Update: 2005-01-17 04:05 PM +0700


The Burmese Empire
a hundred years ago

As described by Father Vincenzo Sangermano
Edited and with notes by U Kyaw Tun, M.S. (I.P.S.T., U.S.A.). Set in html by UKT and staff of TIL Computing and Language Center, Yangon, for students and staff of TIL. Not for sale.

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Burmese History

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Chapter 08

abridgement of the Burmese annals called Maharazaven

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Section 02

During the period that the age of man is increasing from ten years to an asenchie, there is no king in the world; but when, on the contrary, it is on the wane, then there are kings, and the first that reigns during this diminution of age, is always called Mahasamata. In every world the ages decrease sixty-four times, so that in each there must be sixty-four kings of the name of Mahasamatŗ.

In the present world there have existed only eleven. Beginning, to count, therefore, from the eleventh, the Burmese reckon 252,256 king to Uggagarit; 8210 from him to Zejasena, the grandfather of Godama; and twenty-nine from Azadasat his son, to Siridamasoga. This is the series of kings that have flourished in the kingdom called Enga, Meggada [Magadha], etc. We must next speak of those who have reigned in Baranasž [Benares], Sautti [Thawattie, Sravasti] etc.

Whilst the god Godama was living upo9n the earth, he received an assurance that his laws would be observed in these kingdoms for the space of 5000 years. This induced him to accept of a magnificent convent of sandal wood, which a celebrated rich man named Maunzala had built for him in these regions. During his residence there and whilst for seven whole days he was practising every virtue, he obtained as a reward for Maunzalŗ, that he should acquire great a\sanctity, should be free from the passions of anger, covetousness, and lust, and should, moreover, have a title to the Niban after his death.

One day that Godama had ascended a mountain, and was looking towards the sea, he beheld some cow-dung floating upon the waters; and at the same time a PoŤ, which is a species of mole living under ground, approached, and to show

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him respect, took in its mouth a small quantity of earth and presented it to him. Seeing it, Godama smiled; and being asked the reason of his smiling by one of his disciples, by name Anadŗ, replied prophetically: "Know that 110 years after I shall have obtained the Niban, five great prodigies will happen in this place; and a great kingdom will here be established, of which this little mole, having assumed the name of Duttabaumen, will be a king.' We must now see how this prediction was fulfilled. But first it may be well to premise that this kingdom, as well as those of Engŗ, Meggadŗ [Magadha], tec., have no existence, save in the fancy of the compilers of these annals.


Twenty years after Godama had obtained the Niban, the mighty monarch of the great Kingdom of Tagaun [Tagaung], lord of the white and red elephant, died, and his son succeeded to the throne. He gathered together a numerous army, and marched against his own brother-in-laws; whom having conquered, he pursued to the place where the Kingdom of Sarekittrŗ [TharÍkhettara] was to be founded, and there killed. fn048-01

After the death of his adversary, the king did not return to his realm of Tagum, but having laid aside his royal ornaments,


fn048-01 For a more critical account of the early dynasties, the reader is referred to Sir Arthur Phayre's History of Burma, and his Appendix, containing the lists of kings taken from the Great History of Kings or Mah‚ R‚j‚weng, the work used by Sangermano. Phayre holds that the Burman nation was formed many ages ago by the union of Mongoloid tribes, under the influence of Aryan immigrants, chiefly Kshatriyas from Gangetic India, who introduced the softening influences of the Buddhist religion in its simples form, probably 2000 years ago. The Mah‚ R‚j‚weng knows not the kinship of the Burmese with the Indo-Chinese people; but as the Buddhist religion has led the people to link their line of descent with that of their first teachers, or those referred to in the legends concerning Sakya Muni, so these annals open with an account of the first formation of the earth according to Buddhist cosmogony. The Mah‚ R‚j‚weng then 'describes the small states of the S‚kya R‚j‚ in Northern India. Prince Siddh‚rtha, destined to become Buddha, was the son of a R‚j‚ of one of those States. Long before his birth, in consequence of wars among the S‚kya clans and between them and their neighbours, a chief to whom tradition gives the name of AbhÓ R‚j‚, left K‚pilav‚stu, and came with an army to the country of the Middle Ir‚wadi; there he established himself and built the city of Tagaun g, the ruins of which still exist.'

---- History of Burma, by Sir A. Phayre, p.7. fn048-01b

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devoted himself to a solitary life in this place; and was renowned for sanctity and virtue in the village of PiuÓ [Prome], fn049-01 where he had fixed his abode. This holy hermit having one day made water, a hind drank of it, and shortly after conceived and brought forth a female called Bedarž, who was afterwards carried home by her father the hermit. About the same time, in the year 40, the queen of the kingdom of Tagaun brought forth two blind son, whose names were Mahasambavŗ and Zulasmbavŗ. In the year 59 she exposed them both in a small boat upon the riber, the current of which carried them to the exact place where the kingdom of Sarekittrŗ was to be founded. Hence the hermit-king having carried the two blind boys to his abode, educated them, and in due time married one of them, Mahasambavŗ, to his own village Piudž. Shortly after Bedarž conceived the renowned king Duttabaun. Three months later Mahasambavŗ died, at the age of twenty-six. He was born on a Monday, and at hisdeath were heard seven horrible noises.


In the same year Mahasambavŗ's younger brother Zulasambavŗ, marrying his deceased brother's wife, became prince of Piudž. He lived sixty-one years, of which he reigned thirty-five. He was born on a Monday, and at his death the sun was eclipsed for seven days, during which time it seemed a continual night.

After the death of Zulasambavŗ, a hermit and six Nat met in a vast plain, and there built a most magnificent city, similar to one of the capitals of the abodes of the Nat with walls, gates, ditches, battlements, and everything necessary for its ornament or defence. This city was built in the follwing manner: -- The king of the Nat ordered a Nagŗ or Dragon to take a rope of juzenŗ in length, and therewith desc ribe a circle; and in this circular plain was the city built, having thirty-two great gates and as many smaller ones, with a very superb palace of gold in the centre. This magnificent work was finished in only seven days, and the city called Sarekittrŗ.


fn049-01 TharÍkhettara or Shrikshatra is a ruined place a few miles east of Prome, and still called the town of the hermit. fn049-01b

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After this the king of the Nat, taking the celebrated Duttabaun by the hand, placed him one the throne, and gave to him a portentous spear which had the power to wound and kill any of this enemies. He gave him likewise a prodigious wand, which, being thrown from his hand, would beat and lacerate those it was aimed at. To these he added a white elephant and a horse, a drum and a great bell, with seven Nat to serve him as satellites; where fore Duttabaun became absolute lord of all the great southern island Zabudibŗ. This king had two wives, one was the daughter of this father Mahasambavŗ, and was named Zandaderž, and the other was the daughter of a certain Nagŗ or Dragon, and was named Bezandž. The first was the prior wife, and had a son called Duttran. Finally Duttabaun, after having reigned seventy yerars, died in the hundred and fithe year of his age. He was born on Tuesday, and at the time of his death the water of the rivers changed their natural course, and ran upwards to their source; the shade of the sun being towards the north, was instantly turned to the south; and seven great noises were heard in the heavens.


In the year 171 Duttabaun was succeeded on the throne by his first-born, named Duttran, who reigned twenty-two years, and died in the fifty-seventh year of his age. He was born on a Wednesday, and at his death seven thunderbolts fell. From the year 193 to 637 there were eighteen kings; but in these annals no mention is made of any memorable adventure of any of them, but merely the day of their birth and the prodigy that was seen at their death are recorded. From this it appears, as well as from what we shall relate hereafter, that on the day of each king's death some prodigy must happen in heaven or on earth.

The king who reigned in the year 637 was the son of Samandŗ. his reign lasted only seven years. Under this king, as something unlucky was apprehended, the prince of the Nat struck out of the era 642 years, and ordered that the 644th year should now be called the second. Ever since this time it has been the custom of the Burmese monarchs to order similar corrections whenever, according to the prejudices of their judicial astrology, any year was considered as ominous of

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misfortune. The present king has once made this abbreviation of the era.


In the second year of the new era, Ahiediŗ, son of the preceding king began his reign. It lasted three years, and in the year 5, he had for successor his brother, who reigned eleven years, and died in the fortieth year of his age. On the day of this death it happened that a countryman's corn-sieve followed it, crying out, 'Oh! my corn-sieve ! oh ! my corn-sieve !' The citizens, disturbed by this clamour, and not knowing what had happened, bean likewise to cry: 'Army of the corn-sieve, soldiers of the corn-sieve.' A great confusion consequently arose, and all citizens divided themselves into three parties, who afterwards formed three different nations, the Biý, the Charan, and the Burmese. fn051-01 The first took up  arms against the second and was victorious; but after wards, being agitated by intestine discord, was again divided into three parties; one of which put itself under the government of the prince Samudritmen. He led them to a place called MungnÚ, from whence the Pegýans expelled him three years after. He then took shelter in Menton, but was driven thence also by the Aracanese; upon which he passed into the great kingdom of Pagan, which contained nineteen citeis. Pagan still retains its name, and name, and is situated at the distance of four days' journey from the capital. While he there reigned, as he was destitute of virtue and power, he was compelled to feed swine, tigers, great birds, and other animals of the forest, which had rebelled against him. In progress of time the daughter of a prince of Dragons, having married the son of the Sun, bore him a child called Biumentž [Pyu-mengti], who lent his assistance to the king of Pagan, and tamed all his rebellious animals. After this he took in marriage the daughter of Smudrit [Thammudarit], and succeeded him in his kingdom. Samudrit, after having reigned forty-five years, died in the seventy-seventh year of his age. He was born on a


fn051-01 Phayre calls these tribes the PyŻ, K‚nr‚n, and Mr‚mm‚. He takes the story to mean that Tharť-Khettar‚ was conquered by the Talaings of Thahtun, where an Indian dynasty from Telingana reigned in the first centuries of our era.

----Phayre, pp. 18, 19 fn051-01b

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Sunday, and at his death a great fiery globe, of the diameter of a large waggon-wheel, fell from  heaven.

In the year 99 a hermit succeeded to Biumentž; between whose reign and the year 535 there were eighteen kings. No action of theirs of any note has been recorded; the day of their birth and the prodigy at their death are alone mentioned.

In the year 535 the reigning king was Poppozorahen [PuppaŠ-tsawu-Rahan], fn052-01 who was famous for his skill in the Beden, a book on judicial astrology. Having from this derived information of some impending calamity, he struck off all but two years from the era 535. He reigned twenty-seven years, and died the same year in which he had altered the era. He was born on a Sunday, and on the day of his death seven enormous vultures alighted on the great roof of the royal palace, a circumstance ever looked upon as a bad omen.


From the second year of the corrected era to 450, twenty-two kings reigned. fn052-02 In this year Alaunzisý succeeded his grandfather on the throne. On the day of his birth the great drum which is kept in the royal palace beat of itself; also the great palace door of itself flew open. This king, on board a most superb ship belonging to the Nat, and accompanied by 80,000 smaller vessels, sailed to the place where grows the sacred tree of this island, Zabudibŗ, and there for seven entire months held high festivity. The prince of the Nat went to the same place, and in the following manner saluted Alaunzinsý: --'Oh king! most powerful, most wise, most excellent, oh king of kings ! etc.' He then made him a present of the statues of two ancient Deities. This most puissant prince died in the eighty-fifth year of his age, after having reigned seventy years. He was born on a Thursday, and at his death Jupiter fought with Saturn. From the year


fn052-01 This is Thenga Raja who reformed the calendar. 'The common era which he established commenced in A.D. 639, on the day when the sun is supposed to enter the first sign of the Zodiac. This era is now observed in Burma. The reformation of the calendar was probably brought about by the assistance of Indian astronomers. The Burmese systems of astronomy and method of computing time are essentially those of the Hindus.' --Phayre, P.21. fn052-01b

fn052-02 Our author omits to notice Anoarahta, in whose  reign in the first half of the eleventh century, the territories taken by the Shans were recovered, and the Talaing King of Pegu conquered. Anaorahta restored orthodox Buddishm. fn052-02b

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520, in which the last mentioned king ended his reign, to the year 682, eleven kings are numbered. At this year we find the throne occupied by a king called Zunit, fn053-01 whose reign lasted forty-three years. With him the series of the princes of Pagan ends, there having been fifty-five in all.


In the year 662, three brothers of the true stock of the kings of Pagan disputed among themselves the possession of that kingdom. After several intestine wars, the elde4st brother obtained the quiet possession of the province called Mienzain [Myinsaing], in the vicinity of Pagan. The second brother made himself king of Maccari; and the third established himself in PenlŤ, a city existing at the present day.

In the year 666, the king of Mienzain built a palace of gold and became very powerful; but, fifteen years afterwards, was poisoned by his younger brother. Three years before his death he had built the city of Panjŗ [Panya], which is at present three days' journey from that of Ava, which latter he had four times in vain attempted to rebuild. His wife was a daughter of the Emperor of China called PoazÚ, by whom he had a son named Uzzanŗ, who was the founder of seven great convents of Talapoins. He had also anohterson named Chiozoŗ, lord of vie white elephants. By another queen, the daughter of a musician, he had a son, who was afterwards lord of Chegain [Sagaing], and two daughters. After having reigned twenty-two years, he died in the fiftieth year of his age. He was born on a Monday, and on the day of his death the planet Jupiter was seen in the lunar circle, and the Pagoda worked many miracles.

In the year 685, Uzzanŗ succeeded his father, and reigned twenty years; after which his younger brother Chiozoŗ, having bought five white elephants, dethroned him and in 704 began to reign in his stead. He had, by his queen, sister of the king of PeniŤ, a son named Uzzanabiaun, who succeeded to the throne in the year 726; and with him finishes the series of the five kings that reigned in Panjŗ.


fn053-01 Zunit appears to be the King TarukpyŤmeng, in whose time the army of the Mongol emperor of China, Kublai Khan, defeated the Burmese and took Pagan, A.D. 1284, as realted by Phayre. After the fall of Pagan kings of Shan race reigned at Myinsaing and PŠnya and at Sagaing. --Phayre, ch. vi fn053-01b

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Zajan, who was lord of Chegain in the year 680, having converted that place into a city, by surrounding it with brick walls and ditches, established there a new kingdom, in which he concentrated the best forces of the country. This city is situated opposite Ava, on the western side of the river. Zajan had three sons and a daughter, of whom the eldest was named Chiozoa. After having reigned eight years he died at the age twenty-eight. At his death Saturn fought with Venus.

After Zajan's death his brother Trabia seized the reins of government , but three years afterwards was surprised and imprisoned by his own son, Sciocdantek, who, however, did not long ejnoy the truit of his perfidy; for his body-guards killed him in a mutiny, after he had reigned only three years. The throne was restored to Trabia; but he also enjoyed his reacquired dignity but a few days, being unexpectedly murdereed by one of his prime ministers, who placed Chiozoa, eldest son of Zajan, on the throne in his stead. This prince reigned five years, and died at the age of twenty-one. He was succeeded in the year 714 by his brother Trabiŗ, lord of the white elephant, who reigned two years, and died in the twenty-fourth year of his age. He was born on a Monday, and the day of his death was remarkable for the appearance of a comet.

In the year 716, Menpiauk, grandson of the Emperor of China's daughter, succeeded Trabia in the kingdom of Chegain; and at the same time his step-son Satomenchin [Thadomengbya], held the government in the kingdom of Tagaun. Narassu king of Panja, having conceived the desire of conquering these two kingdoms, sent ambassadors to Sokimpuŗ, lord of Mogaun, a district in the coutnry of the Sciam, demanding assistance in his terprise. Sokimpuŗ accordingly despatched a great army against Tagaun, by which Satomenchin was conquered and made prisoner. But afterwards escaping, he fled to Menpiauk his step-father, who received him with reproaches for his cowardice, and banished him into a forest. Form the conquest of Tagaun, the army of the Sciam advanced and laid siege to Chegain. The resistance was short, the town, was given up to the enemy, and Menpiauk constrained to take refuge in the same forest to which he had sent his step-son. From fChegain the Sciam passed on to

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Panjŗ, where they spent some days. During this time ,taking advantage of the false security of Narassý, they one day forced an entrance into the palace, made themselves masters of the person of the king, and carried him away prisoner into their own country. After their departure, the chief ministers placed upon the throne Uzzanabiaun, the brother Narassý. In the third year of this reign, Satomenchin, having first put to death his step-father Menpiauk, invaded Panjaŗ with a powerful army: and having killed Uzzanabiaun, possessed himself of the kingdom. He reigned there for the space of a month.

The following is the order of the events just narrated. In the month of May of the year 726 Chegain was destroyed, and in June the samwe was the fate of Panjŗ; in the following month Uszzanabiaun ascended the throne, and in September lost it, giving place to Satomenchin. fn055-01 In October this king, in his progress through Navarŗ, founded the city of Ava, and on the sixth day of the moon of March gave to it the name of Radanapura, that is, the city of gold and precious stones. Thus was he at the same time master of three kingdoms, Panjŗ, Chegain, and Ava. He died at the age of twenty-five, having reigned in Panjŗ seven months, and three in Ava.


To him succeeded, in the year 729, his brother-in-law AminmenchokŤ, who, after a reign of thirty-three years, died in the seventieth year of his age, and had for successor his son Tarabiŗ, called the lord of the white elephant, becuase one of that colour was born on the same day with him. He died at the age of thirty-two, having been betrayed and murdered by this own tutor. At the time of his death a comet was seen.

His brother succeeded him on the throne, and, after reigning twenty-one years, bequeathed the kingdom to his son Siahassý. His reign lasted but three y ears, when he was killed by the Sciam. His successor was MenlanŤ, his son, who ascended the throne in 787, but was shortly afterwards poisoned by his wife. To him succeeded a stranger, whose name nad pedigree are unknown. But after him, in the year 788, Saddamarazŗ obtained the crown; under whom the era was abbreviated, and only three years of the old computation


fn055-01 Satomenchin is the King Thadomengbya, who in A.D 1364 founded a new city at Ava. fn055-01b

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retained, on account of somje omen portending imsfortune. He reigned twenty-three years and expired in the sixtieth year of his age.


In the third year of the new era, Menrekiozoa, son of the preceding, mounted the throne; and to him succeeded Siassu, his brother, who assigned to his numberous sons sand daughters by various queens the revenues of many cities and provinces, together with a number of elephants; and raised them to the rank of prices and princesses. In the sixty-fourth year of his age he was murdered by his own nephew. At his death many Pagodas fell down, and a large fissure opening in hte breast of the statue of Godama, sent out a stream of water.

In the room of Menrekiozoa, his son Mahasihassu was placed upn the throne; and he was succeeded, in the twelfth year of his reign and fifty-fourth of his age, by his first-born son; to whom agina succeeded his son.; The last-mentioned prince, after a reign of twenty-five years, was taken prisoner, and pout to death by the Sciam of Zemme [ZimmŤ, Chiengmai, spelt Iamahey or Jangomai by Fitch and other old travellers]; and with him finishes the series of the kings of Ava, who were in all fourteen.


After the death of this king, in the ninetieth year of the new, but the 888th of the true era, a certain Shhansuŗ, a Sciam by birth, obtained the kingdom of Ava, and kept possession of it for fifteen years, when he was killed by the illustrious Ranaon. He, however, did not seize upon the crown, but made it over to another, whose reign lasted but four years. This king upon his death in the year 908 of the true era was succeeded on the throne by his son Pinarpatž; but he, after having reigned five years, was taken prisoner by the lord of Chegain, who, assuming the name of Narapatizisŗ; ascended the throne of Ava in the year 953. he rebuilt the city of Chegain and surrounded it with a wall of brick and reigned thre for six years, when he was killed by the lord of many white elephants, Barasinmendraghiprŗ. He had likewise reigned three years in Ava, and his death took place in the sixtieth year of his age. His throne was given by Barsinmendraghiprŗ to his son-in-law SadomenzÚ. This prince, after a reign of thirty-two years, hearing that his brother-in-law, the lord of

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Taunu, was coming against him with a numerous army, fled towards China, but died on the wayt in the fifty-second year of his age.


Having now to speak of the origin and progress of the kingdom of Taunu, fn057-01 we must turn back to ther year 614, when one of the royal family of Pagan, of the name of Saun , built this city. Form the year 614 to 872 twenty-nine kings reigned here, and in the last-mentioned year, the one who then occupied the throne, built the city anew, and surrounded it with a wall. Having reigned forty-five years, this prince died, leaving his crown to his son Mentrasvedi, who, after the space of twenty years, was killed by Zotut, lord of Cittaun, a city lying to the south of Taunu.


fn057-01 Many Burmese families of high rank, unwilling to remain under the Shan King, settled in Taungu under a dynasty destined before long to become supreme in the land of the Ir‚wadi. Tabeng ShwŤhti, King of Taungu, in A.D. 1538-39, took the city of Pegý, and annexed the kingdom of which it was the capital, defeating Tak‚rwubÓ, the son of the Pegýan King, Binya Ran, who died A.D.1526, and whose magnificence impressed two of the Italian travellers. Phayre, pp.83, 89, 94. 'For the first time Europeans now took part in the wars of Burma. The Portuguese Viceroy had sent from Goa a galliot, commanded by Ferdinand de Morales, to trade in Pegý. A battle was fought between the Burmese and the Talaing flotilla, in which the former were victorious, and the Portuguese commander, who had fought with the Talaings, was slain. The capital then surrendered.' For the reigns of Tabeng ShwŤti's successors Bureng Naung and his son Ngyaung Ram Meng, who died A.D. 1581 and 1599 respectively, see chap. xiii. and xiv. of Phayre's History. In chap. xv. the capture of Syriam, near Rangoon, by the Arakan King, Meng R‚j‚gyi, alias Salim Shah, with the aid of the Portuguese adventurer Philip de Brito is described. The latter held this port for about ten years on account of the Portuguese Viceroy of Goa, until it was retaken in A.D. 1613 by the Burmese King Mah‚ Dhamm‚ R‚j‚ when 'De Brito, the sacreligious wretch who destroyed Pagodas, as is remarked in the Burmese history when his punishment is related, was impaled on a high stake before his own house, and so lived for three days in dreadful agony. Most of the leading Portuguese were executed, and the remainder, as well as de Brito's wife, and many of mixed race, were sent as slaves to Ava.'-- Phayre, p. 129. See also the account in  The Portugese in INdia, by Manuel de Faria de Sousa, translated by Stevens. London, 1695. fn057-01b

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children, one became king of Chegain, another of Ava, and a fourth of Pron. Among his wives may be reckoned the daughters of the king of Pegý, of the prince of Mochaun, of the lord of Lezan, of the prince of BamÚ, and of the prince of SeimŤ. Finally, after a reign of thirty-one years, in the sixty-sixth year of his age, he died, and was immediately transported to the happy abodes of the Nat. He was born on a Wednesday, and on the day of his death the great Pagoda fell into ruins, and inundation covered the whole city, and a shower of rubies fell from heaven. His son Mahauparazŗ succeeded him, and reigned seventeen years, dying in the sixty-third year of his age

In the year 961 the kingdom of Pegý was destroyed, and laid waste; upon which the king Mahasihasurŗ gathered together the people, who had been scattered over the country, into the city of Taunu, where, after a reign of some years, he died at the age of fifty-eight. To him succeeded his son, with whom finishes the race of the kings of Taunu.

Section 14

In 959 Gnaunjan, son of the lord of the red and white elephants, was king in Ava. His principal queen was his own sister, and besides her he had twelve inferior ones, all daughters of kings or princes, by whom he had ten sons and twelve daughters. He was transported to the abodes of the Nat, in the eighth year of his reign, and the fiftieth of his age. On the day of his death a thunderbolt set fire to the gate of the  palace.

In the year 967 his first-born son Mahauparazŗ succeeded to his throne. He took for wife his own sister, but had beside many inferior queens. After a reign of twenty-four years, he perished by the hand of his own Menredeippŗ, in the fifty-first year of his age.

The parricide followed up his crime by making himself king, and establishing his throne in Hansavedi [Hans‚wadi] or Pegu. But Dammarazŗ [Thado Dhamm‚ R‚j‚] fn058-01 and Menrekiozoŗ, two brothers of the late king, had no sooner heard of his


fn058-01 For Dhammaranza or Thado Dhamm‚ R‚j‚'s reign,  see Phayre, ch. xvi., where an incursion of Chinese, A. D. 1659-62, and succeeding events are related up to the taking of Ava by the Talaings of Pegu, and the fall of the Burmese monarchy, A. D. 1752. fn058-01b

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tragical death, than they collected a numerous army in the kingdoms of Tampi and Kianzi, and immediately marched towards Ava, making, however, a halt at Panjŗ. At this news the ministers of the parricide deprived him of his dignity and despatched an embassy to Dammaranzŗ, inviting him to take possession of his deceased brother's throne. Accordingly he marched with all his army into Hansavedi, and in the year 995 was proclaimed king. The next year he went with an immense army to Ava, where he built a golden palace, and in the year 997 took the title of king. He had many sons and daughters by his various queens, and after a reign of nineteen years, in the sixty-fourth year of his age, passed to the happy state of the Nat.

Section 15

In the year 1010 his eldest son, Menrerandameit, mounted the paternal throne. After a reign of thirteen years, in the fifty-fourth year of his age, he was put to death by his own brother, the king of Pron, who succeeded to his crown. The son of this prince having rebelled against him, was by his orders enclosed in a sack and thrown into the river; for this is the punishment of the princes of the blood-royal when guilty of any crime. His reign lasted ten years, and he passed to the happy abodes of the Nat in the fifty-third year of his age. His eldest son and successor reigned sixteen years, and was followed by his brother, who, in the year 1035, washed his head and assumed the title of king. He died in the fortieth year of his age, after a reign of sixteen years.

In the year 1076, his son Sirimahasihasura took possession of the golden palace. There were borne to him by different queens many sons and daughters. His death happened in the sixteenth year of his reign and fortieth of his age; the day of his departure was signalised by a violent earthquake, which overthrew several Pagodas.

In the same manner that the Nat wait with impatience for the flowering of their sacred tree, which takes place every hundredth year, that they may gather its blossoms; so did men expect and desire the birth of that great king, whom fate was to bestow on the southern island, for the grater good of both God and man. This monarch at length appeared in the person of Mahauparaza, the son of the preceding king. He

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was a Pralaun [Phra-alaong], or aspirant to divine honours, which epithet is given by the Burmese to all their kings, as an augury of their apotheosis, as in the case of Godama. This great king was adorned with wisdom, prudence, and fortiltude; and in the whole course of his reign ever had nearest to his heart the advancement of his kingdom, the happiness of his subjects, and the observance of the divine law. His life and his reign lasted for the space of a hundred years.

Section 16

The source from which the foregoing narration his been drawn is the Maharazaven, or history of the kings; what follows I have in part received from the oldest inhabitants of the country, and in part have myself witnessed during my long residence in the Burmese empire.

From Mahauparazŗ to Alompra [Alaungh-pra--embryo Buddha], the restorer of the kingdom, there are reckoned six kings, the last of whom was called Chioekmen. Under him the Pegýans made an irruption into the Burmese empire, and took by siege the city of Ava. The king and queen with all the great officers of the court were made prisoners and carried to BagÚ or Pegý, then the capital of the enemy's kingdom. At first the captive king met with humane treatment, but being afterwards detected in divers conspiracies, was made a spectator of the cruel murder of all his wives, and then, being tied up in a sack, was thrown into a river.

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