Update: 2012-11-27 05:39 AM +0630

TIL

Romabama on Typewriter

RBM-rule4to_.htm

U Kyaw Tun, M.S. (I.P.S.T., U.S.A.), Deep River, Ontario, Canada. Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students of TIL Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR .

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rbm-typewrit-indx.htm

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Letters of Latin alphabet used
Romabama Rule 4 - Silent e
Romabama Rule 5 - Killed consonants
Romabama Rule 6 - {king:si:} vowel-sign
Romabama Rule 7 - Fossilized killed consonants
Romabama Rule 8 - Non-alphabetic characters
Romabama Rule 9 - Extension of Myanmar akshara row 2 to accommodate medials

UKT notes
 

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Letters of Latin Alphabet used, contd.

Romabama Rule 04 - Silent e

e without diacritic (the silent e or the "magic e")  will be used occasionally for sounds of vowels followed by "killed" consonants. This is equivalent to split vowels in both
Bangla-Bengali ো (U09CB) and ৌ (U09CC), and
Burmese-Myanmar {au:} and {au}.
However, as the use of split vowels is not done in IPA, the use of split vowels is to be avoided in Romabama.
e.g. {kate} (preferred {kait})
e.g. {kane} (preferred {kain})
however, an <e> forming part of the peak vowel is not to be confused with the silent e.
- {keik} -- the <e> present here is part of the peak vowel-digraph <ei>. It is a monophthong.
- {keing} -- the <e> present here is part of the peak vowel-digraph <ei>.
   (Contrast with {king}. Remember {ng} stands for IPA [ ŋ ] and that <g> is not to be pronounce.
   The absence of a letter standing for the sound of  [ ŋ ] is one of un-surmountable problems of transliteration. )
- {kauk} -- here <au> is the peak vowel-digraph. It is not a diphthong: it is a monophthongal digraph.

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Romabama Rule 05 - Killed consonants
- For specialized "killed" consonants
{kyi}
{ky}
{k}

We find more problems with r2c5 rimes in the following:
There are theoretically 6 families involving r2c5 syllables. Only some are realised in practice, however, I have given the tentatively chosen rimes:
1.   --  {i}
2. /|njin. njin njin:|/ (MEDict 155) -- {}
3. /|njin. njin njin:|/ (MEDict 158) -- {i}
4. -- {}
5.   -- {}
6. /|nji. nji nji:|/ (MEDict 158) -- {}
The rational for choosing the above is: though Romabama is meant only to show the Burmese-Myanmar spelling, it should -- if possible -- show the pronunciation. And, therefore the peak vowel is chosen arbitrarily, and it and the following consonant (together the rime) is meant to show the pronunciation.

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Romabama Rule 06 - {king:si:} vowel-sign

{king:si:} /|kin: si:|/ - n. ortho. miniature symbol of devowelized nga superscripted on the following letter.
 -- MEDict016

Compare the way in which the two words {hsing-kan:} and {thn~kan:} are written. The first is written horizontally, but the second is written with the {king:si:} (literally: "centipede-ridden") sign . There are two cues in Romabama to show that a {king:si:} is involved: use of umlaut over the peak vowel e.g. (Alt0239) and ~. The {king:si:} is actually not a conjoined sign and may be written horizontally. It is usually found in words derived from Pali and Sanskrit, e.g. Sanskrit-Myanmar {kon~ku.ma.} (n. saffron -- MEDict024) equivalent to Burmese-Myanmar {kon-ku.mn}.

Caution: There is an {a.t} that is not exactly a {king:si:}, yet the consonant under it, is not a conjoined (horizontal conjunct) akshara as in {a.kri:}: the glyph is . Such an {a.t} is found in {kywan-noap.} (MEDict049) and {yauk-kya:} (MEDict384). In {kywan-noap} there is only one {na.ng} and in {yauk-kya:} there is only one {ka.kri:}. For the time being, I am treating them as similar to {a.kri:}, but without a ~ in between. I have simply hyphenated the two {na.} in {kywan-noap.}, and two {ka.} in {yauk-kya:}. I have asked my good friend U Tun Tint for an explanation. He has not responded yet! (UKT 070804)

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Romabama Rule 07 - Fossilized killed consonants.
(Based on personal communication with U Tun Tint, formerly of MLC)

There are 4 fossilized characters dating back to the 13 century:
{nhIk} derived from {nheik}
{rw} derived from {ru} pronounced as //  /{rw.}/
{i} derived from {.} --> {i.}
{l-kaung:} derived from {l-kaung:}

The derivation of {rw} is illustrating. In the Pagan period (11th century to the 13th) and a few centuries after, the vowel
{tis-hkaung:nging-ya.thut} had existed, but it has given way to {a.w-hto: wa.hsw:}. The changes have been
{ku} --> {kw}
{hsu} --> {hsw}
{ru} --> {rw}

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Romabama Rule 08 - non-alphabetic characters
- ASCII characters that are not considered to be part of the Latin alphabet will be used.

{poad-hprat} (instead of 'comma') - /
{poad-ma.} (instead of 'period' or 'full-stop') - //
'period' or 'full-stop' and 'colon' are used for pitch-registers (formerly called "tones"). They are equated to IPA suprasegmentals.
e.g. {a.} [ă] ; {a} [a] ; {a:} [aː]
'hyphen' for separating syllables in the same word
"middle dot" (Alt0183) will be used occasionally to show that {a.} is to be pronounced as /ə/,
e.g. {ani}.
~ (tilde) will be used occasionally to show a ligature of two akshara-consonants
parentheses ( ) will be used by Romabama since it has been adopted as part of Burmese-Myanmar.

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Romabama Rule 09 - Extension of Myanmar akshara row 2 to accommodate medials
- Though Burmese-Myanmar (and Pali-Myanmar) akshara matrix is strictly for base consonants, Romabama has to admit the medial consonants {kya.}, {hkya.} and {gya.} into row 2, to bring it in line with Pali-Latin akshara matrix.

Romabama gives only broad transcriptions.
("It's common to distinguish between two kinds of transcription, based on how many details the transcribers decide to ignore:
Narrow transcription: marked as [...], captures as many aspects of a specific pronunciation as possible and ignores as few details as possible. Using the diacritics provided in the IPA, it is possible to make very subtle distinctions between sounds.
Broad transcription (or phonemic transcription): marked as /.../, ignores as many details as possible, capturing only enough aspects of a pronunciation to show how that word differs from other words in the language.  ...  one of the unspoken principles of broad transcription is that, when you're given a choice between two symbols and when all other considerations are equal (sometimes even when they aren't), you'll pick the one that's easier to type." -- University of Manitoba, Linguistics Dept. http://www.umanitoba.ca/linguistics/index.shtml). Entries in DJPD16 are broad transcriptions.

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UKT notes

 

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End of TIL file