Update: 2016-10-06 02:16 PM -0400

TIL

A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary

Skt-compd.htm

Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sanskrit_compound 150706

Downloaded, and edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com 

index.htm | Top
MC-indx.htm

Contents of this page

Introduction
1. Avyayībhāva
2. Tatpuruṣa (determinative) : including a sub-article
  2.1 Karmadhāraya (descriptive)
  2.2 Nañ-samāsa
  2.3 Upapada-samāsa
3. Dvandva (co-ordinative)
  3.1 Itaretara dvandva
  3.2 Samāhāra dvandva
4. Bahuvrīhi (possessive)
5. Aluk-samāsa
6. Āmreḍita (iterative)

UKT notes :
 

 

Contents of this page

Introduction

- UKT 150706

Compound words are words made by joining different words together. An example in English is <battlefield> from words <battle> & <field>. There is no hyphen between them. <Battlefield> is a complete word made up of 3 syllables. To transcribe such words into Bur-Myan, it is important to know the original words and the syllable breaks in them.

From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sanskrit_compound 150706

One notable feature of the agglutinative nominal system of Sanskrit is the very common use of nominal compounds समास «samāsa», which may be huge (10+ or even 30+ words [1] [2] [3]), as in some languages such as German. Nominal compounds occur with various structures, but morphologically speaking they are essentially the same: each noun (or adjective) is in its (weak) stem form, with only the final element receiving case inflection.

Contents of this page

1. Avyayībhāva

The first member of this type of nominal compound is an indeclinable, to which another word is added so that the new compound also becomes indeclinable (i.e., avyaya). Examples: yathā+śakti, upa+kṛṣṇam (near kṛṣṇa), etc. In avyayībhāva compounds, first member has primacy (pūrva-pada-pradhāna), i.e., the whole compound behaves like an indeclinable due to the nature of the first part which is indeclinable.

Contents of this page

2. Tatpuruṣa (determinative)

Unlike the avyayībhāva compounds, in Tatpuruṣa compounds the second member has primacy (uttara-pada-pradhāna). There are many tatpuruṣas (one for each of the nominal cases, and a few others besides). In a tatpuruṣa, the first component is in a case relationship with another. [UKT ¶]

For example, a <doghouse> is a dative compound, a house for a dog. It would be called a "caturtitatpuruṣa" (caturti refers to the fourth case, that is, the dative). Incidentally, the word "tatpuruṣa" is itself a tatpuruṣa (meaning a "that-man", in the sense of "a man of that (person)", meaning someone's agent), while "caturtitatpuruṣa" is a Karmadhāraya, being both dative, and a tatpuruṣa.

An easy way to understand it is to look at English examples of tatpuruṣas: "battlefield", where there is a genitive relationship between "field" and "battle", "a field of battle"; other examples include instrumental relationships ("thunderstruck") and locative relationships ("town-dwelling"). All these normal Tatpuruṣa compounds are called vyadhikarana Tatpuruṣa, because the case ending should depend upon the second member because semantically the second member has primacy, but actually the case ending depends upon the first member. Literally, vyadhikarana means opposite or different case ending. But when the case ending of both members of a Tatpuruṣa compound are similar then it is called a Karmadhāraya Tatpuruṣa compound, or simply a Karmadhāraya compound.

UKT 150707: Wikipedia gives an active link to a sub Wiki article:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tatpurusa 150707

In Sanskrit grammar a tatpuruṣa compound is a dependent determinative compound, i.e. a compound XY meaning a type of Y which is related to X in a way corresponding to one of the grammatical cases of X.

There are many tatpuruṣas (one for each noun case, and a few others besides); in a tatpuruṣa, one component is related to another. For example, "boathouse" is a dative compound, a house on a boat. It would be called a caturthī-tatpuruṣa (caturthī refers to the fourth case — that is, the dative). The most frequent kind is the genitive tatpuruṣa. Examples are:-

• jaya-prepsu = "victory-desiring". (accusative)

• varṣa-bhogya = "year-going to be enjoyed" = "to be enjoyed for a year" (adjective). (accusative)

• deva-datta = "god-given" = "given by the gods". (instrumental)

• viṣṇu-bali = "Vishnu-offering" = "offering to Vishnu". (dative)

• svarga-patita = "heaven-fallen" = "fallen from heaven". (ablative)

• tat-puruṣa = "that-man" in the sense of "that person's man". (genitive)

• vyāghra-buddhi = "tiger-thought" = "thought of it being a tiger". (genitive)

• yajur-veda = "sacrifice-knowledge" = "the knowledge of sacrifice", and the name of part of the Vedas. (genitive)

• rudrākṣa = rudra-akṣa = "Rudra-eye" = "the eye of Rudra". (genitive)

• raja-putra = "king-son" = "son of a king". (genitive)

• gṛha-jata = "house-born" = "born in the house". (locative)

• pūrvāhṇa-kṛta = "morning-done" = "done in the morning". (locative)

The word "tatpuruṣa" is an example of the type: see in the list above.

caturthī-tatpuruṣa = "which is dative and a tatpuruṣa". (nominative), but a nominative tatpuruṣa is classed as a karmadhāraya.

Note: in Vedic [UKT: Vedic is not Sanskrit or Classical Sanskrit of Panini]  rájaputra is a bahuvrihi and means "having a king as a son", and rajapútra is a tatpuruṣa and means "king's son": notice where the Vedic udātta accent is.

UKT 150707: I can not agree with Wikipedia use of the "Vedic Sanskrit" and have changed it "Vedic". Being older, Vedic belongs to Tib-Bur group of languages which have simpler grammar, very much like Bur-Myan. Going by the model of Bur-Myan, I contend that the language is non-rhotic and hissing sounds are rare being  dominated by θ-sounds.

UKT: End of sub-article

 

Contents of this page

2.1 Karmadhāraya (descriptive)

UKT: Empty in Wikipedia

 

Contents of this page

2.2 Nañ-samāsa

Example: na {na.} + brāhamaṇa {braah~ma.Na.} = abrāhamaṇa {a.braah~ma.Na.} , in which 'n' vanishes and only the 'a' of 'na' remains. But with words beginning with a vowel this 'a' becomes 'an': na+aśva > (na > a > an) anaśva.

UKT 161006:  brāhamaṇa {braah~ma.Na.} means the human {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na:} who are employed as household priests to conduct ceremonies such as weddings.

 

Contents of this page

2.3 Upapada-samāsa

A variety of Tatpuruṣa compound in which nouns make unions with verbs. These compounds can be recognized by the fact that the second Pada contains a (possibly transformed) verbal root (dhātu): kumbham + kṛ = kumbhakāra [potter, lit. one who makes pots]; śāstram + jñā = śāstrajña [learned person, one who knows treatises]; jalam + dā = jalada [cloud, one who gives water].

Contents of this page

3. Dvandva (co-ordinative)

These consist of two or more noun stems, connected in sense with 'and' (copulative or coordinative). There are mainly two kinds of द्वन्द्व (= द ् व न ् द ् व) 'dvandva pair' constructions in Sanskrit:

Contents of this page

3.1 Itaretara dvandva

The result of इतरेतर द्वन्द्व (itaretara dvandva enumerative dvanda) is an enumerative word, the meaning of which refers to all its constituent members. The resultant compound word is in the dual or plural number and takes the gender of the final member in the compound construction. For example:

रामलक्ष्मणौ rāmalakṣmaṇau Rama and Lakshmana, equivalent to रामः च लक्षमणः च rāmaḥ ca lakṣmaṇaḥ ca. It describes the sons of King Daśaratha, around whom, along with Rāma's wife Sītā, the epic Rāmayaṇa revolves.

रामलक्ष्मणभरतशत्रुघ्नाः rāmalakṣmaṇabharataśatrughṇāḥ Rama and Lakshmana and Bharata and Shatrughna, equivalent to रामः च लक्षमणः च भरतः च शत्रुघ्नः च rāmaḥ ca lakṣmaṇaḥ ca bharataḥ ca śatrughṇaḥ ca. It describes all the sons of King Daśaratha.

धातुलकारपुरुषवचनानि dhātulakārapuruṣavacanāni verb stem, case, person and number, equivalent to धातुः च लकारः च पुरुषः च वचनं च dhātuḥ ca lakāraḥ ca puruṣaḥ ca vacanaṃ ca. It describes the method of describing verb inflections and conjugations

 

Contents of this page

3.2 Samāhāra dvandva

Words may be organised in a compound to form a metonym, and sometimes the words may comprise all the constituent parts of the whole. The resultant compound word exhibits समाहार द्वन्द्व (samāhāra dvandva collective dvandva), and is always neuter and in the singular number.

पाणिपादम् pāņipādam limbs/appendages, equivalent to पाणी च पादौ च pāṇī ca pādau ca (two) hands (and) two feet

me·ton·y·my  n. pl. me·ton·y·mies 1. A figure of speech in which one word or phrase is substituted for another with which it is closely associated, as in the use of Washington for the United States government or of the sword for military power. -- AHTD

According to some grammarians, there is a third kind of dvandva, called एकशेष द्वन्द्व ekashesha dvandva one-(stem)-remains dvandva, where only one stem remains in the compound of multiple words: this exhibits "true" metonymy.

पितरौ pitarau parents, equivalent to माता च पिता च mātā ca pitā ca mother and father. Here, the only stem used is पितृ pitṛ father, which in dual case (as there are two entities: mother and father) declines to give pitarau fathers, or in this case pitarau parents. Itaretara dvandva can also be performed to give मातापितरौ mātāpitarau mother and father, and this can mean precisely the same as pitarau.

UKT 150707: Wikipedia gives a link to a sub article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dvandva 150707

A dvandva, द्वन्द्व «dvandva» 'pair', or twin or Siamese linguistic compound refers to one or more objects that could be connected in sense by the conjunction 'and', where the objects refer to the parts of an agglomeration described by the compound. Dvandvas are common in some languages such as Sanskrit where the term originates, as well as Chinese, Japanese, and some Modern Indic languages such as Hindi and Urdu, but less common in English (the term is not often found in English dictionaries).

Examples include:

• Sanskrit mātāpitarau (मातापितरौ) for 'mother and father'
• Chinese shānchuān and Japanese yamakawa (山川) for 'mountains and rivers'
• Modern Greek "maxeropiruno" (μαχαιροπήρουνο) for 'fork and knife', "anðrojino" (ανδρόγυνο) for "married couple (lit. man-woman)", "benovjeno" (μπαινοβγαίνω) for 'go in and out'.
• Finnic maa-ilma ("land-air") for "world".

Note such compounds as singer-songwriter, in the sense 'someone who is both a singer and a songwriter' are not dvandva compounds. Within the Sanskrit classification of compounds these are considered कर्मधारय karmadhāraya compounds such as राजर्षि rājarṣi 'king-sage,' i.e. 'one who is both a king and a sage' (राजा चासावृषिश्च). In Greek, sernicothilyko (σερνικοθήλυκο), being male and female.

UKT: The sub article gives examples for both • itaretara dvandva, and • samāhāra dvandva. It mentions that there might be third kind, • ekaśeṣa dvandva 'residual compound', e.g. pitarau 'parents', from mātā 'mother' + pitā 'father'.

Contents of this page

4. Bahuvrīhi (possessive)

Bahuvrīhi, or "much-rice", denotes a rich person—one who has much rice. Bahuvrīhi compounds refer (by example) to a compound noun with no head—a compound noun that refers to a thing which is itself not part of the compound. For example, "low-life" and "block-head" are bahuvrīhi compounds, since a low-life is not a kind of life, and a block-head is not a kind of head. (And a much-rice is not a kind of rice.) Compare with more common, headed, compound nouns like "fly-ball" (a kind of ball) or "alley cat" (a kind of cat). Bahurvrīhis can often be translated by "possessing..." or "-ed"; for example, "possessing much rice", or "much-riced".

In simple terms, it is a compound which is an adjective for a third word which is not a part of the compound.

UKT 150707: Wikipedia gives an active link to a sub Wiki article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bahuvrihi 150707

A bahuvrihi compound बहुव्रीहि «bahuvrīhi» 'much rice' denoting a rich man, is a type of compound that denotes a referent by specifying a certain characteristic or quality the referent possesses. A bahuvrihi is exocentric, so that the compound is not a hyponym of its head. For instance, a <sabretooth> (smil-odon) is neither a <sabre> nor a <tooth>, but a feline with sabre-like teeth.

In Sanskrit bahuvrihis, the last constituent is a noun, more strictly, a nominal stem, while the whole compound is an adjective. In Vedic the accent is regularly on the first member (tatpurusha rāja-pútra "a king's son", but bahuvrihi rājá-putra "having kings as sons", viz. rājá-putra-, m., "father of kings", rājá-putrā-, f., "mother of kings"), with the exception of a number of non-nominal prefixes such as the privative-a; the word bahuvrīhí is itself likewise an exception to this rule.

In English bahuvrihis, the last constituent is usually a noun, while the whole compound is a noun or an adjective. Accent is on the first constituent. English bahuvrihis often describe people using synecdoche: flatfoot, half-wit, highbrow, lowlife, redhead, tenderfoot, longlegs, and white-collar.

UKT: End of Wiki sub or stub.

Contents of this page

5. Aluk-samāsa

Case endings do not vanish, e.g., ātmane+ padam = ātmanepadam

Contents of this page

6. Āmreḍita (iterative)

Repetition of a word expresses repetitiveness, e. g. dine-dine 'day by day', 'daily'.

 

Contents of this page

UKT notes

 

Contents of this page

End of TIL file