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A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893, http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg ;
1929, http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/macdonell/ 110416 , 110611 

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{tu-ra.} : the rhotic series: {ta.} , 

UKT notes :
Tritsu - an ancient tribe Tushita deva-world

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तुल्यकक्ष tulyakaksa [ tulya-kaksha ]
-- a. equal (--); -kulya, a. of the same family; m. relative; -guna, a. of similar qualities, equally good; -gtya, a. of the same kind, like; -t, f. equality with (in. or --), in (in.); -tva, n. equality, with (in. or --); -darsana, a. looking at every thing with indifference; -naktam-dina, a. to whom night and day are alike; -nind-stuti, a. indifferent to blame and praise; -bhgya, a. having a like fate; -yoga‿upam, f. a rhetorical figure in which dissimilar objects are ( end p110c3 ) (p111c1-top )
treated alike; -vayas, a. of equal age; -sas, ad. alike, in equal parts; -sla, a. acting similarly: -t, f. abst. n.


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तुल्याकृति tulyakrti [ tulya‿kriti ]
-- a. having a like ap pearance; -‿antaram, ad. with equal intervals; -‿artha, a. equally rich; -‿avastha, a. placed in a like condition with (g.).



तुवि tuvi [ tuv- ]
-- a. much; mighty (only --): -gt, pp. of mighty race, powerful.

तुविष्मत् tuvismat [ tv-ish-mat ]
-- a. mighty, powerful.


[TUS] I. .
-- tosa , (V.); drip; sprinkle

तोशते { तुश् } tośate { tuś }
-- v.1 drip -- SpkSkt

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[TUSH], IV. P. () be calmed; be satisfied, pleased, or content with, rejoice in (in., d., g., lc., or prati); satisfy; pp. tushta , content, satisfied, pleased; cs. ...





तुष tusa [ tsh-a ]
m. husk of grain, rice, etc.; chaff.

तुषखण्डन tusakhandana [ tusha-khandana ]
-- n. pounding of husks=fruitless endeavour; -dhnya, n. pulse; -‿agni, m. fire of chaff; -‿anala, m. id.; -‿am bu, n. sour rice or barley gruel.


तुषार tusara [ tush-ra ]
-- a. cold; m. sg. and pl. (hoar) frost, snow; dew; spray; mist: -kana, m. snow-flake; -kara, -kirana, m. (cool-rayed), moon; -gaura, m. camphor (white as snow); -dyuti, m. moon; -patana, n. snowfall; -mr ti, m. moon; -rasmi, m. id.; -varsha, m. snowfall; -varshin, a. snowing; -sikharin, m. Himlaya; -saila, m. id.

तुषारांशु tusaraṃsu [ tushra‿amsu ]
-- m. (cold-rayed), moon; -‿adri, m. (snow mountain), Himlaya.


-- m. pl. a class of subordinate deities

See my note on Tushita deva-world

तुष्टि tusti [ tush-ti ]
-- f. satisfaction, contentment.

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तुहिन tuhina [ tuhina ] n. sg. & pl. cold, (hoar)-frost, snow; dew; mist: -kana, m. snow-flake; -kara, m. moon; -kirana, m. id.; -giri, m. (snow mountain), Himlaya; -dyuti, m. moon; -maykha, m. id.


तुहिनय tuhinaya [ tuhina-ya ]
-- den. P. turn into or cover with ice.

तुहिनशर्करा tuhinasarkara [ tuhina-sarkar ]
-- f. lump of ice; -saila, m. Himlaya; -‿akala, m. id.; -‿adri, m. id.

तुह्यादिपरिभाषा tuhyadiparibhasa [ tu-hi‿di-paribhsh ]
-- f. key-rule as to tu, hi, etc. (i. e. ha, vai, tad), meaning that these particles express occurrence in 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 hymns.

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तूण tuna  [ t-na ]
-- m., , f. quiver (often du.).

-- - a. id.

तूणव tunava [ tnava ]
-- m. flute.


तूणीर tunira [ tn-ra ]
-- m. quiver.

तूणीराय tuniraya [ tnr-ya ]
-- den. . represent a quiver.

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तूत tuta [ tta ]
-- m. mulberry tree.

तूतुजि tutuji [ t&usharp;-tug-i ]
-- a. swift; -, furthering (g.).



तूपर tupara [ t&usharp;par ]
-- a. unhorned; m. hornless goat.


तूयम् tuyam [ t&usharp;yam ]
-- ad. quickly.



तूर्ण turna [ trna ]
-- pp. of √tvar.
(p111c2-top )

तूर्य turya [ 1. tr-ya ]
-- a. fourth (=turya). ( end p111c1 )

तूर्य turya [ 2. trya ]
-- n. musical instrument: -maya, a. musical.

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तूल tula [ tla ]
-- n. tuft; cotton; mattress stuffed with cotton: -ka, n. cotton; -dham, abs. with dah, burn (tr.) like cotton.

तूलिका tulika [ tl-ik ]
-- f. paint brush; mattress filled with cotton; -in, f. cotton shrub.



तूष tusa [ tsha ]
-- m. n. hem of a garment.

तूष्णीक tusnika [ tshn-ka ]
-- a. silent, taciturn.

तूष्णीम् tusnim [ tshn&isharp;m ]
-- ad. silently, in silence: m-samsa, m. silent recitation (designation of certain verses to be repeated in silence); m danda, m. secret punishment; m-bhva, m. silence.



तृच trca [ trik- ]
-- m. n. stanza of three verses.

तृढ trdha [ tridh ]
-- pp. of √trih.


तृण trna [ tr-na ]
-- n. a, n. [piercing: √tri] grass, herb; blade of grass; straw (often=a mere nothing): trinavat kri, trinam (iva) man or samarth aya, account as a straw; trinya na man, not care a straw about; trinabuddhim dh, id. (lc.).


-- straw hut; -ka , id.; -kuta , m. n. heap of grass; ...



तृणतन्तु trnatantu [ trina-tantu ]
-- m. blade of grass; -pu rusha-ka, m. man of straw; -pul, f. bunch of grass; -prya, a. grassy; -bindu, m. N. of a sage and prince; -bhug, a. grass-eating; m. grass-eater; -bhta, pp. become as thin or weak as a blade of grass; -maya, a. made of grass.

तृणता trnata [ tri-nat ]
-- f. bow (bent in three places).


तृणय trnaya [ trina-ya ]
-- den. P. account as a straw.

-- m. palmyra (king of grasses); -rga , m. id.; -lava , m. blade of grass; ...

तृणाग्नि trnagni [ trina‿agni ]
-- m. grass-fire (which is quickly consumed); -‿aṅkura, m. young grass; -‿ada, a. grass-eating; -‿sa, -‿sana, -‿sin, a. grass-eating; m. grass-eater.


-- account as a straw

तृणोदक trnodaka [ trina‿udak ]
-- n. sg. grass and water: -bhmi, n. sg. grass, water, and a place to sit on; -‿ulapa, n. grass and shrubs; -‿ulk, f. burning bunch of grass.

तृण trna [ trinna ]
-- pp. of √trid.


तृतीय trtiya [ 1. tri-t&isharp;ya ]
-- a. third: -m, ad. thirdly, for the third time; , f. third day in a fort night; endings of the third case, instrumental.

तृतीय trtiya [ 2. tr-tya ]
-- a. third (part); n. a third; third place: -ka, a. recurring on the third day.


तृतीयदिवस trtiyadivasa [ tritya-divasa ]
-- m. third day: lc. the day after to-morrow; -‿amsa, m. third; a. receiving a third as a share; -samsa, m. compound dependent in the instrumental sense.

तृतीयिन् trtiyin [ trity-in ]
-- a. being of the third rank; entitled to a third part.


-- m. sg. and pl, N. of a Vedic tribe

See my note on Tritsu - a tribe participating in a war mentioned in the Veda

-- trinatti , trintte , split, cleave, pierce; open, set free; pp. trinna

तृन् trn [ tri-n ]
-- suffix -tri (denoting an agent) when the root is accented.


-- trpya ; V.P. tripnotti (V.); VI. P. tripti (V.), become satiated, be satisfied ( with, in., g., lc.); partake of, enjoy
( end p111c2 ) (p111c3-top )
(ab) ; pp. tript , satisfied with (in., g., -); cs. tarpya , satisfy; refresh; please; des. of cs. ...



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तृप्ति trpti [ trp-ti ]
-- f. (also -t) satisfaction; satiety.

तृप्तिकर trptikara [ tripti-kara ]
-- a. satisfying; -kraka, a. id.; -mat, a. satisfied (with, lc.); -yoga, m. satisfaction.


तृप्र trpra [ trip-r ]
-- a. restless, anxious.


-- trishya , be thirsty; pp. trishita , thirsty ; greedy

तृष् trs [ trish ]
-- f. thirst.


तृषा trsa [ trish- ]
-- f. thirst; vehement desire, greed: -‿rta, pp. tortured with thirst; filled with greed.


तृष्ट trsta [ trish-t ]
-- pp. dry, hard; rough, hoarse.


-- a. thirsty

तृष्णा trsna [ trsh-n ]
-- f. thirst; desire, greed; eagerness for (--): -‿maya, a. dying of thirst.

तृष्यावत् trsyavat [ trishy&asharp;-vat ]
-- a. thirsty.


-- trinedhi (V.), crusth; pp. tridh or trilh

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तॄ [TRI] I.
-- tra , VI. tir (V.), cross (tr. and int.); traverse; cross over to (ac.); float; get to the end of, accomplish; fly along (horses) ; ...




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UKT notes

The Tritsu - an ancient tribe

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tritsu 120322

The Trtsus are a tribe of the Bharata mentioned in Mandala 7 of the Rigveda (in hymns 18, 33 and 83). Under king Sudas they defeated the Puru confederation at the Battle of the Ten Kings.

Battle of the Ten Kings dāśarāj
From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_the_Ten_Kings 120322

Battle of the Ten Kings (dāśarāj) is a battle alluded to in Mandala 7 of the Rigveda (hymns 18, 33 and 83.4-8), the ancient Indian sacred collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns. It is a battle between Aryans (Vedic Indians) (an "internecine war", as the 1911 Britannica puts it, as opposed to the more frequent accounts of Aryans fighting Dasyus). [UKT ]

It took place as Puru tribes, allied with other tribes of the Punjab and guided by the royal sage Vishvamitra, oppose the Trtsu (Bharata) king Sudas in battle, but are defeated as was celebrated in a provocative hymn of Sudas' poet and priest Vasistha (RV 7.18). K. F. Geldner in his 1951 translation of the Rigveda considers the hymns as "obviously based on an historical event", even though all details save for what is preserved in the hymns have been lost. Further details have been provided in an incisive discussion of this hymn by H.P. Schmidt [1] 

The Belligerents

The Trtsu are the tribe led by king Sudas. Sudas himself is included in the "ten kings", as the Trtsus are said to be surrounded by ten kings in 7.33.5. But it is not made explicit how this number is supposed to be broken down: if of the tribes mentioned in 7.18, the Turvasas, Yaksuss (pun for Yadu),[1] Matsyas, Bhrgus, Druhyus, Pakthas, Bhalanas, Alinas, Shivas and Visanins are counted, the full number is reached, leaving the Anavas (7.18.14), the Ajas and Sigrus (7.18.19) and the "21 men of both Vaikarna tribes" (7.18.11) without a king, and implying that Bheda (7.18.19, also mentioned 7.33.3 and 7.83.4, the main leader slain by Sudas), Shimyu (7.18.5), and Kavasa (7.18.12) are the names of individual kings. The Bharatas are named among the enemies in 7.33 but not in 7.18.

01. Alinas: One of the tribes defeated by Sudas at the Dasarajna,[2] and it was suggested that they lived to the north-east of Nuristan, because the land was mentioned by the Chinese pilgrim Hiouen Thsang.[3]

02. Anu: Some place them in the Paruṣṇī (Ravi) area.[4]

03. Bhrigus: Probably the priestly family descended from the ancient Kavi Bhrigu. Later, they are related to the composition of parts of the Atharva Veda (Bhṛgv-Āṅgirasa) .

04. Bhalanas: Fought against Sudas in the Dasarajna battle. Some scholars have argued that the Bhalanas lived in the Bolan Pass area. [5]

05. Druhyus: Some align them with the Gandhari (RV I 1.126.7).

06. Matsya are only mentioned in the RV (7.18.6), but later in connection with the Śālva.[6]

07. Parsu: The Parśu have been connected by some with the ancient Persians.[7]

08. Purus: one of the major tribal confederations in the Rigveda.

09. Panis: also the name of a class of demons; later associated with the Scythians.

Hymns 7.18 and 7.83 are dedicated to Indra and Indra paired with Varuna, respectively. They thank the deity for helping Sudas to defeat his enemies, while hymn 7.33 is addressed by Vasistha's descendants to Vasistha, praising him for moving the gods to take Sudas' side by his prayers (Indra preferred Vasistha's prayers over those of Pasadyumna, son of Vayata, 7.33.2). They describe him as a son of Mitra and Varuna (7.33.11). The hymn stresses the importance of the priests (Vasistha is named along with Parashara and Satayatu) in winning Indra's favour; they had invoked Indra while they had moved away from "home" (grhāt, 7.18.21)

The situation leading up to the battle is described in 7.18.6: The Turvasas and Yaksus (Yadu),[1] together with the Matsya tribe (punned upon by the rishi by comparing them to hungry fish (matsya) flocking together)[1] appear and ally themselves with the Bhrigus and the Druhyus. Their confederation was further increased by the Pakthas, the Bhalanas, the Alinas, the Shivas and the Visanins (7.18.7), while the Trtsus relied solely on the help of the "Arya's Comrade" (āryasya sadhamāḥ), Indra.

The battle itself took place on the banks of the Parusni (Ravi). The warriors of Sudas are described as white-robed (shvityanca), wearing hair-knots on the right side of their heads (daksinataskaparda), having flying banners (krtdhvaj) (RV 7.83.2), while the ten kings do not sacrifice (yajyavaḥ). It appears (7.18.5) that Sudas managed to cross the Parusni safely, while his foes, trying to pursue, were scattered by a flood and either drowned or were slaughtered by Sudas' men:

7.18.9 As to their goal they sped to their destruction: they sought Parusni; e'en the swift returned not.
   Indra abandoned, to Sudas the manly, the swiftly flying foes, unmanly babblers.

7.18.9 They went like kine unherded from the pasture, each clinging to a friend as chance directed.
   They who drive spotted steeds, sent down by Prsni, gave ear, the Warriors and the harnessed horses. (trans. Griffith)

Kavaṣa and the Druhyu were "overwhelmed by Indra" while still in the water (7.18.10). The slain warriors of the Anu and Druhyus are numbered 6,666 (7.18.14).

In the aftermath of the battle, the Bharatas under Sudas (7.33.6), received tribute from the Ajas, the Sigrus and the Yaksus (= Yadu, 7.18.20), and Indra destroyed the seven fortifications of the enemies, and gave the treasures of Anu to Sudas (7.18.13). 7.18.17 stresses that this was a victory against all odds, compared to a ram defeating a lion.

UKT: End of Wiki article.

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Tushita deva-world

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tushita 120322

Tuṣita [Skt: तुषित - UKT rendering] or Tusita [Pal: तुसित - UKT rendering] is one of the six deva-worlds of the Kāmadhātu, located between the Yāma heaven and the Nirmāṇarati heaven. Like the other heavens, Tuṣita is said to be reachable through meditation. It is the heaven where the Bodhisattva Śvetaketu (Pāli: Setaketu, "White Banner") resided before being reborn on Earth as Gautama, the historical Buddha; it is, likewise, the heaven where the Bodhisattva Nātha ("Protector") currently resides, who will later be born as the next Buddha, Maitreya.


Like all heaven realms in Buddhism, the Tuṣita Heaven is the residence of divine beings or devas. According to an excerpt of the Pali Canon,[1] a Theravada Buddhist text, Time [UKT: I have capitalized 'Time' to reflect to concept of Time to that of modern science parlance] runs much differently than on Earth:

"That which among men is four hundred years, Visakha, is one night and day of the Tusita devas, their month has thirty of those days, their year twelve of those months; the lifespan of the Tusita devas is four thousand of those heavenly years..."

Mahayana view

In Mahayana Buddhist thought, the Tuṣita Heaven is where all Bodhisattvas destined to reach full enlightenment in their next life dwell for a time. One such reference can be found in the Larger Sutra of Immeasurable Life, a Mahayana text:

Each of these bodhisattvas, following the virtues of the Mahasattva Samantabhadra, is endowed with the immeasurable practices and vows of the Bodhisattva Path, and firmly dwells in all the meritorious deeds. He freely travels in all the ten quarters and employs skillful means of emancipation. He enters the treasury of the Dharma of the Buddhas, and reaches the Other Shore. Throughout the innumerable worlds he attains Enlightenment.

First, dwelling in the Tusita Heaven, he proclaims the true Dharma. Having left the heavenly palace, he descends into his mother's womb.

The Tuṣita heaven is therefore closely associated with Maitreya, and many Buddhists vow to be reborn there so that they can hear the teachings of the Bodhisattva and ultimately be reborn with him when he becomes a Buddha. Other Bodhisattvas dwell in this heaven realm from time to time. Tuṣita is part of the same world-system as Earth, and so is relatively close, whereas the Pure Land of Amitabha Buddha is treated as a separate world-system entirely.

UKT: End of Wikipedia stub.
See also the Mahayana sutra: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avatamsaka_Sutra 120322
and the Burmese-Buddhist tradition:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tr%C4%81yastri%E1%B9%83%C5%9Ba 120322

Macdonell had interpreted the Tushita devas as 'subordinate'. The question is to whom. Presumably to the devas of Tāvatiṃsa ruled by (Hindu) Indra / (Buddhist) Skt: Śakra शक्र aka Sakka where there is warfare between the devas and the asuras. The Buddhist emphasis is on the contentment of the Tushita devas which means peace and harmony.
   It should be noted that Wikipedia spellings are:
The Trayastriṃśa (Skt) Tāvatiṃsa (Pal) -- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tr%C4%81yastri%E1%B9%83%C5%9Ba 120322 -- UKT120322

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