Update: 2007-07-25 12:05 AM -0400

TIL

Romabama

Burmese Written Language in Roman Script

vow02

U Kyaw Tun, M.S. (I.P.S.T., U.S.A.), Deep River, Ontario, Canada. Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students of TIL Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR .

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indx-rbm | Top | Contents of this page

English vowels
Vowel length
English-Latin <a> and Burmese-Myanmar {a.}
English-Latin <A>
English-Latin <AE>
English-Latin <AEO>
English-Latin <AI> and <AY>
English-Latin <AU> and <AW>
English-Latin <E>
English-Latin <O>
English-Latin <OU>
English-Latin <U> with killed wag consonants
UKT note on killed {ya.}, killed {ra.}, and killed {wa.}

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English vowels

One of the greatest difficulties faced by a non-English speaker learning English is his or her failure to understand that most English vowels are not pure vowels (monothphongs), but diphthongs and some triphthongs.

The figure on the right (commonly referred to as the Vowel quadrilateral) shows how the IPA represents the vowels. I have shown the Burmese-Myanmar vowels for comparison.

Most of these IPA vowel-glyphs are not present in English-Latin. In the figures below (redrawn from DJPD16), the vowels of the so-called BBC English are shown.

Even among native-English speakers, there is considerable variations among the inhabitants of various English speaking countries in pronouncing the vowels. When I tried to match the English-Latin vowels and the Burmese-Myanmar vowels (by listening to the on-line sound files given by various sources, I found that only a few of the English vowels from the IPA chart would agree with the Burmese-Myanmar vowels. The most difficult is the varied phonemes corresponding to the English letter <a>.

Examples of English-Latin vowels from DJPD16, front-cover inside (arrangement is mine):

/ə/  (Brit) <potato> <upper_> (US) <potato>; <America>
// (Brit) <pat> (US) <pat>
/e/  (Brit) <pet> (US) <pet>
/ɪ/   (Brit) <pit>  (US) <pit>
/ʊ/  (Brit) <put> (US) <put>
/ʌ/  (Brit) <cut> (US) <cut>
/ɒ/  (Brit) <pot> (US) --

/ɜ:/  (Brit) <cur>  (US) --
/iː/   (Brit) <key> (US) <key>
/uː/ (Brit) <coo> (US) <coo>
/ɔ:/  (Brit) <core> (US) <core>
/ɑ:/  (Brit) <car>  (US)  <father>

/əʊ/ (Brit) <low>  (US)  --
/aʊ/ (Brit) <how> (US) <house>
/aɪ/  (Brit) <buy>  (US) <high>
/eɪ/  (Brit) <bay>  (US) <bait>
/ɪə/  (Brit) <here> (US) --
/ɔɪ/  (Brit)  <boy>  (US)  <boy>

/eə/ (Brit) <there> (US) --
/ʊə/ (Brit) <moor> (US) --
/oʊ/ (Brit) <boat>  (US) --

/ɚ/  (Brit) -- (US) <mother_> "r-coloured schwa"
/ɝ/  (Brit) -- (US) <bird>  "r-coloured bird vowel"

Note the absence of /a/, which makes the identification of the inherent vowel of Burmese-Myanmar difficult. And, when we (my wife Daw Than Than and I) tried to identify by it by pronouncing the Burmese-Myanmar vowels ourselves , we could not pin down the POA (place of articulation). So the best hope that I have now is to rely on acoustical phonetics. See Manner and (and place) of articulation in Reading a spectrogram, by Rob Hagiwara, University of Manitoba, http://home.cc.umanitoba.ca/~robh/howto.html#approxs

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Vowel Length

From DJPD16 p313, Info panel 39
Length
p.313. A term used in phonetics to refer to a subjective impression of how much time a sound takes; it is distinct from physically measurable 'duration'. Usually, however, the term is used as synonymous with duration.
   Examples for English
Length is important in many ways in speech: in English and most other languages, stressed syllables tend to be longer than unstressed (see RHYTHM, STRESS and WEAK FORM). Some languages have phonemic differences between long and short sounds, and BBC English is claimed by some writers to be of this type, contrasting for short vowels /ɪ e ʌ ɒ ʊ ə/ with long vowels /iː ɜː ɑː ɔː uː/ (though other, equally valid analyses have been put forward). However, the context in which these sounds occur must be taken into account. For example, the vowel /iː/ is said to be longer than /ɪ/ as well as having a different quality, but the vowel in <beat> /biːt/ is unlikely to be longer than the vowel in <bid> /bɪd/ as the phonetic environment in <beat> causes the vowel to be shorter.
   In other languages
When languages have long/short consonant differences, as does Arabic, for example, it is usual to treat the long consonants as geminate; it is odd that this is not done equally regularly in the case of vowels. Perhaps the most interesting example of length differences comes from Estonian, which has traditionally been said to have a three-way distinction between short, long and extra-long consonants and vowels.

Length mark-- by UKT
Though the length mark [ː] may not be very important in English-Latin, it is very important in Burmese-Myanmar vowels. There are three distinct lengths: short [ ˑ ](U02D1), normal and long [ ː ](U02D0) exemplified in the following three words.

{ka.} (v. to dance)
{ka} (v. to shield)
{ka:} (v. to spread one's legs)

Note that in Romabama [ . ](U002E) represents a very short sharp sound and [ : ] (U003A) a very long glottal sound. Refer to Vowels and diphthongs in Introduction in DJPD16.

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English <a> and Burmese {a.}

In my attempts to transliterate English-Latin into Burmese-Myanmar, I found that more than one English vowel, from the neutral vowel schwa /ə/ to // and /a/, could stand in for Burmese-Myanmar vowel {a.} .

It should be pointed out that English vowels and Burmese vowels are quite different and the vowel {a.} used in Romabama is NOT the English vowel <a> nor any English phonemes related to it. Myanmars use pure vowels, whereas English speakers use mostly diphthongs. This is the reason why my earlier attempts to romanize the Burmese language based on the English vowel system had failed.

Romabama is based on written Myanmar script and NOT on pronunciation.

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English-Latin <A>

See also AE, AEO, AI/AY, AU/AW
From: DJPD16 p001.

The vowel letter <a> has two main strong pronunciations linked to spelling: a 'short' pronunciation // and a 'long' pronunciation /eɪ/. In the 'short' pronunciation, the <a> is usually followed by a consonant which closes the syllable, or a double consonant before another vowel, e.g.:

<tap> /tp/
<tapping> /tp.ɪŋ/

UKT: to transcribe into Burmese-Myanmar, I would have to take the rime into consideration:
<tap>  /tp/ -- {takp}
<tapping>  /tp.ɪŋ/ -- /{tak-ping}/ or /{tak~ping}/.
The second transcript reminds us of {paaHt-hsing.}
- n. subscripted letters in Pali -- MEDict 272.
This suggests that if were to adopt /{tak~ping}/ into English-Myanmar, we would have to call them {laip-hsing.}.

The 'long' pronunciation usually means the [a] is followed by a single consonant and then a vowel, e.g.:

<tape> /teɪp/
<taping> /'teɪ.pɪŋ/

UKT: For transcription into Burmese-Myanmar, we have to know what the rime is. In the orthographical syllable <tape>  /teɪp/, the rime is /eɪp/ which stands for <ape>. The <e> in this case is known as the 'silent e'. A vowel of this type, in which the consonant is sandwiched between two English-Latin vowels is comparable to the Burmese-Myanmar split vowels {au:} and {au}, and Bengali-Bengali ো  (U09CD Bengali vowel sign O) and ৌ (U09CC Bengali vowel sign Au).
<tape> /teɪp/  -- {taip}
<taping> /'teɪ.pɪŋ/  -- {taip-ping} or {taip~ping}

When there is an [r] in the spelling, the strong pronunciation is one of three possibilities:
/ɑː (US) ɑːr/ , /eə (US) er/ or / (US) e, / , e.g.:

<car> /kɑːʳ (US) kɑːr/
<care> /keəʳ (US) keər/
<carry> /kr.i (US) 'ker-, kr-/

In addition:
There are other vowel sounds associated with the letter [a], e.g.:

/ɑː/ in <father>
/ɑː/ (US) // in <bath>
/ɒ/ (US) /ɑː/  in <swan>
/ɔː/ (US) /ɑː/ , /ɔː/  in <warm>

UKT: Please note the Burmese-speakers' way of pronouncing <father> is not right. Because of /ɑː/, it must be pronounced as {hphau-tha:}.

And, in rare case:

/e/ in <many> /men.i/

In weak syllables:
The vowel letter <a> is realised with the vowels /ə/ and /ɪ/ in weak syllables, and may also not be pronounced at all in British English, due to compression, e.g.:

<above> /ə'bʌv/
<village> /'vɪl.ɪʤ/
<necessary> /'nes.ə.sri/ (US) /-ser.i/

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English-Latin AE

From: DJPD16 p009

The vowel digraph <ae> is a fairly low-frequency spelling. In some cases, the American spelling of words containing <ae> omits the <a>, e.g. in <aesthetic>, which is spelt in American English as <esthetic> .

The pronunciation of the digraph in strong syllables depends on whether or not it is followed by an [r] in the spelling. If so, the pronunciation is /eə (US) er/, e.g.:

<aeroplane> /'eə.rə.pleɪn/ (US) /'er.ə-/

When not followed by <r>, the pronunciation is most usually one of /iː/ , /ɪ/ or /e/, the latter being most common in American English pronunciation, e.g.:

<Caesar> /'siː.zəʳ (US) /-zɚ/
<aesthetic> /iːs'θet.ɪk/,  /ɪs-/, /es-/ (US) /es'θet̬-/

In addition:
Other vowel sounds associated with the digraph <ae> include //, for Old English names, e.g.:

<Aethelstan> /'θ.əl.stən, -stn/

In weak syllables:
The vowel digraph is realised with the vowels /ə/ and /ɪ/ in weak syllables, e.g.:

<gynaecology> /ˌgaɪ.nə'kɒl.əʤi/, /-nɪ'/ (US) /-'kɑː.lə-/

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English-Latin <AEO>

From: DJPD16 p010

The vowel letter combination [aeo] is low frequency, and is often spelt [eo] in American English. It has two pronunciations associated with it.

/i'ɒ/ (US) /i'ɑː/ in <archaeology>
/iəʊ/ (US) /ioʊ/ , /iə/ in <palaeotype>

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English-Latin <AI>, <AY>

UKT: For the sake of consistency in Romabama, the <y> in <ay> would have to be treated as the Burmese-Myanmar "consonant" {ya.}, and if it were to occur in the coda, it would have to be treated as the killed {ya.} or {y}. See my notes on killed {ya.} and killed {ra.}

From: DJPD16 p014

The vowel letter digraphs <ai> and <ay> are similar in that their most common pronunciation is /eɪ/, e.g.:

<day> /deɪ/
<daily> /'deɪ.li/

However, in days of the week, <ay> is also frequently pronounced /i/, e.g.:

<Monday>  /'mʌn.di/

When followed by an [r] in the spelling, [ai] and [ay] are pronounced as /eə, (US) er/ , e.g.:

<air> /eəʳ/ (US) /er/ -- / {}/ / {r}/
<Ayr> /eəʳ (US) /er/ 

UKT: <air> and <Ayr> are pronounced the same in British English. Similarly they are pronounced the same in American English.
   I have been wondering where Burmese-Myanmar {} and {} would fit in in the vowel diagram. They are obviously back-vowels in the series {u} {} {} {au}.

In addition:
There are other vowel sounds associated with the digraphs <ai> and <ay>, e.g.:

/e/ in <said> /sed/ and
         <says> /sez/
// in <plait> /plt/
/aɪ/ in <aisle> /aɪl/

And, in rare cases:

/eɪ.ɪ/ in <archaic> /ɑː'keɪ.ɪk/ (US) /ɑːr-/

In weak syllables:
The vowel digraphs <ai> and <ay> are realised with the vowels /ɪ/ and /i/ in weak syllables respectively, and <ai> may also result in a schwa vowel or a syllabic consonant, e.g.:

<bargain> /'bɑː.gɪn, -gən/ (US) /'bɑːr-/
<Murray> /'mʌr.i/ (US) /'mɝː-/ /'mʌr-/
<Britain> /'brɪt.ən/

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English-Latin <AU>, <AW>

UKT: For the sake of consistency in Romabama, the <w> in <aw> would have to be treated as the Burmese-Myanmar "consonant" {wa.}, and if it were to occur in the coda, it would have to be treated as the killed {wa.} or {w}

From: DJPD16 p041

The vowel letter combinations <au> and <aw> are similar in that their most common pronunciation is /ɔː (US) ɑː/ , e.g.:

     <sauce> /sɔːs/ (US) /sɑːs/
     <saw>  /sɔː/ (US) /sɑː/

However, there is more variation in the case of <au>.  When followed by <gh> in the spelling realised as /f/ , it is pronounced as /ɑː , (US) / , e.g.:

     <laugh> /lɑːf/ (US) /lf/

The combination <au> may also be produced as /ɒ (US) ɑː/ , e.g.:

     <Australia> /ɒs'treɪ.li.ə/ (US) /ɑː'streɪ-/
     <because> /bɪ'kɒz/ (US) /-'kɑːz/

In addition:
Other sounds associated with the combinations <au> are:

     /əʊ (US) oʊ/ in <chauffeur> /'ʃəʊ.fəʳ/ / 'ʃəʊ'fɜʳ/ (US) /'ʃoʊ'fɝː/

And, in rare cases:

     /eɪ/ in <guage> /geɪʤ/

In weak syllables:
The vowel combinations <au> and <aw> are realised with the vowel /ə/ in weak syllables, and <au> may also result in a syllabic consonant or an elided vowel, e.g.:

<awry> /ə'raɪ/
<restaurant> /'res.tər.ɔ̃ːŋ /

UKT: DJPD16 has given quite a few variation in pronunciation for <restaurant> in addition to the one above.

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English-Latin <E>

From DJPD16 p168

p168. The vowel letter <e> has two main strong pronunciations linked to spelling: a 'short' pronunciation /e/ and a 'long' pronunciation /iː/. However, the situation is not clear cut and other pronunciations are available.

The 'short' pronunciation always occurs when the <e> is followed by a consonant which closes the syllable, or a double consonant before another vowel, e.g.:

vowel-sound: /e/ -- short pronunciation
<bed>  /bed/
<bedding>  /ˈbed.ɪŋ/

The 'long' pronunciation is usually found when the <e> is followed by a single consonant and then a vowel, e.g.:

vowel-sound: /iː/ -- long pronunciation
<Eve>  /iːv/
<credence>  /ˈkriːdənʦ/

However, the 'short' pronunciation occurs in many cases where the [e] is followed by a single consonant and then a vowel, e.g.:

vowel-sound: /e/
<ever>  /ˈev.əʳ/  (US)  /-ɚ/
<prejudice>  /ˈpreʤ.ə.dɪs/

The 'long' pronunciation may also occur where the [e] is followed by two consonants, e.g.:

vowel-sound: /e/
<negro>  /ˈniːgrəʊ/  (US)  /-roʊ/
<secret>  /ˈsiːkrət/

When there is an <r> in the spelling, the strong pronunciation is one of four possibilities: /ɪə (US) ɪr/, /eə (US) er/ , /ɜː (US) ɝː/ or

vowel-sound: /ɪə/ (US) /ɪr/;
<here> /hɪəʳ/  (US)  /hɪr/
vowel-sounds: /eə/ (US) /er/ ;
<there> /eəʳ/  (US)  /er/
vowel-sounds: /ɜː/ (US) /ɝː/; or
<were>  /wɜːʳ/  (US)  /wɝː/
vowel-sound: /e/
<very>  /ˈver.i/

It frequently happens that the letter <e> has no pronunciation at all, but is used as a spelling convention to show that a preceding vowel is realised with its 'long' pronunciation, e.g.:

silent: <e>
<brave>  /breɪv/
<mice>  /maɪs/
<hope>  /həʊp/  (US)  /hoʊp/
<use> (v.) /juːz/

UKT: Though DJPD16 has stated as cases where "the letter [e] has no pronunciation at all", I would like to say that the letter [e] plays an important part. I would consider it to be similar to the split vowels in Burmese-Myanmar: "split-vowel {au}" and "split-vowel" {o} .
See letters E and E, with a consonant in the middle.

In addition

There are other vowel sounds associated with the letter [e], e.g.:

vowel-sound /eɪ/
<ballet>  /ˈbl.eɪ/  (US)  /blˈeɪ/

And, in rare cases:

vowel-sounds /ɑː/ (US) /ɚː/
<clerk>  /klɑːk/  (US)  /klɝːk/
vowel-sound /ɪ/
<women>  /ˈwɪm.ɪn/

UKT: Compare the pronunciation of <women> with:
<woman>  /wʊm.ən/

In weak syllables

The vowel letter [e] is realised with the vowels /ɪ/, /i/ and /ə/ in weak syllables, or may also not be pronounced at all due to syllabic consonant formation or compression, e.g.:

vowel-sounds /ɪ/, /i/ and /ə/
<begin>  /bɪˈgɪn/
<react>  /riˈkt/
<arithmetic>  /əˈrɪθ.mə.tɪk/
<castle>  /ˈkɑː.sļ/  (US) /ˈks.ļ/

UKT: The word <castle> has an "l" with a diacritical mark to show that it is a syllabic consonant -- See l cedilla.

 

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English-Latin <O>

UKT: The English-Latin <ou> is used by MLC for transcribing the Burmese-Myanmar {o}. See Engl-Myan-Dict 617 on {o}. The reader should decide whether this is appropriate or not. My preference is to use <o> for {o}. See English-Latin <OU>.

From: DJPD16 p373

The vowel letter <o> has several pronunciations. The two most predictable strong pronunciations linked to spelling are:
a monophthongal pronunciation, sometimes described as 'short' in British English /ɒ (US) ɑː ɔː/ and
a diphthongal pronunciation, sometimes described as 'long' /əʊ (US) oʊ/.

In the monophthongal pronunciation, the [o] is generally followed by a consonant which closes the syllable, or a double consonant before another vowel, e.g.:

vowel-sound /ɒ/ (US) /ɑː ɔː/ - monophthongal (short pronunciation in Brit. Engl.)
<cod>  /kɒd/  (US)  /kɑːd/
<robbing> /ˈrɒb.ɪŋ/  (US)  /ˈrɑːbɪŋ/

UKT: It is important to note that the /ɒ/ corresponding to Burmese-Myanmar {au} is considered to be monophthong by DJPD16. Its corresponding vowel {au} in Burmese-Myanmar is written as a split vowel .

The diphthongal pronunciation usually means the [o] is followed by a single consonant and then a vowel, e.g.:

vowel-sound /əʊ/ (US) /oʊ/ - diphthongal (long pronunciation in Brit. Engl.)
<code> /kəʊd/ (US) /koʊd/
<robing> /ˈrəʊ.bɪŋ/ (US) /ˈroʊ.bɪŋ/

In many cases, the monphthongal pronunciation results from the above kind of spelling, e.g.:

<gone> /gɒn/ (US) /gɑːn/
<copy> /ˈkɒp.i/ (US) /ˈkɑː.pi/

Also, the 'long' pronunciation occasionally appears in words where the vowel is followed by a single consonant and no vowel, e.g.:

<control> /kənˈtrəʊl/ (US) /-ˈtroʊl/

When <r> is followed by <o>, the strong pronunciation is one of several possibilities: /ɒ (US) ɔːr/ , /ɔː (US) ɔːr/ , /ʌ (US) ɝː/ or /ɜː (US) ɝː/, e.g.:

vowel-sound /ɒ/ (US) /ɔːr/
<forest> /ˈfɒr.ɪst/ (US) /ˈfɔːr-/

vowel-sound /ɔː/ (US) /ɔːr/
<foremost>  /ˈfɔː.məʊst/  (US)  /ˈfɔːmoʊst/

vowel-sound  /ʌ/ (US) /ɝː/
<borough> /ˈbʌr.ə/ (US) /ˈbɝː-/

vowel-sound  /ɜː/ (US) /ɝː/
<word> /wɜːd/ (US) /wɝː-/

And exceptionally, /ʊ/, e.g.:

<Worcester> /ˈwʊs.təʳ/ (US) /-tɚ/

In addition

There are other vowel sounds associated with the letter <o>, e.g.:

vowel-sound /ʌ/
<colour>  /ˈkʌl.ər/  (US)  /-ɚ/

vowel-sound /uː/
<move>  /muːv/

vowel-sound /ʊ/
<woman>  /ˈwʊm.ən/

vowel-sound /wʌ/
<once>  /wʌnts/

vowel-sound /ɜː (US) ɝː/
<colonel>  /ˈkɜːnəl/  (US)  /ˈkɝː-/

And, exceptionally:

vowel-sound /ɪ/
<women>  /ˈwɪm.ɪn/

In weak syllables

The vowel letter <o> is realised with the vowel /ə/ in weak syllables, /ɚ/ in American English when followed by an <r>, and may also be elided in British English, due to compression or realisation as a syllabic consonant, e.g.:

vowel-sound /ə/
<observe>  /əbˈzɜːv/  (US)  /-ˈzɝːv/
<forget>  /fəˈget/  (US)  /fɚ-/
<factory>  /ˈfk.tər.i/ , /-tri/

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English-Latin <OU>

UKT: The English-Latin <ou> is used by MLC for transcribing the Burmese-Myanmar {o}. See Engl-Myan-Dict 617 on {o}. The reader should decide whether this is appropriate or not. My preference is to use <o> for {o}. See English-Latin <o>.

p385. There are several pronunciation possibilities for the strong pronunciation of the vowel digraph [ou], e.g.:

vowel-sound /aʊ/
<cloud>  /klaʊd/

vowel-sound /əʊ/ (US) /oʊ/
<though>  /əʊ/  (US)  /oʊ/

vowel-sound /ʌ/
<country>  /ˈkʌn.tri/

vowel-sound /ɔː/ (US) /ɑː/
<bought>  /bɔːt/  (US)  /bɑːt/

vowel-sound /uː/
<soup>  /suːp/

vowel-sound /ʊ/
<could>  /kʊd/

When followed by a [gh] in the spelling which is realised as /f/, it is usually pronounced /ɒ (US) ɑː/ or /ʌ/, e.g.:

vowel-sound /ɒ/ (US) /ɑː/
<cough>  /kɒf/  (US)  /kɑːf/

vowel-sound /ʌ/
<enough>  /ɪˈnʌf/

When followed by an [r] in the spelling, [ou] is pronounced as /ɔː (US) ɔːr/ , /aʊə (US) aʊɚ/ , /ɜː (US) ɝː/ , /ʌ (US) ɝː/ , and /ʊə (US) ʊr/, e.g.:

vowel-sound /ɔː/ (US) /ɔːr/
<four>  /fɔːʳ/  (US)  /fɔːr/

vowel-sound /aʊə/ (US) /aʊɚ/
<flour>  /flaʊəʳ/  (US)  /flaʊɚ/

vowel-sound /ɜː/ (US) /ɝː/
<journey>  /ˈʤɜː.ni/  (US)  /ˈʤɝː-/

vowel-sound /ʌ/ (US) /ɝː/
<flourish>  /ˈflʌr.ɪʃ/  (US)  /ˈflɝː-/

vowel-sound /ʊə/ (US) /ʊr/
<tour>  /tʊəʳ , stɔːʳ/  (US)  /tʊr/

In weak syllables

The vowel digraph [ou] is realised with the vowel /ə/ in weak syllables, and may also not be pronounced at all in British English, due to compression, e.g.:

vowel-sound /ə/ or silent
<famous>  /ˈfeɪ.məs/
<favourite>  /ˈfeɪ.vər.ɪt , ˈfeɪv.rɪt/

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English-Latin <U> with killed wag consonants

UKT: English-Latin <U> occupying the upper-right corner of the vowel quadrilateral is a very reliable vowel in Romabama. That is if it is not followed by a killed consonant. However, when it is followed by a killed consonant, it can have two strong pronunciations: /ʌ/ and /ʊ/. As all Burmese-Myanmar youngsters learning to write English, have asked, why is <but> pronounced as /bʌt/ and <put> as /pʊt/, and not the other way round?
   In Burmese-Myanmar rimes, the problem is solved by putting a {wa.hsw:} for the pronunciation of <put> /pʊt/ as {pwat}. For <but> /bʌt/ it is simply {bat}. Please remember Romabama is primarily concerned with orthography, but still it has to look into both English and Burmese pronunciations for choosing a rime. -- UKT 070725

DJPD16 p555. The vowel letter [u] has several strong pronunciations linked to spelling. 'Short' pronunciations include /ʌ/ and /ʊ/.

'Long' pronunciations include /uː/ and /juː/. In 'short' pronounced /ʌ/, the [u] is generally followed by a consonant letter which ends the word, or a double consonant before another vowel. Words containing /ʊ/  which end with a consonant sound often have two consonant letters finally, a notable exception being <put> /pʊt/, e.g.:

rime-sound /ʌb/
<tub> /tʌb/

UKT: Another example given by DJPD16 is <bull> /bʊl/. However, since there are no {la.that} in modern Burmese-Myanmar, we can forget it for the moment. You will notice that DJPD16 gives <put> /pʊt/ as a "notable exception".

Since most of Burmese-Myanmar syllables are strong syllables (point to be checked with my peers), we can ignore the what DJPD16 has given for weak syllables.

 

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killed {ya.}, killed {ra.}, and killed {wa.}

UKT: read
killed {ya.} and killed {ra.} in con05.htm
English-Latin <ai> and <ay>

For the sake of consistency in Romabama, the <y> in <ay> would have to be treated as the Burmese-Myanmar "consonant" {ya.}, and if it were to occur in the coda, it would have to be treated as the killed {ya.} or {y}.

To transcribe <day> /deɪ/ into Burmese-Myanmar, if we are to take <ay> we would get into an obvious error. Therefore, we will have to take /eɪ/, and pronounce it as a monophthong. This would give us {d} or {d:}

Similar to the situation with <ay>, the <r> in the coda, such as <air>, would have to be treated as the Burmese-Myanmar killed {ra.} or {r}.

To transcribe <air> /eəʳ/ (US) /er/ into Burmese-Myanmar, we will rely on the US pronunciation: {r}. From this, we can simply forget the killed {ra.}, and pronounce <air> as {}. This would clarify to some extent, why we pronounce the word for the "Archangel of Evil" {mr-nat} /|man na'|/ as {ma-nat}. Some would change the killed {ra.} to killed {na.} and pronounce {mn-nat} -- a point to be discussed with my peers.

Killed {wa.} was in common use at one time in Burmese-Myanmar. For example, in the phrase {nat lu tha.Du. hkau s thau}.

{{nat lu tha-Du. hkau-s thauw}
--> {{nat lu tha-Du. hkau-s thau}

U Tun Tint commented that {thauw} came into use only about the 17th century, before which from the Pagan period in the 12th century, the {au}-vowel, known as {au:thara.} was written . The killed {wa.} finally disappeared from the scene early in the 20th century. Similarly, {o-thara.} which was written with a killed {wa.}, , was in use, is now written without the killed {wa.}.

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UKT notes:

Archangel of Evil.

Who is this so-called "Archangel of Evil" in Burmese-Buddhism? Why am I interested in this "evil" character"? My loving friends would tease me, "because you are always the one who upsets the applecart".

{mr-nat}   /|man na'|/ - n. 1. Mara : the archangel of evil. 2. figurative one who upsets the apple-cart. -- MEDict359

What does the English-Latin <evil> mean? Can he be equated to the Christian Devil?

evil adj. 1. Morally bad or wrong; wicked: an evil tyrant. See note at bad 1 . 2. Causing ruin, injury, or pain; harmful: the evil effects of a poor diet. 3. Characterized by or indicating future misfortune; ominous: evil omens. 4. Bad or blameworthy by report; infamous: an evil reputation. 5. Characterized by anger or spite; malicious: an evil temper. n. 1. The quality of being morally bad or wrong; wickedness. 2. That which causes harm, misfortune, or destruction: a leader's power to do both good and evil. 3. An evil force, power, or personification. 4. Something that is a cause or source of suffering, injury, or destruction: the social evils of poverty and injustice. adv. Archaic 1. In an evil manner. [Middle English from Old English yfel; See wep- in Indo-European Roots.] -- AHTD

devil  n. 1. Often Devil Theology In many religions, the major personified spirit of evil, ruler of Hell, and foe of God. Used with the. 2. A subordinate evil spirit; a demon. 3. A wicked or malevolent person. 4. A person: a handsome devil; the poor devil. 5. An energetic, mischievous, daring, or clever person. 6. Printing A printer's devil. 7. A device or machine, especially one having teeth or spikes and used for tearing. 8. An outstanding example, especially of something difficult or bad: has a devil of a temper. 9. A severe reprimand or expression of anger: gave me the devil for cutting class. 10. Informal Used as an intensive: Who the devil do you think you are? 11. Christian Science The opposite of Truth; error. v. tr. deviled or devilled deviling or devilling devils or devils 1. To season (food) heavily. 2. To annoy, torment, or harass. 3. To tear up (cloth or rags) in a toothed machine. -- AHTD

Since, {mr-nat} , lives on the highest realm of the nats or gods (there are 6 realms), he is not to be equated to the Christian-Devil. Then, why is he called "evil". The reason is: the highest aim of every Myanmar Buddhist is to escape from this Cycle of Births and Rebirths or Samsara or {thn-tha-ra}, simply because every entity in {thn-tha-ra} is not free from "mental" suffering. From gods to inmates of "hell", the mental suffering of anger, dissatisfaction, and fear is always present. This is the embodiment of the First Noble Truth. Buddha was for total freedom from "suffering", whereas, {mr-nat} is for "enjoyment" of whatever that is to be enjoyed in Samsara. And therefore he is always in the path of the Buddha and those who are trying to get away and therefore "evil". To {mr-nat} and the like, the Buddhists are "escapists".

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monophthong
n. Linguistics 1. A single vowel articulated without change in quality throughout the course of a syllable, as the vowel of English bed. 2. Two written vowels representing a single sound, as oa in boat.- AHTD
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diphthong
n. Linguistics 1. A complex speech sound or glide that begins with one vowel and gradually changes to another vowel within the same syllable, as (oi) in boil or ( ) in fine. - AHTD
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silent-e

Effect of silent E on simple vowels: Edited excerpt from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silent_E
When silent E occurs in an English word, it converts a vowel to its "long" equivalent. If English were spelled with the traditional Romance language vowel values of the Latin alphabet, often these vowels would be written with another letter entirely. Moreover, alternatives exist in English for most spellings that use silent E. Depending on dialect, English has anywhere from thirteen to more than twenty separate vowel sounds (both monophthongs and diphthongs). Silent E is one of the ways English spelling is able to use the Latin alphabet's five vowel characters to represent so many vowels.

<mad> /md/ --> <made> /meɪd/ (compare with <maid> /meɪd/)
<bed> /bɛd/ --> <Bede> /biːd/ (compare with <bead> /biːd/)
<bit> /bɪt/ --> <bite> /bəɪt/ (compare with <bight>)
   UKT: DJPD16 gives different pronunciations for <bite> /baɪt/ and <bight> /baɪt/
<bot> /bɑːt/ --> <bote> /boʊt/ (compare with <boat> /bəʊt/ (US) /boʊt/)
<but> /bʌt/ --> <bute> /bjuːt/ (compare with <beaut> /bjuːt/)

Traditionally, the vowels /ei/ /iː/ /ai/ /ou/ /juː/ (as in <bait> <beet> <bite> <boat> <beauty>) are said to be the "long" counterparts of the vowels // /ɛ/ /ɪ/ /ɑː/ /ʌ/ (as in <bat> <bet> <bit> <bot> <but>) which are said to be "short". This terminology reflects the historical pronunciation and development of those vowels; as a phonetic description of their current values, it is no longer accurate. The values of the vowels these sounds are written with used to be similar to the values those letters had in French or Italian. The traditional "long vowels" also closely correspond to the letter names those vowels bear in the English alphabet, and the letter name is usually an accurate guide to the value of the vowel that is affected by silent E.
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