 Ad and 878 AD respectively.
Kollam Era of Malabar Started in 825 AD.
Buddha Era started in 544 BC.
Mahavir Era started in 528 BC.
Off all the above, the Saka and Vikrama are the most widely used eras.

Go back Indian-calendar-note-b

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Mid-vowels of Burmese and Sanskrit

by UKT: 120323

During my work on Romabama, a transcription-transliteration between Burmese written in Myanmar script (Bur-Myan) and English written in Latin script (Eng-Lat), I have come to realize that there is a striking similarity between the Skt-Dev and Bur-Myan. We do not find such similarity between Bur-Myan and Pal-Myan.

This has led me to suggest that there might have been a direct link between Burmese and Sanskrit. It is almost certain that the Magadha {ma-ga.Da.} speech - the language of the Buddha - was imported into Tagaung {ta.kaung:} of northern Burma over land routes.

According to the chronicles it took place once before the Gautama Buddha era, and secondly during the life-time of the Buddha. The first incident took place when a kshatriya, King Abiraza after losing his kingdom in northern India took refuge in Burma eventually founding the city of Tagaung {ta.kaung:}. It should be expected that the Sanskrit speaking bramanas who would be functioning as family priests would have accompanied the royal household. And so we should expect both sibilant language (Sanskrit - an IndoEuropean language) and thibilant language Magadhi (a Tibeto-Burman language) would have been introduced into northern Myanmar years before the birth of the Buddha. We should expect the local population of Pyu {pyu} , who undoubted were Tibeto-Burman speakers would have come under the influence of Indian languages more than 2500 years ago.

Magadhi, the ancient speech of Buddha a kshatriya himself,  had become influenced by the Pali from SriLanka beginning from the days of the Nalanda University in the Pyu {pyu} era even before the ancient city of Pagan {pu.gn} was founded. This city has now been written in English as Bagan which does not reflect the phonemic orthography in Bur-Myan.

See p059-2.htm for {:} and p074.htm for {k:} 

In studying the vowels we must not forget the Two-three tone problem that exists between Indo-European languages such as English and Tibeto-Burman languages such as Burmese.

First of all we will take the case of the front open mid-vowels which are absent in English and Pali. They are present in Burmese and Sanskrit. It is interesting that in the {:} orthography, the killed-{ya.} is used for the modal register.

{.}   {}   {:}
{k.} {k} {k:}
{t.}  {t}  {t:}
{p.}  {p}  {p:}

Lately it has come to my notice that there is a language known as Mithili in northern India bordering Nepal. See

The city of Mithila has been identified as modern day Janakpur in Dhanusa district of Nepal. -- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mithila 120319
The people of Mithila (in India & Nepal) has a language known as Mithili.
-- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maithili_language 120324

Mithila {mait~hti-la} was the capital of Videha, now identified with Janakpur, a town in Southern Nepal. The rulers of Vidheha were called Janakas and in Hindu tradition are thought to have been great scholars. It is believed that they were the oldest among the clans migrated from the river Saraswati as the river started drying up. -- 120319

An interesting question: Was Myanmar {mait~hti-la} founded during ancient times and was inhabited by the Pyus who were under the rule of ancient kings who had come into Burma during and before the life-time of Buddha?

Go back mid-vow-Bur-Skt-note-b

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