Update: 2019-09-28 05:33 AM -0400


The Student's Pali English dictionary : Consonants

(Consonants: p061 to p081-1)
p080-2 to p175 to be split further 

From Student's Pali-English Dictionary, by Maung Tin (U Pe Maung Tin), (UPMT-SPED) in TIL version in sections as found in Bur-Myan dictionaries. You need to check the diacritics with the PDF copies in TIL PDF libraries
- UPMT-PaliDict1920<> / Bkp<> (link chk 190811)
- with ref. to U Hoke Sein, Pali-Myanmar Dictionary (in Pal-Myan) (UHS-PMD), by U Hoke Sein, 1954
  UKT 190901: UHS generally gives meanings conforming to UMPT, however there are instances when the meanings do not agree. This is to be expected when UHS is based on Magadhi derived from north-eastern India, and UPT based on SriLankan Pali. Whatever the case may be, at present, I'm concerned with the diacritics and structure of the Myanmar glyph. I'll come to the meanings after consulting other dictionaries such as those on Nwari and Npali which are directly related to the speech in which Gautama Buddha preached.

Edited by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA), and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL). Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR 
 - http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

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Note: Student's Pali-English Dictionary, by Maung Tin (U Pe Maung Tin), (UPMT-SPED) in TIL version in sections as found in Bur-Myan dictionaries is in the following sections: Consonants, p061-175 Approximants, p175-251 Vowels, p001-061

UKT 180401: Why is the r3c4 akshara, ढ (in Devanagari) and {a.} (in Myanmar script) so important? I suspect it represents the Third Eye - the seat of super intelligence - present in Gautama Buddha (human), and supposedly present in Siva-dva (celestial being or a spirit). See Wikipedia:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pineal_gland 180401
Refer to kaḍḍhati {k~a.ti.}, (√kaḍḍh) to draw, drag; ana, n. dragging, resigning, [UHS-PMD0280c2 ]
usage phrase: - "taking up the double-edged dagger"

UKT 190909: Keep a lookout for . The problem of | Nya-major vs. Nya-minor may be solved by keeping track of meanings.
   I'm intrigued by UPMT choice of entries. I've indicated the entries UPMT had left out with *. He wrote in his Preface:
   "This Dictionary is intended mainly for students in Burma [now Myanmarpr for Bur-Myan speakers, and probably not for other speakers such as Mon-Myan and Shan-Myan]. As I have aimed at confining the maximum of matter in the minimum of space, ... I have derived much benefit from Childers's Dictionary, the list of Pali Words beginning with S and H in the Journals of the Pali Text Society for 1907 and 1909, Andersen's Glossary to his Pali Reader, Ledi Pandita's Pali-Burmese Dictionary."
   I'm also intrigued by the pronunciation of r1c5, {gna.}, which is a seminasal found only in Bur-Myan and Pali-Myan. The pronunciation may be judged by Kin'si "lit. ridden by a centipede", e.g. {kn~} and {kon~}

Matching pair {a.wn} group

/ {kn}/{ka.} कं/क 
  {kak} {kn~} : Kin'si is a special case in Bur-Myan.
  {ka.sa.}/ {kc} {ka.za.} {ki~}
  {ka.Ta.}/ {kT} {ka.HTa. {ka.a.}/ {ka.a.}/ {k~a.}  {ka.Na.}/ {kN}
  {ka.ta.}/ {kt} {ka.hta.} {ka.da.} {ka.na.}/ {kn
  {ka.pa.}/ {kp} {ka.hpa.} {ka.ba.} {ka.ma.}/ {km
  {ka.ya.} {ka.ra.} {ka.la.} {ka.wa.} : semi-vowels
  {ka.a.} : thibilant fricative - there are two more fricatives in Sanskrit, but they are sibilants

{ka}* का
  {ka-ka. {ka-sa.} {ka-za.}
  {ka-Ta.} {ka-Na.}
  {ka-ta.}* {ka-da.} {ka-na.}
  {ka-pa.}* {ka-ba.}* {ka-ma.} :
  {ka-ya.} {ka-ra.} {ka-la.} / {ka-wa.}/{ka-ba.} : semi-vowels
  {ka-a.} {ka-La.} : thibilant fricative and retroflex /l/

{kin}/ {ki.} कि 
  {ki.ta.} {ki.da.}* {ki.na.}
  {ki.pa.}* {ki.ba.} {ki.ma.}
  {ki.ya.}* {ki.ra.} {ki.la.} {ki.wa.}*
  {ki} की

{ku.} कु
  {koak} {kon~} : Kin'si is a special case in Bur-Myan.
  {ku.sa.} {ku.za.} {ku.a.}
  {ku.Ta.} {ku.a.} {ku.Na.}
  {ku.ta.} {ku.hta.} {ku.da.} {ku.na.}
  {ku.pa.} {ku.ba.}* {ku.ma.}
  {ku.ya.}* {ku.ra.} {ku.la.} {ku.wa.}
  {ku.a.} {ku.ha.}

Mismatching pair {a.a.wn} group

{k} के
  {k-sa.}* {k-za.}
  {k-ta.} {k-da.} {k-na.}
  {k-ya.} {k-ra.} {k-la.} {k-wa.}

UKT: Now that my TOC is in Akshara, I need not show the page numbers of the original book as given in PDF copy. Yet, for convenience I'm showing the links to page numbers:
p060  p061  p062  p063  p064  p065  p066  p067  p068  p069
p070  p071  p072  p073  p074  p075  p076  p077  p078  p079
p080-1  (p080-2 is on r1c2 {hka.})


UKT notes :

UKT 190923: For Pali-Myan, use form, but for Skt-Myan, use Super-La form

Confusion in shapes of look-alike aksharas
  and use of meanings given by International Pali.
Kasina Concentration
Maghadi-Myanmar (Magh-Myan)
Nya-major vs. Nya-minor
Thibilant into Sibilants
Wonder Bird

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/ {kn}/{ka.} कं/क

UKT 190911: Of the 4 corner-cardinal vowels /a/, /i/, /u/ and /ɒ/ , at least 3 can be modified by Dot'above aka ThThTin {::tn}. Here /a/ has been modified to {n}. Though {n} sounds like {n} or {m} it has no coda-ending /n/ or /m/.

kaṁsa, {kn-a.} , m. metal, bronze, a gong, bowl. [UHS-PMD0275c1]
kaṁsakūta, {kn-a.ku-ta.} , n. counterfeit metal. [UHS-PMD0275c1]

ka, {ka.} , m. brahma, fire, wind, mind; n. head, water, hair. [UHS-PMD0275c1]
kakaca, {ka.ka.sa.} , m. a saw. [UHS-PMD0275c1]
kakaṇṭaka, {ka.kN~Ta.ka.} , m. a chameleon. [UHS-PMD0275c1]
kaku, {ka.ku.} , m. the hump of a bull. [UHS-PMD0275c1]
kakuṭa, {ka.ku.Ta.} , m. a pigeon, dove. [UHS-PMD0275c2]
kakuda, {ka.ku.da.} , mn. the hump of a bull, a symbol of royalty. [UHS-PMD0275: {ka.ku.Da.}] 
kakundara, n. a lion's den.
kakeruka, m. a worm

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kakka, {kak~ka.} , m. paste, soap, sediment ; adj. white. [UHS-PMD0275c2]
kakkaṭa, {kak~ka.Ta.} , m. a crab. [UHS-PMD0275c2]
kakkaṭī, {kak~ka.Ti} , f. a kind of cucumber, snake, pot. [UHS-PMD0275c2]
kakkara, {kak~ka.ra.} , adj. hard, strong ; m. a mirror. [UHS-PMD0275c2 ]
kakkarī, {kak~ka.ri} , f. a kettle. [UHS-PMD0275c2 - f. 'kind of cucumber']
kakkasa, {kak~ka.a.} , adj. rough, cruel, hard.  [UHS-PMD0276c1 ]


kakkārī, {kak~ka-ri} , f. red cucumber.
kakkāreti, {kak~ka-r-ti.} , v. (√kar) to express disgust. [UHS-PMD0276c1 ]
kakkoṭaka, m. the bael tree, sugar-cane.
kakkha, {kak~hka.} m. the armpit, dried grass, buffalo; f. a woman's girdle. [UHS-PMD0276c1 - m. kind of creeper with many branches]
kakkhaṭa, {kak~hka.Ta.} , adj. harsh, cruel; f. white chalk. [UHS-PMD0276c1 ]
kakkhaḷa, {kak~hka.La.} , adj. harsh, cruel. [UHS-PMD0276c1 ]

Confusion in shapes of look-alike aksharas


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UKT 190819: Caution. We are meeting for the first time the semi-nasals not recognized by phoneticians. I hope to solve the problem of Nya'major and Nya'minor from the study of Semi-nasals, r1c5 and r2c5

kaṅka, {kn~ka.} , m. a heron,
  [UHS-PMD0276c1 ]
kaṅkaṭa, {kn~ka.Ta.}, m. a coat of mail,
  [UHS-PMD0276c1 ]
kaṅkaṇa, {kn~ka.Na.}, n. a bracelet,
  [UHS-PMD0276c1 ]
kaṅkaṇī, f. a small bell with a tongue,
kaṅkata, m. a tree,
kaṅkamukha, m. fire tongs,
kaṅkā, f. the scent of lotus,
kaṅku, m. a kind of paddy,
kaṅkoli, m. the amherstia tree,

kaṅkha, {kn~hka.}  m. the fruit pigeon; f. doubt,
kaṅkhati, {kn~hka.ti.} , v. (√kaṅkh) to doubt, [UHS-PMD0276c2 ]
kaṅgu, {kn~gu.} , f. a kind of paddy,  [UHS-PMD0276c2 ]
kaṅguli, m. the hand.

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UKT 190811: The English transliteration <ca> and <sa> must be checked with UHS Pali-Myan.
For the present, I've ignored the presence of Affricate-pronunciation in English and in Sanskrit. Thus, I'll take
  kaca, {ka.sa.} "hair", and not {ka.ca.} or {ka.cha.}

kaca, {ka.sa.} , m. the hair, cloud; f. a she-elephant, beauty, [UHS-PMD0276c2 ]
kacaṅgana, n. a market free from tax.
kacamāla, m. smoke,
kacavara, {ka.sa.wa.ra.} , m. sweepings, rubbish, [UHS-PMD0276c2 ]

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kaccati, v. (√kac) to shine,
kaccara, adj. dirty, old.
kacci, {kic~si.} part, perhaps, surely (used in interrogation);
  *nu kho {nu. hkau:], particles for interrogation, [UHS-PMD0277c1 ]
kaccha, {kic~hsa.} , m. the armpit, a creeper, swamp; f. a girdle.
  Kacchaṁ bandhati , to gird up the loins,  [UHS-PMD0277c1 ]
kacchaka, {kic~hsa.ka.} , m. aloes wood, [UHS-PMD0277c1 ]
kacchantara, {kic~hsn-ta.ra.}, n. a private room, private parts, [UHS-PMD0277c1 ]
kacchapa, {kic~hsa.pa.} , m, a tortoise. [UHS-PMD0277c1 ]
kacchapī, f. a female tortoise, pimple, wart,
kacchabū, f. swampy ground,
kacchu, f. the scab,

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kaja, adj. watery; n. a lotus,
kajjala, {kiz~za.la.} , m. a cloud ; n. collyrium. [UHS-PMD0277c2 ]

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UKT 190811: Pali-Myan does not allow {a.t}. {ki~} has been borrowed from Skt-Myan. In Pali-Myan, {ki~} is written as a conjunct as in
   {ki~sa.na.} - n. gold -  UKT from UHS-PMD0277
UKT 190914: Of all the tenuis consonants, {ka.}, {sa.}, {ta.} , {pa.}, {ka.} alone cannot be checked by / {a.}/{}. However, if made into a fricative such as {kya.}, it can be checked: {ky}.

kacana, {ki~sa.na.} , n. gold, [UHS-PMD0277c2 ]
kacika, n. vinegar,
kacuka, {ki~su.ka.} , m. the slough of a snake, a jacket, sheath, envelope, [UHS-PMD0277c2 ]
kacukita, adj. having the hairs bristling with joy.


kacukī, {ki~su.ki } , f. an attendant on the women's apartments, snake, a kind of bean. [UHS-PMD0277c2 ]
kacūlikā, f. a short jacket, bodice,

UKT 190820: Here we notice a curious change from c1 {sa.} to c3 {za.} without going through the c2 {hsa.}. I'm presupposing for the present that this has a bearing on the difference in glyphs between Bur-Myan c4 as {Za.} and Mon-Myan c4 {Za.}. And also on occupant of the cell r2c5 - either by Nya'major or Nya'minor.

kajara, m. the sun, stomach, elephant,
kajiya, {ki~zi.ya.} , n. vinegar, [UHS-PMD0278c1 ]
  Note: UHS gives a spelled-alike with the same meaning:
  {ki~zi.ka.} , n. vinegar, [UHS-PMD0278c1 ]

UKT 190820: Though the glyph below looks like Nya'major, it is actually a horizontal conjunct of Nya'minor {~a.}. Nya'major {a.} is a syllable - i.e. pronounceable, and can be under virama {a.t} as {}, but the conjunct {~a.} is mute.

kaakacchala, n. kidnapping of girls,
kaasa, m. a younger brother; f. the small finger,
kaā, {k~a} , f. a girl, maid, virgin, the orchid plant, [UHS-PMD0278c1 ]
kaāggahaṇa, n. marriage
kaaṭa, m. the middle room of a house, ladies' room,
kaapati, m. a son-in-law.

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kaṭa, {ka.Ta.}, n. victory, female organs, a mat, season, grave, [UHS-PMD0278c1 ]
kaṭaka, {ka.Ta.ka.} - mn. a bracelet, mountain-side,  [UHS-PMD0278c1 ]
kaṭa-kaṭa, onomatopoetic.
kaṭaki, f. a mountain.
kaṭakola, m. a spittoon.
kaṭakhādaka, m. a glass, crow, jackal,
kaṭacchu, m. a spoon, ladle,
kaṭana, n. thatch.
kaṭambharā, f. black hellebore, she-elephant,
kaṭasāraka, f. a rush mat.
kaṭasī, f. a grave,
kaṭāha, n. a jar, vase, flower-pot,
kaṭi, {ka.Ti.} , f. the small of the back, hip, waist, [UHS-PMD0278c2 ]
kaṭu, {ka.Tu.} , f. black hellebore; adj. harsh, severe, [UHS-PMD0279c1 ]
kaṭuka, {ka.Tu.ka.} , adj. harsh, severe, pungent, acrid; m. camphor; f. black hellebore, [UHS-PMD0279c1 ]
kaṭukīṭa, m. a mosquito,
kaṭura, f. buttermilk,
kaṭurava, m. a frog,
kaṭola, m. an outcast.

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kaṭṭhissa, n. a silk coverlet embroidered with gems,
kaṭṭha, {kT~HTa.} , adj. miserable, bad ; n. a piece of wood, stick, jungle. [UHS-PMD0279c1 ]

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kaṭhikā, f. white chalk,
kaṭhina, {ka.HTi.na.} , adj. hard, solid, severe, difficult, [UHS-PMD0280c1 ]

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{ka.a.} / {ka.a.} / {k~a.} 

kaḍḍhati, {k~a.ti.} , v. (√kaḍḍh) to draw, drag; ana, n. dragging, resigning, [UHS-PMD0280c2 ]

UKT 180401: Why is the r3c4 akshara, ढ (in Devanagari) and {a.} (in Myanmar script) so important? I suspect it represents the Third Eye - the seat of super intelligence - present in Gautama Buddha, and supposedly present in Siva-dva. See Wikipedia:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pineal_gland 180401


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kaṇa, {ka.Na.}, m. the fine red powder between the grain of rice and the husk, particle, bit, atom; adj. little, small, [UHS-PMD0280c2 ]
kaṇajira, n. the cummin seed,
kaṇati, v. (√kaṇ) to sound,
kaṇaya, {ka.Na.ya.} , m. a fork. [UHS-PMD0280c2 ]


kaṇikā, {ka.Ni.ka} , f. a kind of plant, ear-ornament. [UHS-PMD0280c2 ]
kaṇikāra, m. the bauhinia tree.
kaṇiṭṭha, adj. smallest, younger.
kaṇerā, f. a harlot.
kaṇeru, {ka.N-ru.} , mf. an elephant. [UHS-PMD0280c2 ]

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kaṇṭaka, {kN~Ta.ka.} , m. a thorn, enemy, horripilation, obstacle, pest. [UHS-PMD0281c1 ]
kaṇṭakāgāra, m. the porcupine.
kaṇṭakaphala, m. the jack fruit, doorian.
kaṇṭha, {kN~HTa.} - m. the neck, throat. [UHS-PMD0281c1 ]
kaṇṭhaja, {kN~HTa.za.} , adj. guttural (letters). [UHS-PMD0281c1 ]

UKT 190822: Since kaṇṭhaja {kN~HTa.za.}, is a linguistic term, see Wikipedia:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guttural 190822
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Velar_consonant 190822

kaṇṭhabhūsā, f.  a necklace.
kaṇṭhamaṇi, m. the crop or craw of a bird, a jewel necklace.
kaṇṭhapāsaka, m. the bridle-reins.
kaṇṭhalatā, f. a coat-collar, bridle. 
kaṇḍa, {kN~a.} , mn. a stalk, arrow, section of a book, portion, season. [UHS-PMD0281c2 ]
kaṇḍarā, f. a blood-vessel,
kaṇḍu, {kN~u.} - f. the itch. [UHS-PMD0281c2 ]
kaṇḍuti, {kN~u.ti.}, f . kaṇḍuvana, n . kaṇḍuyā, f. itching, [UHS-PMD0281c2 ]
kaṇḍuvati, v . to scratch,
kaṇḍola, m. a basket, store-room,
kaṇṇa, {kN~Na.} , m. the ear, rudder, corner,  [UHS-PMD0282c1 ]
kaṇṇajapa, m. a tale-bearer,
kaṇṇajalūkā, f. a centipede,
kaṇṇadhāra, m. a steersman, pilot,
kaṇṇapūra, m. the black lily,
kaṇṇabhūsā, f. an ear-ring,
kaṇṇasukha, adj. pleasant to the ear.
kaṇnasūla, n. ear-ache,
kaṇṇika, m. a steersman; f. an ear-ornament, the pericarp of the lotus, the peak of a hut.
kaṇṇikāra, m. the pericarp.
kaṇha, {ka.Nha.}, adj. black, dark, evil ; m. Visnu, the evil one ; n. sin. [UHS-PMD0283c1]

UKT 190822: I opine that UPMT translation of kaṇha {ka.Nha.} as "Visnu, the evil one" is slightly off the mark. It is Krishna - the reincarnate of the Dva-god Visnu who was of black skin. Krishna as a human king and his hordes wielding iron weapons defeated King Kaṁsa, {kn-a.} and his allies defending their home-land with bronze weapons. It herald the coming of the Iron-Age into the Indian subcontinent. The defenders speaking Tib-Bur languages such as Magadhi (the ancestor of Pali} must have harboured eternal hatred towards the conquerors, so Krishna and Vishnu have been dubbed "the evil one". One of the defeated kings fled into northern-Myanmarpr. He was no other than King Abhiraza . His two sons were named Kanraza-the Elder and Kanraza-the Younger. Their names, Kan {kn}, reflects the "bronze - the alloy of copper and tin". They were "Bronze princes". Note the syllable {kn} does not have the ending sound of either /n/ or /m/. The letters <n> and <m> came in with English-transliteration. I can extend my conjecture further from the point of view of a chemist. The chemical-elements Sulphur S and Arsenic As (spelled {kn.} and Arsenic {sain}), usually occurs together in mineral ores. They make the bronze harder and better. But they are no match for iron-weapons.

kaṇhagotamaka, m. a cobra, [UHS-PMD0283c2 refers to a Naga-king.]
kaṇhajina, {ka.Nha-zi.na.} , n. the skin of a black leopard, [UHS-PMD0283c2 refers to "black goat" - the main diet of the leopard]
kaṇhavattanī, m. fire,

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kataka, {ka.ta.ka.} , m, the nut plant; adj. artificial, [UHS-PMD0283c2]
katajali, adj. saluting respectfully.
katau, adj. grateful; utā {ka.t~u.ta}, f. gratitude, [UHS-PMD0284c1]
katanta, m. the king of death,
katama, adj. what ? which ?
katamāla, m. a kind of tree,
katara, adj. what ? which ?


katākaṭa, adj. done and not done.
kaṭi, {ka.ti.} , interr. pron. how many ? [UHS-PMD0285c2]
kaṭika, m. the kusa grass.
kaṭipaya, {ka.ti.pa.ya.} adj. a few, some, several. [UHS-PMD0285c2]
kaṭipāhaṁ, adv. a few days.
katu, {ka.tu.} , m. a sacrifice, oblation. [UHS-PMD0286c1]

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kattara, m. a weak or old man; *yaṭṭhi, f. the walking stick of a mendicant. 
kattarikā, {kt~ta.ri.ka} , f. scissors, a sailor. [UHS-PMD0286c2]
kattariya, n. scissors.
kattareti, v. to be loose, weak.
kattikā, {kt~ti.ka} , f. name of a constellation. [UHS-PMD0286c2]
kattu, m. an agent, doer, nominative case, minister.
kattha, {kt~hta.} , adv. where? whither? *ci, adv. anywhere, somewhere. [UHS-PMD0287c1]
katthati, v. to praise, boast; anā, f. katharh, adv. how ?

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kathaṁkathā, f. doubt.
kathaci, adv. scarcely, with difficulty.
kathā, {ka.hta} , f. speech, discourse, conversation, story, account, [UHS-PMD0287c2]
kathāna, n. a high numeral.
kathārambha, m. a preface, introductory discourse.
kathāvatthu, n. a subject of discourse, one of the abhidhamma books.
kathikā, f. talk, parley, agreement.
kathina, adj. hard, solid, severe, difficult.
katheti, v. (√kaṭh) to speak, say, relate, converse; kaṭhana, n.
kathojja, n. quarrelling in words.

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kada, m. a rain-cloud.
kadakī, f. a rain-protector, water-proof.
kad-anna, {ka.dn~na.}, n. bad food. [UHS-PMD0288c1]
kadamba, m. the coffee-wort, mustard.
kadara, m. the white mimosa, a saw.
kadariya, adj. stingy, miserly.
kadalī, {ka.da.li} , f. the plantain or banana tree, a flag, antelope. [UHS-PMD0288c2]
kadā, {ka.da} , adv. when? at what time? [UHS-PMD0288c2]
kadācana, kadāci {ka.da-si.}, adv. sometimes, perhaps.
kaddama, m. mud.

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kanaka, n. gold; *tthalī, f. a gold mine.
kanakarasa, m. yellow orpiment.
kanakkhāra, m. borax.
kanavira, m. the periwinkle tree.


kaniṭṭha, adj. smallest, youngest.
kanī, f. a young maiden.
kanīnikā, f. the small finger, the pupil of the eye.

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kanta, {kn~ta.} , ppp. (√kam) charming, delightful; m. a husband; f. a wife.  [UHS-PMD0289c2]
kantati, v. to cut, spin; ana, n ; kaṇtita, ppp.
kantāra, m. a forest, wilderness; *khinna, adj. travel-worn,
kanti, f. beauty, wish, the bastard sandal tree, [UHS-PMD0289c2]
kanda, {kn~da.} , m. a bulb, [UHS-PMD0290c1]
kandaṭa, {kn~da.Ta.} , n. the white lily.
   UKT 190825: {kn~da.La.} "n. white lily" [UHS-PMD0290c1]

kandati, {kn-da.ti.} , v. (√kand) to cry, wail, weep, [UHS-PMD0290c1]
kandamūla, {kn~da.mu-la.} , n. the radish plant, [UHS-PMD0290c1]
kandara, {kn~da.ra.} , m. a cave, grotto, [UHS-PMD0290c1]
kandarākara, m. a mountain,
kandarāla, {kn~da.ra-la.} , *ka, m. the walnut, [UHS-PMD0290c1]
kandala, mfn. the temple, the inside of the cheek, an evil omen : m.  gold, warfare,
kandali, f. see kadali.
kandalīkusuma, n. the mushroom,
kandu, {kn~du.} , mfn. a large pan. [UHS-PMD0290c1]
kanduka, {kn~du.ka.} , m. a spinning top. [UHS-PMD0290c1]
kandoṭa, m. the white lily.

See my note of Maghadi-Myanmar (Magh-Myan)

kandhara, {kn~Da.ra.} , mf.  the neck, rain-cloud, [UHS-PMD0290c1]
kandhā, m. the sea, neck,

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kapaṭa, {ka.pa.Ta.} , mn. fraud, deception, [UHS-PMD0290c1]
kapaṇa, {ka.pa.Na.} , adj. miserable, poor: ṇī, m. a pauper. [UHS-PMD0290c2]
kapāṭa, {ka.pa-Ta.} , mfn. the leaf of a door, [UHS-PMD0290c2]
kapāla, {ka.pa-la.} , mfn. the skull, a potsherd, [UHS-PMD0290c2]
kapi, {ka.pi.} , m. a monkey, [UHS-PMD0290c2]
kapikacchu, {ka.pi.kc-hsu.} , f. a kind of plant, [UHS-PMD0290c2]
kapikanduka, n. the skull,
kapittha, m. a kind of tree.
kapila, {ka.pi.la.} , adj. reddish; m. a dog; f. the prickly-pear, a leech. [UHS-PMD0291c1]
kapilavatthu, {ka.pi.la.wt~htu.} , v. the birth-place of Gotama Buddha, [UHS-PMD0291c1]
kapiloha, n. brass, [UKT 190829: from the colour, I'd translate as "bronze"]
kapisa, f. mixed black and yellow colours.
kapisi, *kā, f. spirituous drink,
kapisīsa, {ka.pi.i-a.} , m. the door-post, [UHS-PMD0291c1]
kapītana, m. the betel tree. [UHS-PMD0291c1]
  [UKT 190829: from the colour of spit of chewing betel quid, I'd translate as "betel nut tree".
   However UHS gives two other trees.]
kapoṇi, m. the elbow.
kapota, {ka.pau:ta.} , m. a pigeon, dove, [UHS-PMD0291c1]
kapotaka, n. antimony, [Occurs in nature as black crystalline stibnite; As precipitated
  from solutions of salt of antimony, the trisulfide is an orange-red precipitate,
  which is filtered, dried, and ground. - Google 190829]
kapotāri, m. a hawk.


kapola, {ka.pau:la.} , m. the cheek. [UHS-PMD0291c1]

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kappa, {kp~pa.} , adj. fit, suitable, worthy, resembling, like;
  m. time, period, rule, usage, permission, chapter of a book, thought. [UHS-PMD0291c1]
kappaka, {kp~pa.ka.} , m. a barber, [UHS-PMD0291c1]
kappaṭa, {kp~pa.Ta.}, m. torn cloth, rags. [UHS-PMD0291c2]
kappati, {kp~pa.ti.} , v. to be fitting, permissible, right, proper, [UHS-PMD0291c2]
kappana, {kp~pa.na.} , m. the trappings of an elephant; f. preparing, thought ; n. cutting, caparisoning an elephant or horse. [UHS-PMD0291c2]
kappabindu, {kp~pa.bain~du.} , m. a black spot attached to a monk's new robe to disfigure it. [UHS-PMD0291c2]
kappara, m. the skull, the elbow,  [UHS-PMD0291c2]
kapparukkha, , m. a wish-yielding tree. [UHS-PMD0292c1]
kappāsa, {kp~pa-a.} , mn , sī , f. cotton. [UHS-PMD0292c1]
kappiya, {kp~pi.ya.} , fpp. right, suitable, appropriate, [UHS-PMD0292c2]
kappūra, {kp~pu-ra.} , mn. camphor. [UHS-PMD0292c2]
kappeti, caus. (√kapp) to arrange, make, think, cut.

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kapha, {ka.hpa.} , m. phlegm, [UHS-PMD0292c2]
kaphani, mf. the elbow,
kaphari, m. ginger,

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kabandha, {ka.bn~Da.} , mn. a headless body, [UHS-PMD0292c2]
kabara, adj. variegated, mixed ; *mani, mn. the masaragalla stone. [UHS-PMD0293c1]
kabaḷa, {ka.ba.La.} / {ka.ba.la.} , m. a mouthful, morsel, [UHS gives 2 spellings: UHS-PMD0293c1]
kabaḷīkāra, adj. made into balls or mouthfuls.
kabya, n. poetry; *kāra, m. a poet,

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kaṁ, n. water, the head,
kama, {ka.ma.} , m. order, succession, method.
  Kamena, instr. adv. by degrees, in due course. Kamato, abl. adv. respectively. [UHS-PMD0293c1]
kamaṭṭha, m. a tortoise, porcupine, bamboo,
kamaṇḍalu, {ka.mN~a.lu.} , mn. a waterpot used by ascetics, [UHS-PMD0293c1]
kamandha, m. water,
kamala, {ka.ma.la.} , n. a lotus. [UHS-PMD0293c2]
kamalacchada, m. a heron, lotus-leaf,
kamalākara, m. a pond,
kamalāsana, {ka.ma.la-a.na.} , m. brahmā. [UHS-PMD0293c2]
kamalottara, n. the safflower.
kamuka, {ka.mu.ka.} , m. the betel [nut] tree, [UHS-PMD0293c2]

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kampati, {km~pa.ti.} , v. to shake, tremble; a, m; ann, n.  [UHS-PMD0293c2]
kampāka, m. wind,
kambala, {km~ba.la.} , mn. a [woolen] blanket, [UHS-PMD0294c1]
kambi, {km~bi.} , f. a spoon, bamboo shoot. [UHS-PMD0294c1]


kambu, {km~bu.} , m. gold, conch, elephant, neck, vein. [UHS-PMD0294c1]
kambugīvā, {km~bu.gi-wa.} , f. a neck marked with three lines like a shell. [UHS-PMD0294c2]
kamma, {km~ma.} , n. action, labour, business, deed, merit, karma. [UHS-PMD0294c2]
kammakara, {km~ma.ka.ra.} , m. a workman, servant. [UHS-PMD0294c2]
kammaja, {km~ma.za.} , adj. produced from karma. [UHS-PMD0295c1]
kammaa, {km~mi~a.} , n. adaptability, wieldiness, workableness. [UHS-PMD0295c1]
kammaṭṭhāna, {km~mT~HTa-na.} , n. basis of action, station of religious exercise. [UHS-PMD0295c1]
kammanta, {km~mn~ta.} , m. business, work, occupation, profession. [UHS-PMD0295c2]
kammapatha, {km~ma.pa.hta.} , m. a course of action. [UHS-PMD0295c2]
kammavācā, {km~ma.wa-sa} , f, an ecclesiastical vote or resolution. [UHS-PMD0296c1]
kammavipāka, {km~ma.wi.pa-ka.} , m. the result of action or karma. [UHS-PMD0296c1]
kammasa, {km~ma.a.} , m. dirt, stain. [UHS-PMD0296c2]
kammassaka, {km~m~a.ka.} , adj. owned by karma, having karma as one's property. [UHS-PMD0296c2]
kammāyatana, {km~ma ya.ta.na.} , n. handicraft. [UHS-PMD0296c2] 
kammāra, {km~ma-ra.} , m. a blacksmith. [UHS-PMD0297c1]
kammāruddhāna, {km~ma-road~Da.na.} , n. a smithy. [UHS-PMD0297c1]
kammāsa, {km~ma-a.} , adj. variegated, spotted. [UHS-PMD0297c1]

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kāya, {ka.ya.} , m. purchase; *vikkāya, m. purchase and sale, barter, trade. [UHS-PMD0297c2]
kāyirati, {ka.yi.ra.ti.} , pass, (√kar) to be made. [UHS-PMD0297c2]

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kara, {ka.ra.} , m. the hand, an elephant's trunk, tax, a ray of light. [UHS-PMD0297c2]
karaka,   m. a kettle, the pomegranate tree; f. hail. [UHS-PMD0298c1]
karakaṇḍaka {ka.ra.kN~a.ka.}, karaja, m. the finger-nail. [diff. in c3 /d/ bet. UPMT and UHS-PMD0298c1]
karakaraka, m. revenue secretary.
karaggaha, m. marriage.
karaṅga, m. the head, human bone.
karaṅgaṇa, n. a market.
karacchada, m. the teak tree.
karajāla, n. a ray of light.
karaja, {ka.riza.} , m. a kind of tree. [UHS-PMD0298c1]
karaṇa, {ka.ra.Na.}, n. action, instrument, the body, an organ of sense. [UHS-PMD0298c1]
karaṇīsutā, f. an adopted daughter.
karaṇḍa, {ka.rN~a.}, mn. a box, casket. [UHS-PMD0298c2]
karaṇṭakīphala, m. the jack tree.
karatāla, n. a cymbal.
karapatta, n. a saw.
karapālikā, {ka.ra.pa-li.ka} , f. a wooden sword. [UHS-PMD0298c2]
karapuṭa, {ka.ra.pu.Ta.} , m. the cavity formed by joining the bent palms of the hands. [UHS-PMD0298c2]
karabha, {ka.ra.Ba.} , m. a camel, the hand from the wrist to the root of the fingers. [UHS-PMD0298c2]


karabhaṭṭa, m. the betel tree.
karabhīra, m. a lion.
karabhūsana, n. a bracelet or bangle. [UHS-PMD0298c2]
karamadda, {ka.ra.md~da.} , m. a kind of plant. [UHS-PMD0298c2]
karamara, {ka.ra.ma.ra.} , m. a prisoner. [UHS-PMD0298c2]
karamāla, m. smoke.
karavīka, {ka.ra.wi-ka.} , m. the cuckoo. [UHS-PMD0299c1]

See my note on Wonder Bird

karavīra, {ka.ra.wi-ra.} , m. oleander [ {nw-a-ki} poisonous plant], graveyard. [UHS-PMD0299c1]
karasākhā, {ka.ra.a-hka} , f. a finger. [UHS-PMD0299c1]
karahaci, {ka.ra.ha.si.} , adv. sometimes.  [UHS-PMD0299c1]
karahāṭa, {ka.ra.ha-Ta.} , n. a bulbous root. [UHS-PMD0299c1]
karī, {ka.ri} , m. an elephant, jar. [UHS-PMD0299c2]
karīsa, {ka.ri-a.} , n. excrement. [UHS-PMD0299c2]
karīsaṅgasā, f. a storm.
karuṇā, {ka.ru.Na} , f. mercy. [UHS-PMD0299c2]
kareṇu, {ka.r-Nu.} , mf. an elephant.
karoṭa, {ka.rau:Ta.} , mf. the skull. [sp diff in UHS-PMD0300c1]
karoti, {ka.rau:ti.} , v. (√kar) to act, do, cause, make, perform; kāyira, opt; kaṭurii,
; kaṭva, kariya, ger ; kāyyati, kāyirati, pass; kaṭtabba, kicca, kāyira, kariya, kāyya,
 fpp ; kaṭa, ppp. [UHS-PMD0300c1]

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kala, {ka.la.} , adj. soft, indistinct. [UHS-PMD0300c1]
kalakaṇḍa, m. a dove, pigeon, swan.
kalakūjikā, f. a courtezan, harlot.
kalaṅka, {ka.ln-ka.} , m. a spot, mark, blemish, rust, defamation. [UHS-PMD0300c1]
kalaṅkura, m. a whirpool, reflex current.
kalaja, f. tobacco.
kalatta, {ka.lt~ta.} , n. the hip, a wife. [UHS-PMD0300c1]
kaladhūta, n. gold and silver, a soft sound.
kalandaka, {ka.ln~da.ka.} , m. a [black] squirrel. [UHS-PMD0300c1]
kalandara, m. a person of mixed birth.
kalabha, {ka.la.Ba.} , mfn. a young elephant. [UHS-PMD0300c1]
kalama, {ka.la.ma.} , m. a penholder, thief, a kind of paddy. [UHS-PMD0300c1]
kalambaka, {ka.lm~ba.ka.} , m. a kind of potherb. [UHS-PMD0300c1]
kalambi, {ka.lm~bi} , f. the back of the neck. [UHS-PMD0300c1]
kalala, {ka.la.la.} , mn. the embryo immediately after conception, mud. [UHS-PMD0300c2]
kalaviṅka, {ka.la.wan~ka.} m. a [house-] sparrow. [UHS-PMD0300c2]
kalasa, {ka.la.a.} , fn.  si, f. a waterpot. [UHS-PMD0300c2]
kalaha, {ka.la.ha.} , mn. quarrel, strife, battle. [UHS-PMD0300c2]
kalahala, m. clamour.
kalā, {ka.la] , f. a part, fraction, division of time, art. [UHS-PMD0300c2]
kalāpa, m. a bundle, bunch, peacock's tail, tuft, quiver. [UHS-PMD0301c1]
kalāpaka, m. a string or row.


kalāpī, {ka.la-pi} , m. a peacock. [UHS-PMD0301c1]
kalāra, adj. tawny [light brown or brownish].
kalālāpa, m. a bee.
kalāya, m. a chick pea. 
kali, {ka.li.} , m. sin, demerit, defeat, a die; *yuga {ka.li.yoag}, m. an age of the world. [UHS-PMD0301c1]
kalikā, {ka.li.ka} , f. a flower bud. [UHS-PMD0301c1]
kaliṅga, {ka.lan~ga.} , m. the fork-tailed shrike [bird with screeching call] [also, the name of a kingdom], [UHS-PMD0301c1]
kaliṅgara, {ka.lan~ga.ra.} , m. chaff, [UHS-PMD0301c1] 
kalija, m. a rush mat.
kalīra, m. the shoot of a plant,
kalukka, m. a cymbal; f. a restaurant,
kalusa, {ka.lu.a.} , adj, polluted, impure; n. sin, impurity, [UHS-PMD0301c2]
kalevara, {ka.l-wa.ra.} , n. a body, corpse. [UHS-PMD0301c2]
kalyāna, {ka.lya-Na.} , adj. auspicious, fortunate, beautiful, good. [UHS-PMD0301c2]

UKT 190904: What follows kalla {kal~la.}, will become a problem when Pali is to be placed side by side with Sanskrit in a unified dictionary on BEPS (Burmese-English-Pali-Sanskrit). Because of which I've to come up with an alternative glyph involving a Super-La - {kal~la.}. This will further complicate matters when a Tha'whto has to be used at the same time as in kallola, / {kal~lau:la.}.

kalla, {kal~la.} , adj. skilful, possible, ready, healthy; n. dawn, [UHS-PMD0302c2]
kallati, {kal~la.ti.} , v. to sound indistinctly, [UHS-PMD0302c2]
kallahāra, {kal~la.ha-ra.} , n. the white water-lily,  [UHS-PMD0302c2]
kalli, adv. tomorrow,
kallola, {kal~lau:la.} , m. a billow; mfn. an enemy, [UHS-PMD0302c2]

UKT 190904: I've used the Super-tha'whto to show that it belongs to the "lower" {la.}. I discover this Super-script interpreting the motto of Shin Kic'si.
   I thank Rev. U Zawtika of Zya'thuhka monastery of Sanchaung who presented me with his own copies of Shin Kicsi's Grammar when he realizes that I am very serious of my study of Pali and Sanskrit. The first book is entirely in Pali and the other the Bur-Myan version by Sayadaw U Za'nakabi'wuntha of Amarapura. 


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kavaca, {ka.wa.sa.} , mn. a coat of mail, charm, [UHS-PMD0302c2]
kavandha, mn. a headless trunk, [UHS-PMD0302c2]
kavāṭa, {ka.wa-Ta.} , mn. a door, trap-door, window, [UHS-PMD0302c2]
kavi, {ka.wi.} , adj. wise; m. a wise man, poet, monkey, [UHS-PMD0303c1]

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{ka.a.} :

See my note on change of Thibilant into Sibilants

kasaka, {ka.a.ka.} , m. a ploughshare, [UHS-PMD0303c1]
kasaṭa, {ka.a.Ta.} , adj. sour, acid, insipid [lacking flavour], tasteless, [UHS-PMD0303c1]
kasati, {ka.a.ti.} , v. (√kas) to plough, till the ground; kaṭṭha, kasita, ppp. [UHS-PMD0303c1]
kasambu, {ka.m~bu.} , n. sweepings, rubbish, [UHS-PMD0303c1]
kasā, {ka.a} , f. a whip, [ rattan cane {kraim-lon:} used for whipping - UKT ] [UHS-PMD0303c1]
kasāya, {ka.a-ya.} , kasāva, adj. astringent; mn. astringent taste, the yellow colour, stain, impurity, sin. [UHS-PMD0303c1]
kasi, {ka.i.} , f. ploughing, agriculture. [UHS-PMD0303c2]
kasiṇa, {ka.i.Na.} , adj. all, entire; mn. a meditation-device or artifice [known as {ka.eiN:wn:} [UHS-PMD0303c2].

UKT 190905: Personal note on Kasina-concentration

kasipu, m. food, dress,
kasimā, {ka.i.ma} , m. a husbandman, cultivator, [UHS-PMD0304c1]
kasira, {ka.i.ra.} , adj. painful, grievous; n. trouble, distress. Kasirena, instr. adv. with difficulty, [UHS-PMD0304c1]
kaseru, {ka.-ru.} , mn. the rain tree, [UHS-PMD0304c1]
kasmīra, {k~mi-ra.} , m. Cashmere, [UHS-PMD0304c1]
kasmīraja, {k~mi-ra.za.} , n. saffron, [UHS-PMD0304c1]
kassaka, {k~a.ka.} , m. a husbandman, cultivator, farmer. [UHS-PMD0304c1]


kassapa, m. one of the 24 Buddhas, a famous disciple of the [Gautama] Buddha. [UHS-PMD0304c1]
kahaṁ, {ka.hn} , adv. where? whither? [UHS-PMD0304c1]
kahāpaṇa, {ka.ha-pa.Na.} , mn. a coin, [UHS-PMD0304c2]

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{ka} का


kāka, {ka-ka.} , m. a crow. [UHS-PMD0305c1]
kākacchada, m. the magpie robin,
kākaṇikā, {ka-ka.Ni.ka} , f. a farthing, [UHS-PMD0305c1]
kākatāliya, adj. accidental,
kākatitthā, f. the ganja plant,
kākatinduka, {ka-ka.tain~du.ka.} , m. a sort of ebony. [UHS-PMD0305c1]
kākapakkha, {ka-ka.pak~hka.} , m. a tuft of hair left on the shaved head, [UHS-PMD0305c1]
kākapeyya, {ka-ka.p-yya.} , f. a river full with water so that a crow may drink from the bank, [UHS-PMD0305c1]
kākapuccha, puṭṭha, m. the cuckoo,
kākabhiru, m. the owl.
kākamaggu, m. water-fowl,
kākala, n. a necklace; f. a bird's song,
kākalī, {ka-ka.li} , f. a soft sound in music. [UHS-PMD0305c1]
kākavajhā, f. a woman giving birth to an only child,
kākasūra, m. lit. "a crow-hero," a shameless fellow,
kākodumbarikā, {ka-kau:doam-ba.ri.ka} , f. the opposite-leaved fig tree. [UHS-PMD0305c2]
kākola, {ka-kau:la.} , m. a raven. [UHS-PMD0305c2]
kākolūkikā, f. enemies like the crow and the owl. 

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kāca, m. soap, soda, glass, ophthalmia; n. wax.
kācana, n. a fence, enclosure,
kācakupī, f.  a bottle,

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kāja {ka-za.}, kāca {ka-sa.}, m. a 'pingo' or carrying pole, a pole placed over one shoulder with a rope fastened to each end.  [UHS-PMD0305c2]

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kāṭhina, m. the date tree.

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kāṇa, adj. blind of one eye.

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kādamba, m. the large horned owl.
kādambara, n. cream of milk ; f. wine,
kādambini, f. a cloud in the form of a flag,

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kānana, n. a forest, grove.
kānina, mf. illegitimate offspring,

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kāmaṁ, {ka-mn} , adv. at pleasure, voluntarily, indeed, [UHS-PMD0306c2]
kāma, {ka-ma.} , m. wish, desire, the god of love, sensual pleasure, [UHS-PMD0306c2]
kāma-keli, m. indulgence in sensual pleasure,
kāma-guṇa, {ka-ma.gu.Na.} , m. an object or constituent of sensual pleasure, [UHS-PMD0306c2]
kāma-cchanda, {ka-mic~hsn~da.} , m. sensual desire, [UHS-PMD0307c1]
kāmajāla, m. the. cuckoo,
kāmaṭṭha, m. n tortoise,
kāmana, {ka-ma.na.} , adj. lustful [UHS-PMD0307c1]


kāmabhava, {ka-ma.Ba.wa.} , m. existence in a world of sense. [UHS-PMD0307c2]
kāmayatī, v. (√kām) to desire, love; ppp. kanta.
kāmaloka, m. a world or realm of sense, sensuous realm.
kāmasakha, m. the winter.
kāmāvacara, adj. frequenting a sensuous realm.
kāmī, {ka-mi} , adj. desirous; m. the moon, a sweetheart, sparrow. [UHS-PMD0308c2]
kāmuka, adj. desirous; m. a husband.

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kāya, {ka-ya.} , m. the body, multitude, group, house, city. [UHS-PMD0308c2]
kāyakamma, {ka-ya.km~ma.} , n. an act of the body, deed. [UHS-PMD0308c2]
kāyapasāda, m. the sensitive body, the skin.
kāyabandhana, {ka-ya.bn~Da.na.} , n. a waist-band, girdle. [UHS-PMD0309c2] 
kāyaviatti, {ka-ya.wa~t~ti.} , f. intimation by means of the body. [UKT: pantomime] [UHS-PMD0309c2]
kāyavieyya, n. the tangible body.

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kāra, {ka-ra.} , m. action, a prison, song of praise, revenue. [UHS-PMD0311c1]
kāraka, {ka-ra.ka.} , n. a grammatical case. [UHS-PMD0311c1]
kāraṇa, {ka-ra.Na.} , n. a cause, destruction ; f. agony. [UHS-PMD0311c1]
kāraṇā, {ka-ra.Na} , adv. on account of, for the sake of. [UHS-PMD0311c2]
kāraṇika, {ka-ra.Ni.ka.} , adj. investigating, judging; m. a guardian of hell. [UHS-PMD0311c2] 
kāraṇḍava, {ka-rN~a.wa.} , m. a sort of duck. [UHS-PMD0311c2]
kāramihikā, f. camphor.
kāravella, {ka-ra.wel~la.} , m. the momordica plant. [UHS-PMD0312c1]

UKT 190908: I contend that there is no such thing as double consonant, and must consider the above < ll > as a vertical conjunct < l~l > , with an "L" sound attached to // as /vel~la/. Because of which I will have to use the A-thut and write: . The alternative is to use a Super-akshara: . However I'm giving above the U Hoke Sein style.

kārāgāra, mfn. a prison.
kārikā, {ka-ri.ka} , f. work, a memorial verse, metrical explanation. [UHS-PMD0312c1]
kāreti, caus. (*√kar) to make, perform. Rajjaṁ kāreti , to reign .
kāru {ka-ru.} , *ka, m. an artisan, [UHS-PMD0312c1]
kāruja, m. machinery, an ant-hill,
kārua, {kā-roa~a.} n. compassion, [UHS-PMD0312c2]

See my note on Nya-major vs. Nya-minor 
The entry above is kārua, {kā-roa~a.}. [UHS-PMD0312c2] gives a usage example containing a Tha'wto as: {ka-roa~-na.}. Without a colour scheme, it is impossible for most to pronounce. Of course, it would have been easy to pronounce it as {ka-ru.-na.}

kāruṇḍī, f. a water leech.

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kāla, {ka-la.} , m. time, season, death. Kālaṁ karoti, to die. [UHS-PMD0312c2]
kālaka, m. a water-snake, [UHS-PMD0313c1]

UKT 190909: kālaka probably means the poisonous water-snake which kills by rupturing blood-vessels of victim making the body black.]

kālakaṇḍa, m. a water-fowl, sparrow, peacock,
kālakaṇṇī, {ka-la.kN~Ni} , f. misfortune, ill-luck,  [UHS-PMD0313c1]
kālakiriyā, f. death,
kālakīla, m. an uproar.
kālakūṭa, m. one of the Himalayan peaks, a kind of poison,
kālakhaḍda, ajana, n. the liver.
kālakkhandha, m. the Chinese persimon.
kālakkhepa, m. wasting time,
kālacakka, m. a clock
kālaa, m. an astrologer, cock

UKT 190909: kālaa seems to refer to keeping time. An astronomer astrologer by watching the celestial sphere heavens keeps time. So does the village cock which crows at dawn. The word involving occurs in UHS-PMD313c1 as {ka-la.u}, which may be pronounced as {ka-l~u} .

kālanemi, m. an evil spirit,
kālapakkha, m. the dark half of a month.


kālasutta, {ka-la.oat~ta.} , m. one of the eight hells. [UHS-PMD313c2]

UKT 190910: There is a difference in Buddhism and in Hinduism, the number and description of hells or places of punishments. However there are some corresponding ones such as "Kalasutra ( thread of Time/Death)". - See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naraka_(Hinduism) - 190919

kālāguru, {ka-la.gu.ru.} , kāḷāguru, m. aloes wood. [UHS-PMD314c1]
kālātipatti, {ka-la-ti.pt~ti.} , f. the conditional tense. [UHS-PMD314c1]
kālānukālāṁ, adv. from time to time
kālāpa, m. the hood of a snake.
kālindaka, n. the water-melon.
kālusiya, {ka-lu.i.ya.} n. pollution. [UHS-PMD314c1]

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/ {ka-wa.}/{ka-ba.}

UKT 190910: As in Skt-Dev, there can be a mix up between /w/ and /b/. This is due to some speakers using labial-dental /v/. There is no such confusion for Bur-Myan speakers.

kaveyya, {ka-w-yya.} , n. poetry. [UHS-PMD314c1]
kaverī, {ka-w-ri} , mf. the Cauvery river, a courtezan. [UHS-PMD314c2]

See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kaveri 190910
"Kaveri (aka Cauvery) is ... the fourth largest after Godavari and Mahanadi River in south India and the largest in Tamil Nadu."


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UKT 190911: Translated into Skt-Dev, you can have any of the sibilant-fricatives, श ष स , for the Pali-Myan thibilant-fricative {a.} (and Modern-English <th> /θ/).

kāsa, {ka-a}, m. cough. [UHS-PMD314c2] 
kāsati, {ka-a.ti.} , v. to shine.  [UHS-PMD314c2]
kāsamadda, {ka-a.md~da.} , m. a kind of plant. [UHS-PMD314c2]
kāsaya, m. a pond.
kāsāya, {ka-a-ya.}, āva, n. the yellow [tannin-dyed] robe. [UHS-PMD314c2]
kāsi, {ka-i.} , m. the Kāsi kingdom {ka-i.ten:}. [UHS-PMD315c1]
kāsīsa, n. vitriol.
kāsu, {ka-u.} , f. a hole, pit, multitude. [UHS-PMD315c1]

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kāḷasiha, m. a bear.
kāḷahaṁsa, m. the large horned owl.
kāḷā, {ka-La} , f. the scammony plant. [UHS-PMD316c1]
kāḷānusāri, m. the black sandal wood.
kāḷāyasa, n. iron.
kāḷāvaka, {ka-La-wa.ka.} , m. a kind of elephant. [UHS-PMD316c1]

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/ {kin}/{ki.}

UKT 190911: Of the 4 corner-cardinal vowels /a/, /i/, /u/ and /ɒ/ , at least 3 can be modified by Dot'above aka ThThTin {::tn}. Here /i/ has been modified to {in}. Though {in} sounds like {ain} or {aim} it has no coda-ending /n/ or /m/.

kiṁ, {kin} , adv. why? what? [UHS-PMD316c1]
kiṁ pana, adv. pray !
kiṁ-purisa, m. a harpy.
kiṁ-vadantī, {kin-wa.dn~ti} , f. report, rumour. [UHS-PMD316c1]
kiṁ va, adv. or else.
kiṁsāru, m. paddy-ear, an arrow.
kiṁ su, adv. how?
kiṁsuka, m. the butea tree.

kiki, {ki.ki.} , f; *diva, m. the blue jay. [UHS-PMD316c2]
kikī, {ki.ki} f. the pheasant, the Burmese lapwing. [UHS-PMD316c2]

kiṅkara {kan~ka.ra.}, kiṅkāra, m. a servant. [UHS-PMD316c2]
kiṅkāraṇa, adv. why? on account of what?
kiṅkiṇika, {kan~ki.Ni.ka} , mn; ṇi, f. a small bell. [UHS-PMD316c2]

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kicca, {kaic~sa.} , n. fpp. work, duty, service, need. [UHS-PMD316c2]
kicci, adv. how so?
kiccha, {kaic~hsa.} , adj. difficult, laborious, painful. [UHS-PMD317c1]
kicana, {kai~sa.na.} , n. anxiety, attachment; adv. anything, something. [UHS-PMD317c1]
kicāpi, adv. however much, although.
kici, {kai~si.} , adv. a little, rather. [UHS-PMD317c1]
   UKT from UHS usage: 'nothing is said'
kicikkha, n. a trifle. [UHS-PMD317c2]


kijakkha, {kai~zak~hka.} , m. a filament, especially of the lotus.[UHS-PMD317c2]

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kiṭṭha, n. growing corn.

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kita, {ki.ta.] , m. a primary derivative. [UHS-PMD318c1]
kitava, {ki.ta.wa.} , m. a gambler, rogue. [UHS-PMD318c1]
kittaka, {kait~ta.ka.} , adj. how much? how many? [UHS-PMD318c1]
kittana, {kait~ta.na.} , n. mention, report. [UHS-PMD318c1]
kittāvatā, {kait~ta-wa.ta} , adv. how far? to what extent?
kitti, {kait~ta.] , f. fame, report. [UHS-PMD318c1]
kittima, {kait~ti.ma.] , adj. artificial, false, [adopted]. [UHS-PMD318c1]
   UKT 190921: I've added the translation "adopted" after comparing
   kattima {kait~ti.ma.} with kuttima {koat~ti.ma.}, and translations "adoption" with "artificial"
kitteti, {kait~t-ti.} v. to proclaim, celebrate, publish, announce. [UHS-PMD318c2]

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kintanu, m. a small insect.
kin ti, adv. how ? pray !
kinnara, {kain~na.ra} , mf. a harpy, nymph. [UHS-PMD318c2]
kinnu, {kain~nu.} , adv. how? what ! [UHS-PMD318c2]

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kibbisa, {kaib~bi.a.} , n. fault, sin. [UHS-PMD318c2]

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kimaṅga, {ki.mn~ga.} , adv. far more. [UHS-PMD318c2]
kimatthaṁ, {ki.mt~htn} , adv. for what purpose? [UHS-PMD318c2]
kimi, {ki.mi.} , m. a worm, insect.  [UHS-PMD319c1]
kimija, {ki.mi.za.} , adj. silken. [UHS-PMD319c1]
kim iva, {ki.mi.wa.} , adv. the reason being, because. [UHS-PMD319c1]
kimu, *ta, {ki.mu.ta.} , adv. like this and like that; how much more? [UHS-PMD319c1]
kimpāka, adj. childish.

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kira, {ki.ra.}, adv. it is said, they say. [UHS-PMD319c1]
kiraṇa, {ki.ra.Na.} , m. a ray of light. [UHS-PMD319c1]
kirāta, {ki.ra-ta.} किरात kirāta, m. a wild hillman, aborigine. [UHS-PMD319c1]

UKT 190915: The epithet "wild" is an insult to the Himalyan peoples extending into Myanmarpr. Gautama Buddha's mother was a Kirata princess. See:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kirata 190915
"Modern scholarship: Sylvain Lvi (1985) concluded that Kirata was a general term used by the Hindus of the plains to designate the Tibeto-Burman speaking groups of the Himalayas and Northeast. [13] "

kiri-kiri, onomatopoetic, the chirping of birds.
kiriṭa, mn. a diadem, medal.
kiriya, fn. action, performance, work.

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UKT 190915: The change from /l/ to /ɹ/ in going from Tib-Bur to Indo-Aryan seems to be common place. The first case that came to my notice, in 160807, was in the name of the son of Prince Siddhartha: Lāghula {la-Gu.la.} to Rāhula {ra-hu.la.} in Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit. We find another case in kila to kira.

kila, {ki.la.} , another form of  kira {ki.ra.}. [UHS-PMD319c2]
kilaja, {ki.l~za.} , m. a mat. [UHS-PMD319c2]
kilanta, {ki.ln~ta.} , ppp. (klam) wearied, exhausted. [UHS-PMD319c2]
kilamati, {ki.la.ma.ti.} , v. (√kiam) to be tired, exhausted, worried ; ana, n . [UHS-PMD319c2]
kilamatha, {ki.la.ma.hta.} , m. fatigue. [UHS-PMD319c2]
kilāsa, {ki.la-a.} , m. ring-worm. [UHS-PMD320c1] 
kiliṭṭha, {ki.laiT~HTa.} , ppp. (√klis) afflicted, depraved, corrupted, soiled, vicious. [UHS-PMD320c1]
kilinna, {ki.lain~na.} , adj. wet.  [UHS-PMD320c1]
kilissati, {ki.lai~a.ti.} , v. (√klis) to be afflicted, corrupted, depraved, [UHS-PMD320c2]
kilesa, {ki.l-a.} , m. corruption, depravity, sin, lust, [UHS-PMD320c2]
kilomaka, {ki.lau:ma.ka.} , n. a membranaceous tissue. [UHS-PMD321c1]

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kisa, {ki.a.} , adj. thin, emaciated, poor, mean, [UHS-PMD321c1]
kisalaya, {ki.a.la.ya.} , n. a sprout, shoot, [UHS-PMD321c1]
kisora, {ki.au:ra.} , adj. young; m. a colt, child [UHS-PMD321c2]

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kīcaka, {ki-sa.ka.} , m. a reed, bamboo. [UHS-PMD321c2]
kīṭa, {ki-Ta.} , m. an insect, worm; *ja, n. silk. [UHS-PMD321c2]
kīdisa, {ki-di.a.} , kīrisa, adj. like what? of what sort? [UHS-PMD321c2]
kīra, {ki-ra.} , m. a parrot. [UHS-PMD321c2]
kīla, {ki-la.} , m. a pin, stake. [UHS-PMD321c2]
kīlita, {ki-li.ta.} , ppp. bound. [UHS-PMD321c2]
kīva, {ki-wa.} , adv. how ? how much ? [UHS-PMD321c2]
kīḷati, {ki-La.ti.} , v. (√kiḷ) to play, sport; ana, n. kiḷā, {ki-La} f. [UHS-PMD322c1]

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ku, {ku.} , a prefix meaning bad, inferior, wicked; f. the earth. [UHS-PMD322c1] 
kukutthaka, {ku.koat~hta.ka.} , m. the crow pheasant. [UHS-PMD322c2]
kukola, n. the jujube tree.

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kukku, {koak~ku.} , n. a cubit. [UHS-PMD322c2]
kukkucca, {koak~koac~sa.} , n. worry, remorse; cāyati, {koak~koac~sa-ya.ti.} , v. to be worried [UHS-PMD322c2]
kukkuṭa, {koak~ku.Ta.} , m. a cock. [UHS-PMD322c2]
kukkura, {koak~ku.ra.} , m. a dog. [UHS-PMD322c2]
kukkula, {koak~ku.la.} , m. hot ashes, embers. [UHS-PMD322c2]
kukkuha, {koak~ku.ha.} , m. an osprey. [UHS-PMD322c2]

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kuṅkuma, {kon~ku.ma.} , n. saffron. [UHS-PMD322c2]

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kuca, {ku.sa.} , m. the female breast, the pomegranate. [UHS-PMD323c1]
kuccha, f. blame, contempt; n. the white lotus.
kucchi, {koac~hsi.} , mf. the belly, womb, cavity, interior. [UHS-PMD323c2]
kucchiṭṭha, {koac~hsaiT~HTa.} , m. wind in the stomach. [UHS-PMD323c2]
kucchita, {koac~hsi.ta.} , adj. contemptible. [UHS-PMD323c2]

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kuja, {ku.za.} , m. a tree. [lit. "son of earth"] [UHS-PMD323c2]
kujjhati, {koaz~Za.ti.} , v. (√kudh) to be angry; ppp. kuddha. [UHS-PMD324c1]

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kucanāda, {koa~sa.na-da.} , m. the trumpeting of an elephant. [UHS-PMD324c1]
kucika, {koa~si.ka.} , f. a key; *vivara, n. a keyhole. [UHS-PMD324c1]
kucita, {koa~si.ka.} , ppp. bent, crooked. [UHS-PMD324c1]
kuja, {koa~za.} , mn. a place overgrown with creeping plants, mountain bend, elephant's tusk, [UHS-PMD324c1]
kujara, {koa~za.ra.} m. an elephant. [UHS-PMD324c1]

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kuṭa, {ku.Ta.} , mn. a waterpot; *dhārikā, {ku.Ta.Da-ri.ka} , f. a maid-servant, [UHS-PMD324c2]
kuṭaru, n. a canvas-tent,
kuṭala, n. a roof,
kuṭikā, {ku.Ti.ka} , f. a hut. [UHS-PMD324c2]
kuṭikāra, m. a carpenter,
kuṭila, adj. crooked, deceitful, [UHS-PMD324c2]
kuṭilikā, f. a smithy,
kuṭī, {ku.Ti} , f. a house, hut, tent, shed, [UHS-PMD324c2]
kuṭīra, n. a box, kennel. [UHS-PMD325c1]
kuṭuṅkaka, m. a bush,
kuṭumba, n. family, property, estates,
kuṭṭa, n. a wall, fence, enclosure. [UHS-PMD325c1]


UKT 190919: Because of restricted space allotted to aksharas in my writing system, you should be careful about the vertical conjuncts for r#3 consonants: ,

kuṭṭana, n. grinding, thrashing.
kuṭṭima, mn. a mine of precious stones.
kuṭṭira, m. a mountain.
kuṭṭha, {koaT~HTa.} , n. leprosy. [UHS-PMD325c1]
kuṭṭhāku, m. a woodpecker 

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kuḍuba, {ku.u.ba.} , m. a measure of capacity. [UHS-PMD325c1]
kuḍumala, {ku.u.ma.la.} , m. an opening bud. [UHS-PMD325c1]
kuḍḍa, {koa~a.} , n. a wall. [UHS-PMD325c1]

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kuṇapa, {ku.Na.pa.} , mn. a corpse. [UHS-PMD325c2]
kuṇāla, {ku.Na-la.} , m. a cuckoo. [UHS-PMD325c2]
kuṇi, {ku.Ni} , adj. crooked in a limb.  [UHS-PMD325c2]
kuṇṭha, {koaN~HTa.} , adj. slow, lazy.  [UHS-PMD325c2]
kuṇḍa, {koaN~a.} , m. an iguana ; n. a waterpot, well.  [UHS-PMD325c2]
kuṇḍaka, {koaN~a.ka.} , m. the red powder between the grain of rice and the husk.  [UHS-PMD325c2]
kuṇḍala, {koaN~a.la.} n. a ring, earring,  [UHS-PMD326c1]
kuṇḍikā, {koaN~i.ka}  f. the waterpot of an ascetic, [UHS-PMD326c1]

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kutūhala, {ku.tu-ha.la.} , n. tumult, vehemence. [UHS-PMD326c1]
kuto, {ku.tau:} , adv. whence? how? much less; *ci, from any place, [UHS-PMD326c1]
kutta, {koat~ta.} , m. behaviour, conduct, [UHS-PMD326c1]
kuttaka, {koat~ta.ka.} , n. a large carpet, [UHS-PMD326c1]
kuttima, {koat~ti.ma.} , adj. artificial, [UHS-PMD326c1]
   UKT 190921: Compare kattima {kait~ti.ma.} with kuttima {koat~ti.ma.}, and translations "adoption" with "artificial"
kuttha, adv. where?

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kutha, {ku.hta.} , mn. a woollen blanket, howdah. [UHS-PMD326c2]

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kudā,  {ku.da} , adv. when; *canam, adv. ever, sometimes, [UHS-PMD326c2]
kudāra, {ku.da-ra.} , m. a bad wife. [UHS-PMD326c2] 
kudārī, {ku.da-ri} , mfn. an axe, hatchet, [UHS-PMD326c2]
kuddāla, {koad~da-la.} , mn. a spade, [UHS-PMD326c2]
kudrūsa, {koad~RRu-a.} , m. a sort of grain, [UHS-PMD327c1]

UKT 190921: kudrūsa, {koad~RRu-a.} 'a cereal' known in Bur-Myan as {lu:} is an inferior kind of "rice" which I've tasted as an invited news-photographer to the Popa Agriculture-Peasants Meeting in Burma in 1960s.

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kunaṭī, f. red tourmaline, the coriander seed,
kunābhi, m. a whirl-wind,
kunta, {koan~ta.} , mf. a lance, insect, [UHS-PMD327c1]
kuntanī, f. a curlew,
kuntala, m. hair, a waterpot.
kuntha, {koan~hta.} , m. a sort of ant. [UHS-PMD327c1]
kunda, {koan~da.} , n. the many-flowered jasmine, [UHS-PMD327c1]
kunnadī, {koan~na.di} , f. a very small stream, [UHS-PMD327c1]

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kupinī,  f. a fish-net, snare,
kuppa, {koap~pa.} , n. any metal except gold or silver, [UHS-PMD327c1] 
kuppati, {koap~pa.} , v. (√kup) to be angry, disturbed, ruffled; ana, n. ; kupita, ppp. [UHS-PMD327c1]

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kumāra, {ku.ma-ra.} , m. a child, youth, the god of war; adj. young, [UHS-PMD327c2 ]
kumārabhaccā, f. midwifery, nursing.


kumāsa, m. barley bread.
kumina, {ku.mi.na.} , n. a funnel-shaped basket fish-net. [UHS: {mhron:}] [UHS-PMD328c1]
kumuda, {ku.mu.da.} , n. the white water-lily, a high numeral. [UHS-PMD328c1]
kumudabandhava, m. the moon.
kumbha, {koam~Ba.} , m. a waterpot, elephant's forehead, a measure of capacity. [UHS-PMD328c1]
kumbhaka, {koam~Ba.ka.} n. the mast of a ship. [UHS-PMD328c2]
kumbhaṇḍa, {koam~BN~a.} , m. a class of demons, water-melon, [UHS-PMD328c2]
kumbhathūna, n. a kettle-drum,
kumbhī, {koam~Bi} , f. a pot. [UHS-PMD328c2]
kumbhīla, {koam~Bi-la.} , m. a crocodile, alligator, [UHS-PMD328c2]
kumma, m. a tortoise; *kapala, mn. a tortoise-shell, [UHS-PMD328c2]
kummala, m. a bud.

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kuraṇḍaka, m. a sort of amaranth,
kurara, m. an eagle,
kuravīka, m. the Indian cuckoo,
kuruṅga, {ku.rn~ga.} , m. an antelope, [UHS-PMD329c1]
kuruvinda, {ku.ru.wain~da.} , m. a ruby. [UHS-PMD329c1]
kurūra, adj. cruel, severe, formidable, [UHS-PMD329c1]

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kula, {ku.la.} , n. a flock, herd, family, species, house, lineage, [UHS-PMD329c1]
kulaṭā, {ku.la.Ta} , f. an unchaste woman, [UHS-PMD329c2]
kulabhaccā, f. a mid-wife, nurse
kulala, {ku.la.la.} , m. a kite, falcon, [UHS-PMD330c1]
kulāla, {ku.la-la.} , m. a potter, jungle-fowl, [UHS-PMD330c2]
kulāvaka, n. a nest. [UHS-PMD330c2]
kulāhaka, m. a chameleon,
kuliya, m. a flying squirrel,
kulisa, {ku.li.a.} , mn. Indra's thunderbolt, [UHS-PMD330c2]
kulīna, {ku.li-na.} , adj. of good family, [UHS-PMD330c2]
kulīra, {ku.li-ra.} , m. a crab, prawn, [UHS-PMD330c2]
kulūpaka, {ku.lu-pa.ka.} , m. a family friend, [UHS-PMD331c1]
kulla, {kul~la.} , mn. a winnowing basket, raft, [UHS-PMD331c1] 

UKT 190923: For Pali-Myan, use form, but for Skt-Myan, use Super-La form


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kuvaṁ, {ku.wn} , adv. where ? [UHS-PMD331c1]
kuvalaya, {ku.wa.la.ya.} , n. the water-lily, [UHS-PMD331c1]
kuveṇī, {ku.w-Ni} , f. a funnel-shaped basket fish-net, [UHS-PMD331c1]
kuvera, {ku.w-ra.} , m. Vessavana. [UHS-PMD331c1]

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UKT 190923: Most of the world's languages are sibilant languages, whereas only a few, Bur-Myan and English-Latin included, has the phoneme /θ/. This phoneme is found in English words such as  <the> and <thorn>. Modern English uses a digraph th to represent /θ/, but Old English used what is known as the thorn character . Romabama uses this character instead of the digraph. Since UPMT uses the International Pali aka Pali-Latin, he has used /s/ to represent the phoneme whilst UHS gives the phoneme as /θ/, because of which I'm using the thorn character. In BEPS, I use the sibilant {Sa.}/ {S} to give the Sanskrit pronunciation whenever the occasion calls for it. Don't confuse {Sa.}/ {S} with the Palatal-stop {sa.}/ {c}.

kusa, {ku.a.} , m. a blade of grass, sacrificial grass; f. a rope, [UHS-PMD331c1]
kusala, {ku.a.la.} , adj. skilful, happy, meritorious, good, [UHS-PMD331c2]
kusi, {ku.i.} , n. one of the four cross seams of a Buddhist robe. [UHS-PMD332c1]
kusinārā, {ku.i.na-ra} , f. a town in India; where the Buddha died, [UHS-PMD332c1]
kusīda, {ku.i-da.} , īta, adj. lazy, slothful, [UHS-PMD332c1]
kusuma, {ku.u.ma.} , n. a flower, [UHS-PMD332c1]
kusumbha, {ku.oan~Ba.} , n. safflower. [UHS-PMD332c2]


kusūla, {ku.u-la.} , m. a granary. [UHS-PMD332c2]
kussubbha, {ku~~oab~Ba.} , n. a small pond, puddle. [UHS-PMD332c2]

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kuhaṁ, {ku.hn} , adv. when? whither? [UHS-PMD332c2]
kuhaka, {ku.ha.ka.} , kuhana, adj. deceitful ; kuhanā, f. deceit, hypocrisy. [UHS-PMD332c2]
kuhara, {ku.ha.ra.} , kuhira, n. a hole, cavity. [UHS-PMD332c2]
kuhiṁ, {ku.hin} , adv. where? whither? [UHS-PMD332c2]
kuhicana, ci, adv. anywhere, somewhere.
kuheti, {ku.h-ti.} , v. to deceive. [UHS-PMD333c1] 
kuhelikā, f. fumigation.

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kūjana, n. the singing of birds.
kūṭa, {ku-Ta.} , mn. top, peak, mass, sledge-hammer, trap, deception, fraud;
  adj. deceitful, false, having a peak. [UHS-PMD333c1] 
kūṭaṭṭa, {ku-TT~Ta.} , m. a false law-suit. [UHS-PMD333c1]
kūṭāgāra, {ku-Ta-ga-ra.} , n. a gabled house, attic. [UHS-PMD333c2]
kūpa, {ku-ap.} , *ka, m. a well, pit, mast of a ship. [UHS-PMD333c2]
kūra, {ku-ra.} , n. boiled rice. [UHS-PMD334c1]
kūla, {ku-la.} , n. a bank, slope. [UHS-PMD333c2]
kūvara, adj. beautiful, charming.

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{k} के


keka, m. the chaste tree. [UHS-PMD334c1]
kekara, adj. squinting. [UHS-PMD334c1]
kekā, {k-ka} , f. the cry of the peacock. [UHS-PMD334c1]
kekī, {k-ki} m. a peacock. [UHS-PMD334c1]

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keja, {k-za.}, n. a water-lily. [not entered in UHS]

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keṭubha, {k-Tu.Ba.} , n. the art of prosody. [UHS-PMD334c1]

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ketaka, {k-ta.ka.} , m. kī , f. the screw-pine. [UHS-PMD334c1]
ketana, {k-ta.na.} , n. a sign on a flag, banner, house. [UHS-PMD334c1]
ketava, {k-ta.wa.} , n. gambling, fraud. [UHS-PMD334c1] 
ketu, {k-tu.} , m. a banner. [UHS-PMD334c2]
ketumālā, {k-tu. ma-la} , f. a halo, ray of glory. [UHS-PMD334c2]

UKT 190926: The non-luminous Planet Ketu (calculated from Moon nodes) is an evil planet in Hindu Astrology. However, it is the King of Planets in Burmese Mahaboat Astrology and is supposed to be so luminous that it is a giver of Esoteric knowledge. It can make the person under its influence to become a monk or a wondering ascetic. Of course when the head or the heir of the family becomes a Buddha or a monk and leaves the family behind it is an evil for the family. When Prince Siddhartha, the crown prince of the family left his family, the dynasty of King Śuddhodana became extinct. It is an evil episode in the King's life.
   I base this note on my knowledge of Astrology. Early in my life with a young beautiful wife and two very young children, I nearly became a fulltime monk. Realizing that it would be a disaster for my young family I had to leave my Thamahta {a.ma.hta.} and Wipathana {wi.p~a.na} practice. See Wikipedia for this practice: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samatha 190926

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kedāra, {k-da-ra.} , m. a field, mountain. [UHS-PMD334c2]

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kenipāta, {k-ni.pa-ta.} , m. a rudder. [UHS-PMD334c2] 

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keyūra, {k-yu2ra.} , n. a bracelet or bangle for the arm. [UHS-PMD334c2]

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kerava, {k-ra.wa.} , n. the white water-lily. [UHS-PMD334c2]
kerāṭika, {k-ra-Ti.ka.} , adj. miserly. [UHS-PMD334c2]

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kelāyana, n. play, sport.
kelāsa, {k-la-a.} , adj. white; m. name of a mountain [in India]. [UHS-PMD335c1]

UKT 190926: A mountain in the Mon State, Myanmarpr is also known as {k-la-a.tan}.
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kaylartha_Pagoda#Geography 190926
Kaylartha Mountain is situated 3 miles (4.8 km) from Taungson, Mon State, and can be driven up to by truck. The range is part of the or Eastern Arakan Yoma Mountains. It is at a distance of 184 kilometres (114 mi) from Yangon and 136 kilometers north of Mawlamyine, the capital of Mon State. The summit is above 1,600 feet (490 m).

keli, f. amusement, sport.
kelika, adj. sporting; f. a lute, violin.
kelikucikā, f. a sister-in-law.

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kevaṭṭa, m. a fisherman. [UHS-PMD335c1]
kevala, adj. only, mere, alone, all, entire, whole; n.adv. only, [UHS-PMD335c1
kevalakappa, adj. all, whole, entire. [UHS-PMD335c1


kevalī, m. a saint who has mastered all, all-accomplished. [UHS-PMD335c1]

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UKT 190927: Thibilant in Pali-Myan because it is derived from north-eastern India, but sibilant in Pali-Lanka (and International Pali). Pali-Myan falls under heavy influence of Pali-Lanka in the 11th century thanks to religious reforms which may be political in nature. I presume that Pali-Myan was first derived from north-eastern India during the time of King Abiraza (centuries before the birth of Gautama Buddha, and also in the time of Gautama Buddha when many relatives of his relatives had to flee from Ancient Magadha to northern Myanmarpr. Pali-Myan was presumably the speech and script of Ari monks who did not support the religious reforms. They were severely suppressed during the latter Pagan Period. However, some Ari monks, particularly the father of King Anawrahta and his followers, supported the religious reforms and were maintained in the new order. I base my observations from the history of the Thirty-Seven Nats , and also on Bur-Myan Astrological system called Mahaboat, which I accuse the historians of ignoring as just myths and superstitions.

kesa, m. hair. [UHS-PMD335c1]
kesamajjaka, m. a comb.
kesara, m. the filament of a lotus or other plant, the mane of a lion or horse ; n. asafoetida. [UHS-PMD335c2]
kesarī, m. a maned lion, horse, [UHS-PMD335c2]
kesava, m. [Dva-god] Vishnu, [UHS-PMD335c2]


- UPMT-PaliDict1920<> 
Diacritics checked with PDF copy to this point:
ā ē ī  ō ū / ḍ ḥ ḷ ḹ ṁ ṃ ṅ ṇ ɴ ṛ ṝ ś ṣ ṭ / Root sign √ θ

koka, m. a wolf, frog, lizard,
kokadeva, tn a pigeon.
kokanada, n. the red lotus; *bandhu, m. the sun.
kokasaka, m. the red lotus,
kokila, m. the Indian cuckoo,

koci, pron. any, some,
koccha, n. a comb, grand couch,

kojava, m. a coverlet made of goat's hair,

konca, m. a heron, crane,

kota, m. a fort, strong-hold,
kotara, mn. the hollow of a tree,
koti, f. point, tip, summit, ten millions; *ppakoti, f. a high numeral.
kotiya, m. a mongoose,
kotilla, n. crookedness, deceitfulness.
kottima, mn. a pavement made of pounded stone,
kotteti, -y. (√kutt) to strike, break, pound, cut ; kottaka, ddj ;
kottana, n.
kottha, mn. a granary, room,
kotthaka, m. a store-room,
kotthagara, n. a store-room, treasury,
kotthasa, m. a portion, lot, destiny,
kotthu, m. a jackal,
kona, m. a corner, angle, bow for a musical instrument, the blade of a sword.

kotuka, n. a wonder, wedding-ring,
kotuhala, .. clamour, noisy confusion,

kodanda, . a bow.

kodha, m. (√kudh) anger, wrath,
kodhana, adj. angry, passionate,

kontika, m. a lancer,

kopa, m. (√kup) anger, ill-temper,
kopina, n the private parts,

komala, adj. soft,
kotnudl, f. rnoonlight*


koraka, mn. a flower bud.

kola, mn. the jujube fruit, a pig, raft.
kolaka, n. pepper.
kolamba, ra. a pot.
kolavalll, f. a sort of pepper.
kolahala, mn. uproar, tumult
kolitthij f. a married woman.
koll, f. the jujube tre^-
koleyya, adj. of noble family ; m. a house-dog.

kovida, adj. skilled, wise.
kovilara, m. a sort of ebony.

kosa, mn. a sheath, bud, treasure, testicle, shout, call, a measure of 500 bow-lengths,
kosajja, n. laziness, sloth,
kosaphala, n. bdellium,
kosambi, f. capital of Kosamba.
kosala, adj. belonging to Kosala.
kosalla, n. skill, proficiency, knowledge,
kosataki, m. a merchant; f. a sort of vegetable plant,
kosi, f. the sheath of a sword,
kosika, m. the chebula tree, bdellium,
kosiya, m. Indra, an owl; adj. silken,
kosi, m. the mango tree; mfii. a shoe,
koseyya, adj. silken ; n. silk,
kriya, f. action, the verb,
kva, adv. where ?
kvaci, adv. sometimes, in some cases.

p080-2 on r1c2 {hka.} in next file.

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UKT notes

Confusion in shapes of look-alike aksharas

UKT 190819: I'm finding curious cases of confusion in the shapes of look-alike aksharas.

Case 1: It is a curious case of confusion in putting the "foot" of pedestal in {Ta.} and {La.}. Notice the apparent confusion in the shapes of look-alike aksharas: between

kakkhaṭa {kak~hka.Ta.} and
kakkhaḷa {kak~hka.La.},
both of which means "adj. harsh, cruel". [UHS-PMD0276c1 ] .

Case 2: It brings to mind the Bur-Myan word {puuHT-hsn.} "Pali vertical conjunct", where the part for Pali is spelled with {HTa.} instead of {La.}. In this case the POA involved is retroflex, involving  row#3, r3c1 {Ta.}, r3c2 {HTa.}, and lateral approximant {La.}. You can see that their basic shape is {gna.} - a single circle cut out on the right. The example I am citing involves the word "white lily".

kandaṭa {kn~da.Ta.} , n. the white lily.
------------- {kn~da.La.} "n. white lily" [UKT from UHS-PMD0290c1]

Case 3: The two words cited for this has different meaning. It is not surprising that /t/ and /l/ are differnt

kapāṭa {ka.pa-Ta.} "mfn. the leaf of a door"
kapāla {ka.pa-la.} "mfn. the skull, a potsherd"  [both UHS-PMD0290c2]

Case 4: The word kattima {kait~ti.ma.} is used for legally adopting children. And when the translation is given as "artificial", Bur-Myan speakers are confused.

kattima {kait~ti.ma.] , adj. artificial, false, [adopted]. [UHS-PMD318c1]
kuttima {koat~ti.ma.} , adj. artificial, [UHS-PMD326c1]

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UKT 190905:

"Kasina-concentration which falls under Mental-concentration is like a boat sailing in high winds. It can get you to your destination in a short time, but there is always the danger of capsizing." - U Tun Pe 

Theravada Buddhist meditation consists of two parts: Mental-concentration {a.ma.hta.} "mind-concentration" and Deep-Analysis {wi.p~a.na} "analysis of body's functions" leading into the natural phenomena around us. The {ka.eiN:wn:}-device is used for some kinds of {a.ma.hta.} "mind-concentration" . Advanced {a.ma.hta.} concentration using {ka.eiN:wn:}-device for "Earth-Kasina {pa.hta.wi-ka.eiN:} even by advanced practitioner, not to mention a novice, can lead to drastic changes to one's mind leading to madness. However, there are more safer {a.ma.hta.} concentration methods.

Pix shows Prince Siddhattha Gautama as a child enjoying Peace and Tranquility of the First Jhanic State. Though the First Jhanic State came naturally to some, at least to the prince, it has to be earned by others. The fastest way to get to the Jhanic States is to practice Kasina-concentration.

It is well-known to my father U Tun Pe who as a young man had practised it under the supervision of his mentor Arakanese Saya U Kyaw Dun (I am named after him), who in spite of his advanced knowledge became insane practising Earth-Kasina. U Kyaw Dun told my father in advance that he would be going into this method knowing the danger of insanity.

My father forbade me - I was sixteen at that time - going into {a.ma.hta.} until I became more mature. Again at about the age 30, my meditation-master, Sayadaw U Winiya of Sunlun discipline, asked me to lessen my {a.ma.hta.} practise and go more into {wi.p~a.na}.  U Winiya could see that more {a.ma.hta.} would make me leave my young family to become a monk or a recluse.

I thank both my father and U Winiya for their advice. Then you might be tempted to ask: why I went into meditation. The answer is simple: I have to have physical and mental energy to be doing what I am doing on BEPS at my advanced age without looking for money, power, sexual-prowess or fame.
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Maghadi-Myanmar (Magh-Myan)

UKT 190826: Referring to the word "white lily", we have already seen two words above involving retroflex sounds:  {kn~da.Ta.} and {kn~da.La.}. Now, we are seeing the third variation in kandoṭa which I transcribed aks-to-aks using:
  #1 the Vowel-Letter {AU}, and
  #2 Bur-Myan vowel {o}.
So far attempt #1 has failed, but with #2, I get {kn~do-Ta.}. If this were the case, I must suggest that even though International Pali may have only {AU}, Pali-Myan had {o}. This would make the International Pali having only 8 vowels, but Pali-Myan having 9 vowels. Because of it I suggest the term Pali-Myan be changed to Maghadi-Myanmar (Magh-Myan).

Furthermore, we can see that in the case of front-vowel {I.}, it is based on single-circle, but the back-vowel {U.} is based on double-circle. I, therefore propose to use a single-circle instead of for {AU}.

Now, let's turn our attention to c4 consonants, {Ga.}, {Za.}, {a.}, {Da.}, {Ba.} in Pali-Myan and Npali-Devanagari. Of course Pal-Myan would be from U Hoke Sein. Np-Dev is from A Comparative and Etymological Dictionary of Nepali Language by R L Turner (ref: Turn-Nepxxx )
  - http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/turner/ 190830

Go back Magh-Myan-note-b

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Nya-major vs. Nya-minor

UKT 190908, 190915:

I'm beginning to suspect that Bur-Myan Nya-major was lost during the religious reformation of King Anawrahta when Pali became the religious language in place of the language of the Ari'gyis.

#1. Whatever the historical reason maybe, it is possible that both Nya-major and Nya-minor were in existence as basic aksharas {a.}/ {}, and {a.}/ {} in the original language. Some Nya-major were replaced by the horizontal-conjunct of two Nya-minors only later. If this were so, readers of Pali-Myan should pronounce either if the situation calls for it:

kaā {ka.a} 'maid, virgin' [UHS-PMD0278c1 ]
katautā {ka.t~u.ta}* 'gratitude' [UHS-PMD0284c1] ,
kammaa {km~ma.a.} 'adaptability, wieldiness, workableness' [UHS-PMD0295c1]
kāyaviatti {ka-ya.wa~t~ti.}* 'intimation by means of the body, pantomime' [UHS-PMD0309c2]
kāyavieyya 'the tangible body' [no UHS entry].
kārua {ka-ru.a.} 'compassion' [UHS-PMD0312c2] 
kālaa {ka-la.u} 'knowing the correct time' [UHS-PMD0313c1]
* Bur-Myan speakers are very familiar with this pronunciation as horizontal-conjunct of {~a.}

A usage example given in [UHS-PMD0312c2] for kārua {ka-ru.a.} is {ka-roa~-na.}. Without a colour scheme, it is impossible for most to pronounce. Of course, it would be easy to pronounce it as {ka-ru.-na.}. There are bound to be other examples. But I would stand by my advice: readers of Pali-Myan should pronounce either as basic aksharas Nya-major {a.}/ {}, or Nya-minor {a.}/ {}. Also use it as horizontal-conjunct of {~a.} (mute) after a consonant such as {pa.}: {p~a}. However, we must all acknowledge the existence of basic akshara Nya-major {a.}/ {}.

#2. Another observation I've made is the Bur-Myan usage of killed Nya-major. Of the tenuis consonants, {ka.}, {sa.}, {ta.}, {pa.}, the only one which will not be checked by killed Nya-major is {ka.}. Others can be checked by killed Nya-major. However, if {ka.} were given a slight "friction" by making it {kya.}, it can be checked: {ky.}, {ky}, {ky:}. I've confirmed my observation with my friend U (Dr.) Tun Tint of MLC on 190914, and he concurred.

#3. The third observation I've made is in connection with cardinal corner short vowels: /a/, /i/ , /u/ , /ɑ/.

Go back Nya-major-minor-note-b

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Semi-nasals : r1c5 and r2c5

UKT 190828

Presence of words beginning with {gna.} / {ng} in Nwari and Npali
and the problem of Nya'major and Nya'minor

I'm hoping to solve the mystery of Nya-major and Nya-minor as contenders for the cell r2c5. Note that Bur-Myan & Mon-Myan are the only two languages which recognize the existence of Nya-major which is stable under the virama {a.t}.

r1c5 - {gna.} / {ng} 
  of the series {gna.} {gna} {gna:} 
  &  {ng.} {ng} {ng:}

r2c5 - {a.} / {}
  of the series {a.} {a} {a:} 
  & {.} {} {:}

This has left me with 2 contenders, Nya-major and Nya-minor, for the cell r2c5. However, probably unrecognized by ancient Myanmar phoneticians, Nya-major can be placed by the side of {ya.}/ {y} under the rubric of Approximants. This leaves the Nya-minor as the sole occupant of r2c5.

Go back Semi-nasals-note-b

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Thibilant into Sibilants

UKT 190905: The pronunciation /θ/ of {a.}/ {}  of Bur-Myan & Pali-Myan is changed into /s/ in {Sa.}/ {S} (hisser) in Sanskrit. However, in Myanmarpr, it is believed that it is into {sa.}/ {c} that it is changed. This is because {Sa.}/ {S} is absent in Bur-Myan. The <s> in UPMT below is {Sa.}/ {S} and NOT {sa.}/ {c}.

Some Sanskrit speakers take the change further into /sh/ {sha.}/ {sh} (husher). Since the Husher is derived from Hisser, the rule of Bur-Myan that {sa.}/ {c} cannot be modified with a Ha'hto is not contravened.

To take care of this situation BEPS consonants has to be increased to include new glyphs such as {Ska.}, {Sta.}, {Spa.}, etc.
Go back Thibilant-Sibilants-note-b

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The Wonder Bird

UKT 190902:

Pali {ka.ra.wi-ka.} --> Burmese {ka.ra.waik} the "wonder bird" or Phoenix - the bird that arises from the ashes of its predecessor. It was supposed that there could be only one Phoenix in the world.
See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phoenix_(mythology) 190902
"Associated with the Sun, a phoenix obtains new life by arising from the ashes of its predecessor."

It is possible (note that it is a conjecture only), that the bird is connected to: #1 practice of Poannar worshipping the Sun early at dawn reciting the Gayatri Mantra, and #2 the Theravada Buddhist recitation of the Mora (Mora) Sutta.

It is also possible that the notion that there could be only one bird is connected to the Theravada legend the there could be only one Buddha who could preach in the world during an "Age or Kuppa (sp?)" and that others were Picseka (sp?) Buddhas who would not preach. As there are many Ages, there could be other Buddhas. Gautama Buddha is the Fourth in the present Age, preceded by Kassapa (sp?) Buddha, the Third Buddha.

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End of TIL file