Update: 2018-04-01 09:12 PM -0400


Introduction to Romabama

- a transcription-transliteration system
for BEPS (Burmese-English-Pali-Sanskrit) languages


by U Kyaw Tun, M.S. (I.P.S.T., U.S.A.), Daw Khin Wutyi, B.Sc., and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL). Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

index.htm | Top

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Rule 03. Extended Latin alphabet and Digraphs
Graphemes:  a , b , d , e , f ,
h , i , k , n,ng,ny , o , r&rh, y&yh , RRi ,
s-SS , kSS , sh , u , v , y , yh


UKT notes

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Romabama Rule 03

Extended Latin alphabet and Digraphs

-- UKT latest 150408, 151212

Diacritics and other suitable signs are introduced to reflect the pronunciation. Diacritics in Romabama are chosen in a way so that even if a diacritic is lost, the effect would be minimal. As for digraphs, I try not to use them, unless it is absolutely necessary.

Note the presence of lisping consonants used for Eng-Lat & Skt-Dev such as: {S~ma.} ष्म , {S~la.} ष्ल, and {S~ka.} ष्क in the BEPS basic consonants.

"A lisp, also known as sigmatism, is a speech impediment in which a person misarticulates sibilants ([s],[z],[ts],[dz]),([ʒ],[ʃ], [tʃ], [dʒ]). [1]  These misarticulations often result in unclear speech."
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lisp 151212

Note that "digraphs" (showing two glyphs in tandem) and "diphthongs" (showing the approximate pronunciation of a vowel) are entirely different. Diphthongs and Triphthongs are common in English, and what the Westerners had thought to be Diphthongs or Triphthongs in Bur-Myan are Monophthongs without any "glide" in pronunciation. The fact that typical English diphthongs such as <boy> and <cow> are commonly pronounced as {boing} and {kaung:} by Bur-Myan speakers (including myself at one time) shows that there are no diphthongs in Burmese.

For many terms in Bur-Myan, consult Burmese Grammar and Grammatical Analysis 1899 by A. W. Lonsdale, Rangoon: British Burma Press, 1899 xii, 461, in two parts.  Part 1. Orthoepy and orthography; Part 2. Accidence and syntax, and proceed to Part 1. Orthoepy and orthography, The sounds of letters .
Follow the navigation: BurMyan-indx.htm > BG1899-indx.htm > BG1899-1-indx.htm > Vowels ch03-1.htm and
Consonants -- ch03-2.htm (link chk 151222)

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grapheme: a

(Alt0228) (Latin small letter A with diaeresis or 'double-dot'), nasal sounds with "Dot-above" {::tn} for . Do not be confused with "Dot-below" {auk-mric} - MLC MED2006-620.

{a.n} - voice, sound, noise - MED2010-599
{a.hin-a.ka.} - 'not being cruel' - UHS-PMD0153
{on:} - numeral three

(Alt0225) for denoting {re:hkya. at} [signs or ] ending in a killed non-nasal, such as in {aat} .

Note that in signs & , we see {mauk-hkya.} for a one-circle glyph, and {weik-hkya.} for a two-circle glyph. See my note on - RBM-intro-indx.htm
for / {weik-hkya.}-{mauk-hkya.} problem.

{Daat-hsi} - petrol, gasoline -- MED2010-218)

I usually write <aa> for this. Though convenient, it is not always suitable for writing vowels ending in killed non-nasals, and (Alt0225) is sometimes used.

(Alt0230) in combination with (Alt0209) to denote Nya'gyi'thut {a.kri:t} as in {ky}.

UKT 150410, 151222. Transcription of two common words, "Myanmarpr" {mrn-ma-pr} and "Naypyidaw" {n-pr-tau} is never satisfactory, because of the front mid-vowel (tentatively represented by ) checked by {a.kri:t}.

The most responsible akshara is r2c5 Bur-Myan Nya'gyi {a.}. Being a c5 it had been identified as a nasal similar to Nyal {a.}. That brought up a problem with r2c5 cell of the Myanmar akshara matrix. There were two contenders for the same cell, Nya'gyi {a.kri:}, and Nya'l {a.}. It is well-known to native Bur-Myan speakers that {a.kri:t} never ends in a nasal sound, whereas {a.l:t} ends in a nasal sound. This fact identifies Nya'gyi {a.kri:} to be the Palatal-approximant, similar to the Velar-approximant {ya.} /j/. Nyal {a.} is the sole occupier of r2c5 cell.

I am now left with the problem of pronouncing the English (Alt0230) & (Alt0198), for which I have to rely on Daniel Jone's Pronouncing Dictionary  DJPD16-009 - DJPD16-indx.htm > let-a.htm (link chk 151222)
We see the statement on p9. "The vowel digraph [ae] is a fairly low-frequency spelling. In some cases, the American spelling of words containing [ae] omits the [a], e.g. in <aesthetic>, which is spelt in American English as <esthetic> ". Using is a problem in itself, and I have been looking for other digraphs.

Consider the word, {ky-hsn} - cartridge, shell - MED2010-034.
[The frequently used {ky hsn} is not entirely incorrect, though allowed by the noted grammarian Shin Kic'si.]

Analysing the mid vowels have been difficult because English has only /e/ for the front, and /ɔ/ (known as "open O") for the back. We will have to leave the back mid-vowels for a while and concentrate on the front vowels {:} and {} to solve the problem of {a.kri:t}.

Checking the vowel {} or {} by killed-consonants has always been difficult for me since childhood. This checking is found in commonly and frequently used words such as:

{}: {hk} --> {hkt} 'Times' or 'Era'
{}: {} --> {t~ta} 'box'
{:}: ? --> {.} 'guest' 
Now throw in the Mon-Myan {ou} , and I am stumped!
See: Mon-Myan Language: Speech and Script
- MonMyan-indx.htm > spk-all-indx.htm > spk-all01.htm (linki chk 151222)

The problem becomes compounded when Bur-Myan {a.} is involved, because it had been thought to be a nasal. It is true that Nyal {a.} is a nasal, and a Palatal-nasal at that. However, by taking Nyagyi {a.} to be the Palatal-approximant sitting side-by-side with the Velar-approximant Yapalet {ya.} /j/, the problem of two aksharas vying for the same cell r2c5 is solved. See Rime and Rhyme in - Romabama-rule1-2.htm (link chk 151221)

(Alt0198) in combination with (Alt0209) to denote spellings involving vowel-letter {} , e.g.,

{.} - guest - MED2010-625 

AI (cap a + cap i) to represent vowel-letter {I.}

The pronunciation of the name Bur-Myan {ai~a.ra.mu-li} & Skt-Dev इसरमूल 
(Aristolochia indica Nagathain vol. 4, p.061) is always a problem because the vowel used is the vowel letter {I.} & इ with the pronunciation / {i.}/. If we were to include the vowel letter, we get {AI~a.mu-li}.


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grapheme: b

- UKT 150412, 150810

is U00D7 or Alt+0223 . See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%9F 150810
- though known as "Latin Small Letter Sharp S", because of its shape which looks alike "Cap B", I have tentatively chosen it to represent Mon-Myan {a.} and {}.

The phoneme /b/ was probably not present in Skt-Dev, because the Skt-Dev akshara is clearly invented from akshara {wa.} just as in the case of /v/. See grapheme: v .

{wa.} व + diagonal line --> {ba.} ब 

With the inclusion of Mon-Myan, Romabama needs 2 additional glyphs for Consonantal Row#7, to represent sounds similar to /b/. I have tentatively identified the 5 sounds of Row#7 as {ha.} {La.} {a.} {a.} {} 


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grapheme: d

(Alt0240) (Latin small letter Eth)
in row-3 akshara {a.}  : [UKT 150410: bookmark for {a.} - d3a1 ]
(Caution: the vd-pronunciation of English-Latin <>/<th> is also given as //)

(Alt0208) (Latin cap letter Eth)
for row-3 akshara {a.} : [UKT 150410: bookmark for {a.} - DD3a1 ]

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grapheme: e

The usual Eng-Latin definitions of diacritics do not apply in Romabama. For example, (Alt0201) is given as the 'Latin small letter E with acute accent' and (Alt0232) as the 'Latin small letter E with grave accent. In Romabama they simply stand for mid-front vowels, being more 'close' than .

See also graphemes (Alt0230) and (Alt0198) above.

(Alt0201) , for vowel-letter {} in onset-consonant, e.g.

{-ka.} - acre -- MED2010-613
{nhIk} derived from {nheik}
{yw} derived from {ru} pronounced as / /{rw.}/
{i} derived from {.} --> {i.}
{l-kaung:} derived from {l-kaung:}

UKT 121202, 150411: The writers-on-palm-leaves, had always a reason to economise on space, and had used {l-kaung:} to save space. You will note that the shape of Bur-Myan numeral Four {l:} pronounced as {l:} 'bow' has the same shape as the first part of {l-kaung:}. I have seen such shortened form. e.g. {} written as - which of course is not legal. When the word {} is used as a sentence ender, the readers can easily identify it.

(Alt0233) for {}, e.g.

{:hkym:} - peaceful - MED2010-614 

UKT 161007: If only the effect of killed-{sha.} was similar to that of killed-{sa.}, a pronunciation similar to {ic} will be realized. See - MC-indx.htm > MCv1pp-indx.htm > p004.htm (link chk 161007).
  Because of uncertainty in case of other dental-approximants, I had planned to give only {sh} or {esh}/{sh}. However, becoming more familiar with fricative sounds, I will use {sh} and {sh}

(Alt0200) , for words such as:

{a.Daip~p} - meaning, sense - MED2010-565
or alternately {a.Daip~pa}.

: (Alt0232) for {:},

{:maung:} - n. . lance adorned with a long tassel used by the royal cavalry.
. gong used in ancient times to alert soldiers at night. - MED2010-615 

UKT 150411: {:maung:} with {:} (2 blk + emphasis) is a Bur-Myan word. Since Mon-Myan has no register with emphasis, the word is not Mon-Myan.

{:.} (1/2 blk); {} (2 blk); {:} (2 blk + emphasis)

The Romabama {:.} is derived from Tamil visarga ஃ (U+0B83).


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grapheme: f - see also v

Labio-dental sounds, /f/ and /v/ are missing in Bur-Myan. It is also possible that they were absent in Vedic in days before Panini formalization of Vdic (Tib-Bur) into Classical Sanskrit (IE). Now that Romabama is to be used for BEPS (Burmese-English-Pali-Sanskrit speeches), there is a need to invent new glyphs from the nearest existing ones:

{fa.}  from  {hpa.} फ
{va.}  from {ba.} ब (derived from {wa.} व /w/ )

The process of creating new glyphs from the nearest existing ones seems to be a regular process when one Abugida-Akshara language has to be transcribed into another. Because I am a Tib-Bur speaker, I have chosen my source aksharas from the bi-Labials. In U Hoke Sein PMD pages {hsa.} & {za.}, we see what I take to be examples for this process.

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grapheme: h 

hin (hi + Alt0228} - a difficult and controversial vowel is met in Pal-Myan {ta.hin}. See UHS PMD0436
The Dot-above {::tn} is {ng} in the Kinsi-form.


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gapheme: i

in (i + Alt0228) - a difficult and controversial vowel is met in Skt-Myan {in~ha.} - the equivalent of {i-ha.} 'lion'. The Dot-above {::tn} in {in~ha.} is {ng} in the Kinsi-form.


(Alt0239) and ~ (Tilde) to represent {king:si:} :
the term literally means 'ridden by a centipede' and stands for a rime ending in killed {nga.}: {ng}

{ n~ga.laip} - n. English - MED2010-622

(Alt0236) for denoting {re:hkya. a.t} or ending in a killed Nyal as in { }

{y} - n. vehicle; craft - MED2010-386

(Alt0237) for denoting {a.w-hto: a-t} as

{hkt} - n. . extent; domain . age; period; era; times - MED2010-064
- sounds like /kʰɪt/ - UKT100615

UKT 161007: If only the effect of killed-{sha.} was similar to that of killed-{sa.}, a pronunciation similar to {ic} will be realized. See - MC-indx.htm > MCv1pp-indx.htm > p004.htm (link chk 161007).
  Because of uncertainty in case of other dental-approximants, I had planned to give only {sh} or {esh}/{sh}. However, becoming more familiar with fricative sounds, I will use {sh} and {sh}


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grapheme: k

- UKT 150420

Superficially speaking, there should have been no transcription difficulty in Bur-Myan {ka.} into English, unless you notice that the IE speakers (English) cannot differentiate {hka.} from {ka.}. They could only hear them as "allophones" of /k/. However on narrow transcription IPA has to show the difference as {ka.} = [k], and {hka.} = [kʰ].

In transcription and pronunciation of English words like <skin> into Bur-Myan, the <sk> is found to be difficult, because the <s> in <sk> is an unknown phoneme in Bur-Myan. It is not palatal plosive-stop {sa.} च but dental hissing fricative {Sa.} ष.

Remember to differentiate
  {sa.} च ,  {c} च्
  {Sa.} ष ,  {S} ष्

And in <skin>, <sk> is {S~ka.} ष्क (shortened to {Ska.}). Throw in Skt-Dev Pseudo-Kha {kSa.} क्ष (shortened to {kSa.}, and we have to remember further that:

{kSa.} क्ष  is derived from <-- क ् ष , and
{S~ka.} ष्क is derived from <-- ष ् क

The Skt-Dev क्ष  conjunct is fairly important in Sanskrit language. It is more important than Kha {hka.} ख because of which I have been calling it Pseudo-Kha {kSa.} क्ष . See A Practical Sanskrit dictionary by A. A. Macdonell, (in Skt-Dev) 1893:
- MC-indx.htm > MCc1pp-indx.htmp077.htm , p078.htm &  p079-1.htm - for Pseudo-Kha {kSa.} क,
and, - p079-2.htm & p080.htm - for Regular Kha {hka.} ख

Go further into Skt-Dev, when we find words like अस्खलित [ a-skhalita ] 'uninterrupted', 'unhindered' , 'not coming to a standstill' , when we have to deal with {S~hka.}. The <h>, here, can be a problem. Because of that, there is a need to introduce {Ka.} to represent {hka.}. Then we can have {SKa.}.
See Differentiation of capital and small letters - Romabama-rule1-2.htm (link chk 151222)

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grapheme: n, ng, ny

n either in the onset or in the coda presents no difficult. However as digraphs <ng> and <ny> there are problems.

{na:.} नः (1/2 blk),  {na.} न (1 blk), {na} ना (2 blk), {na:} (2 blk + emphasis)
The equivalent of Mon-Myan & Skt-Dev  {na:.} नः in Bur-Myan is {naa.} - the vowel-duration is 1/2 blk.

(Alt0241) (Latin small letter N with Tilde) for Nyal {a.} corresponding to Eng-Lat digraph ny .
  However, remember the English digraph ny  can also mean {n~ya} /nə.ja/ or  {na.ya.pn.} {nya.} .
  This shows that you must differentiate Nyal {a.} from Na'ya'pin {nya.} .

{hkyi} - adj. sour; acid. v. turn sour; acid - MED2010-072 

(Alt0209) for Nya'gyi {a.}: different from Ny'al {a.}:

{a.} /ɲa/ - n. night - MED2010-156 
{.} - guest - MED2010-625 
{Z:} - n. shopkeeper, bazaar seller - MED2006-155
   {Z:} - same as {Z:} : not listed by MLC - UKT130817
   {Z:} & {Z:w} : commonly used in Mandalay during our stay in
   Mandalay Arts & Sc. Univ. , for bazaar "seller" and "buyer" - UKT13817
{pr} /prji/ - n. . country. . royal city. . abode - MED2006-289
   {} /thi/ - . particle suffix -- MED2006-515
   {} - v. to carry, transport - MED2006-521

The problem of {a.} & {a.} vying for cell r2c5 is solved when the former is identified as a nasal, and the latter to be an approximant of the same palatal group. This necessitates {ya.} /j/ to be moved to velar group.

One argument in favor of moving {ya.} to velar lies in the idea that Myanmar akshara was well thought out by the designer, who had simply flipped {ka.} (at the top of the column) to get {ya.} (the approximant). Both are in the same column - the Velars. However, flipping {pa.} (at the top of the Bilabial column) does not give the approximant as {ga.}. It gives {wa.}. But remember the {wa.} is also the {lon:kri:tn} the vowel /i/.

I wonder if this is the explanation for Bur-Myan Abugida-Akshara {ti.} becoming
the combination თ 'Tan' + ი 'In' in the Georgian Alphabet-Letter. We find this in the
name of the capital city of Georgia - Tbilisi .

Ng or Gn ? :

UKT 151223: The absence of a suitable Letter-monograph to represent Bur-Myan {nga.} and Mon-Myan {gna.}. So we are stuck with the Letter-digraph Ng . Remember, I was born and spent my childhood in Kungyangon, populated by Mon-Myan who had spoken the Mon dialect of Pegu. Though the present population does not speak their ancestral dialect, many place-names are still pronounced with the old pronunciation. Thus, a village on the Twent-Kungyangon highway by the name meaning Big Pagoda is pronounced in my childhood as Bu'ra'gyi with a clear r sound. However, this is no longer so, and the ra has become ya . I weep for my great-grandmother, Daw Mma {dau-m:ma.}, a pure Mon who hailed from Ma'yan village just a couple of miles from Kungyangon to see her dialect disappearing. What is now toted as Mon is the Matarban dialect not the Peguan - my ancestral dialect. See:
Mon-Myan Language: Speech and Script - MonMyan-indx.htm > MV1874-indx.htm > has-conso.htm (link chk 151223) & Has-vocab-indx.htm (link chk 151223)
3. Notes on the transliteration of Burmese alphabet into Roman characters, and vocal and consonantal sounds of the Peguan or Talaing language, by R. C. Temple, Rangoon 1876,
- Mon-Myan-RCTemple-translit-Bur<> (link chk 151223). 

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grapheme: o

(Alt0244) (Latin small letter O with circumflex) - alternate form for {o}

UKT 081012, 150412: One of the principle objections MLC U Tun Tint has made against Romabama is the choice of <o> for . He points out that <o> is the accepted MLC transcription for {AU} commonly pronounced as / {au:}/.
To remove such objections we may use: {} (081012) . However, the spelling "Ko Tun Tint" is undoubtedly more natural and convenient than "Kou Tun Tint" or "K Tun Tint".

Now that Mon-Myan vowel {ou} has been included in BEPS, the above problem is partially solved.

There is no {ou} in Bur-Myan, but we find it in Mon-Myan. Now listen to the
- {a.wuN}-pair - bk-cndl-v1pair<)) (link chk 151223)
- {a.a.wuN}-pair - bk-cndl-v2pair<)) (link chk 151223)

*OA (digraph) for use in place of {U.} for peak vowels in syllables without consonants in the onset. Be careful of the difference in grapheme shapes between vowel-letter {U.} and palatal nasal consonant {a.}. The difference in shape is in the lengths of the foot. This difference in shape could not be shown in days of the hand operated typewriters and even to the present day by most typesetters with the result that both are represented the same: (foot-length the same).

{OAc~sa} - n.  property; possession - MED2010-625

* ON (trigraph) (Alt0196) for exclusive use {ON}

UKT 150412: {ON} is a very important syllable in Skt-Myan but not in Pal-Myan. It is the first utterance in Hindu (religion), and (Hindu-tainted) Buddhist prayers.

For pure Theravada Buddhist prayers, the first utterance is {an:}. (Hindu-tainted) Buddhist prayers are usually met in Astrological prayers.

OU (digraph). With the inclusion of Mon-Myan, I have to come up with a sound, {ou:}, that is not present in Bur-Myan. The following note is taken from:
Mon-Myan Language: Speech and Script
- MonMyan-indx.htm > spk-all-indx.htm > spk-all01.htm (link chk 151222)

You will notice two sets of vowels in both Bur-Myan & Mon-Myan: {a.wuN} 'beautiful matching pair' and the second {a.a.wuN} 'ugly non-matching pair'. There are three sub-pairs in {a.wuN}, in which the first sub-pair is the short (vow-duration 1 blk), and the second the long (2 blk).

Similarly, there are three sub-pairs in {a.a.wuN}, in which the first sub-pair {} & {:}, does not have such a beautiful relationship. The problem becomes more acute in second sub-pair because Bur-Myan has {au:} only. There is no {ou} in Bur-Myan, but we find it in Mon-Myan. Now listen to the
- {a.wuN}-pair - bk-cndl-v1pair<)) (link chk 151223)
- {a.a.wuN}-pair - bk-cndl-v2pair<)) (link chk 151223)


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graphemes: r & rh, and y & yh

In Bur-Myan there are two semi-consonants, which are known in other languages as semi-vowels. They are {ya.} /j/ and {ra.} /ɹ/ . Both are non-rhotic, but in Rakhine dialect of Bur-Myan, and in Pal-Myan {ra.} becomes somewhat rhotic, but not as rhotic as in Skt-Dev. They are classed by IPA as fricative-approximants, and in akshara languages they are named {a.wag} "non-classifiable". When they are modified by medial-former {ha.} into {ha.hto:}, their pronunciation becomes definitely hissing-sibilant similar to IPA /ʃ/. Because of this MLC uses both of them to represent  /ʃ/. Romabama has to name them as {yha} & {rha}.

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grapheme: Ri {iRi.} & ॠ {iRi}

- UKT 140512, 150412, 151223

There are two Skt-Dev vowels not present in Bur-Myan. One produces the highly rhotic Sanskrit sounds commonly found in Skt-Dev texts of Classical Sanskrit of Panini.

There is another opposing pair with lateral sounds ऌ {iLi.} & ॡ {iLi}. They are said to be present in Vdic, but almost unknown in Classical Sanskrit. The following scheme is from A Practical Sanskrit Introductory by Charles Wikner
http://sanskritdocuments.org/learning_tutorial_wikner/index.html 110528


The Skt-Dev grapheme of the Classical Sanskrit ऋ is realized in words like the Rig ऋक् of Rig veda. How to represent this sound graphically has been a problem for some time. I was thinking to use {yRi.} [With this note, I remember my old Organic Chemistry lecturer from Kerala State in India, Mr. B. K. Menon, who always pronounce <yellow> as <ellow>.] However, it is now realized that the best way is {iRi.} (1 blk) & {iRi} (2 blk), because it is vowel by itself. By taking {iRi} & {iRi} to be vowels, gives the vowel-signs as (1 blk) & (2 blk).

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graphemes: s  and S

We have only palatal plosive-stop {sa.}, and so dental hissing fricative {Sa.} has to be invented for imported words.

UKT 150409: Though same glyph is used in Bur-Myan, {sa.}-palatal and {Sa.}-dental, I have different glyphs in AK subfolder. They are associated with with killed-forms, {c} and {S}. And we have:
  {sa.} च ,  {c} च्
  {Sa.} ष ,  {S} ष्

Romabama spells English <kiss> as {kiS} with a hissing sound at the end. Do not spell it as {kic} because it will end with a stop. The English word <Miss> is {miS} .

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grapheme: kS {kSa.} क्ष - the Pseudo-Kha

Though the regular-Kha {hka.} is exclusively used in Bur-Myan and Pal-Myan, many words which are derived from Skt-Dev are spelled with what I am calling pseudo-Kha. Since there is no escape, I might as well recognize {kSa.} क्ष as a dedicated grapheme of pseudo-Kha. Note there is no ~ between k & S to be in conformity the way {hka.} is usually represented kh .

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grapheme: sh {sha.}

- UKT 150412

Skt-Dev akshara श sha can be killed without breaking up as श् . This phone is spelled in Bur-Myan either as {hya.} or {rha.} as medials. Since a medial in Bur-Myan phonology cannot be killed, there is no way to present श् - the killed श sha, and I have to invent a new glyph from the existing ones:

We have only palatal plosive-stop {sa.}, and so dental hissing dental-fricative {Sa.} is invented. Then,
{Sa.} + {ha.hto:} -->  {sha.}

Note: Though {sa.} & {Sa.} use the same glyph, the former is the palatal plosive-stop, and the latter the dental hissing-approximant. However, the two are represented differently in the Romabama coda: {c} & {S}.

We note that MLC {rha.} with IPA /ɹ/ is easily mistaken for /r/ . It is not tenable from phonetics point of view. But since we are so used to it now, that Romabama has to bow to custom and write as {sha.} for Bur-Myan, but will keep for Skt-Myan.

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grapheme: u


The English <u> has 2 sounds, /ʌ/ and /ʊ/, exemplified in <but> /bʌt/ (DJPD16-075) and <put> /pʊt/ (DJPD16-436. To differentiate them in Romabama, I am using the forms of u as, <> for /ʌ/ and <u> for /ʊ/. Thus,

{bt} /bʌt/
{pwut} /pʊt/

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grapheme: v

- UKT 150412 . See also grapheme: b

Labio-dental sounds, /f/ and /v/ are missing in Bur-Myan. Now that Romabama is to be used for BEPS (Burmese-English-Pali-Sanskrit speeches), there is a need to include graphemes to represent these sounds in the Myanmar script. Yet, I was very reluctant to 'invent' new written characters. I have now no way out but to craft them out. I have chosen {hpa.} and {ba.} the nearest to /f/ and /v/. Instead of {hpa.}, I should have chosen the tenuis {pa.}, however, because of the absence of the tenuis in English (unless preceded by /s/), I have to use the voiceless-aspirate {hpa.} with a (ha-hto:}.

And now Romabama is now representing {fa.} and {va.} .

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grapheme: y

(Alt0253) (Latin small letter Y with Acute) for "killed {ya.}" {ya.t}

{k-hs} - v.  save; rescue - MED2010-024

The {ya.t} is important to bring out the difference in Bur-Myan "tones".

{k.} (1 blk), {k} (2 blk), {k:} (2 blk + emphasis)


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grapheme: yh

See rh above.


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UKT notes


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