Update: 2017-07-29 06:22 PM -0400

TIL

Nepali Language Dictionary

dedicated page included in the dictionary of A. A. Macdonell, 1893

Turn-NepalDict-indx.htm

- R L Turner, 1931
- http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/turner/ (link chk 170705)

Downloaded  by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

index.htm | Top
MC-indx.htm
MCc1-indx.htm > p090-1B.htm

Contents of this page

Language change in 11th century Burma
Languages of Nepal
R L Turner - the author of dictionary

UKT 170729: This is a dedicated page included in the dictionary of A. A. Macdonell, 1893
None of the links will work. This page is here just to show my progress on Nepali language.

Sect p001-p099
------------- p001.htm  p002.htm  p003.htm  p004.htm  p005.htm  p006.htm  p007.htm  p008.htm  p009.htm
p010.htm  p011.htm  p012.htm  p013.htm  p014.htm  p015.htm  p016.htm  p017.htm  p018.htm  p019.htm
p020.htm  p021.htm  p022.htm  p023.htm  p024.htm  p025.htm  p026.htm  p027.htm  p028.htm  p029.htm
p030.htm  p031.htm  p032.htm  p033.htm  p034.htm  p035.htm  p036.htm  p037.htm  p038.htm  p039.htm
p040.htm* p041.htm  p042.htm  p043.htm  p044.htm  p045.htm  p046.htm  p047.htm  p048.htm  p049.htm
p050.htm  p051.htm  p052.htm  p053.htm  p054.htm  p055.htm  p056.htm  p057.htm  p058.htm  p059.htm
p060.htm  p061.htm  p062.htm  p063.htm  p064.htm  p065.htm  p066.htm  p067.htm  p068.htm  p069.htm
p070.htm  p071.htm  p072.htm  p073.htm  p074.htm  p075.htm  p076.htm  p077.htm  p078.htm  p079.htm
p080.htm  p081.htm  p082.htm  p083.htm  p084.htm  p085.htm  p086.htm  p087.htm  p088.htm  p089.htm
p090.htm  p091.htm  p092.htm  p093.htm  p094.htm  p095.htm  p096.htm  p097.htm  p098.htm  p099.htm

Sect p100-p199 
p100.htm  p101.htm  p102.htm  p103.htm  p104.htm  p105.htm  p106.htm  p107.htm  p108.htm  p109.htm
p110.htm  p111.htm  p112.htm  p113.htm  p114.htm  p115.htm  p116.htm  p117.htm  p118.htm  p119.htm
p120.htm  p121.htm  p122.htm  p123.htm  p124.htm  p125.htm  p126.htm  p127.htm  p128.htm  p129.htm
p130.htm  p131.htm  p132.htm  p133.htm  p134.htm  p135.htm  p136.htm  p137.htm  p138.htm  p139.htm
p140.htm  p141.htm  p142.htm  p143.htm  p144.htm  p145.htm  p146.htm  p147.htm  p148.htm  p149.htm
p150.htm  p151.htm  p152.htm* p153.htm  p154.htm  p155.htm  p156.htm  p157.htm  p158.htm  p159.htm
p160.htm  p161.htm p162.htm  p163.htm  p164.htm  p165.htm  p166.htm  p167.htm  p168.htm  p169.htm
p170.htm  p171.htm  p172.htm  p173.htm  p174.htm  p175.htm  p176.htm  p177.htm  p178.htm  p179.htm
p180.htm  p181.htm  p182.htm  p183.htm  p184.htm  p185.htm  p186.htm  p187.htm  p188.htm  p189.htm
p190.htm  p191.htm  p192.htm  p193.htm  p194.htm  p195.htm  p196.htm  p197.htm  p198.htm  p199.htm

Sect p200-p299 :
  UKT 170729: Nepali seems to be using for r2c4 {za.kw:ya.pn.} as in Mon-Myan.
  It also seems to be using Bur-Myan . I need to study more.
p200.htm  p201.htm  p202.htm  p203.htm  p204.htm p205.htm  p206.htm  p207.htm  p208.htm  p209.htm
p210.htm  p211.htm  p212.htm  p213.htm  p214.htm  p215.htm  p216.htm  p217.htm  p218.htm  p219.htm
p220.htm  p221.htm  p222.htm  p223.htm  p224.htm p225.htm/p226.htm  p227.htm  p228.htm  p229.htm
p230.htm  p231.htm  p232.htm  p233.htm  p234.htm  p235.htm  p236.htm  p237.htm  p238.htm  p239.htm
p240.htm  p241.htm  p242.htm  p243.htm  p244.htm  p245.htm  p246.htm  p247.htm  p248.htm  p249.htm
p250.htm  p251.htm  p252.htm  p253.htm  p254.htm  p255.htm  p256.htm  p257.htm  p258.htm  p259.htm
p260.htm  p261.htm  p262.htm  p263.htm  p264.htm  p265.htm  p266.htm  p267.htm  p268.htm  p269.htm
p270.htm  p271.htm  p272.htm  p273.htm  p274.htm  p275.htm  p276.htm  p277.htm  p278.htm  p279.htm
p280.htm  p281.htm  p282.htm  p283.htm  p284.htm  p285.htm  p286.htm  p287.htm  p288.htm  p289.htm
p290.htm  p291.htm  p292.htm  p293.htm  p294.htm  p295.htm  p296.htm  p297.htm  p298.htm  p299.htm

Sect p300-p399 -
p300.htm  p301.htm  p302.htm  p303.htm  p304.htm  p305.htm  p306.htm  p307.htm  p308.htm  p309.htm
p310.htm  p311.htm  p312.htm  p313.htm  p314.htm  p315.htm  p316.htm  p317.htm  p318.htm  p319.htm
p320.htm  p321.htm  p322.htm  p323.htm  p324.htm  p325.htm  p326.htm  p327.htm  p328.htm  p329.htm
p330.htm  p331.htm  p332.htm  p333.htm  p334.htm  p335.htm  p336.htm  p337.htm  p338.htm  p339.htm
p340.htm  p341.htm  p342.htm  p343.htm  p344.htm  p345.htm  p346.htm  p347.htm  p348.htm  p349.htm
p350.htm  p351.htm  p352.htm  p353.htm  p354.htm  p355.htm  p356.htm  p357.htm  p358.htm  p359.htm

Sect p400-p499
p400.htm  p401.htm  p402.htm  p403.htm  p404.htm  p405.htm  p406.htm  p407.htm  p408.htm  p409.htm
p410.htm  p411.htm  p412.htm  p413.htm  p414.htm  p415.htm  p416.htm  p417.htm  p418.htm  p419.htm
p420.htm  p421.htm  p422.htm  p423.htm  p424.htm  p425.htm  p426.htm  p427.htm  p428.htm  p429.htm
p430.htm  p431.htm  p432.htm  p433.htm  p434.htm  p435.htm  p436.htm  p437.htm  p438.htm  p439.htm
p440.htm  p441.htm  p442.htm  p443.htm  p444.htm  p445.htm  p446.htm  p447.htm  p448.htm  p449.htm
p450.htm  p451.htm  p452.htm  p453.htm  p454.htm  p455.htm  p456.htm  p457.htm  p458.htm  p459.htm

Sect p500-p599
p500.htm  p501.htm  p502.htm  p503.htm  p504.htm  p505.htm  p506.htm  p507.htm  p508.htm  p509.htm
p510.htm  p511.htm  p512.htm  p513.htm  p514.htm  p515.htm  p516.htm  p517.htm  p518.htm  p519.htm
p520.htm  p521.htm  p522.htm  p523.htm  p524.htm  p525.htm  p526.htm  p527.htm  p528.htm  p529.htm
p530.htm  p531.htm  p532.htm  p533.htm  p534.htm  p535.htm  p536.htm  p537.htm  p538.htm  p539.htm
p540.htm  p541.htm  p542.htm  p543.htm  p544.htm  p545.htm  p546.htm  p547.htm  p548.htm  p549.htm
p550.htm  p551.htm  p552.htm  p553.htm  p554.htm  p555.htm  p556.htm  p557.htm  p558.htm  p559.htm

Sect p600-p654
p600.htm  p601.htm  p602.htm  p603.htm  p604.htm  p605.htm  p606.htm  p607.htm  p608.htm  p609.htm
p610.htm  p611.htm  p612.htm  p613.htm  p614.htm  p615.htm  p616.htm  p617.htm  p618.htm  p619.htm
p620.htm  p621.htm  p622.htm  p623.htm  p624.htm  p625.htm  p626.htm  p627.htm  p628.htm  p629.htm
p630.htm  p631.htm  p632.htm  p633.htm  p634.htm  p635.htm  p636.htm  p637.htm  p638.htm  p639.htm
p640.htm  p641.htm  p642.htm  p643.htm  p644.htm  p645.htm  p646.htm  p647.htm  p648.htm  p649.htm
p650.htm  p651.htm  p652.htm  p653.htm  p654.htm - the last page

 

UKT notes :
Doggie's Tale - copy-paste

Contents of this page

Language change in 11th century Burma

- UKT 170710

The following is mostly my conjecture based on :
1. The absence of non-nasal {gna.} ङ् in Pali-Myan, and its presence in Nepali.
2. Nat hagiography of King Anawrahta's father and grand-mother.

The non-nasal {gna.} ङ् is present in Bur-Myan and Nepali, but lost in Pal-Myan. I conjecture the non-nasal {gna.} ङ् was in Old Magadhi of the Burmese monks of Tagaung . They were the Arigyi-monks some of who practiced the Vajrayana form of Buddhism (known also as Tantric Buddhism) still practiced in Nepal.
For Vajrayana Buddhism, see Wikipedia: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vajrayana 170710

King Anawrahta (1014-1078 AD) of Pagan kingdom in northern Burma was converted to Theravada-Buddhism early in his reign, by Shin Arahan a Mon-monk from Thaton Kingdom of southern Burma. With the religious zeal of a new convert he invaded Thaton Kingdom and annexed it. He brought over the Theravada texts and the Mon monks learned in them to convert all the Arigyis by force. All those who resisted were killed, but most were defrocked and made to serve as soldiers whom he needed for his military conquests.
See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shin_Arahan 170710

It is my conjecture that when the Mon monks arrived in Pagan, there was difficulty in speaking due to language difference between them and their Burmese audience. They ended up by leading the recitation of Buddhist scriptures, which their audience had to repeat. This was probably how "begging for Sila" {i-la. tan:}, and "giving Sila" {i-la.p:} became established. Listen to recitation for Five Precepts by a Sri Lankan monk and his audience:
- bk-cndl-LankaPali<))

I presume the non-nasal {gna.} ङ् went the way of Arigyi, and is lost in Pal-Myan.

King Anawrahta, the empire builder, labeled the worshippers of Nats as Theravada Buddhists by appointing the Buddhist King of Heaven {i.kra:mn:} to head the existing Burmese Nat pantheon by increasing their numbers from 36 to 37. And to this day the number 37 is retained even though some had been removed and new ones added by the modern-day Nat worshippers.

He suppressed Hinduism by rounding up the images of Hindu gods and goddesses from their temples, and moved them to a special building, known as "Prison of Gods" on the precinct of Shw Zigon pagoda in Pagan city.

It is probably that old Bn religion of Tibet was in Burma, as can be seen from the fact that many Buddhist pagodas in present day Myanmarpr have become sanctuaries for wild  Burmese-pythons who lived among the Buddhist monks and nuns, and religiously minded lay-people without harming them. We have a religious site in Twent township of Greater Yangon known as Baungdaw choak {pan:tau hkyoap} 'chief of Baung-daw'. The hagiography of this site is not all reliable, the locals believing in stories derived from corruption of language terms such as {pan:tau} meaning the "head-gear of royalty".
For Bn religion of Tibet, see Wikipedia - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bon 170710

Only those Arigyis who were converted remained as Theravada monks. One of those who remained was Anawrahta's own father who had become an Arigyi. According to Nat-hagiography, the Anawrahta's father became very much attached to the human existence (either due to his love for his progeny or bitterness toward those who brought about his death) that he became a nat on his death as {hti:pru-hsaung nt}. His his mother, the grandmother of King Anawrahta, also became a nat after her death as {hti:pru-hsaung-m-tau nt}. As we could not imagine tragic deaths for them in the reign of the all-powerful Anawrahta, they must have taken it as their duty to protect the king and his people right down to this day!
See Folk Elements in Buddhism -- flk-ele-indx.htm (link chk 170710)

Contents of this page

Languages of Nepal

- UKT 170703: There are two main linguistic groups in Nepal: the Tib-Bur and IE. My interest is in Nwari - the Tib-Bur language. It is the remnant of the Magadhi - the mother tongue of Gautama Buddha. They were Buddhists but most have been forced to become Shaivite-Hindus. The IE language was that of the invaders into Nepal from India formerly known as Gorkhali. They are Shaivite-Hindus.

From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Languages_of_Nepal 170703

Three quarters of the 123 languages native to Nepal belong to the Tib-Bur (Tibeto-Burman language family); this includes Nepal Bhasa (Newar) (the original language of Kathmandu), the Limbu, Tamang, Magar and various sunuwar, Rai languages.

However, the official and numerically most important language, Nepali (Gorkhali) belongs to the Indo-Aryan (Indic) branch of the IE (Indo-European family), so that Indic languages constitute 79% of the population to Tibeto-Burman's 18%, even though most languages of both families are spoken by small numbers of people.
For Gorkhali, see Wikipedia: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nepali_language 170705
"Gorkhali, is an Indo-Aryan -European (IE) language derived from Sanskrit. ... However, owing to Nepal's geographical area, it has also been influenced by Tib-Bur (Tibeto-Burman) languages."

From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newar_language 170703

Newar or Newari,[4] also known as Nepal Bhasa (नेपाल भाषा), is spoken as a native language by the Newar people, the indigenous inhabitants of Nepal Mandala, which consists of the Kathmandu Valley and surrounding regions in Nepal.

Although "Nepal Bhasa" literally means "Nepalese language", the language is not the same as Nepali (Nepali: नेपाली), the country's current official language. The two languages belong to different language families (Sino-Tibetan and Indo-European, respectively), but centuries of contact have resulted in a significant body of shared vocabulary.

Newar was Nepal's administrative language from the 14th to the late 18th centuries. Since the beginning of the 20th century, Newar has suffered from official suppression.[5] From 1952 to 1991, the percentage of the population in the Kathmandu Valley speaking Newar dropped from 75% to 44%,[6] and Newar culture and language are under threat.[7] The language has been listed as being "definitely endangered" by UNESCO.[8]

Contents of this page

Sir Ralph Lilley Turner

- UKT 170703:

The author R L Turner was obviously writing on the language of Shaivite Hindus who worship Kali Maa, the blood-thirsty Mother-goddess. The name of the ethnics, Gurkhas aka Gorkhas Nepali: गोर्खा , Skt:  गोरक्ष goraksa a cowherd or "protector of cattle". Going into battle with war cry: "Jai Maha Kali", "Ayo Gorkhali" (Hail Goddess Kali, The Gorkhas are here) , and wielding their formidable weapon Kukri - the heavy curved sword, they have served the British Empire well.

From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ralph_Lilley_Turner 170703

Sir Ralph Lilley Turner, Military Cross, (1888-1983) was an English Indian languages philologist and university administrator. He is notable for composing an Indo-Aryan comparative dictionary. He is also the author of some publications concerning the Romani language.

Turner was born in Charlton, London, the son of Bertha (Lilley) and George S. Turner. He was educated at the Perse School and Christ's College, Cambridge.

In 1913, he joined the IES (Indian Educational Service) as a lecturer at Queen's College, Benares. From 1915 to 1919, he served with the 2nd/3rd Queen Alexandra's Own Gurkha Rifles, winning the MC (Military Cross) in Palestine. From 1920 to 1922, he was Professor of Indian Linguistics at Benares Hindu University.

In 1922, Turner returned to England as Professor of Sanskrit at the School of Oriental Studies at the University of London. Between 1924 and 1932, he also published several papers on Romani Studies in the Journal of the Gypsy Lore Society, including "On the position of Romani in Indo-Aryan" (1927). He was director of the school from 1937 to 1957, although he continued to occupy his chair as well until 1954. He was knighted in 1950. His magnum opus, the Comparative Dictionary of the Indo-Aryan languages was published in 1966.

Contents of this page

UKT notes

Doggie's Tale

-- UKT 130613

Mnemonic The Doggie Tale: 
Little doggie cringe in fear -- ŋ (velar),
  Seeing Ella's flapping ears -- ɲ (palatal)
  And, the Shepard's hanging rear -- ɳ (retroflex).
Doggie so sad he can't get it out
  What's that Kasha क्ष when there's a Kha ख ?
  And when there's Jana ज्ञ what I am to do with Jha झ?
On top of all there're hissers, Sha श /ʃ/ and Ssa ष /s/,
  when I am stuck with Theta स /θ/ !" 

Note to digitizer: you can copy and paste the following:
Ā ā Ē ē Ī ī Ō ō Ū ū
Ḍ ḍ Ḥ ḥ Ḷ ḷ Ḹ ḹ Ṁ ṁ Ṃ ṃ
Ṅ ṅ Ṇ ṇ Ṛ ṛ Ṝ ṝ Ś ś Ṣ ṣ Ṭ ṭ ɕ ʂ
Instead of Skt-Dev ः {wic~sa.} use "colon" :
Avagraha ऽ use apostrophe
Root sign √ ; approx ≅
IAST Dev: च ca छ cha  श ś [ɕ] /ʃ/ ; ष ṣ [ʂ] /s/; स s [s] /θ/ ; ऋ {iRi.} & ॠ {iRi},
  viram ् , rhotic ऋ ृ
Skt-Dev special phonemes: Ksa
Undertie in Dev transcription: ‿ U203F
IPA-, Pali- & Sanskrit nasals: ŋ ṅ ṅ ,  , ɳ ṇ ṇ, n n n , m m m
  Pali- & Skt {::ting}: aṁ , aṃ 
IPA symbols: ɑ ɒ ə ɛ ɪ ɯ ʌ ʊ ʃ ʒ ʧ ʤ θ ŋ ɲ ɳ ɴ ɔ ɹ ʔ /kʰ/ /ː/
  <church> /ʧɜːʧ/ (DJPD16-097)
  <success> /sək'ses/ (DJPD16-515)
  <thin> /θɪn/ (DJPD16-535), <thorn> /θɔːn/ (DJPD16-535)
  circumflex-acute :
  ấ U+1EA5 , ế U+1EBF
  upsilon-vrachy  ῠ 
  small-u-breve  ῠ ŭ

Go back Dog-tale-note-b

 

 

Contents of this page

End of TIL file