Update: 2017-07-29 06:22 PM -0400


Nepali Language Dictionary

dedicated page included in the dictionary of A. A. Macdonell, 1893


- R L Turner, 1931
- http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/turner/ (link chk 170705)

Downloaded  by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

index.htm | Top
MCc1-indx.htm > p090-1B.htm

Contents of this page

Language change in 11th century Burma
Languages of Nepal
R L Turner - the author of dictionary

UKT 170729: This is a dedicated page included in the dictionary of A. A. Macdonell, 1893
None of the links will work. This page is here just to show my progress on Nepali language.

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  UKT 170729: Nepali seems to be using for r2c4 {za.kw:ya.pn.} as in Mon-Myan.
  It also seems to be using Bur-Myan . I need to study more.
p200.htm  p201.htm  p202.htm  p203.htm  p204.htm p205.htm  p206.htm  p207.htm  p208.htm  p209.htm
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UKT notes :
Doggie's Tale - copy-paste

Contents of this page

Language change in 11th century Burma

- UKT 170710

The following is mostly my conjecture based on :
1. The absence of non-nasal {gna.} ङ् in Pali-Myan, and its presence in Nepali.
2. Nat hagiography of King Anawrahta's father and grand-mother.

The non-nasal {gna.} ङ् is present in Bur-Myan and Nepali, but lost in Pal-Myan. I conjecture the non-nasal {gna.} ङ् was in Old Magadhi of the Burmese monks of Tagaung . They were the Arigyi-monks some of who practiced the Vajrayana form of Buddhism (known also as Tantric Buddhism) still practiced in Nepal.
For Vajrayana Buddhism, see Wikipedia: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vajrayana 170710

King Anawrahta (1014-1078 AD) of Pagan kingdom in northern Burma was converted to Theravada-Buddhism early in his reign, by Shin Arahan a Mon-monk from Thaton Kingdom of southern Burma. With the religious zeal of a new convert he invaded Thaton Kingdom and annexed it. He brought over the Theravada texts and the Mon monks learned in them to convert all the Arigyis by force. All those who resisted were killed, but most were defrocked and made to serve as soldiers whom he needed for his military conquests.
See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shin_Arahan 170710

It is my conjecture that when the Mon monks arrived in Pagan, there was difficulty in speaking due to language difference between them and their Burmese audience. They ended up by leading the recitation of Buddhist scriptures, which their audience had to repeat. This was probably how "begging for Sila" {i-la. tan:}, and "giving Sila" {i-la.p:} became established. Listen to recitation for Five Precepts by a Sri Lankan monk and his audience:
- bk-cndl-LankaPali<))

I presume the non-nasal {gna.} ङ् went the way of Arigyi, and is lost in Pal-Myan.

King Anawrahta, the empire builder, labeled the worshippers of Nats as Theravada Buddhists by appointing the Buddhist King of Heaven {i.kra:mn:} to head the existing Burmese Nat pantheon by increasing their numbers from 36 to 37. And to this day the number 37 is retained even though some had been removed and new ones added by the modern-day Nat worshippers.

He suppressed Hinduism by rounding up the images of Hindu gods and goddesses from their temples, and moved them to a special building, known as "Prison of Gods" on the precinct of Shw Zigon pagoda in Pagan city.

It is probably that old Bn religion of Tibet was in Burma, as can be seen from the fact that many Buddhist pagodas in present day Myanmarpr have become sanctuaries for wild  Burmese-pythons who lived among the Buddhist monks and nuns, and religiously minded lay-people without harming them. We have a religious site in Twent township of Greater Yangon known as Baungdaw choak {pan:tau hkyoap} 'chief of Baung-daw'. The hagiography of this site is not all reliable, the locals believing in stories derived from corruption of language terms such as {pan:tau} meaning the "head-gear of royalty".
For Bn religion of Tibet, see Wikipedia - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bon 170710

Only those Arigyis who were converted remained as Theravada monks. One of those who remained was Anawrahta's own father who had become an Arigyi. According to Nat-hagiography, the Anawrahta's father became very much attached to the human existence (either due to his love for his progeny or bitterness toward those who brought about his death) that he became a nat on his death as {hti:pru-hsaung nt}. His his mother, the grandmother of King Anawrahta, also became a nat after her death as {hti:pru-hsaung-m-tau nt}. As we could not imagine tragic deaths for them in the reign of the all-powerful Anawrahta, they must have taken it as their duty to protect the king and his people right down to this day!
See Folk Elements in Buddhism -- flk-ele-indx.htm (link chk 170710)

Contents of this page

Languages of Nepal

- UKT 170703: There are two main linguistic groups in Nepal: the Tib-Bur and IE. My interest is in Nwari - the Tib-Bur language. It is the remnant of the Magadhi - the mother tongue of Gautama Buddha. They were Buddhists but most have been forced to become Shaivite-Hindus. The IE language was that of the invaders into Nepal from India formerly known as Gorkhali. They are Shaivite-Hindus.

From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Languages_of_Nepal 170703

Three quarters of the 123 languages native to Nepal belong to the Tib-Bur (Tibeto-Burman language family); this includes Nepal Bhasa (Newar) (the original language of Kathmandu), the Limbu, Tamang, Magar and various sunuwar, Rai languages.

However, the official and numerically most important language, Nepali (Gorkhali) belongs to the Indo-Aryan (Indic) branch of the IE (Indo-European family), so that Indic languages constitute 79% of the population to Tibeto-Burman's 18%, even though most languages of both families are spoken by small numbers of people.
For Gorkhali, see Wikipedia: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nepali_language 170705
"Gorkhali, is an Indo-Aryan -European (IE) language derived from Sanskrit. ... However, owing to Nepal's geographical area, it has also been influenced by Tib-Bur (Tibeto-Burman) languages."

From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newar_language 170703

Newar or Newari,[4] also known as Nepal Bhasa (नेपाल भाषा), is spoken as a native language by the Newar people, the indigenous inhabitants of Nepal Mandala, which consists of the Kathmandu Valley and surrounding regions in Nepal.

Although "Nepal Bhasa" literally means "Nepalese language", the language is not the same as Nepali (Nepali: नेपाली), the country's current official language. The two languages belong to different language families (Sino-Tibetan and Indo-European, respectively), but centuries of contact have resulted in a significant body of shared vocabulary.

Newar was Nepal's administrative language from the 14th to the late 18th centuries. Since the beginning of the 20th century, Newar has suffered from official suppression.[5] From 1952 to 1991, the percentage of the population in the Kathmandu Valley speaking Newar dropped from 75% to 44%,[6] and Newar culture and language are under threat.[7] The language has been listed as being "definitely endangered" by UNESCO.[8]

Contents of this page

Sir Ralph Lilley Turner

- UKT 170703:

The author R L Turner was obviously writing on the language of Shaivite Hindus who worship Kali Maa, the blood-thirsty Mother-goddess. The name of the ethnics, Gurkhas aka Gorkhas Nepali: गोर्खा , Skt:  गोरक्ष goraksa a cowherd or "protector of cattle". Going into battle with war cry: "Jai Maha Kali", "Ayo Gorkhali" (Hail Goddess Kali, The Gorkhas are here) , and wielding their formidable weapon Kukri - the heavy curved sword, they have served the British Empire well.

From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ralph_Lilley_Turner 170703

Sir Ralph Lilley Turner, Military Cross, (1888-1983) was an English Indian languages philologist and university administrator. He is notable for composing an Indo-Aryan comparative dictionary. He is also the author of some publications concerning the Romani language.

Turner was born in Charlton, London, the son of Bertha (Lilley) and George S. Turner. He was educated at the Perse School and Christ's College, Cambridge.

In 1913, he joined the IES (Indian Educational Service) as a lecturer at Queen's College, Benares. From 1915 to 1919, he served with the 2nd/3rd Queen Alexandra's Own Gurkha Rifles, winning the MC (Military Cross) in Palestine. From 1920 to 1922, he was Professor of Indian Linguistics at Benares Hindu University.

In 1922, Turner returned to England as Professor of Sanskrit at the School of Oriental Studies at the University of London. Between 1924 and 1932, he also published several papers on Romani Studies in the Journal of the Gypsy Lore Society, including "On the position of Romani in Indo-Aryan" (1927). He was director of the school from 1937 to 1957, although he continued to occupy his chair as well until 1954. He was knighted in 1950. His magnum opus, the Comparative Dictionary of the Indo-Aryan languages was published in 1966.

Contents of this page

UKT notes

Doggie's Tale

-- UKT 130613

Mnemonic The Doggie Tale: 
Little doggie cringe in fear -- ŋ (velar),
  Seeing Ella's flapping ears -- ɲ (palatal)
  And, the Shepard's hanging rear -- ɳ (retroflex).
Doggie so sad he can't get it out
  What's that Kasha क्ष when there's a Kha ख ?
  And when there's Jana ज्ञ what I am to do with Jha झ?
On top of all there're hissers, Sha श /ʃ/ and Ssa ष /s/,
  when I am stuck with Theta स /θ/ !" 

Note to digitizer: you can copy and paste the following:
Ā ā Ē ē Ī ī Ō ō Ū ū
Ḍ ḍ Ḥ ḥ Ḷ ḷ Ḹ ḹ Ṁ ṁ Ṃ ṃ
Ṅ ṅ Ṇ ṇ Ṛ ṛ Ṝ ṝ Ś ś Ṣ ṣ Ṭ ṭ ɕ ʂ
Instead of Skt-Dev ः {wic~sa.} use "colon" :
Avagraha ऽ use apostrophe
Root sign √ ; approx ≅
IAST Dev: च ca छ cha  श ś [ɕ] /ʃ/ ; ष ṣ [ʂ] /s/; स s [s] /θ/ ; ऋ {iRi.} & ॠ {iRi},
  viram ् , rhotic ऋ ृ
Skt-Dev special phonemes: Ksa
Undertie in Dev transcription: ‿ U203F
IPA-, Pali- & Sanskrit nasals: ŋ ṅ ṅ ,  , ɳ ṇ ṇ, n n n , m m m
  Pali- & Skt {::ting}: aṁ , aṃ 
IPA symbols: ɑ ɒ ə ɛ ɪ ɯ ʌ ʊ ʃ ʒ ʧ ʤ θ ŋ ɲ ɳ ɴ ɔ ɹ ʔ /kʰ/ /ː/
  <church> /ʧɜːʧ/ (DJPD16-097)
  <success> /sək'ses/ (DJPD16-515)
  <thin> /θɪn/ (DJPD16-535), <thorn> /θɔːn/ (DJPD16-535)
  circumflex-acute :
  ấ U+1EA5 , ế U+1EBF
  upsilon-vrachy  ῠ 
  small-u-breve  ῠ ŭ

Go back Dog-tale-note-b



Contents of this page

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