Update: 2019-04-23 02:50 AM -0400


A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary


by A. A. Macdonell, 1893,
http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg; 1929.
Nataraj ed. (reprint of 1914ed.), 1st in 2006, 2012.

Edited, with additions from Pali sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

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UKT 180724, 190422:

As humans, we have been baby-talking when we were babies, and then graduated to regular speech. But I wonder whether you have opened your mount wide enough to see the passage ways through which our "beautiful" voices have come out.

Open your mouth wide in front of a mirror and look inside. Try to look for your "little grape" called Uvula {lhra-hkn}. It is at the end of the mouth passage, leading into a vertical tube. If you are looking into this tube from a side opening. The upper portion of the tube leads up into the nose, and the lower portion down into the gullet.

Long time ago since I found out that the name of the robber-turned-saint { n-gu.li.ma-la. ma.ht} has been mispronounced as  { n-gu.li.ma-la. ma.ht}, I'd run into the problem of Semi-nasal as a killed-akshara checking the vowel /i/ { i.}. Then later, I traced the problem to the absence of phoneme r1c5 in both Eng-Latin and Skt-Dev. I also found that could not find a suitable English Letter for {gna.}/ {ng}. Finally had to define the Nasal Endings as given below.

In my TIL 2001-09-22 version of Sanskrit English Dictionary, from: Online Sanskrit Dictionary, February 12, 2003 - http://sanskritdocuments.org/dict/dictall.pdf   090907
I've analyzed the problem as follows:

{ n~gu.} अङ्गु

अङ्गुल (a.ngula) .
Skt: अङ्गुल (a.ngula) - a finger - OnlineSktDict
Skt: aṅgula - aṅgula m. (√ag or aṅg), a finger
  # the thumb # a finger's breadth, a measure equal to eight barley-corns, twelve aṅgulas making a vitasti or span, and twenty-four a hasta or cubit
  # (in astron.) a digit, or twelfth part # N. of the sage Cāṇakya L - MonWilliWash
BPal: aṅgula - mn. a finger, finger's breadth, inch - UPMT-PED005

अङ्गुली anguli
Skt: अङ्गुली anguli [ a&ndot;gul ] f. finger; toe; -mudr, f. finger-mark. -- Mac004
Skt: अङ्गुलि   aṅguli  f.   finger - SpkSkt
Skt: aṅguli - aṅgli is, (or aṅgulī), f. a finger
  # a toe # the thumb # the great toe
  # the finger-like tip of an elephant's trunk # the measure aṅgula - MonWilliWash
Pal: - not entd. in UPMT
BPal: {n~gu.li.} - UHS-PMD0013

   UKT from UHS: f. finger or toe

If only the English transcription of Angulimala  { n-gu.li.ma-la. ma.ht} had followed the example of the transcription of English speech as { n~ga.lait.sa.ka:} and had been Engulimala , I could have accepted it. But it wasn't, and the problem remained with me until I came across Pali Grammar by Shin Kic'si {shin kic~s:}, when I realized that that Shin Kic'si had to include Sanskrit speakers who could not properly pronounce the semi-nasal sounds.

See: Angulimala: a murderer's road to sainthood , by Hellmuth Hecker, 2007,
- https://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/authors/hecker/wheel312.html 180724

I've given my version of Shin Kic'si {shin kic~s} motto: 

See: Kachchayano's Pali  Grammar, by Mason-Mazard, p036 in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries.
- FMasonMazard-KicsiPali<> / bkp<> (link chk 190423)

In my above analysis, you can clearly see the Semi-nasal {gna.}/ {ng} checking the preceding vowel {a.} in the Skt-Dev spelling अङ्गुली .

Since both English-Lat and Sanskrit-Dev do not have the phoneme {gna.}/ {ng}, the English rendition has become /un/ in the place of /ɪn/. Always remember the case of English word <king> in which you don't pronounce the g . Or, note the case of <sign> and <sing> in which the positions of g and n has be reversed.

My remark that "Skt-Dev did not have the phoneme {gna.}/ {ng}" has a basis on:

ड + dot --> ङ

The devise of adding a dot to the r3c3 ड , the equivalent of {a.} shows that the original Skt-Dev did not have the phoneme {gna.}.

UKT 180819: While formulating Romabama, I ran into the problem of having to look for suitable Latin letters to represent the various shades of /d/. I had no choice but to use parallel pairs such as:

c3 vd - c4 Deep-H
{a.} - {a.}
{da.} - {Da.}

The problem has made me coin the word Seimi-nasal (non-nasal in onset and nasal in coda). This problem must have bothered the Buddhist grammarian Shin Kic'si {shin kic~s} during the time of Gautama Buddha, who proclaimed his monk as the "foremost" grammarian. Shin Kic'si had to allow the use of Thethetin {::tn} in such cases. Our reverend Shin Kic'si had to place the "correct spelling" ahead of "correct pronunciation" to escape the Curse of Babel .

Now just listen to the pronunciation difference between Bur-Myan and Mon-Myan sung by a Martaban-Mon speaker:

- BkCnd-da'na'ku'thol<)) (link chk 190422)
Note in Bur-Myan {da.na. ku.ol}, and Mon-Myan which I heard as /{di-n.kauk-swa}/, Bamah and Mon agree in the consonants: /d/, /n/, /k/, /θ > s/. The mis-hearing is in the vowels.

Mon-Myan language belongs to a different linguistic group, Aus-Asi, which is different from Bur-Myan, which is of Tib-Bur. Now watch a Mon-Myan solo dance with lyrics shown in Myanmar akshara and find if you understand what is being sung.
- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kqOym0H5lgM 181124
If you are in the TIL research station in Yangon, you can watch:
- MonSoloDance<> / Bkp<> (link chk 190423)

Or, watch another Mon-Myan (modern song) on Mon regnant queen Banyar Thao or Mi Cao Bu or Shin Saw Pu : 
- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C-0NeTvBxJM 181124

Side-note: At one time it was the Pyus who flourished in Lower Burma. The Pyu culture had spread down south to Dawei. Since Pyus and the Bamahs had intermixed, the inhabitants of Dawei spoke Bur-Myan as a different dialect from that of the mainland Myanmarpr. Now, go on line and watch the following video: the water-pot dance
- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r-RAtWTUPOo 190423li
If you are in the TIL research station in Yangon, you can watch:
- DaweiWaterPot<> / Bkp<> (link chk 190423)

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UKT notes


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End of TIL file