Update: 2012-10-31 02:09 AM +0630


Pali-English Dictionary

a1.htm : beginning to be split into  p001.htm, p002.htm, p003.htm, etc

Ľ by The Pali Text Society, T. W. Rhys Davids, William Stede, editors, 1921-5.8 [738pp in two columns], reprint 1966 
Ą California Digital Library :  http://archive.org/details/palitextsocietys00pali 121015
   Downloaded and edited by by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Downloaded: palitextsocietys00pali.pdf 

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Comparing Pal-Myan {ak~kha.} to Skt-Dev अक्ष = अ क ् ष
because the conjunct {kSa.} क्ष = क ् ष  behaves as a pseudo {hka.}
in many common words of Pali & Sanskrit. -- UKT121009

{a.} & {ńn} - a1-indx.htm
  - p001 
{a.ka.} & velar coda: {ak} [ {ak~kha.}] {ag} {ing}
  - p002  p003  p004  p005  p006 p007
{a.sa.} & palatal coda: {ic} {iz} {}
  - p008  p009  p010  p011  p012

UKT: 120109 the following to be put into new format.
[Note to TIL editor: beware of a page ending in the middle of an entry. What is left is at the top of the next file: p004 is an example. There are other similar files. ]
p013 p014 p000 p000 p000 p000 p000
{a.Ta.} & retroflex coda: {űT} {ű­} {űN}
p000 p000 p000 p000 p000 p015 p016 p017 p000 p000
{a.ta.} & dental coda: {űt {űd} {űn
p000 p000 p000 p000 p000 p000 p000 p000 p018 p019
p020 p021 p022 p023 p024 p025 p026 p027 p028 p029
p030 p031 p032 p033 p034 p035 p036 p037 p038 p039
p040 p041 p042 p043 p044 p045 p046 p047 p048 p049
p050 p000 p000 p000 p000 p000 p000 p000 p000 p000
{a.pa.} & bilabial coda: {űp} {űb} {űm}
p000 p051 p052 p053 p054 p055 p056 p057 p058 p059
p060 p061 p062 p063 p064 p065 p066 p067 p068 p069
p070 p071 p072 p073 p074 p000 p000 p000 p000 p000
{a.ya.} & semiconsonant coda: {Ŕř} {al} {aw}
p000 p000 p000 p000 p000 p075 p076 p077 p078 p079
p080 p081 p082 p083 p084 p085 p086 p000 p000 p000
{a.■a.} & fricative coda: {a■}
p000 p000 p000 p000 p000 p000 p000 p087 p088 p089
p090 p091 p092 p000 p000 p000 p000 p000 p000 p000

UKT notes
Ľ Kinsi-representation {king:si:}
Ľ Nasal sounds in Bur-Myan
Ľ Retroflex tenuis plosive-stop
Ľ Voiced retroflex plosive-stop

UKT: My interest in this file is to see how PTS differentiates the 'dot-above' aka {■Ú:■Ú:ting}  from the 'centipede-ridden' aka {king:si:}  (derived from {ing} /ɪŋ/).
   Secondly, I would like to see how the English short <a> {a.} -- the 'inherent vowel' of the Bur-Myan akshara -- is checked by the 'killed' nasals:
   {ing} /ɪŋ/ p006 {} /ɪɲ/ p013 {űN} /ʌɳ/ p017
   {űn} /ʌn/ p030 {űm} /ʌm/ p074
This is important because, in place of five Burmese nasals, English has only two, /n/ and /m/ -- or three, if you were to include /ŋ/. The paucity of nasals in English is perhaps the biggest obstacle in my transcription work - how to change Romabama from a transliteration to a transcription.
   Thirdly, what about the 'killed' non-nasals of the {wag}-group? Bur-Myan only allows the 'killed' tenuis (voiceless) consonants, the c1-consonants, to check the short vowels:
   {ak} /Šk/ p001, {ic} /ɪc/ p007, {űT} /ʌʈ/ p015 . See my note on retroflex .
   {űt} /ʌt/ p022, {űp} /ʌp/ p055
The problem of the third question is compounded because English does not have the IPA [p] sounds: it has only IPA [pʰ]. The [p] and [pʰ] are lumped together as allophones of /p/. Note: I avoid using the narrow-phonetic square-brackets [...] unless it is absolutely necessary as in this case. I usually write /p/ and /pʰ/. The [p] is realized only after <s> as in <spin>. Otherwise it is only the [pʰ] as in <pin>. On the other hand, the Bur-Myan speakers, unless trained, cannot pronounce the English <sp>: they usually put in a schwa after <s>. The Bur-Myan speaker would pronounce <spin> as /sə.pɪn/ - a disyllable. When the native-English speaker pronounces <pin>, the Burmese hears it as {hpin} 'anus'.
   We have mentioned the {wag}-group above, which leads us to the question of the 'killed' non-nasals of the {a.wag}-group. Perhaps it would be useful to remind the reader that the {a.wag}-group of oral consonants is made up of: four semi-consonants sic semi-vowels {ya.}, {ra.}, {la.} {wa.}, a lone dental-fricative thibilant {■a.} in Bur-Myan and three dental-fricative sibilants श = {sha.}, ष= {sa.},  स = {■a.} in Skt-Dev, and a lone deep-h {ha.} = ह .
   {} /?/ p075 , {ar} (not listed), {al} p079, {aw} p086
   {a■} p089 
   {ah} (not listed)


UKT personal note: The more I learn about Life - my Life at the age 77 - the more I need a personal attitude towards others. I want to live a blameless life, and I no longer have any intension to grumble and find fault in others: Can I say that my attitude is thus? -- UKT111209
-- [an + upavāda] not blaming or finding fault, abstaining from grumbling or abuse Dh 185 (anūpa˚ in metre; expld at DhA iii.238 as anupavādana˝ c'eva anupavādāpana˝ ca "not scolding as well as not inciting others to grumbling"); adj. ˚vādaka Pug 60, & ˚vādin M i.360. --
   It is the opposite of:
-- [fr. anuvadatī, cp. Sk. anuvāda in meaning of "repetition"] 1. blaming, censure, admonition Vin ii.5, 32; A ii.121 (atta˚, para˚); Vbh 376. -- 2. in combn. vādÔnuvāda: talk and lesser or additional talk, i. e. "small talk" (see anu B iv.) D i.161; M i.368.
-- adhikaraṇa a question or case of censure Vin ii.88 sq.; iii.164 (one of the 4 adhikaraṇāni, q. v.). --
p042 -- UKT111213


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-- ╣ the prep. ā shortened before double cons., as akko- sati (ā + kruś), akkhāti (ā + khyā), abbahati (ā + bṛh). -- Best to be classed here is the a -- we call expletive. It represents a reduction of ā -- (mostly before liquids and nasals and with single consonant instead of double). Thus anantaka (for ā -- nantaka = nantaka) Vv.807; amajjapa (for ā -- majjapa = majjapa) J vi.328; amāpaya (for āmāpaya = māpaya) J vi.518; apassato (= passantassa) J vi.552.

a {a.}
-- (an -- before vowels) [Vedic a -- , an -- ; Idg. *n̊, gradation form to *ne (see na2); Gr. a), a)n -- ; Lat. *en -- , in -- ; Goth., Ohg. & Ags. un -- ; Oir. an -- , in -- ] neg. part. prefixed to (1) nouns and adjectives; (2) verbal forms, used like (1), whether part., ger., grd. or inf.; (3) finite verbal forms. In compn. with words having originally two initial cons. the latter reappear in their assimilated form (e. g. appaṭicchavin). In meaning it equals na -- , nir -- and vi -- . Often we find it opp. to sa -- . Verbal negatives which occur in specific verb. function will be enumd. separately, while examples of neg. form. of (1) & (2) are given under their positive form unless the neg. involves a distinctly new concept, or if its form is likely to lead to confusion or misunderstanding. -- Concerning the combining & contrasting (orig. neg.) -- a -- (Ô) in redupl. formations like bhavÔ -- bhava see ā4.

a {a.}
-- [Vedic a -- ; Idg. *e (loc. of pron. stem, cp. ayaŋ; orig. a deictic adv. with specific reference to the past, cp. Sk sma); Gr. e) -- ; also in Gr. e)kei_, Lat. equidem, enim] the augment (sign of action in the past), prefixed to the root in pret., aor. & cond. tenses; often omitted in ordinary prose. See forms under each verb; cp. also ajja. Identical with this a -- is the a -- which functions as base of some pron. forms like ato, attha, asu etc. (q. v.).

a {a.}
-- 4 the sound a (a -- kāra) J vi.328, 552; VvA 279, 307, 311.


aŋsa {ńn-■a} 

If the PTS źaŋ╗ had meant a {nga.■űt}, we would get {´n~■a.}. UHS spells it with {■Ú:■Ú:ting}: {ńn-■a}. However, it appears that by źaŋ╗, PTS means a {■Ú:■Ú:ting}. Then our problem is to find how to represent a {nga.■űt} {king:si:}. Down below, we find źanka╗. Since its equivalent is   {´n~ka.}, PTS is representing {nga.■űt} {king:si:} with źan╗. This leads us to the question of representation of {na.■űt}. See {űn~ta.}. PTS has spelled this word as źanta╗, placing it in the same class as {king:si:}. That brings us back to źaŋ╗. The problem is IPA has used /ŋ/ to represent the velar nasal and I hold that {■Ú:■Ú:ting} is not velar: it has no definite POA (Place of Articulation)! Its pronunciation is /ʌn/ and not /ɪn/. I am waiting for input from my peers.  -- UKT111213

-- ╣ [Vedic aŋsa; cp. Gr. w)_mos, Lat. umerus, Goth ams, Arm. us] (a) the shoulder A v. 110; Sn 609. aŋse karoti to put on the shoulder, to shoulder J i.9. (b.) a part (lit. side) (cp. ˚āsa in koṭṭhāsa and expln of aŋsa as koṭṭhāsa at DA i.312, also v. l. mettāsa for mettaŋsa at It 22). -- atīt'aŋse in former times, formerly D ii.224; Th 2, 314. mettaŋsa sharing friendship (with) A iv.151 = It 22 = J iv.71 (in which connection Miln 402 reads ahiŋsā). -- Disjunctive ekena aŋsena . . . ekena aŋsena on the one hand (side) . . . on the other, partly . . . partly A i.61. From this: ekaŋsa (adj.) on the one hand (only), i. e. incomplete (opp. ubhayaŋsa) or (as not admitting of a counterpart) definite, certain, without doubt (opp. dvidhā): see ekaŋsa. -- paccaŋsena according to each one's share A iii.38. puṭaŋsena with a knapsack for provisions D i.117; A ii 183; cp. DA i.288, with v. l. puṭosena at both passages.
-- kūṭa "shoulder prominence", the shoulder Vin iii.127; DhA iii.214; iv.136; VvA 121. -- vaṭṭaka a shoulder strap (mostly combd with kāyabandhana; vv. ll. ˚vaddhaka, ˚bandhaka) Vin i.204 (T. ˚bandhaka); ii.114 (ddh); iv.170 (ddh); Vv 3340 (T. ˚bandhana, C. v. l. ˚vaṭṭaka); DhA iii.452.
Ą {ńn-■a}
- UHS0001

UKT from UHS: 1. m. part, portion, share, {´n~■a}. 2. m. shoulder


aŋsa {ńn~■a.}
-- ▓ [see next] point, corner, edge; freg. in combn with numerals, e. g. catur˚ four -- cornered, chaḷ˚, aṭṭh˚, soḷas˚ etc. (q. v.) all at Dhs 617 (cp. DhsA 317). In connection with a Vimāna: āyat˚ with wide or protruding capitals (of its pillars) Vv 8415; as part of a carriage-pole Vv 642 (= kubbara -- phale patiṭṭhitā heṭṭhima -- aŋsā VvA 265).


aŋsi {ńn~■i.}
-- (f.) [cp. Vedic aśri, aśra, aśani; Gr. a)/kros pointed, a)/kris, also o)cu/s sharp: Lat. ācer sharp. Further connections in Walde Lat. Wtb. under ācer] a corner, edge (= aŋsa2) Vv 782 (= aŋsa -- bhāga VvA 303).
Ą {ńn~■i.}
- - UHS0001

UKT from UHS: f. projection, edge


aŋsu {ńn~■u.}
- [cp. Sk. aŋśu (Halāyudha) a ray of light] a thread Vin iii.224. -- mālin, sun Sāsv 1.
Ą {ńn~■u.}
- - UHS0001

UKT from UHS: m. thread, ray

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akaṭa {a.ka.ta.}
-- (adj.) [a + kaṭa] not made, not artificial, natural; ˚yūsa natural juice Vin i.206.


akampiyatta {a.kűm~pi.yűt~ta.}
-- (nt.) [abstr. fr. akampiya, grd. of a + kampati] the condition of not being shaken, stableness Miln 354.


-- (cp. agalu) an ointment J iv.440 (akalu˝ candana˝ ca, v. l. BB aggaluŋ; C. expls as kālÔkalu˝ ca rattacandana˝ ca, thus implying a blacking or dark ointment); vi.144 (˚candana -- vilitta; v. l. BB aggalu˚); Miln 338 (˚tagara -- tālīsaka -- lohita -- candana).


akāca {a.ka-sa.}
-- (adj.) [a + kāca] pure, flawless, clear D ii.244; Sn 476; J v.203.
Ą {a.ka-sa.}
-- -- UHS-PMD003

UKT from UHS: mfn. unglazed, clear


-- (adj.) = akāca Vv 601. Kern (Toevoegselen s. v.) proposes reading akkācin (= Sk. arka -- arcin shining as the sun), but VvA 253 expls by niddosa, and there is no v. l. to warrant a misreading.


-- (adj. -- n.) [a + kāsika?] "not from the Kāsī -- country" (?); official name of certain tax -- gatherers in the king's service J vi.212 (akāsiya -- sankhātā rāja -- purisā C.).


-- (adj.) [a + kicca + kāra] 1. not doing one's duty, doing what ought not to be done A ii.67; Dh 292; Miln 66; DA i.296. -- 2. ineffective (of medicine) Miln 151.


-- (adj.) [a + kiriya] not practical, unwise, foolish J iii.530 (˚rūpa = akattabba -- rūpa C.); Miln 250.


-- (adj.) [a + kilāsu] not lazy, diligent, active, untiring S i.47; v.162; J i.109; Miln 382.


-- at S i.149 is probably faulty reading for aki˝cana.


-- (adj.) see ku˚.


-- (adj.) [a + kuppa, grd. of kup, cp. BSk. akopya M Vastu iii.200] not to be shaken, immovable; sure, steadfast, safe Vin i.11 (akuppā me ceto -- vimutti) = S ii.239; Vin ii.69; iv.214; D iii.273; M i.205, 298; S ii.171; A iii.119, 198; Miln 361.


-- (f.) [abstr. fr. last] "state of not being shaken", surety, safety; Ep. of Nibbāna Th 1, 364.

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{ak} /Šk/

If you are to browse through DJPD16, you will see that the English short <a> is represented by /Š/, e.g. <bat> /bŠt/ (DJPD16-051); and, most of the words that we would expect to have an open-front vowel has the open-back vowel /ɑ/, e.g. <car> /kɑːʳ/ (US) /kɑːr/ (DJPD16-082), <father> /'fɑː.­|əʳ/ (US) /-ɚ/ (DJPD16-199). Moreover, the native-English speakers from the US and the UK do not usually lip-round their back vowels resulting in their mispronunciation of our Bur-Myan back vowels.

-- [cp. Sk. arka] N. of a plant: Calotropis Gigantea, swallow -- wort M i.429 (˚assa jiyā bowstrings made from that plant).
-- nāla a kind of dress material Vin i.306 (vv. ll. agga˚ & akkha˚). -- vāṭa a kind of gate to a plantation, a movable fence made of the akka plant Vin ii.154 (cp. akkha -- vāṭa).


-- [pp. of akkamati] stepped upon, mounted on A i.8; J i.71; Miln 152; DhA i.200.


-- [ā + kandati, krand] to lament, wail, cry S iv.206.


-- (nt.) [cp. BSk. ākramaṇa Jtm 3158] going near, approaching, stepping upon, walking to J i.62.


-- [ā + kamati, kram] to tread upon, to approach, attack J i.7, 279; ThA 9; -- to rise Vin iii. 38. -- ger. akkamma Cp. iii.72. -- pp. akkanta (q. v.).


-- (adj. n.) [pp. of akkosati] 1. (adj.) being reviled, scolded, railed at Sn 366 (= dasahi akkosavatthūhi abhisatto SnA 364); J vi.187. -- 2. (nt.) reviling, scolding, swearing at; in combn akkuṭṭha -- vandita Sn 702 (= akkosa -- vandana SnA 492) Th 2, 388 (expln ThA 256 as above).


-- (adj.) [= ākula] confused, perplexed, agitated, frightened Ud 5 (akkulopakkula and akkulapakkulika). See ākula.

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-- [ā + kruś = kru˝c, see ku˝ca & ko˝ca2; to sound, root kr̥, see note on gala] shouting at, abuse, insult, reproach, reviling Sn 623; Miln 8 (+ paribhāsa); SnA 492; ThA 256; PvA 243; DhA ii.61.
-- vatthu always as dasa a˚ -- vatthūni 10 bases of abuse, 10 expressions of cursing J i.191; SnA 364, 467; DhA i.212; iv.2.


-- (adj.) [from last] one who abuses, scolds or reviles, + paribhāsaka A ii.58; iii.252; iv.156; v.317; PvA 251.


-- [to krus see akkosa] to scold, swear at, abuse, revile J i.191; ii.416; iii.27; DhA i.211; ii.44. Often combd with paribhāsati, e. g. Vin ii.296; DhA iv.2; PvA 10. -- aor. akkocchi Dh 3; J iii.212 (= akkosi DhA i.43. Der. wrongly fr. krudh by Kacc. vi.417; cp. Franke, Einh. Pāli -- gramm. 37, and Geiger, P. Gr. ž 164). -- pp. akkuṭṭha (q. v.).

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-- ╣ [Vedic akṣa; Av. aÜa; Gr. a)/cwn a(/maca chariot with one axle); Lat. axis; Ohg. etc. ahsa, E. axle, to root of Lat. ago, Sk. aj] the axle of a wheel D ii.96; S v.6; A i.112; J i.109, 192; v.155 (akkhassa phalakaŋ yathā; C.: suvaṇṇaphalakaŋ viya, i. e. shiny, like the polished surface of an axle); Miln 27 (+ īsā + cakka), 277 (atibhārena sakaṭassa akkho bhijjati: the axle of the cart breaks when the load is too heavy); PvA 277. -- akkhaŋ abbha˝jati to lubricate the axle S iv.177; Miln 367.
-- chinna one whose axle is broken; with broken axle S i.57; Miln 67. -- bhagga with a broken axle J v.433. -- bha˝jana the breaking of the axle DhA i.375; PvA 277.


-- ▓ [Vedic akṣa, prob. to akṣi & Lat. oculus, "that which has eyes" i. e. a die; cp. also Lat. ālea game at dice (fr.* asclea?)] a die D i.6 (but expld at DA i.86 as ball -- game: guḷakīḷa); S i.149 = A v.171 = Sn 659 (appamatto ayaŋ kali yo akkhesu dhanaparājayo); J i.379 (kūṭ˚ a false player, sharper, cheat) anakkha one who is not a gambler J v.116 (C.: ajūtakara). Cp. also accha3.
-- dassa (cp. Sk. akṣadarśaka) one who looks at (i. e. examines) the dice, an umpire, a judge Vin iii.47; Miln 114, 327, 343 (dhamma -- nagare). -- dhutta one who has the vice of gambling D ii.348; iii.183; M iii.170; Sn 106 (+ itthidhutta & surādhutta). -- vāṭa fence round an arena for wrestling J iv.81. (? read akka -- ).


-- │ ( -- ˚) [to akkhi] having eyes, with eyes PvA 39 (BB. rattakkha with eyes red from weeping, gloss on assumukha). Prob. akkhaṇa is connected with akkha.


-- [akkha1 + ka] the collar -- bone Vin iv.213 (adhak- khakaŋ); y.216.


-- [a + khaṇa, BSk. akṣaṇa AvŚ i.291 = 332] wrong time, bad luck, misadventure, misfortune. There are 9 enumd at D iii.263; the usual set consists of 8; thus D iii.287; VvA 193; Sdhp 4 sq. See also khaṇa.
-- vedhin (adj. n.) a skilled archer, one who shoots on the moment, i. e. without losing time, expld as one who shoots without missing (the target) or as quickly as lightning (akkhaṇa = vijju). In var. combns.; mostly as durepātin a. A i.284 (+ mahato kāyassa padāletā); ii.170 sq. (id.), 202; iv.423, 425; J ii.91 (expld as either "avirādhita<11> -- vedhī" or "akkhaṇaŋ vuccati vijju": one who takes and shoots his arrows as fast as lightning), iii.322; iv.494 (C. explns aviraddha -- vedhin vijju -- ālokena vijjhana<11> -- samattha p. 497). In other combn at J i.58 (akkhaṇavedhin + vālavedhin); v.129 (the 4 kinds of archers: a., vālavedhin, saddavedhin & saravedhin).
In BSk. we find akṣuṇṇavedha (a Sanskritised Pāli form, cp. Mathurā kṣuṇa = Sk. kṣaṇa) at Divy 58, 100, 442 (always with dūrevedha), where MSS. however read akṣuṇa˚; also at Lal. Vist. 178. See Divy Index, where trsln is given as "an act of throwing the spear so as to graze the mark" (Schiefner gives "Streifschuss"). -
Note. The explanations are not satisfactory. We should expect either an etym. bearing on the meaning "hitting the centre of the target" (i. e. its "eye") (cp. E. bull's eye), in which case a direct relation to akkha = akkhi eye would not seem improbable (cp. formation ikkhana) or an etym. like "hitting without mishap", in which case the expression would be derived directly from ak khaṇa (see prec.) with the omission of the neg. an -- ; akkhaṇa in the meaning of "lightning" (J ii.91 C.) is not supported by literary evidence.


-- (adj.) [pp. of a + kṣan, cp. parikkhata1] unhurt, without fault Mhvs 19, 56 (C. niddosa). -- acc. akkhataŋ (adv.) in safety, unhurt. Only in one phrase Vv 8452 (paccāgamuŋ Pāṭaliputtaŋ akkhataŋ) & Pv iv.111 (nessāmi taŋ Pāṭaliputtaŋ akkhataŋ); see VvA 351 & PvA 272.


-- (adj.) [a + khaya, kṣi] not decaying, in akkhaya- paṭibhāna, of unfailing skill in exposition Miln 3, 21.


-- (adj.) [Vedic akṣara] constant, durable, lasting D iii.86. As tt. for one of 4 branches of Vedic learning (D i.88) it is Phonetics which probably included Grammar, and is expld by sikkhā (DA i.247 = SnA 477) <-> pl. nt. akkharāni sounds, tones, words. citt'akkhara of a discourse (suttanta) having variety & beauty of words or sounds (opposed to beauty of thought) A i.72 = iii.107 = S ii.267. Akkharāni are the sauce, flavour (vya˝jana) of poetry S i.38. To know the context of the a˚ the words of the texts, is characteristic of an Arahant Dh 352 (C. is ambiguous DhA iv.70). Later: akkharaŋ a syllable or sound PvA 280 (called sadda in next line); akkharāni an inscription J ii.90; iv.7 (likhitāni written), 489; vi.390, 407. In Grammar: a letter Kacc. 1.
-- cintaka a grammarian or versifier KhA 17; SnA 16, 23, 321. cp. 466; PvA 120. -- pabheda in phrase sakkharappabheda phonology & etymology D i.88 (akkharappabhedo ti sikkhā ca nirutti ca SnA 447 = DA i.247) = A iii.223 = Sn p. 105. -- piṇḍa "word -- ball", i. e. sequence of words or sounds DhA iv.70 (= akkharānaŋ sannipāto Dh 352).


-- (f.) a game (recognising syllables written in the air or on one's back). D i.7; Vin ii.10; iii.180. So expld at DA i.86. It may be translated "letter game"; but all Indian letters of that date were syllables.


-- (adj.) [pp. of akkhāti] announced, proclaimed, told, shown A i.34 (dur˚); ii.195; iv.285, 322; v.265, 283; Sn 172, 276, 595, 718.


-- one who relates, a speaker, preacher, story -- teller S i.11, 191; iii.66; Sn 167.


-- [ā + khyā, Idg. *sequ; cp. Sk. ākhyāti, Lat. inquam, Gr. e)nne/pw, Goth. saihvan, Ger. sehen etc. See also akkhi & cakkhu] to declare, announce, tell Sn 87, 172; imper. akkhāhi Sn 988, 1085; aor. akkhāsi Sn 251, 504, 1131 (= ācikkhi etc. Nd2 465); fut. akkhissati Pv iv.163; cond. akkhissaŋ Sn 997; J vi.523. -- Pass. akkhāyati to be proclaimed, in phrase aggaŋ a. to be deemed chief or superior, to be first, to excel Miln 118, 182 (also in BSk. agram ākhyāyate M Vastu iii.390); ger. akkheyya to be pronounced S i.11; It 53. -- pp. akkhāta (q. v.). -- Intensive or Frequentative is ācikkhati.


-- (nt.) [Sk. ākhyāna] telling stories, recitation; tale, legend D i.6 (= DA i.84: Bhārata -- Rāmāyanādi); iii.183; M i.503; iii.167; Sdhp. 237. -- preaching, teaching Nd1 91 (dhamm˚). The 5th Veda J v.450. (vedam akkhānapa˝camaŋ; C: itihāsapa˝camaŋ vedacatukkaŋ). -- The spelling ākhyāna also occurs (q. v.).

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-- (adj.) relating, narrating J iii.535; lokakkhāyikā kathā talk about nature -- lore D i.8; Miln 316.


-- (adj.) telling, relating, announcing S ii.35; iii.7; J iii.105.


-- (nt.) [to *oks, an enlarged form of *oqu, cp. Sk. īkṣate, kṣaṇa, pratīka, anīka; Gr. o)/sse, w)/y (*ku/klwy), o)fqalmo/s, pro/swpon; Lat. oculus, Ags. ēowan (= E eye & wind -- ow); Goth. augō. See also cakkhu & cp. akkha2 & ikkhaṇika] the eye M i.383 (ubbhatehi akkhīhi); Sn 197, 608; J i.223, 279; v.77; vi.336; Pv ii.926 (akkhīni paggharanti: shed tears, cp. PvA 123); VvA 65 (˚īni bhamanti, my eyes swim) cp. akkhīni me dhūmāyanti DhA i.475; DhA ii.26; iii.196 (˚īni ummīletvā opening the eyes); Sdhp 103, 380. -- In combn with sa -- as sacchi & sakkhi (q. v.). As adj. ( -- ˚) akkha3 (q.v.).
-- a˝jana eye ointment, collyrium DhA iii.354. -- kūpa the socket of the eye J iv.407. -- gaṇḍa eye -- protuberance, i. e. eye -- brow (?) J vi.504 (for pamukha T.). -- gūtha secretion from the eye PvA 198. -- gūthaka id. Sn 197 (= dvīhi akkhicchiddehi apanīta -- ttaca -- maŋsasadiso a˚ -- gūthako SnA 248). -- chidda the eye -- hole SnA 248. -- dala the eye -- lid DA i.194; ThA 259; DhsA 378. -- pāta "fall of the eye", i. e. a look, in mand˚ of soft looks (adj.) PvA 57. -- pūra an eye -- full, in akkhipūraŋ assuŋ (assu?) an eye full of tears J vi.191. -- mala dirt from the eye Pv iii.53 (= ˚gūtha C.). -- roga eye disease DhA i.9.


-- ╣ ( -- ˚) (adj.) having eyes, with eyes Th 1,960 (a˝jan˚ with eyes anointed); DhA iv.98 (aḍḍh˚ with half an eye, i. e. stealthily); Sdhp 286 (tamb˚ red -- eyed). -- an˚ having no eyes DhA i.11.


-- ▓ (nt.) [cp. Sk. akṣa] the mesh of a net J i.208. -- hāraka one who takes up a mesh (?) M i.383 (corresp. with aṇḍahāraka).


-- ╣ see khitta.


-- ▓ (adj.) [BSk ākṣipta Divy 363, pp. of ā + kṣip] hit, struck, thrown J iii.255 (= ākaḍḍhita C.).


-- (adj.) = akkhika J iii.190 (mand˚ softeyed); Vv 323 (tamb˚ red -- eyed); DhA i.11.


-- (adj.) [a + kṣubh, see khobha] not to be shaken, imperturbable Miln 21.


-- (adj) = akkhobbha J v.322 (= khobhetun na sakkhā C.).


-- (f.) [= akkhobhiṇī] one of the highest numerals (1 followed by 42 ciphers, Childers) J v.319; vi.395.


-- see khaṇḍa.


-- (adj.) not dug: see khāta.


-- barren -- soil: see khetta. -- In cpd. ˚˝˝u the neg. belongs to the whole: not knowing a good field (for alms) J iv.371.


-- see gati. -- ˚gamana practising a wrong course of life, evil practice, wrong doing D iii.228 (4: chanda˚, dosa˚ moha˚ bhaya˚); A ii.18 sq., J iv.402; v.98, 510; PvA 161.


- [Vedic agada; a + gada] medicine, drug, counter- poison J i.80 (˚harīṭaka); Miln 121, 302, 319, 334; DA i.67; DhA i.215; PvA 198 (= osadhaŋ).


-- (adj.) [cp. Sk. aguru, a + garu] (a) not heavy, not troublesome, only in phrase: sace te agaru "if it does not inconvenience you, if you don't mind" (cp. BSk. yadi te aguru. Av. S i.94, 229; ii.90) Vin. i.25; iv.17, D i.51; DhA i.39. -- (b) disrespectful, irreverent (against = gen.) D i.89; Sn p. 51.


-- [cp. Sk. aguru, which is believed to appear in Hebr. ahālīm (aloe), also in Gr. a)lo/h & a)ga/lloxon] fragrant aloe wood, Agallochum Vv 537 (aggalu = VvA 237 agalugandha); VvA 158 (+ candana). Cp. also Av. Ś i.24, and akalu.


-- (nt.) [cp. Sk. agāra, probably with the a -- of communion; Gr. a)gei(rw to collect, a)gora/ market. Cp. in meaning & etym. gaha1]. -- 1. house or hut, usually implying the comforts of living at home as opp. to anagāra homelessness or the state of a homeless wanderer (mendicant). See anagāriyā. -- Thus freq. in two phrases contrasting the state of a householder (or layman, cp. gihin), with that of a religious wanderer (pabbajita), viz. (a.) kesamassuŋ ohāretvā kāsāyāni vatthāni acchādetvā agārasmā anagāriyaŋ pabbajati "to shave off hair & beard, put on the yellow robes, and wander forth out of the home into the homeless state" D i.60 etc.; cp. Nd2 172ii. See also S i.185 (agārasmā anagāriyaŋ nikkhanta); M ii.55 (agāraŋ ajjhāvasatā); Sn 274, 805 (˚ŋ āvasati), and with pabbajita D i.89, 115, 202, 230; Pv ii.1317. -- (b.) of a "rājā cakkavattin" compared with a "sambuddha": sace agāraŋ āvasati vijeyya paṭhaviŋ imaŋ adaṇḍena asatthena . . . sace ca so pabbajati agārā anagāriyaŋ vivaṭacchado sambuddho arahā bhavissati "he will become the greatest king when he stays at home, but the greatest saint when he takes up the homeless life", the prophesy made for the infant Gotama D ii.16; Sn 1002, 1003. -- Further passages for agāra e. g. Vin i.15; D i.102 (BB. has v. l. agyÔgāra, but DA i.270 expl. as dānÔgāra); A i.156, 281; ii.52 sq.; Dh 14, 140; J i.51, 56; iii.392; Dpvs. i.36. -- 2. anagāra (adj.) houseless, homeless; a mendicant (opp. gahaṭṭha) Sn 628 = Dh 404; Sn 639, 640 (+ paribbaje); Pv ii.25 (= anāvāsa PvA 80). -- (nt.) the homeless state (= anagāriyā) Sn 376. See also agga2. -- 3. ˚āgāra: Owing to freq. occurrence of agāra at the end of cpds. of which the first word ends in a, we have a dozen quite familiar words ending apparently in āgāra. This form has been considered therefore as a proper doublet of agāra. This however is wrong. The long ā is simply a contraction of the short a at the end of the first part of the cpd. with the short a at the beginning of agāra. Of the cpds. the most common are: -- āgantuk˚ reception hall for strangers or guests S iv.219; v.21. -- itth˚ lady's bower S i.58, 89. -- kūṭ˚ a house with a peaked roof, or with gables S ii.103. 263; iii.156; iv.186; v.43; A i.230; iii.10, 364; iv.231; v.21. -- koṭṭh˚ storehouse, granary D i.134 (cp. DA i.295); S i.89. -- tiṇ˚ a house covered with grass S iv.185; A i.101. -- bhus˚ threshing shed, barn A i.241. -- santh˚ a council hall D i.91; ii.147; S iv.182; v.453; A ii.207; iv.179 sq. -- su˝˝˚ an uninhabited shed; solitude S v.89, 157, 310 sq., 329 sq.; A i.241 (v. l. for bhusÔgāra); iii.353; iv.139, 392, 437; v.88, 109, 323 sq.


-- (nt.) [fr. agāra] a small house, a cottage M i.450; J vi.81.


-- (adj.) 1. having a house, in eka˚, dva˚ etc. D i.166 = A i.295 = ii.206. -- 2. a householder, layman Vin i.17. f. agārikā a housewife Vin i.272. See also āgārika.


-- (adj.) [fr. agāra] one who has or inhabits a house, a householder Sn 376, Th i,1009; J iii.234. -- f. agārinī a housewife Vv 527 (= gehassāmmī VvA 225); Pv iii.43 (id. PvA 194).


agāriya = agārika,
-- a layman M i.504 (˚bhūta). -- Usually in neg. anagāriyā (f.) the homeless state (= anagāraŋ) as opp. to agāra (q. v.) in formula agārasmā anagāriyaŋ pabbajita (gone out from the house into the homeless state) Vin i.15; M i.16; ii.55, 75; A i.49; D iii.30 sq., 145 sq.; Sn 274, 1003; Pv ii.1316; DA i.112.

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-- ╣ (adj. n.) [Vedic agra; cp. Av. agrō first; Lith. agrs early] 1. (adj;) (a.) of time: the first, foremost Dpvs iv.13 (sangahaŋ first collection). See cpds. -- (b.) of space: the highest, topmost, J i.52 (˚sākhā). -- (c.) of quality: illustricus, excellent, the best, highest, chief Vin iv.232 (agga -- m -- agga) most excellent, D ii.4: S I.29 (a. sattassa Sambuddha); A ii.17 = Pv iv.347 (lokassa Buddho aggo [A: aggaŋ] pavuccati); It 88, 89; Sn 875 (suddhi); PvA 5. Often combd. with seṭṭha (best), e. g. D ii.15; S iii.83, 264. -- 2. (nt.) top, point. (a.) lit.: the top or tip (nearly always -- ˚); as ār˚ point of an awl Sn 625, 631; Dh 401; kus˚ tip of a blade of grass Dh 70; Sdhp 349; tiṇ˚ id PvA 241; dum˚ top of a tree J ii.155; dhaj˚ of a banner S i.219; pabbat˚ of a mountain Sdhp 352; sākh˚ of a branch PvA 157; etc. -- (b.) fig. the best part, the ideal, excellence, prominence, first place, often to be trsl. as adj. the highest, best of all etc. S ii.29 (aggena aggassa patti hoti: only the best attain to the highest); Mhvs 7, 26. Usually as -- ˚; e. g. dum˚ the best of trees, an excellent tree Vv 3541 (cp. VvA 161); dhan˚ plenty D iii.164; madhur˚ S i.41, 161, 237; bhav˚ the best existence S iii.83; rūp˚ extraordinary beauty J i.291; lābh˚ highest gain J iii.127; sambodhi -- y -- agga highest wisdom Sn 693 (= sabba˝˝uta -- ˝āṇan SnA 489; the best part or quality of anything, in enumn of the five "excellencies" of first -- fruits (panca aggāni, after which the N. Pa˝caggadāyaka), viz. khettaggan rās˚ koṭṭh˚ kumbhi˚ bhojan˚ SnA 270. sukh˚ perfect bliss Sdhp 243. Thus freq. in phrase aggaŋ akkhāyati to deserve or receive the highest praise, to be the most excellent D i.124; S iii.156, 264; A ii.17 (Tathāgato); It 87 (id.); Nd2 517 D (appamādo); Miln 183. -- 3. Cases as adv.: aggena (instr.) in the beginning, beginning from, from (as prep.), by (id.) Vin ii.167. (aggena gaṇhāti to take from, to subtract, to find the difference; Kern Toev. s. v. unnecessarily changes aggena into agghena), 257 (yadaggena at the moment when or from, foll. by tad eva "then"; cp. agge), 294 (bhikkh˚ from alms); Vbh 423 (vass˚ by the number of years). aggato (abl.) in the beginning Sn 217 (+ majjhato, sesato). aggato kata taken by its worth, valued, esteemed Th 2, 386, 394. agge (loc) 1. at the top A ii.201 (opp. mūle at the root); J iv.156 (id.); Sn 233 (phusit˚ with flowers at the top: supupphitaggasākhā KhA 192); J ii.153 (ukkh˚); iii.126 (kūp˚). -- 2 (as prep.) from. After, since, usually in phrases yad˚ (foll. by tad˚) from what time, since what date D i.152; ii.206; & ajja -- t -- agge from this day, after today D i.85; M i.528; A v.300; Sn p. 25 (cp. BSk. adyāgrena Av. Ś ii.13); at the end: bhattagge after a meal Vin ii.212.
-- angulī the main finger, i. e. index finger J vi.404. -- āsana main seat DA i.267. -- upaṭṭhāka chief personal attendant D ii.6. -- kārikā first taste, sample Vin iii.80. -- kulika of an esteemed clan Pv iii.55 (= seṭṭh˚ PvA 199). -- ˝˝a recognized as primitive primeval, D iii.225 (porāṇa +), A ii.27 sq.; iv.246, Kvu 341. -- danta one who is most excellently self -- restrained (of the Buddha) Th i.354. -- dāna a splendid gift Vin iii.39. -- dvāra main door J i.114. -- nakha tip of the nail Vin iv.221. -- nagara the first or most splendid of cities Vin i.229. -- nikkhitta highly praised or famed Miln 343. -- nikkhittaka an original depository of the Faith Dpvs iv.5. -- pakatimant of the highest character J v.351 (= aggasabhāva). -- patta having attained perfection D iii.48 sq. -- pasāda the highest grace A ii.34; It 87. -- piṇḍa the best oblation or alms i.141; M i. 28; ii.204. -- piṇḍika receiving the best oblations J vi.140. -- puggala the best of men (of the Buddha) Sn 684; DhA ii.39; Sdhp. 92, 558. -- purohita chief or prime minister J vi.391. -- phala the highest or supreme fruit (i. e. Arahantship) J i.148; Pv iv.188; PvA 230. -- bīja having eggs from above (opp. mūla˚), i. e. propagated by slips or cuttings D i.5; DA i.81. -- magga (adj.) having reached the top of the path, i. e. Arahantship ThA 20. -- mahesi the king's chief wife, queen -- consort J i.262; iii.187, 393; v.88; DhA i.199; PvA 76. -- rājā the chief king J vi.391; Miln 27. -- vara most meritorious, best Dpvs vi.68. -- vāda the original doctrine (= theravāda) Dpvs iv.13. -- vādin one who proclaims the highest good (of the Buddha) Th 1, 1142.


-- ▓ (nt.) (only -- ˚) [a contracted form of agāra] a (small) house, housing, accomodation; shelter, hut; hall. dān˚ a house of donation, i. e. a public or private house where alms are given J iii.470; iv.379, 403; vi.487; PvA 121; Miln 2. salāk˚ a hut where food is distributed to the bhikkhus by tickets, a food office J i.123, VvA 75.


-- (f.) [abstr. of agga] pre -- eminence, prominence, superiority Kvu 556 (˚ŋ gata); Dpvs iv.1 (guṇaggataŋ gatā). -- (adj.) mahaggata of great value or superiority D i.80; iii.224.


-- (nt.) [abstr. of agga = Sk. agratvan] the state or condition of being the first, pre -- eminence PvA 9, 89.


-- (adj.) occupying the first place, of great eminence A i.70, 243.


-- see agalu.


-- & aggaḷā - (f.) (also occasionally with l.) [cp. Sk. argala & argalā to *areg to protect, ward off, secure etc., as in Ags. reced house; *aleg in Sk. rakṣati to protect, Gr. a)le/cw id., Ags. ealh temple. Cp. also *areq in Gr. a)rke/w = Lat. arceo, Orcus, Ohg rigil bolt.] a contrivance to fasten anything for security or obstruction: 1. a bolt or cross -- bar Vin i.290; D i.89 (˚ŋ ākoteṭi to knock upon the cross -- bar; a. = kavāṭa DA i.252); A iv.359 (id.); S. iv.290; A i.101 = 137 = iv.231. (phusit˚ with fastened bolts, securely shut Th 1,385 (id.); Vin iv.47; J. v.293 (˚ŋ uppīḷeti to lift up the cross -- bar. -- 2. a strip of cloth for strengthening a dress etc., a gusset Vin i.290 (+ tunna), 392 (Bdhgh on MV viii.21, 1); J i.8 (+ tunna) vi.71 (˚ŋ datvā); Vin iv.121.
-- dāna putting in a gusset J i.8. -- phalaka the post or board, in which the cross -- bar is fixed (cp. ˚vaṭṭi) M iii.95. -- vaṭṭi = ˚phalaka Vin ii.120, 148. -- sūci bolting pin M i.126.


-- [Vedic agni = Lat. ignis. Besides the contracted form aggi we find the diaeretic forms gini (q. v.) and aggini (see below)] fire. -- 1. fire, flames, sparks; conflagration, Vin ii.120 (fire in bathroom); M i.487 (anāhāro nibbuto f. gone out for lack of fuel); S iv.185, 399 (sa -- upādāno jalati provided with fuel blazes); Sn 62; Dh 70 (= asaniaggi DhA iii.71); J i.216 (sparks), 294 (pyre); ii.102; iii.55; iv.139; VvA 20 (aggimhi tāpanaŋ + udake temanaŋ). -- The var. phases of lighting and extinguishing the fire are given at A iv.45: aggiŋ ujjāleti (kindle, make burn), ajjhupekkhati (look after, keep up), nibbāpeti (extinguish, put out), nikkhipati (put down, lay). Other phrases are e. g. aggiŋ jāleti (kindle) J ii.44; gaṇhāti (make or take) J i.494 (cp. below b); deti (set light to) J i.294; nibbāpeti (put out) It 93; Sdhp 552. aggi nibbāyati the f. goes out S ii.85; M i.487; J i.212 (udake through water); Miln 304. aggi nibbuto the f. is extinguished (cp. ˚nibbāna) J i.61; Miln 304. agginā dahati to burn by means of fire, to set fire to A i.136, 199; PvA 20. udar˚ the fire supposed to regulate digestion PvA 33; cp. Dial. ii.208, note 2; kapp˚uṭṭhān˚ the universal conflagration J iii.185; dāv˚ a wood or jungle fire J i.212; naḷ˚ the burning of a reed J vi.100; padīp˚ fire of a lamp Miln 47. 2. the sacrificial fire: In one or two of the passages in the older texts this use of Aggi is ambiguous. It may possibly be intended to denote the personal Agni, the fire -- god. But the commentators do not think so, and the Jātaka commentary, when it means Agni, has the phrase Aggi Bhagavā the Lord Agni, e. g. at J i.285, 494; ii.44. The ancient ceremony of kindling a holy fire on the day the child is born and keeping it up throughout his life, is also referred to by that commentary e. g. J i.285; ii.43. Aggiŋ paricarati (cp. ˚paricāriyā) to serve the sacred fire Vin i.31 (jaṭilā [p005] aggī paricaritukāmā); A v.263, 266; Th 2, 143 (= aggihuttaŋ paric˚ ThA 136); Dh 107; J i.494; DhA ii.232. aggiŋ juhati (cp. ˚homa, ˚hutta) to sacrifice (in)to the fire A ii.207; often combd. with aggihuttaŋ paricarati, e. g. S i.166; Sn p. 79. aggiŋ namati & santappeti to worship the fire A v.235. aggissa (gen.) paricāriko J yi.207 (cp. below ˚paricārika); aggissa ādhānaŋ A iv.41. -- 3. (ethical, always -- ˚) the fire of burning, consuming, feverish sensations. Freq. in standard set of 3 fires, viz. rāg˚, dos˚, moh˚, or the fires of lust, anger and bewilderment. The number three may possibly have been chosen with reference to the three sacrificial fires of Vedic ritual. At S iv.19; A iv.41 sq. there are 7 fires, the 4 last of which are āhuneyy˚, gahapat˚, dakkhiṇeyy˚, kaṭṭh˚. But this trinity of cardinal sins lies at the basis of Buddhist ethics, & the fire simile was more probably suggested by the number. D iii.217; It 92, Vbh 368. In late books are found others: ind˚ the fire of the senses PvA 56; dukkh˚ the glow of suffering ib. 60; bhavadukkh˚ of the misery of becomings Sdhp. 552; vippaṭisār˚ burning remorse PvA 60; sok˚ burning grief ib. 41.
Note. The form aggini occurs only at Sn 668 & 670 in the meaning of "pyre", and in combn. with sama "like", viz. aggini -- samaŋ jalitaŋ 668 (= samantato jali taŋ aggiŋ Sn A 480); aggini -- samāsu 670 (= aggisamāsu Sn A 481). The form agginī in phrase niccagginī can either be referred to gini (q. v.) or has to be taken as nom. of aggini (in adj. function with ī metri causa; otherwise as adj. agginiŋ), meaning looking constantly after the fire, i. e. careful, observant, alert.
-- agāra (agyÔgāra) a heated room or hut with a fire Vin i.24; iv.109; D i.101, 102 (as v. l. BB for agāra); M i.501; A v.234, 250. -- khandha a great mass of fire, a huge fire, fire -- brand S ii.85; A iv. 128; Th 2, 351 (˚samākāmā); J iv.139; vi.330; Ps i.125; Dpvs vi.37; Miln 304. -- gata having become (like) fire Miln 302. -- ja fire -- born J v.404 (C; text aggijāta). -- ṭṭha fire -- place J v.155. -- ṭṭhāna fire -- place Vin ii.120 (jantāghare, in bathroom). -- daḍḍha consumed by fire Dh 136; Pv i.74. -- dāha (mahā˚) a holocaust A i.178. -- nikāsin like fire J iii.320 (suriya). -- nibbāna the extinction of fire J i.212. -- pajjota fire -- light A ii.140 (one of the 4 lights, viz. canda˚, suriya˚, a˚, pa˝˝ā˚). -- paricaraṇa ( -- ṭṭhāna) the place where the (sacrificial) fire is attended to DhA i.199. -- paricariyā fire -- worship DhA ii.232; Sn A 291 (pāri˚) 456. -- paricārika one who worship the fire a v.263 (brāhmaṇa). -- sālā a heated hall or refectory Vin i.25, 49 = ii.210; i.139; ii.154. -- sikhā the crest of the fire, the flame, in simile ˚űpama, like a flaming fire Sn 703; Dh 308 = It 43, 90 (ayoguḷa). -- hutta (nt.) the sacrificial fire (see above 2), Vin i.33, 36 = J i.83; Vin i.246 = Sn 568 (˚mukha -- ya˝˝a); S i.166; Dh 392; Sn 249, p. 79; J iv.211; vi.525; ThA 136 (= aggi); DhA iv.151 (˚ŋ brāhmaṇo namati). -- huttaka (nt.) fire -- offering J vi.522 (= aggi -- jūhana C.). -- hotta = ˚hutta SnA 456 (v. l. BB ˚hutta). -- homa fire -- oblation (or perhaps sacrificing to Agni) D i.9 (= aggi -- jūhana DA i.93).

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-- (adj.) [aggi + ka] one who worships the fire Vin i.71 (jaṭilaka); D ii.339 sq. (jaṭila); S i.166 (brāhmaṇa).


-- [see agghati] 1. price, value, worth, Miln 244; Mhvs 26, 22; 30, 76; VvA 77. -- mahaggha (adj.) of great value J iv.138; v.414; vi.209; Pv ii.118. See also mahÔraha. appaggha (adj.) of little value J. iv.139; v.414. -- anaggha (nt.) pricelessness, J v.484; cattari anagghāni the four priceless things, viz. setacchatta, nisīdanapallanka, ādhāraka, pādapīṭhikā DhA iii.120, 186. (adj.) priceless, invaluable J v.414; Mhvs 26, 25; DhA iv.216. -- agghena (instr.) for the price of Vin ii.52, cp. Bdhgh on p. 311, 312. -- 2. an oblation made to a guest D ii.240; J iv.396 = 476.
-- kāraka a valuator J i.124. -- pada valuableness J v.473 (˚lakkhaṇaŋ nāma mantaŋ).


-- (adj.) = aggha; worth, having the value of ( -- ˚) Mhvs 30, 77. an˚ priceless Mhvs 30, 72.


-- (intr.) [Sk. arghati, argh = arh (see arhati), cp. Gr. a)lfh/ reward, a)lfa/nw to deserve] to be worth, to have the value of (acc.), to deserve J i.112 (satasahassaŋ; aḍḍhamāsakaŋ); vi.174, 367 (padarajaŋ); DhA iii.35 (maṇin nÔgghāma); Mhvs 32, 28. Freq. in stock phrase kalaŋ nÔgghati (nÔgghanti) soḷasiŋ not to be worth the 16th part of (cp. kalā) Vin ii.156; S i.233; Dh 70; Vv 207 (= nÔnubhoti VvA 104), 437; J v.284. -- Caus. agghāpeti to value, to appraise, to have a price put on (acc.) J i.124; iv.137, 278; Miln 192; Mhvs 27, 23. Cp. agghāpanaka & agghāpaniya.


-- (adj.) ( -- ˚) [fr. *agghana, abstr. to agghati] having the value of, equal to, worth Vin iv.226; J i.61 (satasahass˚), 112; DA i.80 (kahāpaṇ˚); DhA iii.120 (cuddasakoṭi˚); Mhvs 26, 22; 34, 87. -- f. ˚ikā J i.178 (satasahass˚).


-- (adj.) [in function & form grd. of agghati] pri- celess, invaluable, beyond the reach of money Miln 192.


-- [fr. agghāpana to agghāpeti, Caus. of agghati] a valuator, appraiser J i.124, 125; v.276 (˚ika).


-- (adj.) [grd. of agghāpeti, see agghati] that which is to be valued, in ˚kamma the business of a valuator J iv.137.


agghika (nt.)
-- ( -- ˚) [= agghiya] an oblation, decoration or salutation in the form of garlands, flowers etc., therefore meaning "string, garland" (cp. Sinhalese ńgń "festoon work") Mhvs 19, 38 (pupph˚) 34, 73 (ratan˚) 34, 76 (dhaj˚); Dāvs i.39 (pupphamay˚); v.51 (kusum˚).


-- (adj. -- n.) [grd. form from agghati] 1. (adj.) valu- able, precious, worth J vi.265 (maṇi); DhA ii.41 (ratan˚ of jewel's worth); Mhvs 30, 92. -- 2. (nt.) a respectful oblation J v.324 = vi.516; Dpvs vi.65; vii.4.


-- ╣ (nt.) [cp. Sk. agha, of uncertain etym.] evil, grief, pain, suffering, misfortune S i 22; M i.500 (roga gaṇḍa salla agha); A ii.128 (id.); J v.100; Th 2, 491; Sdhp 51. -- adj. painful, bringing pain J vi.507 (agha -- m -- miga = aghakara m. C.). -- bhūta a source of pain S iii.189 (+ agha & salla).


-- ▓ (m. nt.) [the etym. suggested by Morris J.P.T.S. 1889, 200 (with ref. to M i.500, which belongs under agha1) is untenable (to Sk. kha, as a -- kha = agha, cp. Jain Prk. khaha). Neither does the pop. etym. of Bdhgh. offer any clue (= a + gha from ghan that which does not strike or aghaṭṭaniya is not strikeable DhsA 326, cp. Dhs. trsl. 194 & J iv.154 aghe ṭhitā = appaṭighe ākāse ṭhitā the air which does not offer any resistance). On the other hand the primary meaning is darkness, as seen from the phrase lokantarikā aghā asaŋvutā andhakārā D ii.12; S v.454, and BSk. aghasaŋvṛta M Vastu i.240, adj. dark M Vastu i.41; ii.162; Lal Vist 552] the sky, orig. the dark sky, dark space, the abyss of space D ii.12; S v.45; Vv 161 (aghasi gama, loc. = vehāsaŋ gama VvA 78); J iv.154; Dhs 638 (+ aghagata); Vbh 84 (id.).
-- gata going through or being in the sky or atmosphere Dhs 638, 722; Vbh 84. -- gāmin moving through the atmosphere or space i. e. a planet S i.67 = Miln 242 (ādicco seṭṭho aghagāminaŋ).


-- at Th 1, 321 may be read as agha -- gata or (prefer- ably) with v. l. as aggha -- gataŋ, or (with Neumann) as agghaŋ agghatānaŋ. See also Mrs. Rh. D, Psalms of the Brethren, p. 191.


-- [to agha1?] a sort of wild animal J vi.247 (= aghāvaha miga) 507 (= aghakara). Cp. BSk. agharika Divy 475.


-- (adj.) [to agha1] suffering pain, being in misery Sn 694 (= dukkhita SnA 489).

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UKT: Since the previous file źagh╗ is {a.Ga.}, the following file must be {a.nga.}, and therefore źanka╗ must be {ing-ka} spelled with {king:si:} - {´n~ka.} . -- UKT111207


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UKT: {ing} is written as a {king:si:} in Pal-Myan.

anka   {´n~ka.}
-- ╣ = anga, sign, mark, brand Miln 79; ˚karana branding J iv.366, 375. See also anketi.
Ą {´n~ka.}
- - UHS0011


-- ▓ [Vedic anka hook, bent etc., anc, cp. ankura & ankusa. Gr. a)gkw/n elbow, a)/gkura = anchor; Lat. uncus nail; Ohg. angul = E. angle] (a.) a hook J v.322 = vi.218 (v. l. BB anga). -- (b.) the lap (i. e. the bent position) or the hollow above the hips where infants are carried by Hindoo mothers or nurses (ankena vahati) Vin ii.114; D ii.19 (anke pariharati to hold on one's lap or carry on one's hips), 20 (nisīdāpeti seat on one's lap); M ii.97 (ankena vahitvā); Th 1, 299; J i.262 (anke nisinna); ii.127, 236; vi.513; DhA i.170 (ankena vahitvā) PvA 17 (nisīdāpeti).


-- [pp. of anketi] marked, branded J i.231 (cakkan- kitā Satthu padā); ii.185 (˚kaṇṇaka with perforated ears).


-- [cp. Sk. ankura, to anka a bend = a tendril etc.] a shoot, a sprout (lit. or fig.) J ii.105; vi.331 (Buddh ˚a nascent Buddha), 486; Dhs 617 (˚vaṇṇa); Miln 50, 251 269; Sdhp 273; Mhvs 15, 43.


-- [Vedic ankuśa; to anc, see anka2] a hook, a pole with a hook, used (1) for plucking fruit off trees, a crook J i.9 (˚pacchi hook & basket); v.89 = vi.520 (pacchikhanitti˚), 529 (= phalānaŋ gaṇhanatthaŋ ankusaŋ). <-> (2) to drive an elephant, a goad (cp patoda & tutta) Vin ii.196 (+ kasā); J vi.489; ThA 173 (ovādaŋ ankusaŋ katvā, fig. guide); Sdhp 147 (daṇḍ˚). -- (3) N. of a certain method of inference in Logic (naya), consisting in inferring certain mental states of a general character from respective traits where they are to be found Nett 2, 4, 127; Nett A 208; -- acc˚ beyond the reach of the goad D ii.266 (nāga). See also ankusaka.
-- gayha (the art) how to grasp and handle an eleph.<-> driver's hook M ii.94 (sippa). -- gaha an eleph. -- driver Dh 326.


-- [see anka2, cp. ankusa] 1. a crook for plucking fruit J iii.22. -- 2. an eleph. -- driver's hook J iii.431.
-- yattha a crooked stick, alpenstock, staff (of an ascetic) J ii.68 (+ pacchi).


-- [Denom. fr. anka1] to mark out, brand J i.451 lakkhaṇena); ii.399. -- pp. ankita, q. v.


-- [dial. for ankura] a species of tree Alangium Hexapetalum J vi.535. Cp. next.


-- = ankola J iv.440; v.420.


-- (nt.) [Vedic anga, anc cp. Lat. angulus = angle, corner etc., ungulus finger -- ring = Sk. angulīya. See also anka, anguṭṭha & angula] (1) (lit.) a constituent part of the body, a limb, member; also of objects: part, member (see cpd. ˚sambhāra); uttam˚anga the reproductive organ J v.197; also as "head" at ThA 209. Usually in cpds. (see below, esp. ˚paccanga), as sabbanga -- kalyāṇī perfect in all limbs Pv iii.35 (= sobhaṇa -- sabbanga -- paccangī PvA 189) and in redupln. anga -- m -- angāni limb by limb, with all limbs (see also below anga + paccanga) Vin iii.119; Vv 382 (˚ehi naccamāna); Pv ii.1210, 13, 18 (sunakho te khādati). -- (2) (fig.) a constituent part of a whole or system or collection, e. g. uposath˚ the vows of the fast J i.50; bhavanga the constituents or the condition of becoming (see bhava & cp. Cpd. 265 sq.); bojjhanga (q. v.). Esp. with numerals: cattāri angāni 4 constituents A ii.79 (viz. sīla, samādhi, pa˝˝ā. vimutti and rūpa, vedanā, sa˝˝ā, bhava), aṭṭhangika (q. v.) magga the Path with its eight constituents or the eightfold Path (KhA 85: aṭṭhɔ angāni assā ti) navanga Buddha -- sāsana see nava. -- (3) a constituent part as characteristic, prominent or distinguishing, a mark, attribute, sign, quality D i.113 sq., 117 (iminā p˚ angena by this quality, or: in this respect, cp. below 4; DA i.281 expls tena kāra<-> ṇena). In a special sense striking (abnormal) sign or mark on the body D i.9, from which a prophesy is made (: hattha -- pādādisu yena kenaci evarūpena angena samannāgato dīghāyu . . hotī ti . . angasatthan = chiromantics DA i.92). Thus in combn. with samannāgata & sampanna always meaning endowed with "good", superior, remarkable "qualities", e. g. J i.3 (sabbanga -- sampanna nagaraŋ a city possessing all marks of perfection); ii.207. <-> In enumn. with var. numerals: tīhi angehi s. A i.115; cattāri sotapannassa a -- D iii.227 = A iv.405 sq.; pa˝canga -- vippahīno (i. e. giving up the 5 hindrances, see nīvaraṇa) and pa˝canga -- samannāgato (i. e. endowed with the 5 good qualities, viz. the sīla -- kkhandha, see kkhandha ii.A d) S i.99 = A i.161; v.15, 29. Similarly the 5 attributes of a brahmin (viz. sujāta of pure birth, ajjhāyaka a student of the Vedas, abhirūpa handsome, sīlava of good conduct, paṇḍita clever) D i.119, 120. Eight qualities of a king D i.137. Ten qualities of an Arahant (cp. dasa1 B 2) S iii.83; Kh iv.10 = KhA 88; cp. M i.446 (dasahɔ angehi samannāgato ra˝˝o assājāniyo). -- (4) (modally) part, share, interest, concern; ajjhattikaŋ angaŋ my own part or interest (opp. bāhiraŋ the interest in the outside world). A i.16 sq. = S v.101 sq.; It 9. ra˝˝o angaŋ an asset or profit for the king M i.446. Thus adv. tadanga (see also ta˚ i.a) as a matter of fact, in this respect, for sure, certainly and tadangena by these means, through this, therefore M i.492; A iv.411; Sdhp 455, 456; iminā p˚ angena for that reason M ii.168. -- In compn. with verbs angi˚ (angī˚): angigata having limbs or ports, divided DA i.313; cp. samangi ( -- bhūta).
-- jāta "the distinguishing member", i. e. sign of male or female (see above 3); membrum virile and muliebre Vin i.191 (of cows); iii.20, 37, 205; J ii.359; Miln 124. -- paccanga one limb or the other, limbs great and small M i.81; J vi -- 20, used (a) collectively: the condition of perfect limbs, or adj. with perfect limbs, having all limbs Pv ii.1212 (= paripuṇṇa -- sabbanga -- paccangavatī PvA 158); SnA 383; DhA i.390; ThA 288; Sdhp 83 fig. rathassa angapaccangan M i.395; sabbanga -- paccangāni all limbs Miln 148. -- (b) distributively (cp. similar redupl. formations like chiddÔvachidda, seṭṭhÔnu -- seṭṭhi, khaṇḍākhaṇḍa, cuṇṇavicuṇṇa) limb after limb, one limb after the other (like angamangāni above 1), piecemeal M i.133 (˚e daseyya), 366; J i.20; iv.324 (chinditvā). -- paccangatā the condition or state of perfect limbs, i. e. a perfect body VvA 134 (suvisuddh˚). -- paccangin having all limbs (perfect) D i.34 (sabbanga -- peccangī); PvA 189. -- rāga painting or rouging the body Vin ii.107 (+ mukha˚). -- laṭṭhi sprout, offshoot ThA 226. -- vāta gout Vin i.205. -- vijjā the art of prognosticating from marks on the body, chiromantics, palmistry etc. (cp. above 3) D i.9 (see expl. at DA i.93); J i.290 (˚āya cheka clever in fortune -- telling); ˚Ônubhāva the power of knowing the art of signs on the body J ii.200; v.284; ˚pāṭhaka one who in versed in palmistry etc. J ii.21, 250; v.458. -- vekalla bodily deformity DhA ii.26. -- sattha the science of prognosticating from certain bodily marks DA i.92. -- sambhāra the combination of parts Miln 28 = S i.135; Miln 41. -- hetuka a species of wild birds, living in forests J vi.538.


-- ╣(nt.) [cp. Sk. angaṇa & ˚na; to anga?] an open space, a clearing, Vin ii.218; J i.109 (= manussānan sa˝caraṇa -- ṭṭhāne anāvaṭe bhūmibhāge C.); ii.243, 290, 357; Dāvs i.27. -- cetiy˚ an open space before a Chaitya Miln 366, DA i.191, 197; VvA 254. rāj˚ the empty space before the king's palace, the royal square J i.124, 152; ii.2; DhA ii.45.
-- ṭṭhāna a clearing (in a wood or park) J i.249, 421. -- pariyanta the end or border of a clearing J ii.200.


-- ▓ [prob. to anj, thus a variant of a˝jana, q. v.]; a speck or freckle (on the face) A v.92, 94 sq. (+ raja). Usually in neg. anangana (adj.) free from fleck or blemish, clear, (of the mind) (opp. sÔngana Sn 279); D i.76; M i.24 sq.; 100 (+ raja); A ii.211; Sn 517 (+ vigata<-> [p007] raja = angaṇānan abhāvā malāna˝ ca vigamā . . . SnA 427), 622 = Dh 125 (= nikkilesa DhA iii.34); Dh 236, 351; Pug 60; Nett 87.

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-- [cp. Sk. angada; prob. anga + da that which is given to the limbs] a bracelet J v.9, 410 (citt˚, adj. with manifold bracelets).


-- (adj.) [to angada] wearing a bracelet J v.9.


-- (m. nt.) [Vedic angāra] charcoal, burning coal, embers A iii.97, 380, 407; J i.73; iii.54, 55; v.488; Sn 668; Sdhp 32. kul˚ the charcoal of the family, a squanderer S iv.324 (see under kula).
-- kaṭāha a pot for holding burning coal, a charcoal pan DA i.261. -- kapalla an earthenware pan for ashes DhA i.260; Dhs A 333; VvA 142. -- kammakara a charcoal burner J vi.209. -- kāsu a charcoal pit M i.74, 365; Th 2, 491; J i.233; Sn 396; ThA 288; DhA i.442; Sdhp 208. -- pacchi a basket for ashes DhA iv.191. -- pabbata the mountain of live embers, the glowing mount (in Niraya) A i.141; Miln 303; PvA 221 (˚āropaṇa); Sdhp 208. -- maŋsa roast meat Mhvs 10, 16. -- masi ashes DhA iii.309. -- rāsi a heap of burning coal J iii.55.


-- (adj.) [cp. Sk. angāraka] like charcoal, of red colour, N. of the planet Mars DA i.95; cp. J i.73.


-- a charcoal -- burner J vi.206 (= angāra -- kamma- kara p. 209).


-- (adj.) [to angāra] (burning) like coal, of bright- red colour, crimson Th 1, 527 = J i.87 (dumā trees in full bloom).


-- ( -- ˚) (adj.) [fr. anga] consisting of parts, -- fold; only in compn. with num. like aṭṭh˚, duv˚ (see dve), catur˚, pa˝c˚ etc., q. v.


-- (adj.) limbed, having limbs or parts, -- fold, see catur˚ & pacc˚ (under anga -- paccangin). -- f. anginī having sprouts or shoots (of a tree) Th 2, 297 (= ThA 226).


-- [cp. Sk. anguṣṭha, see etym. under anga] 1. the thumb Vin iii.34; Miln 123; PvA 198. -- 2. the great toe J ii.92; Mhvs 35, 43.
-- pada thumb -- mark A iv.127 = S iii.154. -- sineha love drawn from the thumb, i. e. extraordinary love Pv iii.52, cp. PvA 198.


-- = anguṭṭha J iv.378; v.281; pād˚ the great toe S v.270.


-- [Vedic angula, lit. "limblet" see anga for etym.] 1. a finger or toe M i.395 (vankɔ angulaṇ karoti to bend the fingers, v. l. anguliṇ); A iii.6 (id.); J v 70 (goṇ˚ adj. with ox toes, expld. by C. as with toes like an ox's tail; vv. ll. ˚anguṭṭha and ˚angulī). -- 2. a finger as measure, i. e. a finger -- breadth, an inch Vin ii.294, 306 (dvangula 2 inches wide); Mhvs 19, 11 (aṭṭh˚); DhA iii.127 (ek˚).
-- aṭṭhi (? cp. anga -- laṭṭhi) fingers (or toes) and bones DA i.93. -- anguli fingers and toes DhA iii.214. -- antarikā the interstices between the fingers Vin iii.39; Miln 180; DhA iii.214.


-- (nt.) [= angulī] a finger J iii.13 (pa˝c˚); v.204 (vaṭṭ˚ = pavāḷ˚ ankurasadisā vaṭṭangulī p. 207). See also pa˝cangulika.


angulī & anguli
-- (thus always in cpds.) (f.) [Vedic angulī & ˚i; see anga] a finger A iv.127; Sn 610; J iii.416; iv.474; v.215 (vaṭṭ˚ with rounded fingers); Miln 395; DhA ii.59; iv.210; SnA 229.
-- patodaka nudging with the fingers Vin iii.84 = iv.110; D i.91 = A iv.343. -- pada finger -- mark A iv.127 = S iii.154. -- poṭha snapping or cracking the fingers J v.67. -- muddikā a signet ring Vin ii.106; J iv.498; v.439, 467. -- sanghaṭṭana˚ = poṭha DA i.256.


-- (nt.) [cp. Sk. angulīyaka that which belongs to the finger, Mhg. vingerlţn = ring; E. bracelet, Fr. bras; thimble thumb etc.] an ornament for the finger, a finger -- ring J ii.444 (= nikkha).

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-- (avj.) [a + cankama] not fit for walking, not level or even Th 1, 1174 (magga).


-- (adj.) [a + citta2 + ka] 1. without thought or intention, unconscious, unintentional DhA ii.42. -- 2. without heart or feeling, instr. acittakena (adv.) heartlessly J iv.58 (C. for acetasā).


-- (adj.) [a + citta2 + kata; cp. cittikāra] not well thought of Miln 229.


-- see cira & cp. nacira.


-- (adj. -- n.) [a + cela] one who is not clothed, esp. t. t. for an anti -- Buddhist naked ascetic D i.161, 165; iii.6, 12, 17 sq.; S i.78; J v.75.


-- = acela D i.166; iii.40; A i.295; ii.206; iii.384 (˚sāvaka); J iii.246; vi.229; Pug 55; DhA iii.489.


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{ic} : the palatal /c/

Whether the palatal <c> is present in English or not is debatable. I hold that it is present in disyllabic words such as <success> /sək'ses/ (DJPD16-515) where the /k/ is actually /c/.
   Bur-Myan, and perhaps Pal-Myan, is a non-fricative language and the Bur-Myan {sa.} is a palatal plosive-stop and not a dental fricative-sibilant. However, Skt-Dev has two graphemes: for the palatal plosive-stop च źca╗, and for the dental fricative-sibilant ष źṣ╗. [The reader will note that I have left out the स źsa╗ on purpose because in Bur-Myan it is not a fricative-sibilant. It is a fricative-thibilant /θ/. Inclusion of this would side-tract the issue.]
   Faced with the unsavory aspect of adopting a new grapheme for dental fricative-sibilant [for transcription of English to Burmese, and Hindi to Burmese], I have opted to use a property of the Burmese phonology for representation in Romabama. Thus, the killed-consonants are made different: {c} and {S}, leaving the regular-consonant as {sa.}/{Sa.} to represent both च źca╗ and ष źṣ╗.

-- 1. a + c˚, e. g. accuta = a + cuta. -- 2. Assimilation group of (a) ati + vowel; (b) c + cons. e. g. acci = arci.


-- [ati + agā] 3rd sg. pret. of ati -- gacchati (q. v. for similar forms) he overcame, should or could overcome Sn 1040 (expld. wrongly as pp. = atikkanta at Nd2 10 and as atīta at DhA iv.494); Dh 414.


-- (adj.) [ati + ankusa] beyond the reach of the goad D ii.266 (nāga).


-- see atitarati.


-- [Vedic arcati, ṛc, orig. meaning to be clear & to sing i. e. to sound clear, cp. arci] to praise, honour, celebrate Dāvs v.66 (accayittha, pret.) -- pp accita, q. v.


-- (adj. -- & adv. ˚ -- ) [ati + anta, lit. "up to the end"] 1. uninterrupted, continuous, perpetual J i.223; Miln 413; VvA 71; PvA 73, 125, 266; Sdhp 288. <-> 2. final, absolute, complete; adv. thoroughly S i.130 (˚ŋ hataputtāɔ mhi); iii.13 = A i.291 sq.; v.326 sq. (˚niṭṭha, ˚yogakkhemin); Kvu 586 (˚niyāmatā final assurance; cp. Kvu trsl. 340). -- 3. (˚ -- ) exceedingly, extremely, very much A i.145 (˚sukhumāla, extremely delicate), Miln 26 (id.); Sn 794 (˚suddhi = param ttha -- accantasuddhi SnA 528); Th 1, 692 (˚ruci); Dh 162 (˚dussīlya = ekanta˚ DhA iii.153).


-- [from acceti, ati + i, going on or beyond; cp. Sk. atyaya] (1) (temporal) lapse, passing; passing away, end, death. Usually as instr. accayena after the lapse of, at the end or death of, after Vin i.25; D ii.127 (rattiyā a.), 154 (mam˚ when I shall be dead); M i.438 (temās˚ after 3 months); S i.69; Snp. 102 (catunnaŋ māsānaŋ), p. 110 (rattiyā); J i.253 (ekāha -- dvīh˚), 291 (katipāh˚ after a few days); PvA 47 (katipāh˚), 82 (dasamās˚), 145 (vassasatānaŋ). -- (2) (modal) passing or getting over, overcoming, conquering, only in phrase dur -- accaya difficult to overcome, of kāmapanka Sn 945 (= dur -- atikkamanīya SnA 568), of sanga Sn 948: taṇhā Dh 336; sota It 95. -- (3) (fig.) going beyond (the norm), transgression, offence Vin i.133 (thull˚ a grave offence), 167 (id.); ii.110, 170; esp. in foll. phrases: accayo maŋ accagamā a fault has overcome me, i. e. has been committed by me (in confession formula) D i.85 (= abhibhavitvā pavatto has overwhelmed me DA i.236); A i.54; M i.438 (id.); accayaŋ accayato passati to recognise a breach of the regulation as such Vin i.315; A i.103; ii.146 sq.; ˚ŋ deseti to confess the transgression S i.239; ˚ŋ accayato paṭigaṇhāti to accept (the confession of) the fault, i. e. to pardon the transgression, in confession formula at D i.85 = (Vin ii.192; M i.438 etc.). In the [p008] same sense accaya -- paṭiggahaṇa pardon, absolution J v.380; accayena desanaŋ paṭigaṇhāti J i.379; accayaŋ khamati to forgive Miln 420.

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-- (adj.) [a form. fr. aor. accasari (ati + sṛ), influ- enced in meaning by analogy of ati + a + sara (smṛ). Not with Morris (J.P.T.S. 1889, 200) a corruption of accaya + sara (smṛ), thus meaning "mindful of a fault"] 1. going beyond the limits (of proper behaviour), too self -- sure, overbearing, arrogant, proud S i.239 (v. l. accayasara caused by prolepsis of foll. accaya); J iv.6 (+ atisara); DhA iv.230 (= expecting too much). -- 2. going beyond the limits (of understanding), beyond grasp, transcendental (of pa˝ha a question) M i.304; S v.218 (v. l. SS for BB reading ajjhapara). Cp. accasārin.


-- (f.) [abstr. to accasara] overbearing, pride, self- surity Vbh 358 (+ māyā). Note. In id. p. at Pug 23 we read acchādanā instead of accasarā.


-- [fr. ati + sṛ] aor 3. sg. of atisarati to go beyond the limit, to go astray J v.70.


-- (adj.) = accasara 1., aspiring too high Sn 8 sq. (yo nÔccasārī, opp. to na paccasārī; expld. at SnA 21 by yo nÔtidhāvi, opp. na ohiyyi).


-- [fr. ati + hṛ] aor 3 sg. of atiharati to bring over, to bring, to take J iii.484 (= ativiya āhari C.).


UKT: What is źÔ╗ ?

-- (˚ -- ) [ati + abhikkhaṇa] too often J v.233 (˚saŋsagga; C. expls. ativiya abhiṇha).


-- (adj. adv.) [ati + āraddha] exerting oneself very or too much, with great exertion Vin i.182; Th 1, 638; SnA 21.


-- (adj.) [ati + āyata] too long A iii.375.


-- (adj.) [fr. accaya] out of time, viz. 1. irregular, extraordinary J vi.549, 553. -- 2. urgent, pressing M i.149 (karaṇiyan business) ii.112; J i.338; v.17 ˚ŋ (nt.) hurry DhA i.18. See also acceka.


-- [ati + āvadati; or is it = ajjhāvadati = adhi + āvadati?] to speak more or better, to surpass in talk or speech; to talk somebody down, to persuade, entice Vin iv.224, 263; S ii.204 sq.; J v.433 (v. l. BB ajjhārati), 434 (v. l. BB aghācarati for ajjhācarati = ajjhāvadati?).


-- (adj.) [ati + asanna] very near, too near PvA 42 (na a. n'Ôtidūra neither too near nor too far, at an easy distance).


-- (adj.) [ati + ahita] very cruel, very unfriendly, terrible J iv.46 = v.146 (= ati ahita C.) = vi.306 (id.).


acci & (in verse) accī
-- (f.) [Vedic arci m. & arcis nt. & f. to ṛc, cp. accati] a ray of light, a beam, flame S iv.290 (spelt acchi), 399; A iv.103; v.9; Sn 1074 (vuccati jālasikhā Nd2 11); J v.213; Miln 40; ThA 154 (dīpɔ); Sdhp 250.


-- (f.) [fr. acci] a flame M i.74; S ii.99.


-- [pp. of accati] honoured, praised, esteemed J vi.180.


-- (adj.) [fr. acci, cp. Vedic arcimant & arciṣmant] flaming, glowing, fiery; brilliant Th 1, 527; J v.266; vi.248; Vv 388.


acci -- bandha
-- (adj.) [= accibaddha?] at Vin i.287 is expld. by Bdhgh as caturassa -- kedāra -- baddha ("divided into short pieces" Vin Texts ii.207), i. e. with squares of irrigated fields. The vv. ll. are acca˚ and acchi˚, and we should prefer the conjecture acchi -- baddha "in the shape of cubes or dice", i. e. with square fields.


-- [ati + uggacchati] to rise out (of), ger. accuggamma D ii.38; A v.152 (in simile of lotus).


-- (adj.) [ati + uggata] 1. very high or lofty Miln 346 (giri); VvA 197; DhA ii.65. -- 2. too high, i. e. too shrill or loud J vi.133 (sadda), 516 (fig. = atikuddha very angry C.).


-- (adj.) [ati + uṇha] very hot, too hot Sn 966; Nd1 487; DhA ii.85, 87 (v. l. for abbhuṇha). See also ati -- uṇha.


-- (adj.) [a + cuta] immoveable; everlasting, eternal; nt. ˚ŋ Ep. of Nibbāna (see also cuta) A iv.295, 327; Sn 204, 1086 (= nicca etc. Nd2 12); Dh 225 (= sassata DhA iii.321); Sdhp 47.


-- at J v.124 is to be read with v.l. as apaccu- paṭṭhapeti (does not indulge in or care for).


-- at J iv.250 read accuppati, aor. 3rd sg. of accuppatati to fall in between (lit. on to), to interfere (with two people quarelling). C. expls. atigantvā uppati. There is no need for Kern's corr. acchupati (Toev. s. v.).


-- (adj.) [ati + ussanna] too full, too thick Vin ii.151.


-- = accāyika, special; ˚cīvara a spccial robe Vin iii.261; cp. Vin Texts i.293.


-- [ati + eti fr. i] 1. to pass (of time), to go by, to elapse Th 1, 145 (accayanti ahorattā). -- 2. to overcome, to get over Miln 36 (dukkhaŋ). -- Caus. acceti to make go on (loc.), to put on J vi.17 (sūlasmiŋ; C. āvuṇeti), but at this passage prob. to be read appeti (q. v.).


-- (adj.) [ati + ogāḷha] too abundant, too plentiful (of riches), lit. plunged into A iv.282, 287, 323 sq.


-- (nt.) [ati + udaka] too much water (opp. ano- daka no water) DhA i.52.


-- (nt.) [ati + udara] too much eating, greediness, lit. too much of a belly J iv.279 (C. ati -- udara).


-- ╣ (adj.) [cp. Sk. accha, dial., to ṛc (see accati), thus "shining"; cp. Sk. ṛkṣa bald, bare and Vedic ṛkvan bright. Monier -- Williams however takes it as a + cha fr. chad, thus "not covered, not shaded"] clear, transparent Vin i.206 (˚ka˝jika); D i.76 (maṇi = tanucchavi DA i.221), 80 (udakapatta), 84 (udaka -- rahada); M i.100; S ii.281 (˚patta); iii.105 (id.); A i.9; J ii.100 (udaka); Vv 7910 (vāri); DA i.113 (yāgu).
-- odaka having clear water, with clear water (of lotus ponds) Vv 4411; 815; f. ˚odikā Vv 412 = 602.


-- ▓ [Vedic ṛkṣa = Gr. a)/rktos, Lat. ursus, Cymr. arth] a bear Vin i.200; A iii.101; J v.197, 406, 416; Miln 23, 149. At J vi.507 accha figures as N. of an animal, but is in expln. taken in the sense of accha4 (acchā nāma aghammigā C.). Note. Another peculiar form of accha is P. ikka (q. v.).


-- │ = akkha2 (a die) see acci -- bandha.


-- 4 (adj.) [Ved. ṛkṣa] hurtful, painful, bad DhA iv.163 (˚ruja).


-- = accha2, a bear J v.71.


-- [Vedic āsyati & āste, ās; cp. Gr. h_(stai] 1. to sit, to sit still Vin i.289; A ii.15; It 120 (in set carati tiṭṭhati a. sayati, where otherwise nisinna stands for acchati); Vv 741 (= nisīdati VvA 298); PvA 4. -- 2. to stay, remain, to leave alone Th 1, 936; J iv.306. -- 3. to be, behave, live Vin ii.195; D i.102; S i.212; Vv 112; Pv iii.31 (= nisīdati vasati PvA 188); Miln 88; DhA i.424. In this sense often pleonastic for finite verb, thus aggiŋ [p009] karitvā a. (= aggiŋ karoti) D i.102; aggiŋ paricaranto a. (= aggiŋ paricarati) DA i.270; tantaŋ pasārento a. (= tantaŋ pasāreti) DhA i.424. -- Pot. acche It 110; aor. acchi Vin iv.308; DhA i.424.

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-- (adj.) [pp. of acchādeti] covered with, clothed in, fig. steeped in (c. loe.) J jii.323 (lohite a. = nimugga C.). At D i.91 nacchanna is for na channa (see channa2) = not fair, not suitable or proper (paṭirūpa).


-- (adj.) [a + chambhin] not frightened, undis- mayed, fearless Sn 42 (reading achambhin; Nd2 13 expls. abhīru anutrāsi etc.); J vi.322 (= nikkampa C.). See chambhin.


-- ╣ (f.) [etym. uncertain, but certainly dialectical; Trenckner connects it with ācchurita (Notes 76); Childers compares Sk. akṣara (see akkhara); there may be a connection with akkhaṇa in akkhaṇa -- vedhin (cp. BSk. acchaṭā Divy 555), or possibly a relation to ā + tsar, thus meaning "stealthily", although the primary meaning is "snapping, a quick sound"] the snapping of the fingers, the bringing together of the finger -- tips: 1. (lit.) accharaŋ paharati to snap the fingers J ii.447; iii.191; iv.124, 126; v.314; vi.366; DhA i.38, 424. -- As measure: as much as one may hold with the finger -- tips, a pinch J v.385; DhA ii.273 (˚gahaṇamattaŋ); cp. ekacchara -- matta DhA ii.274. -- 2. (fig.) a finger's snap, i. e. a short moment, in ek˚acchara -- kkhaṇe in one moment Miln 102, and in def. of acchariya (q. v.) at DA i.43; VvA 329.
-- sanghāta the snapping of the fingers as signifying a short duration of time, a moment, ˚matta momentary, only for one moment (cp. BSk. acchaṭāsanghāta Divy 142) A i.10, 34, 38; iv.396; Th 1, 405; 2, 67 (expld. at ThA 76 as ghaṭikāmattam pi khaṇaŋ angulipoṭhanamattam pi kālaŋ). -- sadda the sound of the snapping of a finger J iii.127.


-- ▓ (f.) [Vedic apsaras = āpa, water + sarati, orig; water nymph] a celestial nymph M i.253 (pl. accharāyo) ii.64; Th 2, 374 (= devaccharā ThA 252); J v.152 sq. (Alambusā a.) Vv 55 (= devaka˝˝ā VvA 37); Vv 172; 1811 etc.; DhA iii.8, 19; PvA 46 (dev˚); Miln 169; Sdhp 298.


-- (nt. or f.?) [fr. accharā2] in ˚ŋ vādeti to make heavenly music (lit. the sounds of an accharā or heavenly nymph) A iv.265.


-- (adj. -- nt.) [cp. Sk. āścarya since Upanishads of uncertain etym. -- The conventional etym. of Pāli grammarians connects it with accharā1 (which is prob. correct & thus reduces Sk. āścarya to a Sanskritisation of acchariya) viz. Dhammapāla: anabhiṇha -- ppavattitāya accharāpaharaṇa -- yoggaŋ that which happens without a moment's notice, at the snap of a finger; i. e. causally unconnected (cp. Goth. silda -- leiks in similar meaning) VvA 329; and Buddhaghosa: accharā -- yoggan ti acchariyaŋ accharaŋ paharituŋ yuttan ti attho DA i.43] wonderful, surprising, strange, marvellous D ii.155; M i.79; iii.118, 125, 144 (an˚); S iv.371; A i.181; Miln 28, 253; DhA iii.171; PvA 121; VvA 71 (an˚). As nt. often in exclamations: how wonderful! what a marvel! J i.223, 279; iv.138; vi.94 (a. vata bho); DhA iv.51 (aho a.); VvA 103 (aho ti acchariyatthena nipāto). Thus freq. combd. with abbhutaŋ = how wonderful & strange, marvellous, beyond comprehension, e. g. D i.2, 60, 206, 210; ii.8; and in phrase acchariyā abbhutā dhammā strange & wonderful things, i. e. wonderful signs, portents marvels, M iii.118, 125; A iv.198; Miln 8; also as adj. in phrase acchariyaabbhuta -- (citta -- )jātā with their hearts full of wonder and surprise DhA iv.52; PvA 6, 50. -- See also acchera & accheraka.


-- (nt.) [fr. acchādeti] covering, clothing Th 1, 698; Miln 279. -- fig. protection, sheltering J i.307.


-- (f.) [= prec.] covering, hiding, concealment Pug 19, 23. -- Note. In id. p. at Vbh 358 we read accasarā for acchādanā. Is the latter merely a gloss?


-- [ā + chādeti1, Caus. of chad, cp. BSk. ācchā- dayati jīvitena to keep alive Av. Ś, i.300; Divy 136, 137] to cover, to clothe, to put on D i.63 = It 75; J i.254; iii.189; iv.318; Pug 57; Pv i.105 (ger. acchādayitvāna); DA i.181 (= paridahitvā); PvA 49, 50. -- fig. to envelop, to fill J vi.581 (abbhaŋ rajo acchādesi dust filled the air). -- pp. acchanna (q. v.).


-- at S iv.290 is faulty spelling for acci (q. v.).


-- (v. l. accheja) destroying (?) S i.127. Is the reading warranted? Cp. acchecchi.


-- see chidda.


-- [ā + chindati, lit. to break for oneself] to remove forcibly, to take away, rob, plunder Vin iv.247 (sayaŋ a. to appropriate); J ii.422; iii.179; iv.343; Miln 20; Sdhp 122. -- ger. acchinditvā J ii.422; DhA i.349; PvA 241 (sayaŋ); & acchetvā M i.434. Caus. ii. acchindāpeti to induce a person to theft Vin iv.224, 247.


-- (adj.) [ā + chinna, pp. of acchindati] removed, taken away, stolen, robbed Vin iv.278, 303; J ii.78; iv.45; v.212.


-- [*Sk. akṣiba and akṣība] a certain species of tree (Hypanthera Moringa) J vi.535.


-- [ā + chupeti, Caus. of chupati] to procure or provide a hold, to insert, to put on or in Vin i.290 (aggaḷaŋ) ii.112.


-- [Sk. acchaitsīt] 3rd sg. aor. of chindati "he has cut out or broken, has destroyed" (see also chindati 3), in combn. with taṇhaŋ M i.122; S i.12, 23, 127 (so read for acchejja); iv.105, 207. It 47; A iii.246, 445; DhA iv.70 (gloss acchindi, for acchidda pret. of Dh 351). The v. l. at all passages is acchejji, which is to be accounted for on graphological grounds, ch & j being substituted in MSS. Kern (Toevoegselen s. v.) mistakes the form & tries to explain acchejji as adj. = ati -- ejin (ejā), acchecchi = ati -- icchin (icchā). The syntactical construction however clearly points to an aor.


-- = a + chejja not to be destroyed, indestructible, see chindati.


-- (nt.) [abstr. to acchindati] robbing, plundering J vi.544.


-- (adj.) = acchariya wonderful, marvellous S i.181; Vv 8413 (comp. accheratara); Pv iii.51 (˚rūpa = acchariyasabhāva PvA 197); Sdhp 244, 398.


-- (adj.) = acchera (acchariya) J i.279; Bu i.9 (pāṭihīraŋ).


-- [Vedic aja fr. aj (Lat. ago to drive), cp. ajina] a he- goat, a ram D i.6, 127; A ii.207; J i.241; iii.278 sq.; v.241; Pug 56; PvA 80.
-- eḷaka [Sk. ajaiḍaka] goats & sheep D i.5, 141; A ii.42 sq., 209; J i.166; vi.110; Pug 58. As pl. ˚ā S i.76; It 36; J iv.363. -- pada goat -- footed M i.134. -- pāla goatherd, in ˚nigrodharukkha (Npl.) "goatherds' Nigrodha -- tree" Vin i.2 sq. Dpvs i.29 (cp. M Vastu iii.302). -- pālikā a woman goatherd Vin iii.38. -- lakkhaṇa "goat -- sign", i. e. prophesying from signs on a goat etc. D i.9 (expld. DA i.94 as "evarūpānaŋ ajānaŋ mansaŋ khāditabbaŋ evarūpānaŋ na khāditabban ti"). -- laṇḍikā (pl.) goats' dung, in phrase nāḷimattā a. a cup full of goats' dung (which is put down a bad minister's throat as punishment) J i.419; DhA ii.70; PvA 282. -- vata "goats' habit", a practice of certain ascetics (to live after the fashion of goats) J iv.318.
aja -- pada refers to a stick cloven like a goat's hoof; so also at Vism 161.

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-- a goat, pl. goats Vin ii.154. -- f. ajikā J iii.278 & ajiyā J v.241.


-- [aja + gara = gala fr. *gel to devour, thus "goat- eater"] a large snake (rock -- snake?), Boa Constrictor J vi.507; Miln 23, 303, 364, 406; DhA iii.60. Also as ajakara at J iii.484 (cp. Trenckner, Notes p. 64).


-- (adj.) [a + jacca] of low birth J iii.19; vi.100.


-- see jajjara.


ajaddhuka & ajaddhumāra
-- see jaddhu.


-- [Sk. ajamoda, cp. Sk. ajājī] cummin -- seed VvA 186.


-- (f.) a she -- goat J iii.125; iv.251.


-- (˚ -- ) (nt.) [a + jānana] not knowing, ignorance (of) J v.199 (˚bhāva); vi.177 (˚kāla).


-- (nt.) [Vedic ajina, to aja, orig. goats' skin] the hide of the black antelope, worn as a garment by ascetics D i.167; Sn 1027; J i.12, 53; iv.387; v.407. kharājina a rough skin (as garment) M i.343; S iv.118; A ii.207; Sn 249 (= kharāni a˚ -- cammāni SnA 291). dantājina? ivory (q. v.).
-- khipa a cloak made of a network of strips of a black antelope's hide D i.167; S i.117; A i.240, 295; ii.206; Vin i.306; iii.34; J vi.569. -- paveṇi a cloth of the size of a couch made from pieces of ant. skin sewn together Vin i.192; D i.7 (= ajina -- cammehi ma˝cappamāṇena sibbitvā katā paveṇi DA i.87); A i.181. -- sāṭī a garment of skins (= ajina -- camma -- sāṭī DhA iv.156) Dh 394 = J i.481 = iii.85.


-- aor 3rd sg. jayati, q. v.


-- = ajikā (see ajaka).


-- (nt.). [Vedic ajira to aj, cp. Gr. a)gro/s, Lat. ager, Goth. akrs = Ger. Acker, = E. acre] a court, a yard Mhvs 35, 3.


-- (nt.) [a + jīraka] indigestion J i.404; ii.181, 291; iii.213, 225.


-- ╣ & Ajjeyya (adj.) [a + jeyya, grd. of jayati, q. v.] - (a) not to be taken by force Kh viii.8 (cp. KhA 223). <-> (b) not to be overpowered, invincible Sn 288; J v.509.


-- ▓ (adj.) [a + jeyya, grd. of jīyati, q. v.] not decaying, not growing old, permanent J vi.323.

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ajja & ajjā
-- (adv.) [Vedic adya & adyā, a + dyā, a˚ being base of demonstr. pron. (see a3) and dyā an old loc. of dyaus (see diva), thus "on this day"] to -- day, now Sn 75, 153, 158, 970, 998; Dh 326; J i.279; iii.425 (read bahutaŋ ajjā; not with Kern, Toev. s. v. as "food"); Pv i.117 (= idāni PvA 59); PvA 6, 23; Mhvs 15, 64. <-> Freq. in phrase ajjatagge (= ajjato + agge(?) or ajja -- tagge, see agga3) from this day onward, henceforth Vin i.18; D i.85; DA i.235.
-- kālaŋ (adv.) this morning J vi.180; -- divasa the present day Mhvs 32, 23.


-- (adj.) [cp. Sk. adyatana] referring to the day, to- day's, present, modern (opp. porāṇa) Th 1, 552; Dh 227; J ii.409. -- dat. ajjatanāya for today Vin i.17; PvA 171 & passim.


-- (f.) [abstr. fr. ajja] the present time, in ajjata˝ ca this very day S i.83 (v. l. ajjeva).


-- [Vedic arjati, ṛj, a variant of arh, see arahati] to get, procure, obtain J iii.263 (?). pp. ajjita (q. v.).


-- (adj. -- n.) [cp. Sk. ārjava, to ṛju, see uju] straight, upright (usually combd. with maddava gentle, soft) D iii.213; A i.94; ii.113; iii.248; Sn 250 (+ maddava), 292 (id.); J iii.274; Dhs 1339; Vbh 359 (an˚); SnA 292 (= ujubhāva), 317 (id.).


-- (f.) [fr. prec.] straight forwardness, rectitude, up- rightness Dhs 1339. (+ ajimhatā & avankatā).


-- [pp. of ajjati] obtained Sdhp 98.


-- [*Sk. arjaka] N. of a plant, Ocimum Gratissimum Vin iv.35; DA i.81 (all MSS. have ajjaka).


-- [*Sk. arjakarṇa] N. of a tree Pentaptera To- mentosa J vi.535 (nn).


-- (adv.) [haplology fr. ajja -- juṇho; see juṇhā] this moonlight night Vin i.25; iv.80.


-- [Vedic arjuna, to raj; cp. Gr. a)rgo/s white, a)/rguros silver, Lat. argentum] the tree Pentaptera Arjuna J vi.535; DhA i.105 (˚rukkha).


-- Assimilation group of adhi + vowel.


-- [adhi + agā 3rd sg. pret. of adhigacchati (q. v. for similar forms) he came to, got to, found, obtained, experienced S i.12 (vimānaŋ); Sn 225 (expld. at KhA 180 by vindi paṭilabhi), 956 (ratiŋ; expld. at Nd1 457 by adhigacchi); It 69 (jātimaraṇaŋ); Dh 154 (taṇhānaŋ khayaŋ); Vv 327 (visesaŋ attained distinction; expld. at VvA 135 by adhigata); 5021 (amataŋ santiŋ; expld. VvA 215 by v. l. SS adhiga˝chi, T. adhigacchati).


-- (adj. -- n.) [cp. Sk. adhyātma, cp. attā], that which is personal, subjective, arises from within (in contrast to anything outside, objective or impersonal); as adv. & ˚interior, personal, inwardly (opp. bahiddhā bāhira etc. outward, outwardly); Cp. ajjhattika & see Dhs. trsl. 272. <-> D i.37 (subjective, inward, of the peace of the 2nd jhāna), 70 = A ii.210; v.206 (inward happiness. a. sukkhaŋ = niyakajjhattaŋ attano santāne ti attho DA i.183 cp. DhsA 169, 338, 361); S i.70, 169; ii..27 (kathaŋ kathī hoti is in inward doubt), 40 (sukhaŋ dukkhaŋ); iii.180 (id.); iv.1 sg. (āyatanāni), 139, 196; v.74 (ṭhitaŋ cittaŋ ajjhattaŋ susaṇṭhitaŋ suvimuttaŋ a mind firm, inwardly well planted, quite set free), 110, 143, 263, 297, 390; A i.40 (rūpasa˝˝ī), 272 (kāmacchanda etc.); ii.158. (sukhadukkhaŋ), 211; iii.86 (cetosamatha), 92 (vūpasantacitta); iv.32 (sankhittaŋ), 57 (itthindriyaŋ), 299 (cittaŋ), 305 (rūpasa˝˝ī), 360 (cetosamatha), 437 (vūpasantacitta); v 79 sq., 335 sq. (sati); It 39 (cetosamatha inward peace), 80, 82, 94; J i.045 (chātajjhatta with hungry insides); v.338 (id.); Ps i.76 (cakkhu etc.); Dhs 161 (= attano jātaŋ DhsA 169), 204, 1044; Pug 59; Vbh 1 sq. (khandhā), 228 (sati), 327 (pa˝˝ā), 342 (arūˊpasa˝˝ī). -- adv. ˚ŋ inwardly, personally (in contrast -- pair ajjhattaŋ vā bahiddhā vā; see also cpd. ˚bahiddhā) A i.284; ii.171; iv.305; v.61; Sn 917 (= upajjhayassa vā ā ācariyassa vā te guṇā assū ti Nd1 350).
-- ārammaṇa a subjective object of thought Dhs 1047. -- cintin thought occupied with internal things Sn 174, 388. -- bahiddhā inside & outside, personal -- external, mutual, interacting S ii.252 sq.; iii.47; iv.382; Nd2 15; Dhs 1049 etc. (see also bahiddhā). -- rata with inward joy D ii.107 = S v.263 = Dh 362 = Ud 64 (+ samāhita); Th 1, 981; A iv.312; DhA iv.90 (= gocarɔ ajjhatta -- sankhātāya kammaṭṭhāna -- bhāvanāya rata). -- rūpa one's own or inner form Vin iii.113 (opp. bahiddhā -- rūpa & ajjh˚ -- bah˚ r.). -- sa˝˝ojana an inner fetter, inward bond A i.63 sq.; Pug 22; Vbh 361. -- santi inner peace Sn 837 (= ajjhattānaŋ rāgādīnaŋ santibhāva SnA 545; cp. Nd1 185). -- samuṭṭhāna originating from within J i.207 (of hiri; opp. bahiddhā˚).

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-- (adj.) [ajjhatta + ika], personal, inward (cp. Dhs trsl. 207 & Nd1 346: ajjhattikaŋ vuccati cittaŋ); opp. bāhira outward (q. v.). See also āyatana. -- M i.62; S i.73 (˚ā rakkhā na bāhirā); iv.7 sq. (āyatanāni); v.101 (anga); A i.16 (anga); ii.164 (dhātuyo); iii.400 (āyatanāni); v.52 (id.); It 114 (id.), 9 (anga); Kh iv. (= KhA 82); J iv.402 (bāhira -- vatthuŋ ayācitvā ajjhattikassa nāmaŋ gaṇhati); Dhs 673, 751; Vbh 13, 67, 82 sq., 119, 131, 392 sq.


-- S v.218: substitute v. l. accasara (q. v.).


ajjhappatta (& Ajjhapatta)
-- [adhi + ā + *prāpta] 1. having reached, approached, coming near to J ii.450; vi.566 (p; C. attano santikaŋ patta). -- 2. having fallen upon, attacked J ii.59; v.198 (p; C. sampatta) -- 3. attained, found, got Sn 1134 (= adhigacchi Nd2); J iii.296 (p. C. sampatta); v.158 (ajjhāpatta; C. sampatta).


-- 3rd sg. aor. of adhibhavati to conquer, over- power, overcome S i.240 (prohib. mā vo kodho ajjhabhavi); J ii.336. Cp. ajjhabhu & ajjhobhavati.


-- 3rd sg. aor. of adhibhāseti to address S iv.117 (gāthāhi); Kh v. = Sn p. 46 (gāthāya); PvA 56, 90.


-- (3rd sg. aor. of adhibhavati (q. v.) to overcome, conquer It 76 (dujjayaŋ a. he conquered him who is hard to conquer; v. l. ajjhabhi for ajjhabhavi). Cp. ajjhabhavi.


-- (nt.) [adhi + i] study (learning by heart) of the Vedas Miln 225. See also ajjhena.


-- 3rd sg. aor. of ajjhodahati [Sk. adhyavadhāti] to put down J v.365 (= odahi, ṭhapesi C.). Kern, Toev. s. v. proposes reading ajjhavādahi (= Sk. avādhāt).


-- (adv.) [adhi + agāre, loc. of agāra] at home, in one's own house A i.132 = It 109; A ii.70.


-- [adhi (or ati?) + ā + car] 1. to conduct one- self according to Vin ii.301; M i.523; Miln 266. -- 2. to flirt with (perhaps to embrace) J iv.231 (a˝˝am -- a˝˝aŋ). pp. ajjhāciṇṇa. See also accāvadati & aticarati.


-- [to adhi (ati?) + ā + car] 1. minor conduct (conduct of a bhikkhu as to those minor rules not included in the Pārājika's or Saŋghādisesa's) Vin i.63 (see note in Vin. Texts, i.184. -- 2. flirtation Vin iii.128 (in the Old Cy as expln of avabhāsati). -- 3. sexual intercourse J i.396; v.327 (˚cara v. l. for ajjhāvara); Miln 127 (an˚).


-- [pp. of ajjhācarati] habitually done Vin ii.80 sq., 301.


-- [adhi (ati?) + ā + jīv] too rigorous or strenuous a livelihood M ii.245 (+ adhipāṭimokkha).


-- [adhi + ā + pad] to commit an offence, to incur, to become guilty of (acc.) Vin iv.237. pp. ajjhāpanna (q. v.).


-- (f.) [abstr. to ajjhāpajjati] incurring guilt Dhs 299 (an˚).


-- ╣ (nt.) [fr. Caus. ii. of ajjheti] teaching of the sacred writ, instruction Miln 225.


-- ▓ (nt.) [ā + jhāpana fr. kṣā] burning, conflag- ration J vi.311.


-- [pp. of adhi + āpajjati] become guilty of offence D i.245; iii.43; S ii.270; A iv.277, 280; v.178, 181. an˚ guiltless, innocent Vin i.103; D iii.46; S ii.194, 269; A v.181; Miln 401. For all passages except A iv.277, 280, cp. ajjhopanna.


-- [adhi + ā + pīḷita] harassed, overpowered, tor- mented PvA 180 (khuppipāsāya by hunger & thirst).


-- [cp. Sk. adhyābhava] excessive power, predo- minance J ii.357.


-- [adhi + ā + bhū, in meaning of abhi + bhu] to predominate J ii.357.


-- [cp. Sk. adhyāyaka, cp. ajjhayana] (a brahmin) engaged in learning the Veda (mantajjhāyaka J vi.209; SnA 192), a scholar of the brahmanic texts, a studious, learned person D i.88, 120; iii.94; A i.163; iii.223; Sn 140 (˚kula: thus for ajjhāyakula Fsb.); Th 1, 1171; J i.3; vi.201, 498; DA i.247.


ajjhāruha (& ˚rūha)
-- (adj.) [to adhi + ā + ruh] growing up over, overwhelming A iii.63 sq. = S v.96; J iii.399.


-- (adj.) [pp. of adhi + ā + ruh] grown up or high over J iii.399.


-- [adhi + ārohati cp. atyārohati] to rise into the air, to climb over, spread over S i.221 = Nett 173 (= ajjhottharati SA; cp. Mrs. Rh. D. Kindred Sayings i.285).


-- see accāvadati.


-- [fr. adhi + ā + var] surrounding; waiting on, service, retinue J v.322, 324, 326, 327 (expld at all passages by parisā). Should we read ajjhācara? Cp. ajjhācāra.


-- [n. ag. to ajjhāvasati] one who inhabits D i.63 (agāraŋ).


-- [adhi + ā + vas] to inhabit (agāraŋ a house; i. e. to be settled or live the settled life of a householder) D ii.16; M i.353; Vin iv.224; J i.50; Pug 57; Miln 348. -- pp. ajjhāvuttha (q. v.).


-- [cp. Sk. adhyuṣita; pp. of ajjhāvasati] inhabited, occupied (of a house) Vin ii.210; J i.145; ii.333; PvA 24 (˚ghara); fig. (not) occupied by SnA 566 (= anosita).


-- [fr. adhi + ā + śri, orig. hanging on, leaning on, BSk. however adhyāśaya Divy 586] intention, desire, wish, disposition, bent D ii.224 (adj.: intent on, practising); J i.88, 90; ii.352; v.382; DhsA 314, 334; PvA 88, 116, 133 (adj. dān˚ intent on giving alms), 168; Sdhp 219, 518. Freq. in phrase ajjhāsayÔnurūpa according to his wish, as he wanted PvA 61, 106, 128.


-- (f.) [abstr. to ajjhāsaya] desire, longing PvA 127 (uḷār˚ great desire for c. loc.).


-- [pp. of adhi + ā + śri] intent on, bent on Miln 361 (jhān˚). Cp. ajjhosita & nissita.


-- [pp. of ajjhesati] requested, asked, invited Vin i.113 (an˚ unbidden); D ii.289 (Buddhaghosa and text read ajjhitta); Sn p. 218 (= ajjhesita Nd2 16); J vi.292 (= āṇatta C.); DhA iv.100 (v. l. abhijjhiṭṭha). See also an˚.


-- [adhi + upa + gam] to come to, to reach, obtain; to consent to, agree, submit Th 2, 474 (= sampaṭicchati ThA 285); J ii.403; Miln 300; pp. ajjhupagata (q. v.).


-- [pp. of ajjhupagacchati] come to, obtained, reached A v.87, cp. 210; v.187 sq.


-- (nt.) [adhi + upa + gam] consent, agree- ment, justification Vin ii.97, 104.


-- [adhi + upa + hṛ; cp. upaharati] to take (food) to oneself J ii.293 (aor. ajjhupāhari = ajjhohari C.).


-- [adhi + upa + ikṣ; cp. BSk. adhyupek- ṣati] 1. to look on A i.257; Miln 275. -- 2. to look [p012] on intently or with care, to oversee, to take care of A iv.45 (kaṭṭhɔaggi, has to be looked after); PvA 149 (sisaŋ colaŋ vā). -- 3. to look on indifferently to be indifferent, to neglect Vin ii.78 = iii.162, cp. J i.147; M i.155; ii.223; A iii.194, 435; J v.229; DhA iv.125.

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-- (nt.) & ˚ā (f.) [abstr. from ajjhupekkhati] care, diligence, attention Ps i.16; ii.119; Vbh 230 sq.; DhA iv.3.


-- [n. ag. to ajjhupekkhati] one who looks on (carefully), one who takes care or controls, an overseer, caretaker S v.69 (sādhukaŋ), 324 (id.), 331 sq.; Vbh 227.


-- [cp. Sk. abhyupeti; adhi + upa + i] to go to meet, to receive J iv.440.


-- [Sk. ādhyāyati, Denom. fr. adhyāya] to be anxious about, to fret, worry Sn 948 (socati +); expld at Nd1 433 by nijjhāyati, at SnA 568 by abhijjhati (gloss BB gijjhati).


-- (nt.) [Sk. adhyayana, see also ajjhayana] study (esp. of the Vedas) M iii.1; J ii.327 (as v. l. to be preferred to ajjhesanā); iii.114 (= japa); v.10 (pl. = vede); vi.201 = 207; Vbh 353; SnA 314 (mantɔ).
-- kujja (˚kūta v. l.?) a hypocrite, a pharisee Sn 242; cp. SnA 286.


-- (adhi + iṣ; cp. BSk. adhyeṣate Divy 160] to request, ask, bid DhA iv.18; aor. ajjhesi Vin ii.200; pp. ajjhiṭṭha & ajjhesita (q. v.), with which cp. pariyiṭṭha & ˚esita.


-- (f.) [see ajjhesati] request, entreaty Vin i.6 = D ii.38 = S i.138; J ii.327 (better v. l. ajjhena).


-- [pp. of ajjhesati; cp. ajjhiṭṭha] requested, asked, bidden Nd2 16 (= ajjhiṭṭha).


-- [adhi + okāsa] the open air, only in loc. ajjho- kāse in the open Vin i.15; S i.212; DhA iv.100.


-- [pp. of ajjhogāhati] plunged into, immersed; having entered M i.457; S i.201; Miln 348.


ajjhogāhati (& ˚gāheti)
-- [Sk. *abhyavagāhate; adhi (= abhi) + ava + gāh] to plunge into, to enter, to go into D i.101 (vanaŋ), 222 (samuddaŋ); M i.359, 536; A iii.75, 368; iv.356; v.133; Vin iii.18; J i.7; Nd1 152 (ogāhati +); Miln 87 (samuddaŋ); 300 (vanaŋ). -- pp. ajjhogāḷha (q. v.). Cp. pariyogāhati.


-- [adhi + ava + ṭhapeti, Caus. of sthā] to bring to PvA 148 (gāmaŋ), where we should read ˚ṭṭhapeti.


-- [pp. of ajjhottharati] spread over; covered, filled; overcome, crushed, overpowered J i.363 (ajjhottaṭa), 410; v.91 (= adhipanna); DhA i.278; PvA 55; Dāvs v.5.


-- [adhi + ava + stṛ] to cover over, spread out, spread over, cover; to submerge, flood Vin i.111; J i.61, 72, 73; Miln 296, 336; Dh i.264; Pass. ˚tthariyati to be overrun with (instr.), to be smothered, to be flooded A iii.92 = Pug 67; aor. ajjhotthari VvA 48 (gāmapadeso: was flooded). pp. ajjhotthata (q. v.).


ajjhopanna (?)
-- only found in one stock phrase, viz. gathita (q. v.) mucchita ajjhopanna with ref. to selfishness, greed, bonds of craving. The reading ajjhopanna is the lectio difficilior, but the accredited reading ajjhosāna seems to be clearer and to harmonize better with the cognate ajjhosita & ajjhosāna (n.) in the same context. The confusion between the two is old -- standing and hard to be accounted for. Trenckner under v. l. to M i.162 on p. 543 gives ajjhopanna as BB (= adhi -- opanna). The MSS. of Nd2 clearly show ajjhopanna as inferior reading, which may well be attributable to the very frequent SS substitution of p for s (see Nd2 Introd. xix.). Besides this mixture of vv. ll. with s and p there is another confusion between the vv. ll. ajjhāpanna and ajjhopanna which adds to the complication of the case. However since the evidence of a better reading between these two preponderates for ajjhopanna we may consider the o as established, and, with a little more clearness to be desired, may in the end decide for ajjhosāna (q. v.), which in this case would have been liable to change through analogy with ajjhāpanna, from which it took the ā and p. Cp. also ajjhosita. The foll. is a synopsis of readings as preferred or confused by the Ed. of the var. texts. -- 1. ajjhopanna as T. reading: M i.162, 173, 369; A i.74; ii.28; iii.68, 242; Md 75, 76; DA i.59; as v. l.: D i.245. <-> 2. ajjhosāna as v. l.: A i.74 (C. expls. ajjhosāya gilitvā ṭhita); Nd2 under nissita & passim; Ud 75, 76 (ajjhosanna); DA i.59 (id.). -- 3. ajjhāpanna as T. reading: D i.245; iii.43, 46; S. ii.194, 270: iv.332 (ajjhapaṇṇa); A v.178, 181; Nd2 under nissita; Miln 401; as v. l.: M i.162; A iii.242; Ud 75, 76.


-- [adhi + ava + bhu, Sk. abhi˚] to overcome, overpower, destroy J ii.80 (aor. ajjhobhavi = adhibhavi C.).


-- [adhi + ava + mṛd] to crush down A iv.191, 193.


-- [pp. adhi + ava + mūrch, cp. adhimuccita] stiffened out (in a swoon), lying in a faint (?) A iii.57 sq. (v. l. ajjhomu˝c´ta or ˚muccita better: sarīre attached to her body, clinging to her b.).


-- [adhi + ava + lamb] to hang or hold on to (acc.), to cling to S iii 137; M iii.164 = Nett 179, cp. Sdhp 284 & 296.


-- = ajjhosāya, in verse only as ajjhosa tiṭṭhati to cleave or cling to S iv.73; Th 1, 98, 794.


-- [adhi + ava + sayati, , to bind, pp. sita: see ajjhosita] to be bound to, to be attached, bent on; to desire, cleave to, indulge in. Fut. ajjhosissati (does it belong here?) M i.328 (c. acc. paṭhaviŋ, better as ajjhesati). grd. ajjhositabha M i.109 (+ abhinanditabba, v. l. ˚etabba); DhsA 5 (id.); ger. ajjhosāya (q. v.) pp. ajjhosita (q. v.).


-- (nt.) cleaving to (earthly joys), attachment, D ii.58 sq.; iii.289; M i.498 (+ abhinandana); S iii.187; A i.66; ii.11 (diṭṭhi˚, kāma˚ + taṇhā). In combn. with (icchā) and mucchā at Nd2 under chanda & nissita and taṇhā (see also ajjhopanna), and at Dhs 1059 of lābha, (the expln. at DhsA 363, 370, from as to eat, is popular etym.) Nett 23 sq. (of taṇhā).


-- [ger. of ajjhosati, cp. BSk. adhyavasāya tiṣṭhati Divy 37, 534] being tied to, hanging on, attached to, only in phrase a. tiṭṭhati (+ abhinandati, same in Divy) M i.266; S. iv.36 sq.; 60, 71 sq.; Miln 69. See also ajjhosa.


-- [cp. Sk. adhyavasita, from adhi + ava + ; but sita is liable to confusion with sita = Sk. śrita, also through likeness of meaning with esita; see ajjhāsita & ajjhesita] hanging on, cleaving to, being bent on, (c. loc.) S ii.94 (+ mamāyita); A ii.25 (diṭṭha suta muta +); Nd1 75, 106, 163 = Nd2 under nissita; Th 2, 470 (asāre = taṇhāvasena abhiniviṭṭha ThA 284); Pv iv.84 (mayhaŋ ghare = taṇhābhinivisena abhiniviṭṭha PvA 267; v. l. BB ajjhesita, SS ajjhāsita). -- an˚ S iv.213; v.319; Nd1 411; Miln 74 (pabbajita).


-- [pp. of ajjhoharati] having swallowed Sdhp 610 (balisaŋ maccho viya: like a fish the fishhook).


-- (nt.) = ajjhohāra 1. A v.324; J vi.213.

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-- (adj.) [grd. of ajjhoharati] something fit to eat, eatable, for eating J vi.258; DhA i.284.


-- [Sk. abhyavaharati; adhi (= abhi) + ava + hṛ] to swallow, eat, take as food M i.245; J i.460; ii.293; vi.205, 213; Miln 366; PvA 283 (aor.) -- pp. ajjhohaṭa (q.v.).


-- [Sk. abhyavahāra] 1. taking food, swallowing, eating & drinking Vin iv.233; Miln 176, 366. -- 2. N. of a fabulous fish (swallower"; cp. timingala) J v.462.

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-- J i.417, read a˝chati (see next).


-- [in meaning = ākaḍḍhati, which latter is also the Sk. gloss (ākārṣayati) to the Jain Prk. aŋchāvei = a˝chati: see Morris, J. P. T. S. 1893, 60] to pull, drag, pull along, to turn on a lathe D ii.291 (bhamakāro dīghaŋ a., where K has note: a˝janto ti pi acchanto ti pi pātho) = M i.56 (vv. ll. p. 532 acch˚ & a˝j˚); Th 1, 750 (a˝cāmi T., v.l. a˝˝āmi). A˝chati should also be read at J i 417 for udakaŋ a˝canti (in expln. of uda˝canī pulling the water up from a well, q. v.), where it corresponds to udakaŋ ākkaḍḍhati in the same sentence.


-- (adv.) [orig. imper. of a˝jati1; cp. Sk. anjasā (instr.) quickly, Goth. anaks suddenly, lit. with a pull or jerk] pull on! go on! gee up! J i.192.


-- ╣ [= Sk. ṛ˝jati, ṛjyati to stretch, pull along, draw out, erect; cp. Sk. ṛju straight, caus. irajyati; Gr. o)re/gw; Lat. rego, rectus = erect. See also P. uju, a˝chati, ajjita, āna˝ja -- ānejja]. See a˝ja, a˝jaya, a˝jali, a˝jasa.


-- ▓ & a˝jeti [= Sk. a˝jayati, Caus. of anakti to smear etc.; cp. Sk. a˝ji ointment, ājya butter; Lat. unguo to anoint, unguentum ointment; Ohg. ancho = Ger. Anke butter] to smear, anoint, paint S ii.281; J iv.219 (akkhīni a˝jetvā, v. l. BB a˝citvā). Caus. ii. a˝jāpeti DhA i.21. <-> pp. a˝jita (q. v.).


-- (nt.) [from a˝jati2] ointment, esp. a collyrium for the eyes, made of antimony, adj. anointed, smeary; glossy, black (cp. kaṇha ii. and kāla1 note). -- 1. Vin i.203 (five kinds viz. kāḷ˚, ras˚, sot˚, geruka, kapalla); D i.7, 12; DA i.98 (khār˚); 284; DhA iii.354 (akkhi˚ eye -- salve). -- 2. glossy, jet -- black J i.194; ii.369; v.416. The reading a˝jana at A iv.468 is wrong, it should be corrected into thanamajjanamattaŋ. See also pacc˚. In meaning collyrium box at Th 2, 413 (= a˝jana -- nāḷi ThA 267); DhA ii.25.
-- akkhiha with anointed eyes Th 1, 960. -- upapisana perfume to mix with ointment Vin i.203; ii.112. -- cuṇṇa aromatic powder DhsA 13. -- nāḷi an ointment tube, collyrium box ThA 267. -- rukkha N. of a tree ("black" tree) J i.331. -- vaṇṇa of the colour of collyrium, i. e. shiny, glossy, dark, black D ii.18 (lomāni); J i.138 (kesā), 194; ii.369; PvA 258 (vana).


-- (f.) [fr. a˝jana] a box for ointment, a collyrium pot Vin i.203, 204; ii.135; iv.168; M ii.65 = Th 1, 773.


-- (f.) a stick to put the ointment on with Vin i.203; ii.135; J iii.419.


-- (adj.) [from a˝jati1] straight J iii.12 (vv. ll. ajjava & and ājjava better?) expld by C. as ujuka, akuṭila. See also ajjava. Should we assume misreading for a˝jasa?


-- [cp. Sk. a˝jali, fr. a˝jati1] extending, stretching forth, gesture of lifting up the hands as a token of reverence (cp. E. to "tender" one's respect), putting the ten fingers together and raising them to the head (VvA 7: dasanakha -- samodhāna -- samujjalaŋ a˝jaliŋ paggayha). Only in stock phrases (a.) a˝jaliŋ paṇāmeti to bend forth the outstretched hands Vin ii.188; D i.118; Sn 352; Sn p. 79. (b.) ˚ŋ paggaṇhāti to perform the a. salutation J i.54; DhA iv.212; VvA 7, 312 (sirasmiŋ on one's head); PvA 93. (c.) ˚ŋ karoti id. PvA 178; cp. kata˝jali (adj.) with raised hands Sn 1023; J i.17; PvA 50, and a˝jalikata id. Pv ii.1220. Cp. pa˝jali
-- kamma respectful salutation, as above A i.123; ii.180; iv.130; Vv 788, 8316; DhA i.32. -- karaṇīya (adj.) that is worthy of being thus honoured D iii.5; A ii.34; iii.36; iv.13 sq.; It 88.


-- (f.) [= a˝jali] the raising of the hands as a sign of respectful salutation Vv 15 (expld at VvA 24 as dasanakha -- samodhāna samujjalaŋ a˝jaliŋ sirasi paggaṇhantī guṇa -- visiṭṭhānaŋ apacayānaŋ akāsiŋ).


-- [Sk. ā˝jasa (?). Cp. ārjava = P. ajjava, see a˝jati1 & a˝jaya] straight, straightforward (of a road) D i.235; J i.5; Th 2, 99; Vv 5020 (cp. VvA 215); VvA 84 (= akuṭila); Mhvs 25, 5; Miln 217; Sdhp 328, 595. Cp. pa˝jasa.


-- [Sk. ankta & a˝jayita, pp. of a˝jeti] smeared, anointed J i.77 (su -- a˝jitāni akkhīni); iv.421 (a˝jitɔakkha).


-- (pron.) [Vedic anya, with compar. suff. ya; Goth. anpar; Ohg. andar; formation with n analagous to those with l in Gr. a)/llos (a)/ljos), Lat. alius (cp. alter), Goth. aljis Ags. elles = E. else. From demonstr. base *eno, see na1 and cp. a3] another etc. -- A. By itself: 1. other, not the same, different, another, somebody else (opp. oneself) Vin iii.144 (a˝˝ena, scil. maggena, gacchati to take a different route); Sn 459, 789, 904; Dh 158 (opp. attānaŋ), 165; J i.151 (opp. attano); ii.333 (a˝˝aŋ vyākaroti give a diff. answer). -- 2. another one, a second; nt. else, further Sn 1052 (= uttariŋ nt. Nd2 17); else J i.294. a˝˝aŋ ki˝ci (indef.) anything else J i.151. yo a˝˝o every other, whoever else J i.256. -- 3. a˝˝e (pl.) (the) others, the rest Sn 189, 663, 911; Dh 43, 252, 355; J i.254. -- B. del. in correlation: 1. copulative. a˝˝a . . a˝˝a the one . . the other (. . the third etc.); this, that & the other; some . . some Vin i.15; Miln 40; etc. <-> 2. reciprocative a˝˝o a˝˝aŋ, a˝˝ama˝˝aŋ, a˝˝o˝˝aŋ one another, each other, mutually, reciprocally (in ordinary construction & declension of a noun or adj. in sg.; cp. Gr. a)llh/lwn, allh/lous in pl.). (a.) a˝˝o a˝˝aŋ Dh 165. (b.) a˝˝ama˝˝a (cp. BSk. a˝yama˝ya M Vastu ii.436), as pron.: n'ālaŋ a˝˝ama˝˝assa sukhāya vā dukkhāya vā D i.56 = S iii 211. n'a˝˝ama˝˝assa dukkhaŋ iccheyya do not wish evil to each other Sn 148. daṇḍehi a˝˝ama˝˝aŋ upakkamanti (approach each other) M i.86 = Nd2 199. ˚ŋ agāravo viharati A iii.247. dve janā ˚ŋ ghātayiŋsu (slew each other) J i.254. a˝˝ama˝˝aŋ hasanti J v.111; ˚ŋ musale hantvā J v.267. ˚ŋ daṇḍÔbhigāṭena PvA 58; or adj.: a˝˝ama˝˝aŋ veraŋ bandhiŋsu (established mutual enmity) J ii.353; ˚ŋ piyasaŋvāsaŋ vasiŋsu J ii.153; a˝˝ama˝˝aŋ accayaŋ desetvā (their mutual mistake) DhA i.57; or adv. dve pi a˝˝ama˝˝aŋ paṭibaddha citta ahesuŋ (in love with each other) J iii.188; or ˚ -- : a˝˝ama˝˝a -- paccaya mutually dependent, interrelated Ps ii.49, 58. <-> (c.) a˝˝o˝˝a (˚ -- ) J v.251 (˚nissita); Dāvs v.45 (˚bhinna). -- 3. disjunctive a˝˝a . . a˝˝a one . . the other, this one . . . that one, different, different from a˝˝aŋ jīvaŋ . . a˝˝aŋ sarīraŋ one is the soul . . the other is the body, i. e. the soul is different from the body D i.157; M i.430; A v.193; a˝˝ā va sa˝˝ā bhavissati a˝˝o attā D i.187. Thus also in phrase a˝˝ena a˝˝aŋ opposite, the contrary, differently, contradictory (lit. other from that which is other) Vin ii.85 (paṭicarati make counter -- charges); D i.57 (vyākāsi gave the opposite or contradictory reply); Miln 171 (a˝˝aŋ kayiramānaŋ a˝˝ena sambharati). <-> ana˝˝a (1) not another, i. e. the same, self -- same, identical M i.256 (= ayaŋ). -- (2) not anotber, i. e. alone, by oneself, oneself only Sn 65 (˚posin; opp. paraŋ) = Nd 4, cp. Nd2 36. -- (3) not another, i. e. no more, only, alone Sn p. 106 (dve va gatiyo bhavanti ana˝˝ā: and no other or no more, only two). See also under cpds.
-- ādisa different J vi.212, ˚tā difference PvA 243. -- khantika acquiescing in diff. views, following another [p014] faith (see khantika) D i.187; M i.487. -- titthiya an adherent of another sect, a non -- Buddhist.; D iii.115; M i.494, 512; P ii.21, 32 sq., 119; iii.116 sq.; iv.51, 228; v.6, 27 sq.; A i.65, 240; ii.176; iv.35 sq.; Vin i.60; J i.93; ii.415. -- diṭṭhika having diff. views (combd. with a˝˝a -- khantika) D i.187; M i.487. -- neyya (an˚) not to be guided by somebody else, i. e. independent in one's views, having attained the right knowledge by oneself (opp. para˚) Sn 55, 213, 364. -- mano (an˚) (adj.) not setting one's heart upon others Vv 115 (see VvA 58). -- vāda holding other views, an˚ (adj.) Dpvs iv.24. -- vādaka one who gives a diff. account of things, one who distorts a matter, a prevaricator Vin iv.36. -- vihita being occupied with something else, distracted, absent -- minded Vin iv.269; DhA iii.352, 381; ˚tā distraction, absentmindedness DhA i.181. -- saraṇa (an˚) not betaking oneself to others for refuge, i. e. of independent, sure knowledge S iii.42 = v.154. -- sita dependent or relying on others Sn 825.

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-- (pron. adj.) [a˝˝a + superl. suff. tama; see also a˝˝atara] one out of many, the one or the other of, a certain, any Mhvs 38, 14.


-- (pron. adj.) [Sk. anyatara, a˝˝a + compar. suff. tara, cp. Lat. alter, Goth. anpar etc.] one of a certain number, a certain, somebody, some; often used (like eka) as indef. article "a". Very frequent, e. g. Sn 35, 210; It 103; Dh 137, 157; J i.221, 253; ii.132 etc. deva˝˝atara a certain god, i. e. any kind of god S iv.180 = A iv.461.


-- (adv.) [from a˝˝a = a˝˝atra, adv. of place, cp. kattha, ettha] somewhere or anywhere else, elsewhere (either place where or whereto) J i.291; ii.154; DhsA 163; DhA i.212; iii.351; PvA 45; Mhvs 4, 37; 22, 14.


-- (adv.) [anya + tra, see also a˝˝attha] elsewhere, somewhere else J v.252; Pv iv.162. In compn. also = a˝˝a˚, e. g. a˝˝atra -- yoga (adj.) following another discipline D i.187; M i.487. -- As prep. c. abl. (and instr.) but, besides, except, e. g. a. iminā tapo -- pakkamena D i.168; kiŋ karaṇīyaŋ a. dhammacariyāya S i.101; ko nu a˝˝atram -- ariyehi who else but the Nobles Sn 886 (= ṭhapetvā sa˝˝ā -- mattena SnA 555). -- kiŋ a˝˝atra what but, i. e. what else is the cause but, or: this is due to; but for D i.90 (vusitavā -- mānī k. a. avusitattā); S i.29 (k. k. a. adassanā except from blindness); Sn 206 (id.).


-- (nt.) [a˝˝athā + tta] 1. change, alteration S iii.37; iv.40; A i.153; iii.66; Kvu 227 (= jarā C, cp. Kvu trsl. 55 n. 2); Miln 209. -- 2. difference J i.147; It 11. -- 3. erroneous supposition, mistake Vin ii.2; S iii.91; iv.329. -- 4. fickleness, change of mind, doubt, wavering, M i.448, 457 (+ domanassa); J i.33 (cittaŋ); PvA 195 (cittassa).


-- (adv.) [a˝˝a + thā] in a different manner, other- wise, differently S i.24; Sn 588, 757; DhsA 163; PvA 125, 133. ana˝˝athā without mistake Vv 4418; ana˝˝atha (nt.) certainty, truth Ps ii.104 (= tatha).
-- bhāva (1) a different existence A ii.10; It 9 = 94; Sn 729, 740, 752; (2) a state of difference; i. e. change, alteration, unstableness D i.36; S ii.274; iii.8, 16, 42; Vbh 379. -- bhāvin based on difference S iii.225 sq.; iv.23 sq., 66 sq.; an˚ free from difference Vin i.36.


-- (adv.) [lit. a˝˝ad atthu let there be anything else, i. e. be it what it will, there is nothing else, all, everything, surely] part. of affirmation = surely, all -- round, absolutely (ekaŋsa -- vacane nipāto DA i.111) only, at any rate D i.91; ii.284; Sn 828 (na hɔ a˝˝adatthɔ atthi pasaŋsa -- lābhā, expld. SnA 541 as na hi ettha pasaŋsa -- lābhato a˝˝o attho atthi, cp. also Nd1 168); Miln 133; VvA 58; PvA 97, 114.
-- dasa sure -- seeing, seeing everything, all pervading D i.18; iii.135, 185; A ii.24; iii.202; iv.89, 105; It 15.


-- (adv.) [a˝˝a + dā, cp. kadā, tadā, yadā] at another time, else, once S iv.285; J v.12; DhA iv.125.


-- (f.) [Sk. āj˝ā, = ā + j˝ā, cp. ājānāti] knowledge, recognition, perfect knowledge, philosophic insight, knowledge par excellence, viz. Arahantship, saving knowledge, gnosis (cp. on term Compend. 176 n. 3 and Psalms of Brethren introd. xxxiii.) M i.445; S i.4 (sammad˚), 24 (a˝˝āya nibbuta); ii.221; v.69, 129 (diṭṭhɔeva dhamme), 133, 237; A iii.82, 143, 192; v.108; It 39 sq., 53, 104; Dh 75, 96; Kh vii.11; Miln 334. -- a˝˝aŋ vyākaroti to manifest ones Arahantship (by a discourse or by mere exclamation) Vin i.183; S ii.51 sq., 120; iv.139; v.222; J i.140; ii.333. See also arahatta.
-- atthika desirous of higher knowledge Pv iv.114. -- ārādhana the attainment of full insight M i.479. -- indriya the faculty of perfect knowledge or of knowledge made perfect D iii.219; S v.204; It 53; Pug 2; Dhs 362, 505, 552; Nett 15, 54, 60. -- citta the thought of gnosis, the intention of gaining Arahantship S ii.267; A iii.437. -- paṭivedha comprehension of insight Vin ii.238. -- vimokkha deliverance by the highest insight Sn 1105, 1107 (Nd2 19: vuccati arahatta -- vimokkho).


-- (nt.) [a + ˝āṇa] ignorance; see ˝āṇa 3 e.


-- (nt.) [Demin. of a˝˝āṇa] ignorance Vin iv.144.


-- (adj.) [a + ˝āṇin] ignorant, not knowing DhA iii.106.


-- ╣ [pp. of ājānāti, q. v.] known, recognised Sn 699. an˚ what is not known, in phrase ana˝˝āta -- ˝˝assāmīɔ tɔ indriya the faculty of him (who believes): "I shall know what is not known (yet)" D iii.219; S v.204; It 53; Pug 2; Dhs 296 (cp. Dhs trsl. 86); Nett 15, 54, 60, 191.
-- mānin one who prides himself in having perfect knowledge, one who imagines to be in possession of right insight A iii.175 sq.; Th 1, 953.


-- ▓ [a + ˝āta] unknown, see ˝āta.


-- ╣ [a + ˝ātaka, cp. Sk. aj˝āti] he who is not a kinsman DhA i.222.


-- ▓ (adj.) [Demin. of a˝˝āta2] unknown, unrecog- nisable, only in phrase ˚vesena in unknown form, in disguise J i.14; iii.116; v.102.


-- [n. ag. to ājānāti] one who knows, a knower of D ii.286; M i.169; S i.106 (dhammassa); Kvu 561.


-- (adj. -- n.) [from ājānāti] one who has complete insight DhsA 291.
-- indriya (˚tāvɔ indr.) the faculty of one whose knowledge is made perfect Dhs 555 (cp. Dhs trsl. 150) and same loci as under a˝˝indriya (see a˝˝ā).


-- (adj.) [ā + j˝ātuŋ + kāma] desirous of gaining right knowledge A iii.192. See ājānāti.


-- [ger. of ājānāti, q. v. for detail] recognising, knowing, in the conviction of S i.24; A iii.41; Dh 275, 411.


-- see a˝˝a B 2 c.


-- [Sk. aśnāna, ppr. med. of aśnāti, to eat] eating, taking food; enjoying: only SS at Sn 240; all MSS at 239 have asamāna. SnA 284 expls. by āhārayamāna.

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-- [BSk. aṭaṭa (e. g. Divy 67), prob. to aṭ roam about. On this notion cp. description of roaming about in Niraya at Nd1 405 bottom] N. of a certain purgatory or Niraya A v.173 = Sn p. 126.


-- (adj.) [cp. Sk. aṭana, to aṭ] roaming about, wild J v.105 (˚gāvī).


-- (f.) a support a stand inserted under the leg of a bedstead Vin iv.168; Sām. Pās. on Pāc. 14 (quoted Min. [p015] Pāt. 86 and Vin iv.357); DhA i.234; J ii.387, 425, 484 supports of a seat. Morris J. P. T. S. 1884, 69 compares Marāthi aḍaṇī a three -- legged stand. See also Vin Texts ii.53.

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-- (adj.) [cp. Sk. aṭṭa & aṭṭālaka stronghold] solid, firm, strong, only in phrase aṭaliyo upāhanā strong sandals M ii.155 (vv. ll. paṭaliye & agaliyo) = S i.226 (vv. ll. āṭaliyo & āṭaliko). At the latter passage Bdhgh. expls. gaṇangaṇ -- űpāhanā, Mrs. Rh. D. (Kindred Sayings i.291) trsls. "buskined shoes".


-- (f.) [Sk. aṭavī: Non -- Aryan, prob. Dravidian] 1. forest, woods J i.306; ii.117; iii.220; DhA i.13; PvA 277. <-> 2. inhabitant of the forest, man of the woods, wild tribe J vi.55 (= aṭavicorā C.).
-- rakkhika guardian of the forest J ii.335. -- sankhepa at A i.178 = iii.66 is prob. faulty reading for v. l. ˚sankopa "inroad of savage tribes".

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{űT} /ʌʈ/

The coda is retroflex <t> which in Bur-Myan sounds like dental <t>.

-- ╣ [cp. see aṭṭaka] a platform to be used as a watch- tower Vin i.140; DA i.209.


-- ▓ [cp. Sk. artha, see also attha 5 b] lawsuit, case, cause Vin iv.224; J ii.2, 75; iv.129 (˚ŋ vinicchināti to judge a cause), 150 (˚ŋ tīreti to see a suit through); vi.336.


-- │ [Sk. ārta, pp. of ardati, ṛd to dissolve, afflict etc.; cp. Sk. ārdra (= P. adda and alla); Gr. a)/rdw to moisten, a)/rda dirt. See also aṭṭīyati & aṭṭita] distressed, tormented, afflicted; molested, plagued, hurt Sn 694 (+ vyasanagata; SnA 489 ātura); Th 2, 439 (= aṭṭita ThA 270), 441 (= pīḷita ThA 271); J iv.293 (= ātura C.); Vv 809 (= attita upadduta VvA 311). Often -- ˚: iṇaṭṭa oppressed by debt M i.463; Miln 32; chāt˚ tormented by hunger VvA 76; vedan˚ afflicted by pain Vin ii.61; iii.100; J i.293; sūcik˚ (read for sūcikaṭṭha) pained by stitch Pv iii.23.
-- ssara cry of distress Vin iii.105; S ii.255; J i.265; ii.117; Miln 357; PvA 285.


-- [Demin. of aṭṭa1] a platform to be used as a watch- house on piles, or in a tree Vin i.173; ii.416; iii.322, 372; DA i.209.


-- at Vin ii.106 is obscure, should it not rather be read with Bdhgh as aṭṭhāna? (cp. Bdhgh on p. 315).


-- [from aṭṭa] a watch -- tower, a room at the top of a house, or above a gate (koṭṭhaka) Th 1, 863; J iii.160; v.373; Miln 1, 330; DhA iii.488.


-- [Sk. aṭṭālaka] = aṭṭāla; J ii.94, 220, 224; vi.390, 433; Miln 66, 81.


-- (& occasionally addita, e. g. Pv ii.62; Th 2, 77, 89; Th 1, 406) [Sk. ardita, pp. of ardayati, Caus. of ardati, see aṭṭa3] pained, distressed, grieved, terrified Th 1, 157; J ii.436; iv.85 (v. l. addhita); v.84; VvA 311; ThA 270; Mhvs 1, 25; 6, 21; Dpvs i.66; ii.23; xiii.9; Sdhp 205. <-> See remarks of Morris J. P. T. S. 1886, 104, & 1887. 47.


aṭṭiyati & aṭṭiyati
-- [Denom. fr. aṭṭa3, q. v.] to be in trouble or anxiety, to be worried, to be incommodated, usually combd. with harāyati, e. g. D i.213 (+ jigucchati); S i.131; M i.423; Pv i.102 (= aṭṭā dukkhitā PvA 48), freq. in ppr. aṭṭiyamāna harayāmāna (+ jigucchamāna) Vin ii.292; J i.66, 292; It 43; Nd2 566; Ps i.159. <-> Spelling sometimes addiyāmi, e. g. Th 2, 140. -- pp. aṭṭita & addita.


-- (nt.) [cp. Sk. ardana, to aṭṭiyati] fright, terror, amazement DhA ii.179.


-- ╣ [Vedic aṣṭau, old dual, Idg. *octou, pointing to a system of counting by tetrads (see also nava); Av. aÜta, Gr. o)ktw/, Lat. octo, Goth. ahtau = Ohg. ahto, Ger. acht, E. eight] num. card, eight, decl. like pl. of adj. in -- a. A. The number in objective significance, based on natural phenomena: see cpds. ˚angula, ˚nakha, ˚pada, ˚pāda. B. The number in subjective significance. -- (1) As mark of respectability and honour, based on the idea of the double square: (a) in meaning "a couple" aṭṭha matakukkuṭe aṭṭha jīva -- k. gahetvā (with 8 dead & 8 live cocks; eight instead of 2 because gift intended for a king) DhA i.213. sanghassa a salākabhattaŋ dāpesi VvA 75 = DhA iii.104. a. piṇḍapātāni adadaŋ Vv 348. a. vattha -- yugāni (a double pair as offering) PvA 232, a therā PvA 32. -- The highest respectability is expressed by 8 X 8 = 64, and in this sense is freq. applied to gifts, where the giver gives a higher potency of a pair (23). Thus a "royal" gift goes under the name of sabb -- aṭṭhakaŋ dānaŋ (8 elephants, 8 horses, 8 slaves etc.) where each of 8 constituents is presented in 8 exemplars DhA ii.45, 46, 71. In the same sense aṭṭhɔ aṭṭha kahāpaṇā (as gift) DhA ii.41; aṭṭh -- aṭṭhakā dibbāka˝˝ā Vv 673 (= catusaṭṭhi VvA 290); aṭṭhaṭṭhaka Dpvs vi.56. Quite conspicuous is the meaning of a "couple" in the phrase satt -- aṭṭha 7 or 8 = a couple, e. g. sattaṭṭha divasā, a weck or so J i.86; J ii.101; VvA 264 (saŋvaccharā years). -- (b.) used as definite measure of quantity & distance, where it also implies the respectability of the gift, 8 being the lowest unit of items that may be given decently. Thus freq. as aṭṭha kahāpaṇā J i.483; iv.138; VvA 76; Miln 291. -- In distances: a. karīsā DhA ii.80; iv.217; PvA 258; a. usabhā J iv.142. <-> (c.) in combn. with 100 and 1000 it assumes the meaning of "a great many", hundreds, thousands. Thus aṭṭha sataŋ 800, Sn 227. As denotation of wealt (cp. below under 18 and 80): a -- ˚sata -- sahassa -- vibhava DhA iv.7. But aṭṭhasata at S iv.232 means 108 (3 X 36), probably also at J v.377. -- aṭṭha sahassaŋ 8000 J v.39 (nāgā). The same meaning applies to 80 as well as to its use as unit in combn. with any other decimal (18, 28, 38 etc.): (a) 80 (asīti) a great many. Here belong the 80 smaller signs of a Mahāpurisa (see anuvya˝jana), besides the 32 main signs (see dvattiŋsa) VvA 213 etc. Freq. as measure of riches, e. g. 80 waggon loads Pv ii.75; asīti -- koṭivibhava DhA iii.129; PvA 196; asīti hatthɔ ubbedho rāsi (of gold) VvA 66, etc. See further references under asīti. -- (b) The foll. are examples of 8 with other decimals: 18 aṭṭhādasa (only M iii.239: manopavicārā) & aṭṭhārasa (this the later form) VvA 213 (avenika -- buddhadhammā: Bhagavant's qualities); as measure J vi.432 (18 hands high, of a fence); of a great mass or multitue: aṭṭhārasa koṭiyo or ˚koṭi, 18 koṭis J i.92 (of gold), 227; iv.378 (˚dhana, riches); DhA ii.43 (of people); Miln 20 (id.); a. akkhohini -- sankhāsenā J vi.395. a. vatthū Vin ii.204. -- 28 aṭṭhavīsati nakkhattāni Nd1 382; paṭisallāṇaguṇā Miln 140. -- 38 aṭṭhatiŋsā Miln 359 (rājaparisā). -- 48 aṭṭhacattārīsaŋ vassāni Sn 289. -- 68 aṭṭhasaṭṭhi Th 1, 1217 ˚sitā savitakkā, where id. p. at S i.187 however reads atha saṭṭhi -- tasitā vitakkā); J i.64 (turiya -- satasahassāni) <-> 98 aṭṭhanavuti (cp. 98 the age of Eli, 1 Sam. iv.15) Sn 311 (rogā, a higher set than the original 3 diseases, cp. navuti). -- (2) As number of symmetry or of an intrinsic, harmonious, symmetrical set, aṭṭha denotes, like dasa (q. v.) a comprehensive unity. See esp. the cpds. for this application. ˚aŋsa and ˚angika. Closely related to nos. 2 and 4 aṭṭha is in the geometrical progression of 2. 4. 8. 16. 32. where each subsequent number shows a higher symmetry or involves a greater importance (cp. 8 X 8 under 1 a) -- J v.409 (a. mangalena samannāgata, of Indra's chariot: with the 8 lucky signs); VvA 193 (aṭṭhahi akkhaṇehi vajjitaŋ manussabhāvaŋ: the 8 unlucky signs). In progression: J iv.3 (aṭṭha petiyo, following after 4, then foll. by 8, 16, 32); PvA 75 (a. kapparukkhā at each point of the compass, 32 in all). Further: 8 expressions of bad language DhA iv.3.
-- aŋsa with eight edges, octagonal, octahedral, implying perfect or divine symmetry (see above B. 2), of a diamond D i.76 = M iii.121 (maṇi veḷuriyo a.); Miln 282 (maṇiratanaŋ subhaŋ jātimantaŋ a.) of the pillars of a heavenly palace (Vimāna) J vi.127 = 173 = Vv 782 (a. sukatā thambhā); Vv 8415 (āyataŋsa = āyatā hutvā aṭṭha -- soḷasadvattiŋsādi -- aŋsavanto VvA 339). Of a ball of string Pv [p016] iv.328 (gulaparimaṇḍala, cp. PvA 254). Of geometrical figures in general Dhs 617. -- anga (of) eight parts, eightfold, consisting of eight ingredients or constituents (see also next and above B 2 on significance of aṭṭha in this connection), in compn. with ˚upeta characterised by the eight parts (i. e. the observance of the first eight of the commandments or vows, see sīla & cp. anga 2), of uposatha, the fast -- day A i.215; Sn 402 (Sn A 378 expls. ekam pi divasaŋ apariccajanto aṭṭhangupetaŋ uposathaŋ upavassa); cp. aṭṭhanguposathin (adj.) Mhvs 36, 84. In BSk. always in phrase aṣṭānga -- samanvāgata upavāsa, e. g. Divy 398; Sp. Av. Ś i.338, 399; also vrata Av. Ś i.170. In the same sense aṭṭhangupeta pāṭihāriyapakkha (q. v.) Sn 402, where Vv 156 has ˚susamāgata (expld. at VvA 72 by pānāṭipātā veramaṇī -- ādīhi aṭṭhahɔ angehi samannāgata). ˚samannāgata endowed with the eight qualities (see anga 3), of rājā, a king D i.137 sq., of brahmassara, the supreme or most excellent voice (of the Buddha) D ii.211; J i.95; VvA 217. Also in Buddh. Sk. aṣṭāngopeta svara of the voice of the Buddha, e. g. Sp. Av. Ś i.149. -- angika having eight constituents, being made up of eight (intrinsic) parts, embracing eight items (see above B 2); of the uposatha (as in prec. aṭṭhangɔ uposatha) Sn 401; of the "Eightfold Noble Path" (ariyo a. maggo). (Also in BSk. as aṣṭāngika mārga, e. g. Lal. Vist. 540, cp. aṣṭāngamārgadeśika of the Buddha, Divy 124, 265); D i.156, 157, 165; M i.118; It 18; Sn 1130 (magga uttama); Dh 191, 273; Th 2, 158, 171; Kh iv.; Vin i.10; Nd2 485; DA i.313; DhA iii.402. -- angula eight finger -- breadths thick, eight inches thick, i. e. very thick, of double thickness J ii.91 (in contrast to caturangula); Mhvs 29, 11 (with sattangula). -- aḍḍha (v. l. aḍḍhaṭṭha) half of eight, i. e. four (˚pāda) J vi.354, see also aḍḍha1. -- nakha having eight nails or claws J vi.354 (: ekekasmiŋ pāde dvinnaŋ dvinnaŋ khurānaŋ vasena C.). -- nava eight or nine DhA iii.179. -- pada 1. a chequered board for gambling or playing drafts etc., lit. having eight squares, i. e. on each side (DA i.85: ekekāya pantiyā aṭṭha aṭṭha padāni assā ti), cp. dasapada D i.6. -- 2. eightfold, folded or plaited in eight, cross -- plaited (of hair) Th 1, 772 (aṭṭhāpada -- katā kesā); J ii.5 (˚ṭṭhapana = cross -- plaiting). -- padaka a small square (1/8), i. e. a patch Vin i.297; ii.150. -- pāda an octopod, a kind of (fabulous) spider (or deer?) J v.377; vi.538; cp. Sk. aṣṭapāda = śarabha a fabulous eight -- legged animal. -- mangala having eight anspicious signs J v.409 (expld. here to mean a horse with white hair on the face, tail, mane, and breast, and above each of the four hoofs). -- vanka with eight facets, lit. eight -- crooked, i. e. polished on eight sides, of a jewel J vi.388. -- vidha eightfold Dhs 219.

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-- ▓ see attha.


-- (adj.) [Sk. aṣṭaka] -- 1. eightfold Vin i.196 = Ud 59 (˚vaggikāni); VvA 75 = DhA iii.104 (˚bhatta). -- 2. ˚ā (f.) the eight day of the lunar month (cp. aṭṭhamī), in phrase rattīsu antarɔaṭṭhakāsu in the nights between the eighths, i. e. the 8th day before and after the full moon Vin i.31, 288 (see Vin Texst i.130n); M i.79; A i.136; Miln 396; J i.390. -- 3. ˚ŋ (nt.) an octad Vv 672 (aṭṭh˚ eight octads = 64); VvA 289, 290. On sabbaṭṭhaka see aṭṭha B 1 a. See also antara.


-- (num. ord.) [Sk. aṣṭama, see aṭṭha1] the eighth Sn 107, 230 (cp. KhA 187), 437. -- f. ˚ī the eighth day of the lunar half month (cp. aṭṭhakā) A i.144; Sn 402; Vv 166 (in all three pass. as pakkhassa cātuddasī pa˝cadasī ca aṭṭhamī); A i.142; Sn 570 (ito atthami, scil. divase, loc.).


-- = aṭṭhama the eighth. -- 1. lit. Miln 291 (att˚ self -- eighth). -- 2. as tt. the eighth of eight persons who strive after the highest perfection, reckoned from the first or Arahant. Hence the eighth is he who stands on the lowest step of the Path and is called a sotāpanna (q. v.) Kvu 243 -- 251 (cp. Kvu trsl. 146 sq.); Nett 19, 49, 50; Ps ii.193 (+ sotāpanna).


-- (nt.) [ā + ṭṭhāna] stand, post; name of the rub- bing -- post which, well cut & with incised rows of squares, was let into the ground of a bathing -- place, serving as a rubber to people bathing Vin ii.105, 106 (read aṭṭhāne with BB; cp. Vin ii.315).


-- ╣ [= attha (aṭṭha) in compn. with kar & bhū, as freq. in Sk. and P. with i for a, like citti -- kata (for citta˚), angi -- bhūta (for anga˚); cp. the freq. combn. (with similar meaning) manasi -- kata (besides manasā -- k.), also upadhikaroti and others. This combn. is restricted to the pp and der. (˚kata & ˚katvā). Other explns. by Morris J. P. T. S. 1886, 107; Windisch, M. & B. 100], in combn. with katvā: to make something one's attha, i. e. object, to find out the essence or profitableness or value of anything, to recognise the nature of, to realise, understand, know. Nearly always in stock phrase aṭṭhikatvā manasikatvā D ii.204; M i.325, 445; S i.112 sq. = 189, 220; v.76; A ii.116; iii.163; J i.189; v.151 (: attano atthikabhāvaŋ katvā atthiko hutvā sakkaccaŋ suṇeyya C.); Ud 80 (: adhikicca, ayaŋ no attho adhigantabbo evaŋ sallakkhetvā tāya desanāya atthikā hutvā C.); Sdhp 220 (˚katvāna).


-- ▓ (nt.) [Sk. asthi = Av. asti, Gr. o)/steon, o)/strakon, a)s- tra/galos; Lat. os (*oss); also Gr. o)/zos branch Goth. asts] <-> 1. a bone A i.50; iv.129; Sn 194 (˚nahāru bones & tendons); Dh 149, 150; J i.70; iii.26, 184; vi.448 (˚vedhin); DhA iii.109 (300 bones of the human body, as also at Suśruta iii.5); KhA 49; PvA 68 (˚camma -- nahāru), 215 (gosīs˚); Sdhp 46, 103. -- 2. the stone of a fruit J ii.104.
-- kankala [Sk. ˚kankāla] a skeleton M i.364; cp. ˚sankhalika. -- kadali a special kind of the plantain tree (Musa Sapientum) J v.406. -- kalyāṇa beauty of bones DhA i.387. -- camma bones and skin J ii.339; DhA iii.43; PvA 68 -- taca id. J ii.295. -- maya made of bone Vin ii.115. -- mi˝jā marrow A iv.129; DhA i.181; iii.361; KhA 52. -- yaka (T. aṭṭhīyaka) bones & liver S i.206. -- sankhalikā [B. Sk. ˚śakalā Sp. Av. Ś i.274 sq., see also aṭṭhika˚] a chain of bones, i. e. a skeleton DhA iii.479; PvA 152. -- sanghāṭa conjunction of bones, i. e. skeleton Vism 21; DhA ii.28; PvA 206. -- sa˝caya a heap of bones It 17 = Bdhd 87. -- sa˝˝ā the idea of bones (cp. aṭṭhika˚) Th 1, 18. -- saṇṭhāna a skeleton Sdhp 101.


-- ╣ (nt.) [fr. aṭṭhi] 1. = aṭṭhi 1 a bone M iii.92; J i.265, 428; vi.404; PvA 41. -- 2 = aṭṭhi 2 kernel, stone DhA ii.53 (tāl˚); Mhvs 15, 42.
-- sankhalikā a chain of bones, a skeleton A iii.324 see also under kaṭaṭṭhika. -- sa˝˝ā the idea of a skeleton S v.129 sq.; A ii.17; Dhs 264.


-- ▓ at PvA 180 (sūcik˚) to be read aṭṭita (q. v.) for aṭṭika.


-- ╣ see ṭhita.


-- ▓ [ā + ṭhita] undertaken, arrived at, looked after, considered J ii.247 (= adhiṭṭhita C.).


-- │ see atthika.


-- at Vin ii.266 is expld. by Bdhgh on p. 327 by gojanghaṭṭika, perhaps more likely = Sk. aṣṭhīlā a round pebble or stone.

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{ű­} /ʌɖ/

The coda is voiced retroflex plosive <d> which in Bur-Myan sounds like dental <d>.
See my note voiced retroflex plosive <d>

-- ╣ (& addha) [etym. uncertain, Sk. ardha] one half, half; usually in compn. (see below), like diyaḍḍha 1 1/2 (˚sata 150) PvA 155 (see as to meaning Stede, Peta Vatthu p. 107). Note. aḍḍha is never used by itself, for "half" in absolute position upaḍḍha (q. v.) is always used.
-- akkhika with furtive glance ("half an eye") DhA iv.98. -- aṭṭha half of eight, i. e. four (cp. aṭṭhaḍḍha) S ii.222 (˚ratana); J vi.354 (˚pāda quadruped; v. l. for aṭṭhaḍḍha). -- aḷhaka 1/2 an aḷhaka (measure) DhA iii.367. -- uḍḍha [cp. [p017] Mahārāṣṭrī form cauṭṭha = Sk. caturtha] three and a half J i.82; iv.180; v.417, 420; DhA i.87; Mhvs 12, 53. -- ocitaka half plucked off J i.120. -- karīsa ( -- matta) half a k. in extent VvA 64 (cp. aṭṭha -- karīsa). -- kahāpaṇa 1/2 kahāpaṇa A v.83. -- kāsika (or ˚ya) worth half a thousand kāsiyas (i. e. of Benares monetary standard) Vin i.281 (kambala, a woollen garment of that value; cp. Vin Texts ii.195); ii.150 (bimbohanāni, pillows; so read for aḍḍhakāyikāni in T.); J v.447 (a˚ -- kāsigaṇikā for a -- ˚kāsiya˚ a courtezan who charges that price, in phrase a˚ -- k˚ -- gaṇikā viya na bahunnaŋ piyā manāpā). -- kumbha a half ( -- filled) pitcher Sn 721. -- kusi (tt. of tailoring) a short intermediate cross -- seam Vin i.287. -- kosa half a room, a small room J vi.81 (= a˚ kosantara C.). -- gāvuta half a league J vi 55. -- cūḷa (˚vāhā vīhi) 1/2 a measure (of rice) Miln 102, perhaps misread for aḍḍhāḷha (āḷha = āḷhaka, cp. A iii.52), a half āḷha of rice. -- tiya the third (unit) less half, i. e. two and a half VvA 66 (māsā); J i.49, 206, 255 (˚sata 250). Cp. next. -- teyya = ˚tiya 2 1/2 Vin iv.117; J ii.129 (˚sata); DA i.173 (v. l. BB for ˚tiya); DhA i.95 (˚sata), 279; PvA 20 (˚sahassa). -- telasa [cp. BSk. ardhatrayodaśa] twelve and a half Vin i 243, 247; D ii.6 (˚bhikkhusatāni, cp. tayo B 1 b); DhA iii.369. -- daṇḍaka a short stick M i.87 = A i.47; ii.122 = Nd2 604 = Miln 197. -- duka see ˚ruka. -- nāḷika ( -- matta) half a nāḷi -- measure full J vi.366. -- pallanka half a divan Vin ii.280. -- bhāga half a share, one half Vv 136 (= upaḍḍhabhāga VvA 61); Pv i.115. -- maṇḍala semi -- circle, semi circular sewing Vin i.287. -- māna half a māna measure J i.468 (m. = aṭṭhannaŋ nāḷinaŋ nāmaŋ C.). -- māsa half a month, a half month, a fortnight Vin iii.254 (ūnak˚); A v.85; J iii.218; VvA 66. Freq. in acc. as adv. for a fortnight, e. g. Vin iv.117; VvA 67; PvA 55. -- māsaka half a bean (as weight or measure of value, see māsaka) J i.111. -- māsika halfmonthly Pug 55. -- muṇḍaka shaven over half the head (sign of loss of freedom) Mhvs 6, 42. -- yoga a certain kind of house (usually with pāsāda) Vin i.58 = 96, 107, 139, 239, 284; ii.146. Acc. to Vin T. i.174 "a gold coloured Bengal house" (Bdhgh), an interpretation which is not correct: we have to read supaṇṇa vankageha "like a Garuḷa bird's crooked wing", i. e. where the roof is bent on one side. -- yojana half a yojana (in distance) J v.410; DA i.35 (in expln. of addhāna -- magga); DhA i.147; ii.74. -- rattā midnight A iii.407 (˚aŋ adv. at m.); Vv 8116 (˚rattāyaŋ adv. = aḍḍharattiyaŋ VvA 315); J i.264 (samaye); iv.159 (id.). -- ratti = ˚rattā VvA 255, 315 (= majjhimayāma -- samaya); PvA 155. -- ruka (v. l. ˚duka) a certain fashion of wearing the hair Vin ii.134; Bdhgh expln. on p. 319: aḍhadukan ti udare lomarāji -- ṭhapanaŋ "leaving a stripe of hair on the stomach". -- vivata (dvāra) half open J v.293.

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-- ▓ (adj.) [Sk. āḍhya fr. ṛddha pp. of ṛdh, ṛdhnote & ṛdhyate (see ijjhati) to thrive cp. Gr. a)/lqomai thrive, Lat. alo to nourish. Cp. also Vedic iḍā refreshment & P. iddhi power. See also āḷhiya] rich, opulent, wealthy, well -- to -- do; usually in combn. with mahaddhana & mahābhoga of great wealth & resources (foll. by pahūta -- jātarūparajata pahūta vittūpakaraṇa etc.). Thus at D i.115, 134, 137; iii.163; Pug 52; DhA i.3; VvA 322; PvA 3, 78 etc. In other combn. Vv 314 (˚kula); Nd2 615 (Sakka = aḍḍho mahaddhano dhanavā); DA i.281 (= issara); DhA ii.37 (˚kula); Sdhp 270 (satasākh˚), 312 (guṇ˚), 540 sq. (id.), 561.


-- (adj.) wealthy, rich, influential J iv.495; Pv ii.82 (= mahāvibhava PvA 107).


-- (f.) [abstr. to aḍḍha] riches, wealth, opulence Sdhp 316.


-- [Sk. ṛṇa; see etym. under iṇa, of which aṇa is a doublet. See also āṇaṇya] debt, only in neg. anaṇa (adj.) free from debt Vin i.6 = S i.137, 234 = D ii.39; Th 2, 364 (i. e. without a new birth); A ii.69; J v.481; ThA 245.


-- (adj.) [Sk. aṇu; as to etym. see Walde Lat. Wtb. under ulna. See also āṇi] small, minute, atomic, subtle (opp. thūla, q. v.) D i.223; S i.136; v.96 (˚bīja); Sn 299 (anuto aṇuŋ gradually); J iii.12 (= appamattaka); iv.203; Dhs 230, 617 (= kisa); ThA 173; Miln 361. Note aṇu is freq. spelt anu, thus usually in cpd. ˚matta.
-- thūla (aṇuŋthūla) fine and coarse, small & large Dh 31 (= mahanta˝ ca khuddaka˝ ca DhA i.282), 409 = Sn 633; J iv.192; DhA iv.184. -- matta of small size, atomic, least Sn 431; Vbh 244, 247 (cp. M iii.134; A ii.22); Dpvs iv.20. The spelling is anumatta at D i.63 = It 118; Dh 284; DA i.181; Sdhp 347. -- sahagata accompanied by a minimum of, i. e. residuum Kvu 81, cp. Kvu trsl. 66 n. 3.


-- (adj.) = aṇu Sn 146, KhA 246.

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-- (nt.) [Etym. unknown. Cp. Sk. aṇḍa] 1. an egg Vin iii.3; S ii.258; M i.104; A iv.125 sq. -- 2. (pl.) the testicles Vin iii.106. -- 3. (in camm˚) a water -- bag J i.249 (see Morris J. P. T. S. 1884, 69).
-- kosa shell of eggs Vin iii.3 = M i.104; A iv.126, 176. -- cheda(ka) one who castrates, a gelder J iv.364, 366. -- ja 1. born from eggs S iii.241 (of snakes); M i.73; J ii.53 = v.85; Miln 267. -- 2. a bird J. v.189. -- bhārin bearing his testicles S ii.258 = Vin iii.100. -- sambhava the product of an egg, i. e. a bird Th 1, 599. -- hāraka one who takes or exstirpates the testicles M i.383.


-- ╣ (nt.) = aṇḍa, egg DhA i.60; iii.137 (sakuṇ˚).


-- ▓ (adj.) [Sk.? prob. an inorganic form; the diaeresis of caṇḍaka into c˚ aṇḍaka seems very plausible. As to meaning cp. DhsA 396 and see Dhs trsl. 349, also Morris J. P. T. S. 1893, 6, who, not satisfactorily, tries to establish a relation to ard, as in aṭṭa3] only used of vācā, speech: harsh, rough, insolent M i.286; A v.265, 283, 293 (gloss kaṇṭakā); J iii.260; Dhs 1343, cp. DhsA 396.


-- (food, cereal). See passages under aparaṇṇa & pubbaṇṇa.


-- (nt.) [Sk. arṇa & arṇava to , ṛṇoti to move, Idg. *er to be in quick motion, cp. Gr. o)/rnumi; Lat. orior; Goth. rinnan = E. run; Ohg. runs, river, flow.] 1. a great flood (= ogha), the sea or ocean (often as mah˚, cp. BSk. mahārṇava, e. g. Jtm 3175) M i.134; S i.214; iv.157 (mahā udak˚); Sn 173 (fig. for saŋsāra see SnA 214), 183, 184; J i.119 (˚kucchi), 227 (id.); v.159 (mah˚); Mhvs 5, 60; 19, 16 (mah˚). -- 2. a stream, river J iii. 521; v.255.


-- [Sk. ahna, day, see ahan] day, only as -- ˚ in apar˚, pubb˚, majjh˚, sāy˚, q. v.

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-- (adj.) [a + takka2] not mixed with buttermilk J yi.21.


-- (nt.) [a + taccha2] falsehood, untruth D i.3; J vi.207.


-- (indecl.) [sk. ati = Gr. e)/ti moreover, yet, and; Lat. et and, Goth. ip; also connected with Gr. ata/r but, Lat. at but (= over, outside) Goth. appan] adv. and prep. of direction (forward motion), in primary meaning "on, and further", then "up to and beyond". I. in abstr. position adverbially (only as ttg.): in excess, extremely, very (cp. ii.3) J vi.133 (ati uggata C. = accuggata T.), 307 (ati ahitaŋ C. = accāhitaŋ T.).
II. as prefix, meaning. -- 1. on to, up to, towards, until); as far as: accanta up to the end; aticchati to go further, pass on; atipāta "falling on to"; attack slaying; atimāpeti to put damage on to, i. e. to destroy. -- 2. over, beyond, past, by, trans -- ; with verbs: (a.) trs. atikkamati to pass beyond, surpass; atima˝˝ati to put one's "manas" over, to despise; atirocati to surpass in splendour. (b.) intr. atikkanta passed by; atikkama traversing; aticca transgressing; atīta past, gone beyond. -- Also with [p018] verbal derivations: accaya lapse, also sin, transgression ("going over"); atireka remainder, left over; atisaya overflow, abundance; atisāra stepping over, sin. -- 3. exceedingly, in a high or excessive degree either very (much) or too (much); in nominal compn. (a), rarely also in verbal compn. see (b). -- (a) with nouns & adj.: ˚āsanna too near; ˚uttama the very highest; ˚udaka too much water; ˚khippa too soon; ˚dāna excessive alms giving; ˚dāruṇa very cruel; ˚dīgha extremely long; ˚dūra too near; deva a super -- god ˚pago too early; ˚bālha too much; ˚bhāra a too heavy load; ˚manāpa very lovely; ˚manohara very charming; ˚mahant too great; ˚vikāla very inconvenient; ˚vela a very long time; ˚sambādha too tight, etc. etc. <-> (b.) with verb: atibhu˝jati to eat excessively.
III. A peculiar use of ati is its' function in reduplication -- compounds, expressing "and, adding further, and so on, even more, etc." like that of the other comparing or contrasting prefixes a (ā), anu, ava, paṭi, vi (e. g. khaṇḍÔkhaṇḍa, seṭṭhÔnuseṭṭhi, chiddÔvacchidda, angapaccanga, cuṇṇavicuṇṇa). In this function it is however restricted to comparatively few expressions and has not by far the wide range of ā (q. v.), the only phrases being the foll. viz. cakkÔticakkaŋ ma˝cÔtima˝caŋ bandhati to heap carts upon carts, couches upon couches (in order to see a procession) Vin iv.360 (Bdhgh); J ii.331; iv.81; DhA iv.61. -- devÔtideva god upon god, god and more than a god (see atideva); mānÔtimāna all kinds of conceit; vankÔtivanka crooked all over J i.160. -- IV. Semantically ati is closely related to abhi, so that in consequence of dialectical variation we frequently find ati in Pāli, where the corresp. expression in later Sk. shows abhi. See e. g. the foll. cases for comparison: accuṇha ati -- jāta, ˚pīḷita ˚brūheti, ˚vassati, ˚vāyati, ˚veṭheti.
Note The contracted (assimilation -- ) form of ati before vowels is acc -- (q. v.). See also for adv. use atiriva, ativiya, atīva.

UKT to TIL-editor: Check the following 8 entries with paper-on-ink versions. The entries should be single words with the prefix źati╗ - NOT two separate words. - UKT111208


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ati -- ambila
-- (adj.) [ati + ambila] too sour DhA ii.85.


ati -- arahant
-- [ati + arahant] a super -- Arahant, one who sur- passes even other Arahants Miln 277.


ati -- issara
-- (adj.) very powerful(?) J v.441 (˚bhesajja, medicin).


ati -- uṇha
-- (adj.) too hot PvA 37 (˚ātapa glow). See also accuṇha (which is the usual form).


ati -- uttama
-- (adj.) by far the best or highest VvA 80.


ati -- udaka
-- too much water, excess of water DhA i.52.


ati -- ussura
-- (adj.) only in loc. ˚e (adv.) too soon after sun- rise, too early VvA 65 (laddhabhattatā eating too early).


Ati -- eti
-- [ati + i] to go past or beyond, see ger. aticca and pp. atīta.


-- (pp.) more than done to, i. e. retaliated; paid back in an excessive degree A i.62.


-- [ati + kaḍḍhati] to pull too hard, to labour, trouble, drudge Vin iii.17.


-- (adj.) [ati + kaṇha] too black Vin iv.7.


-- (adj.) [ati + karuṇa] very pitiful, extremely mis- erable J i.202; iv.142; vi.53.


-- (ger.) [fr. atikassati ati + kṛṣ; Sk. atikṛṣya] pul- ling (right) through J v.173 (rajjuŋ, a rope, through the nostrils; v. l. BB. anti˚).


-- [ati + kāla] in instr. atikālena adv. in very good time very early Vin i.70 (+ atidivā).


-- [pp. of atikamati] passed beyond, passed by, gone by, elapsed; passed over, passing beyond, surpassing J ii.128 (tīṇi saŋvaccharāni); DhA iii.133 (tayo vaye passed beyond the 3 ages of life); PvA 55 (māse ˚e after the lapse of a month), 74 (kati divasā ˚ā how many days have passed).
-- mānusaka superhuman It 100; Pug 60; cp. BSk. atikrānta -- mānuṣyaka M Vastu iii.321.


-- (f.) [Der. abstr. fr. prec.] transgressing, over- stepping the bounds (of good behaviour), lawlessness Miln 122.


-- [Sk. atikrama] going over or further, passing beyond, traversing; fig. overcoming of, overstepping, failing against, transgression Dh 191; Dhs 299; PvA 154 (katipayayojan˚), 159 (˚caraṇa sinful mode of life); Miln 158 (dur˚ hard to overcome); Sdhp 64.


-- (adj.) [atikkamaṇa + ka] exceeding J i.153.


-- [ati + kamati] (1) to go beyond, to pass over, to cross, to pass by. (2) to overcome, to conquer, to surpass, to be superior to. -- J iv.141; Dh 221 (Pot. ˚eyya, overcome); PvA 67 (maggena: passes by). grd. atikkamanīya to be overcome D ii.13 (an˚); SnA 568 (dur˚). ger. atikkamma D ii.12 (surpassing); It 51 (māradheyyaŋ, passing over), cp. vv. ll. under adhigayha; and atikkamitva going beyond, overcoming, transcending (J iv.139 (samuddaŋ); Pug 17; J i.162 (raṭṭhaŋ having left). Often to be trsl. as adv. "beyond", e. g. pare beyond others PvA 15; Vasabhagāmaŋ beyond the village of V. PvA 168. -- pp. atikkanta (q. v.).


-- [Caus. of atikkamati] to make pass, to cause to pass over J i.151.


-- (adv.) [ati + khippa] too soon Vin ii.284.


-- (nt.) [ati + khaṇa(na)] too much digging J ii.296.


-- (nt.) = prec. J ii.296.


-- (adj.) [ati + khīṇa] in cāpÔtikhīṇa broken bow (?) Dh 156 (expld. at DhA iii.132 as cāpāto atikhīṇā cāpā vinimmuttā).


-- ( -- ˚) (adj.) [ati + ga] going over, overcoming, sur- mounting, getting over Sn 250 (sanga˚); Dh 370 (id.); Sn 795 (sīma˚, cp. Nd1 99), 1096 (ogha˚); Nd1 100 (= atikkanta); Nd2 180 (id.).


-- [ati + gacchati] to go over, i. e. to overcome, surmount, conquer, get the better of, only in pret. (aor.) 3rd sg. accagā (q. v. and see gacchati 3) Sn 1040; Dh 414 and accagamā (see gacchati 2) Vin ii.192; D i.85; S ii.205; DA i.236 (= abhibhavitvā pavatta). Also 3rd pl. accaguŋ It 93, 95.


-- [ati + gāḷeti, Caus. of galati, cp. Sk. vi -- gālayati] to destroy, make perish, waste away J vi.211 (= atigālayati vināseti C. p. 215). Perhaps reading should be atigāḷheti (see atigāḷhita.


-- (adj.) [ati + gāḷha 1] very tight or close, inten- sive J i.62. Cp. atigāḷhita.


-- [pp. of atigāḷheti, Denom. fr. atigāḷha; cp. Sk. atigāhate to overcome] oppressed, harmed, overcome, defeated, destroyed J v.401 (= atipīḷita C.).


-- (adj.) [ati + ghora] very terrible or fierce Sdhp 285.


-- (nt.) [fr. aticarati] transgression PvA 159.


-- [ati + carati] 1. to go about, to roam about Pv ii.1215; PvA 57. -- 2. to transgress, to commit adultery J i.496. Cp. next.


-- [n. ag. of. aticarati] one who transgresses, esp. a woman who commits adultery A ii.61 (all MSS. read aticaritvā); iv.66 (T. aticarittā).

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-- (f.) [ati + cariyā] transgression, sin, adultery D iii.190.


-- [from aticarati] transgression Vv 158 (= aticca cāra VvA 72).


-- (adj. n.) [from aticarati] transgressing, sinning, esp. as f. aticārinī an adulteress S ii.259; iv.242; D iii.190; A iii.261; Pv ii.1214; PvA 151 (v. l. BB), 152; VvA 110.


-- (adj.) [ati + citra] very splendid, brilliant, quite exceptional Miln 28.


-- (grd.) [ger. of ati + eti, ati + i] 1. passing beyond, traversing, overcoming, surmounting Sn 519, 529, 531. Used adverbially = beyond, in access, more than usual, exceedingly Sn 373, 804 (= vassasataŋ atikkamitvā Nd1 120). -- 2. failing, transgressing, sinning, esp. committing adultery J v,424; VvA 72,


-- [*Sk. ati -- ṛcchati, ati + , cp. aṇṇava] to go on, only occurring in imper. aticchatha (bhante) "please go on, Sir", asking a bhikkhu to seek alms elsewhere, thus refusing a gift in a civil way. [The interpretation given by Trenckner, as quoted by Childers, is from ati + 'iṣ "go and beg further on". (Tr. Notes 65) but this would entail a meaning like "desire in excess", since iṣ does not convey the notion of movement] J iii.462; DhA iv.98 (T. aticcha, vv. ll. ˚atha); VvA 101; Miln 8. -- Caus. aticchāpeti to make go on, to ask to go further J iii.462. <-> Cp. icchatā.


-- [ati + chatta] a "super" -- sunshade, a sunshade of extraordinary size & colours DhsA 2.


-- (adj.) [ati + jāta, perhaps ati in sense of abhi, cp. abhijāta] well -- born, well behaved, gentlemanly It 14 (opp. avajāta).


-- [ati + tarati] to pass over, cross, go beyond aor. accatari S iv.157 = It 57 (˚āri).


-- (adj.) [ati + tuccha] very, or quite empty Sdhp 430.


-- (f.) [ati + tuṭṭhi] extreme joy J i.207.


-- (adj.) [ati + tula] beyond compare, incomparable Th 1, 831 = Sn 561 (= tulaŋ atīto nirupamo ti attho SnA 455).


-- (adj.) [a + titta] dissatisfied, unsatisfied J i.440; Dh 48.


-- (nt.) [a + tittha] "that which is not a fording- place". i. e. not the right way, manner or time; as ˚wrongly in the wrong way J i.343; iv.379; vi.241; DhA iii.347; DA i.38.


-- [Sk. atithi of at = at, see aṭati; orig. the wanderer, cp. Vedic atithin wandering] a guest, stranger, newcomer D i.117 (= āgantuka -- navaka pāhuṇaka DA i.288); A ii.68; iii.45, 260; J iv.31, 274; v.388; Kh viii.7 (= nɔ atthi assa ṭhiti yamhi vā tamhi vā divase āgacchatī ti atithi KhA 222); VvA 24 (= āgantuka).


-- (nt.) [ati + dāna] too generous giving, an exces- sive gift of alms Miln 277; PvA 129, 130.


-- (adj.) [Sk. atidāruṇa, ati + dāruṇa] very cruel, extremely fierce Pv iii.73.


-- (f.) [ati + diṭṭhi] higher doctrine, super know- ledge (?) Vin i.63 = ii.4 (+ adhisīla; should we read adhi -- diṭṭhi?)


-- (adv.) [ati + divā] late in the day, in the afternoon Vin i.70 (+ atikālena); S i.200; A iii.117.


-- [ati + disati] to give further explanation, to explain in detail Miln 304.


-- (adj.) [ati + dīgha] too long, extremely long J iv. 165; Pv ii.102; VvA 103 (opp. atirassa).


-- [ati + dukkha] great evil, exceedingly painful excessive suffering PvA 65; Sdhp 95. In atidukkhavāca PvA 15 ati belongs to the whole cpd., i. e. of very hurtful speech.


-- (adj.) [ati + dūra] very or too far Vin i.46; J ii.154; Pv ii.965 = DhA iii.220 (vv. ll. suvidūre); PvA 42 (opp. accāsanna).


-- [ati + deva] a super god, god above gods, usually Ep. of the Buddha S i.141; Th 1, 489; Nd2 307 (cp. adhi˚); Miln 277. atidevadeva id. Miln 203, 209. devÔtideva god over the gods (of the Buddha) Nd2 307 a.


-- [ati + dhamati] to beat a drum too hard J i.283; pp. atidhanta ibid.


-- [ati + dhāta + ta] oversatiation J ii.193.


-- [ati + dhāvati 1] to run past, to outstrip or get ahead of S iii.103; iv.230; M iii.19; It 43; Miln 136; SnA 21.


-- [ati + dhonacārin] indulging too much in the use of the "dhonas", i. e. the four requisites of the bhikkhu, or transgressing the proper use or normal application of the requisites (expln. at DhA iii.344, cp. dhona) Dh 240 = Nett 129.


-- [BSk. atināmayati, e. g. Divy 82, 443; ati + nāmeti] to pass time A i.206; Miln 345.


-- [ati + niggaṇhāti] to rebuke too much J vi.417.


-- (adj.) [ati + nīcaka] too low, only in phrase cakkavāḷaŋ atisambādhaŋ Brahmaloko atinīcako the World is too narrow and Heaven too low (to comprehend the merit of a person, as sign of exceeding merit) DhA i.310; iii.310 = VvA 68.


-- [ati + neti] to bring up to, to fetch, to provide with Vin ii.180 (udakaŋ).


-- (adj. [ati + paṇḍita] too clever DhA iv.38.


-- (f.) [abstr. of atipaṇḍita] too much clever- ness DhA ii.29.


-- (nt.) [ati + pa + dāna] too much alms -- giving Pv ii.943 (= atidāna PvA 130).


-- [ati + p.] too great a delay, excessive tarrying J i.64; ii.93.


-- [ati + pariccāga] excess in liberality DhA iii.11.


-- [ati + passati; cp. Sk. anupaśyati] to look for, catch sight of, discover M iii.132 (nāgaŋ).


-- [ati + pat] attack, only in phrase pāṇÔtipāta destruction of life, slaying, killing, murder D i.4 (pāṇātipātā veramaṇī, refraining from killing, the first of the dasasīla or decalogue); DA i.69 (= pāṇavadha, pāṇaghāta); Sn 242; Kh ii. cp. KhA 26; PvA 28, 33 etc.


-- (adj. -- n.) one who attacks or destroys Sn 248; J vi.449 (in war nāgakkhandh˚ = hatthikkhande khaggena chinditvā C.); PvA 27 (pāṇ˚).


-- [Denom. fr. atipāta] to destroy S v.453; Dh 246 (v. l. for atimāpeti, q. v.). Cp. paripāteti.


-- (adj.) [ati + pīṇita] too much beloved, too dear, too lovely DhA v.70.

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-- [ati + pīḷita, cp. Sk. abhipīḍita] pressed against, oppressed, harassed, vexed J v.401 (= atigāḷhita).


-- (adv.) [cp. Sk. atiprage] too early, usually ellip- tical = it is too early (with inf. carituŋ etc.) D i.178; M i.84; A iv.35.


-- [pp. of atibandhati; cp. Sk. anubaddha] tied to, coupled J i.192 = Vin iv.5.


-- [ati + bandhati; cp. Sk. anubandhati] to tie close to, to harness on, to couple J i.191 sq. -- pp. atibaddha q. v.


-- (adj.) [ati + bahala] very thick J vi.365.


-- (adj.) [ati + bāḷha] very great or strong PvA 178; nt. adv. ˚ŋ too much D i.93, 95; M i.253.


-- [ati + bāheti, Caus. to bṛh1; cp. Sk. ābṛhati] to drive away, to pull out J iv.366 (= abbāheti).


-- [ati + brahmā] a greater Brahma, a super -- god Miln 277; DhA ii.60 (Brahmuṇā a. greater than B.).


-- [ati + brūheti, bṛh2, but by C. taken incorrectly to brū; cp. Sk. abhi -- bṛṇhayati] to shout out, roar, cry J v.361 (= mahāsaddaŋ nicchāreti).


-- putta [ati + bh. -- p.] a very dear nephew J i.223.


-- [ati + bhāra] too heavy a load Miln 277 (˚ena sakaṭassa akkho bhijjati).


-- (adj.) [ati + bhārita] too heavily weighed, over- loaded Vtn iv.47.


-- (adj.) too serious DhA i.70.


-- [ati + bhu˝jati] to eat too much, to overeat Miln 153.


-- (nt.) [ati + bhutta] overeating Miln 135.


-- [ati + bhavati, cp. Sk. atibhavati & abhibhavati] to excel, overcome, to get the better of, to deceive J i.163 (= ajjhottharati va˝ceti C.).


-- [Sk. atimanyate; ati + man] to despise, slighten, neglect Sn 148 (= KhA 247 atikkamitvā ma˝˝ati); Dh 365, 366; J ii.347; Pv i.76 (˚issaŋ, v. l. ˚asiŋ = atikkamitvā avama˝˝iŋ PvA 37); PvA 36; Sdhp 609.


-- (f.) [abstr. to prec., cp. atimāna] arrogance, contempt, neglect Miln 122.


-- (adj.) [ati + manāpa] very lovely PvA 77 (+ abhirūpa).


-- (adj.) [ati + manorama] very charming J i.60.


-- (adj.) [ati + manohara] very charming PvA 46.


-- (adj.) [ati + manda] too slow, too weak Sdhp 204, 273, 488.


-- [ati + mamāyati, cp. Sk. atīmamāyate in diff. meaning = envy] to favour too much, to spoil or fondle J ii.316.


-- (adj.) [ati + mahant] very or too great J i.221; PvA 75.


-- [Sk. atimāna, ati + māna] high opinion (of one- self), pride, arrogance, conceit, M i.363; Sn 853 (see expln. at Nd1 233), 942, 968; J vi.235; Nd1 490; Miln 289. Cp. atima˝˝anā.


-- (adj.) [fr. atimāna] D ii.45 (thaddha +); Sn 143 (an˚) 244; KhA 236.


-- [ati + māpeti, Caus. of , mināte, orig. meaning "to do damage to"] to injure, destroy, kill; only in the stock phrase pāṇaŋ atimāpeti (with v. l. atipāteti) to destroy life, to kill D i.52 (v. l. ˚pāteti) = DA i.159 (: pāṇaŋ hanati pi parehi hanāpeti either to kill or incite others to murder); M i.404, 516; S iv.343; A iii.205 (correct T. reading atimāteti; v. l. pāteti); Dh 246 (v. l. ˚pāteti) = DhA iii.356 (: parassa jīvitindriyaŋ upacchindati).


-- (adj.) [ati + mukhara] very talkative, a chat- terbox J i.418; DhA ii.70. atimukharatā (f. abstr.) ibid.


-- [Sk. atimuktaka] N. of a plant, Gaertnera Racemosa Vin ii.256 = M i.32; Miln 338.


-- (adj.) [ati + muduka] very soft, mild or feeble J i.262.


-- (ati + yakkha] a sorcerer, wizard, fortuneteller J vi.502 (C.: bhūtavijjā ikkhaṇīka).


-- (adj.) [ati + yācaka] one who asks too much Vin iii.147.


-- (f.) [ati + yācanā] asking or begging too much Vin iii.147.


-- (adv.) [ati + ratti; cp. atidivā] late in the night, at midnight J i.436 (opp. atipabhāte).


- (adj.) [ati + rassa] too short (opp. atidīgha) Vin iv.7; J vi.457; VvA 103.


-- [ati + rājā] a higher king, the greatest king, more than a king DhA ii.60; Miln 277.


-- [ati + riccati, see ritta] to be left over, to remain Sdhp 23, 126.


-- (adj.) [pp. of ati + rlc, see ritta] left over, only as neg. an˚ applied to food, i. e. food which is not the leavings of a meal, fresh food Vin i.213 sq, 238; ii.301; iv.82 sq., 85.


-- (ati -- r -- iva) see ativiya.


-- (adj.) [Sk. atireka, ati + ric, rinakti; see ritta] surplus, too much; exceeding, excessive, in a high degree; extra Vin i.255; J i.72 (˚padasata), 109; 441 (in higher positions); Miln 216; DhsA 2; DhA ii.98.
-- cīvara an extra robe Vin i.289. -- pāda exceeding the worth of a pāda, more than a pāda, Vin iii.47.


-- (f.) [abstr. to prec.] excessiveness, surplus, excess Kvu 607.


-- [ati + ruc] to shine magnificently (trs.) to out- shine, to surpass in splendour D ii.208; Dh 59; Pv ii.958; Miln 336 (+ virocati); DhA i.446 (= atikkamitvā virocati); iii.219; PvA 139 (= ativiya virocati).


-- (adj.) [ati + vankin] very crooked J i.160 (van- kÔtivankin crooked all over; cp. ati iii.).


-- [ati + vaṇṇati] to surpass, excel D ii.267.


-- [pp. of ativattati: Sk. ativṛtta] passed beyond, surpassed, overcome (act. & pass.), conquered Sn 1133 (bhava˚); Nd2 21 (= atikkanta, vītivatta); J v.84 (bhaya˚); Miln 146, 154.


-- [ati + vṛt, Sk. ativartate] to pass, pass over, go beyond; to overcome, get over; conquer Vin ii.237 (samuddo velaŋ nɔ); S ii.92 (saŋsāraŋ); iv.158 (id.) It 9 (saŋsāraŋ) = A ii.10 = Nd2 172a; Th 1, 412; J i.58, 280; iv.134; vi.113, 114; PvA 276. -- pp. ativatta (q. v.).


-- ╣ [Sk. *ativaktṛ, n. ag. to ati -- vacati; cp. ativākya] one who insults or offends J v.266 (isīnaŋ ativattāro = dharusavācāhi atikkamitvā vattāro C.).

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-- ▓ [Sk. *ativartṛ, n. ag. to ati -- vattati] one who over- comes or is to be overcome Sn 785 (svātivattā = durativattā duttarā duppatarā Nd1 76).


-- (adj.) [ati + vasa fr. vas] being under somebody's rule, dependent upon (c. gen.) Dh 74 (= vase vattati DhA ii.79).


-- [ati + vassati, cp. Sk. abhivarṣati] to rain down on, upon or into Th 1, 447 = Vin ii.240.


-- (nt.) [ati + vac, cp. Sk. ativāda, fr. ati + vad] abuse, blame, reproach Dh 320, 321 (= aṭṭha -- anariyavohāra -- vasena pavattaŋ vītikkama -- vacanaŋ DhA iv.3); J vi.508.


-- [ati + vāta] too much wind, a wind which is too strong, a gale, storm Miln 277.


-- [ati + vāyati] to fill (excessively) with an odour or perfume, to satiate, permeate, pervade Miln 333 (+ vāyati; cp. abhivāyati ibid 385).


-- [fr. ati + vah, cp. Sk. ativahati & abhivāha] car- rying, carrying over; a conveyance; one who conveys, i. e. a conductor, guide Th 1, 616 (said of sīla, good character); J v.433. -- Cp. ativāhika.


-- [fr. ativāha] one who belongs to a conveyance, one who conveys or guides, a conductor (of a caravan) J v.471, 472 (˚purisa).


(adj.) [ati + vikāla] at a very inconvenient time, much too late D i 108 (= suṭṭhu vikāla DA i.277).


-- [Sk. atividhyati, ati + vyadh] to pierce, to enter into (fig.), to see through, only in phrase pa˝˝āya ativijjha (ger.) passati to recognise in all details M i.480; S v.226; A ii.178.


-- (adv.) [Sk. atīva] = ati + iva, orig. "much -- like" like an excess = excessive -- ly. There are three forms of this expression, viz. (1) ati + iva in contraction atīva (q. v.); -- (2) ati + iva with epenthetic r: atiriva D ii.264 (v. l. SS. atīva); Sn 679, 680, 683; SnA 486; <-> (3) ati + viya (the doublet of iva) = ativiya J i.61, 263; DhA ii.71 (a. upakāra of great service); PvA 22, 56, 139.


-- (f.) [Sk. ativiṣā] N. of a plant Vin i.201; iv.35.


-- (adj.) [ati + vissaṭṭha] too abundant, in ˚vākya one who talks too much, a chatterbox J v.204.


-- (adj.) [ati + vissāsika] very, or too confiden- tial J i.86.


-- (adj.) [ati + vissuta] very famous, renowned Sdhp 473.


-- [ati + veṣṭ, cp. Sk. abhiveṣṭate] to wrap over, to cover, to enclose; to press, oppress, stifle Vin ii.101; J v.452 ( -- ativiya veṭheti piḷeti C.).


-- (adj.) [ati + vela] excessive (of time); nt. adv. ˚ŋ a very long time; excessively D i.19 (= atikālaŋ aticiran ti attho DA i.113); M i.122; Sn 973 (see expln. at Nd1 504); J iii.103 = Nd1 504.


-- (adj.) [ati + līna] too much attached to worldly matters S v.263.


-- (adj.) [ati + lūkha] too wretched, very miserable Sdhp 409.


-- (adj.) [ati + loma] too hairy, having too much hair J vi.457 (opp. aloma).


atisa˝cara (˚cāra?)
-- [ati + sa˝cāra] wandering about too much Miln 277.


-- (adj.) [ati + saṇha] too subtle DhA iii.326.


-- (adj.) [ati + santa1] extremely peaceful Sdhp 496.


-- (adj.) [ati + sambādha] too tight, crowded or narrow DhA i.310; iii.310 = VvA 68; cp. atinīcaka. <-> f. abstr. atisambādhatā the state of being too narrow J i.7.


-- [cp. Sk. atiśaya, fr. ati + śī] superiority, distinc- tion, excellence, abundance VvA 135 (= visesa); PvA 86; Dāvs ii.62.


-- [ati + śī] to surpass, excel; ger. atisayitvā Miln 336 (+ atikkamitvā).


-- (adj.) [fr. atisarati; cp. accasara] transgressing, sinning J iv.6; cp. atisāra.


-- [ati + sṛ] to go too far, to go beyond the limit, to overstep, transgress, aor. accasari (q. v.) Sn 8 sq. (opp. paccasari; C. atidhāvi); J v.70 and atisari J iv.6. <-> ger. atisitvā (for *atisaritvā) D i.222; S iv.94; A i.145; v.226, 256; Sn 908 (= Nd1 324 atikkamitvā etc.).


-- (adv.) [ati + sāyaŋ] very late, late in the evening J v.94.


- [fr. ati + sṛ, see atisarati. Cp. Sk. atisāra in diff. meaning but BSk. atisāra (sÔtisāra) in the same meaning) going too far, overstepping the limit, trespassing, false step, slip, danger Vin i.55 (sÔtisāra), 326 (id.); S i.74; M iii.237; Sn 889 (atisāraŋ diṭṭhiyo = diṭṭhigatāni Nd1 297; going beyond the proper limits of the right faith), J v.221 (dhamm˚), 379; DhA i.182; DhsA 28. See also atisara.


-- (adj.) [ati + sithila] very loose, shaky or weak A iii.375.


-- (adj.) [ati + sīta] too cold DhA ii.85.


-- (adj.) [ati + sītala] very cold J iii.55.


-- (adj.) [ati + haṭṭha] very pleased Sdhp 323.


-- [ati + hṛ] to carry over, to bring over, bring, draw over Vin ii.209; iv.264; S i.89; J i.292; v.347. <-> Caus. atiharāpeti to cause to bring over, bring in, reap, collect, harvest Vin ii.181; iii.18; Miln 66; DhA iv.77. <-> See also atihita.


-- [ati + hṛ, pp. of atiharati, hita unusual for hata, perhaps through analogy with Sk. abhi + dhā] brought over (from the field into the house), harvested, borne home Th 1, 381 (vīhi).


-- (adj.) [ati + hīna] very poor or destitute A iv.282, 287; 323 (opp. accogāḷha).


-- [ati + hīḍ] to despise J iv.331 (= atima˝˝ati C.).


-- (adj. -- n.) [Sk. atīta, ati + ita, pp. of i. Cp. accaya & ati eti] 1. (temporal) past, gone by (cp. accaya 1) (a) adj. atītaŋ addhānaŋ in the time which is past S iii.86; A iv.219; v.32. -- Pv ii.1212 (atītānaŋ, scil. attabhāvāuaŋ, pariyanto na dissati); khaṇÔtīta with the right moment past Dh 315 = Sn 333; atītayobbana he who is past youth or whose youth is past Sn 110. -- (b) nt. the past: atīte (loc.) once upon a time J i.98 etc. atītaŋ āhari he told (a tale of) the past, i. e. a Jātaka J i.213, 218, 221 etc. -- S i.5 (atītaŋ nÔnusocati); A iii.400 (a. eko anto); Sn 851, 1112. In this sense very frequently combd. with or opposed to anāgata the future & paccuppanna the present, e. g. atītÔnāgate in past & future S ii.58; Sn 373; J vi.364. Or all three in ster. combn. atītɔ -- anāgata -- paccuppanna (this the usual order) D iii.100, 135; S ii.26, 110, 252; iii.19, 47, 187; iv.4 sq.; 151 sq.; A i.264 sq., 284; ii.171, 202; iii.151; v.33; It 53; Nd2 22; but also occasionally atīta paccuppanna anāgata, [p022] e. g. PvA 100. -- 2. (modal) passed out of, having overcome or surmounted, gone over, free from (cp. accaya 2) S i.97 (maraṇaŋ an˚ not free from death), 121 (sabbavera -- bhaya˚); A ii.21; iii.346 (sabbasaŋyojana˚); Sn 373 (kappa˚), 598 (khaya˚, of the moon = ūnabhāvaŋ atīta Sn A 463); Th 1, 413 (c. abl.) -- 3. (id.) overstepping, having transgressed or neglected (cp. accaya 3) Dh 176 (dhammaŋ).
-- aŋsa the past (= atīta koṭṭhāse, atikkantabhavesū ti attho ThA 233) D ii.222; iii.275; Th 2, 314. -- ārammaṇa state of mind arising out of the past Dhs 1041.

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-- (adj. -- n.) [a + tīra + dassin] not seeing the shore J i.46; vi.440; also as atīradassanī (f.) J v.75 (nāvā). Cp. D i 222.


atīva (indecl.)
-- [ati + iva, see also ativiya] very much, exceedingly J ii.413; Mhvs 33, 2 etc.


-- (adv.) [Sk. ataḥ] hence, now, therefore S i.15; M i.498; Miln 87; J v.398 (= tato C.).


-- [etym.?) a class of jugglers or acrobats(?) Miln 191.

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-- ╣ [ā + d + ta; that is, pp. of ādadāti with the base form reduced to d. Idg *d -- to; cp. Sk. ātta] that which has been taken up, assumed. atta -- daṇḍa, he who has taken a stick in hand, a violent person, S i.236; iv.117; Sn 630, 935; Dh 406. Atta˝jaha, rejecting what had been assumed, Sn 790. Attaŋ pahāya Sn 800. The opp. is niratta, that which has not been assumed, has been thrown off, rejected. The Arahant has neither atta nor niratta (Sn 787, 858, 919), neither assumption nor rejection, he keeps an open mind on all speculative theories. See Nd i.82, 90, 107, 352; ii.271; SnA 523; DhA iv.180 for the traditional exegesis. As legal t. t. attādānaŋ ādīyati is to take upon oneself the conduct, before the Chapter, of a legal point already raised. Vin ii.247 (quoted v.91).


-- ▓ see attan.


-- │ [Sk. akta, pp. of a˝jati] see upatta.


-- (m.) & atta (the latter is the form used in compn.) [Vedic ātman, not to Gr. a)\nemos = Lat. animus, but to Gr. a)tmo/s steam, Ohg. ātum breath, Ags. aepm]. -- I. Inflection. (1) of attan -- (n. stem); the foll. cases are the most freq.: acc. attānaŋ D i.13, 185; S i.24; Sn 132, 451. -- gen. dat. attano Sn 334, 592 etc., also as abl. A iii.337 (attano ca parato ca as regards himself and others). -- instr. abl. attanā S i.24; Sn 132, 451; DhA ii.75; PvA 15, 214 etc. On use of attanā see below iii.1 C. -- loc. attani S v.177; A i.149 (attanī metri causa); ii.52 (anattani); iii.181; M i.138; Sn 666, 756, 784; Vbh 376 (an˚). -- (2) of atta -- (a -- stem) we find the foll. cases: acc. attaŋ Dh 379. -- instr. attena S iv.54. -- abl. attato S i.188; Ps i.143; ii.48; Vbh 336.
Meanings. 1. The soul as postulated in the animistic theories held in N India in the 6th and 7th cent. B. C. It is described in the Upanishads as a small creature, in shape like a man, dwelling in ordinary times in the heart. It escapes from the body in sleep or trance; when it returns to the body life and motion reappear. It escapes from the body at death, then continues to carry on an everlasting life of its own. For numerous other details see Rh. D. Theory of Soul in the Upanishads J R A S 1899. Bt. India 251 -- 255. Buddhism repudiated all such theories, thus differing from other religions. Sixteen such theories about the soul D i.31. Seven other theories D i.34. Three others D i.186/7. A ʻ soul ʼ according to general belief was some thing permanent, unchangeable, not affected by sorrow S iv.54 = Kvu 67; Vin i.14; M i.138. See also M i.233; iii.265, 271; S ii.17, 109; iii.135; A i.284; ii.164, 171; v.188; S iv.400. Cp. ātuman, tuma, puggala, jīva, satta, pāṇa and nāma -- rūpa.
2. Oneself, himself, yourself. Nom. attā, very rare. S i.71, 169; iii.120; A i.57, 149 (you yourself know whether that is true or false. Cp. Manu viii.84. Here attā comes very near to the European idea of conscience. But conscience as a unity or entity is not accepted by Buddhism) Sn 284; Dh 166, 380; Miln 54 (the image, outward appearance, of oneself). Acc. attānaŋ S i.44 (would not give for himself, as a slave) A i.89; Sn 709. Acc. attaŋ Dh 379. Abl. attato as oneself S i.188; Ps i.143; ii.48; Vbh 336. Loc. attani A i.149; iii.181; Sn 666, 784. Instr. attanā S i.57 = Dh 66; S i.75; ii.68; A i.53; iii.211; iv.405; Dh 165. On one's own account, spontaneously S iv.307; v.354; A i.297; ii.99, 218; iii.81; J i.156; PvA 15, 20. In composition with numerals attadutiya himself and one other D ii.147; ˚catuttha with himself as fourth M i.393; A iii.36; ˚pa˝cama Dpvs viii.2; ˚sattama J i.233; ˚aṭṭhama VvA 149 (as atta -- naṭṭhama Vv 3413), & ˚aṭṭhamaka Miln 291.
anattā (n. and predicative adj.) not a soul, without a soul. Most freq. in combn. with dukkha & anicca -- (1) as noun: S iii.141 (˚anupassin); iv.49; v.345 (˚sa˝˝in); A ii.52 = Ps ii.80 (anattani anattā; opp. to anattani attā, the opinion of the micchādiṭṭhigatā sattā); Dh 279; Ps ii.37, 45 sq. (˚anupassanā), 106 (yaŋ anicca˝ ca dukkha˝ ca taŋ anattā); DhA iii. 406 (˚lakkhaṇa). -- (2) as adj. (pred.): S iv.152 sq.; S iv.166; S iv.130 sq., 148 sq.; Vin i.13 = S iii.66 = Nd2 680 Q 1; S iii.20 sq.; 178 sq., 196 sq.; sabbe dhammā anattā Vin v.86; S iii.133; iv.28, 401.
-- attha one's own profit or interest Sn 75; Nd2 23; J iv.56, 96; otherwise as atta -- d -- attha, e. g. Sn 284. -- atthiya looking after one's own needs Th 1, 1097. -- Ôdhipaka master of oneself, self -- mastered A i.150. -- adhipateyya selfdependence, self -- reliance, independence A i.147. -- Ôdhīna independent D i.72. -- Ônudiṭṭhi speculation about souls S iii.185; iv.148; A iii.447; Sn 1119; Ps i.143; Vbh 368; Miln 146. -- Ônuyogin one who concentrates his attention on himself Dh 209; DhA iii.275. -- Ônuvāda blaming oneself A ii.121; Vbh 376. -- u˝˝ā self -- humiliation Vbh 353 (+ att -- ava˝˝ā). -- uddesa relation to oneself Vin iii.149 (= attano atthāya), also ˚ika ibid. 144. -- kata self -- made S i.134 (opp. para˚). -- kāma love of self A ii.21; adj. a lover of "soul", one who cares for his own soul S i.75. -- kāra individual self, fixed individuality, oneself (cp. ahaŋkāra) D i.53 (opp. para˚); A iii 337 (id.) DA i.160; as nt. at J v.401 in the sense of service (self -- doing", slavery) (attakārāni karonti bhattusu). -- kilamatha self -- mortification D iii.113; S iv.330; v.421; M iii.230. -- garahin self -- censuring Sn 778. -- gutta selfguarded Dh 379. -- gutti watchfulness as regards one's self, self -- care A ii.72. -- gha˝˝a self -- destruction Dh 164. -- ja proceeding from oneself Dh 161 (pāpa). -- ˝ū knowing oneself A iv.113, cp. D iii.252. -- (n)tapa self -- mortifying, self -- vexing D iii.232 = A ii.205 (opp. paran˚); M i.341, 411; ii.159; Pug 55, 56. -- daṇḍa see atta1. -- danta selfrestrained, self -- controlled Dh 104, 322. -- diṭṭhi speculation concerning the nature of the soul Nd1 107; SnA 523, 527. -- dīpa relying on oneself, independent, founded on oneself (+ attasaraṇa, opp. a˝˝a˚) D ii.100 = iii.42; S v.154; Sn 501 (= attano guṇe eva attano dīpaŋ katvā SnA 416). -- paccakkha only in instr. ˚ena by or with his own presence, i. e. himself J v.119. -- paccakkhika eye -- witness J v.119. -- paccatthika hostile to oneself Vin ii.94, 96. -- paṭilābha acquisition of a personality D i.195 (tayo: oḷārika, manomaya, arūpa). -- paritāpana self -- chastisement, mortification D iii.232 = A ii.205; M i.341; PvA 18, 30. -- parittā charm (protection) for oneself Vin ii.110. -- paribhava disrespect for one's own person Vbh 353. -- bhāva one's own nature (1) person, personality, individuality, living creature; form, appearance [cp. Dhs trsl. LXXI and BSk. ātmabhāva body Divy 70, 73 (˚pratilambha), 230; Sp. Av. Ś i.162 (pratilambha), 167, 171] Vin ii.238 (living beings, forms); S v.442 (bodily appearance); A i.279 (oḷārika a substantial creature); ii.17 (creature); DhA ii.64, 69 (appearance); SnA 132 (personality). -- (2) life, rebirth A i.134 sq.; iii.412; [p023] DhA ii.68; PvA 8, 15, 166 (atītā ˚ā former lives). ˚ŋ pavatteti to lead a life, to live PvA 29, 181. Thus in cpd. paṭilābha assumption of an existence, becoming reborn as an individual Vin ii.185; iii.105; D iii.231; M iii.46; S ii.255, 272, 283; iii.144; A ii.159, 188; iii.122 sq. -- (3) character, quality of heart Sn 388 (= citta SnA 374); J i.61. -- rūpa "of the form of self", self -- like only in instr. ˚ena as adv. by oneself, on one's own account, for the sake of oneself S iv.97; A ii.120. -- vadha self -- destruction S ii.241; A ii.73. -- vāda theory of (a persistent) soul D iii.230; M i.66; D ii.58; S ii.3, 245 sq.; iii.103, 165, 203; iv.1 sq., 43 sq., 153 sq.; Ps i.156 sq.; Vbh 136, 375. For var. points of an "attavādic" doctrine see Index to Saŋyutta Nikāya. -- vyābādha personal harm or distress self -- suffering, one's own disaster (opp. para˚) M i 369; S iv.339 = A i.157; A ii.179. -- vetana supporting oneself, earning one's own living Sn 24. -- sa˝cetanā self -- perception, self -- consciousness (opp. para˚) D iii.231; A ii.159. -- sambhava originating from one's self S i.70; A iv.312; Dh 161 (pāpa); Th 1, 260. -- sambhūta arisen from oneself Sn 272. -- sammāpaṇidhi thorough pursuit or development of one's personality A ii.32; Sn 260, cp. KhA 132. -- saraṇa see ˚dipa. -- sukha happiness of oneself, self -- success Dpvs i.66, cp. ii.11. -- hita personal welfare one's own good (opp. para˚) D iii.233; A ii.95 sq. -- hetu for one's own sake, out of self -- consideration Sn 122; Dh 328.

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-- (adj.) [from attā] belonging to the soul, having a soul, of the nature of soul, soul -- like; usually nt. anything of the nature of soul M i.138 = Kvu 67; M i.297; ii.263; S iii.78 (yaŋ kho anattaniyaŋ whatever has no soul), 127; iv.54 = Nd2 680 F; S iv.82 = iii.33 = Nd2 680 Q 3; S iv.168; v.6; Nd2 680 D. Cp. Dhs trsl. XXXV ff.


-- [atta1 + mano, having an up raised mind. Bdhgh's expln. is saka -- mano DA i.255 = attā + mano. He applies the same expln. to attamanatā (at Dhs 9, see Dhs trsl. 12) = attano manatā mentality of one's self] delighted, pleased, enraptured D i.3, 90 (an˚); ii.14; A iii.337, 343; iv.344; Sn 45 = Dh 328 (= upaṭṭhita -- satt DhA iv.29); Sn 995; Nd2 24 (= tuṭṭha -- mano haṭṭha -- mano etc.); Vv 14; Pug 33 (an˚); Miln 18; DA i.52; DhA i.89 (an˚ -- dhātuka displeased); PvA 23, 132; VvA 21 (where Dhpāla gives two explns, either tuṭṭhamano or sakamano).


-- (f.) [abstr. to prec.] satisfaction, joy, pleasure, transport of mind M i.114; A i.276; iv.62; Pug 18 (an˚); Dhs 9, 86, 418 (an˚); PvA 132; VvA 67 (an˚).


-- (adj.) [a + tāṇa] without shelter or protection J i.229; Miln 148, 325; ThA 285.


-- ╣ (also aṭṭha, esp. in combns mentioned under 3) (m. & nt.) [Vedic artha from , arti & ṛṇoti to reach, attain or to proceed (to or from), thus originally result (or cause), profit, attainment. Cp. semantically Fr. chose, Lat. causa] 1. interest, advantage, gain; (moral) good, blessing, welfare; profit, prosperity, well -- being M i.111 (atthassa ninnetar, of the Buddha, bringer of good); S iv.94 (id.); S i.34 (attano a. one's own welfare), 55 (id.) 86, 102, 126 = A ii.46 (atthassa patti); S i.162 (attano ca parassa ca); ii.222 (id.); iv.347 (˚ŋ bha˝jati destroy the good or welfare, always with musāvādena by lying, cp. attha -- bha˝janaka); A i.61 (˚ŋ anubhoti to fare well, to have a (good) result); iii.364 (samparāyika a. profit in the future life); A v.223 sq. (anattho ca attho ca detriment & profit); It 44 (v. l. attā better); Sn 37, 58 (= Nd2 26, where the six kinds of advantages are enumd. as att˚ par˚ ubhay˚, i. e. advantage, resulting for oneself, for others, for both; diṭṭhadhammik˚ samparāyik˚ param˚ gain for this life, for a future life, and highest gain of all, i. e. Arahantship); Sn 331 (ko attho supitena what good is it to sleep = na hi sakkā supantena koci attho papuṇituŋ SnA 338; cp. ko attho supinena te Pv ii.61); PvA 30 (atthaŋ sādheti does good, results in good, 69 (samparāyikena atthena). -- dat. atthāya for the good, for the benefit of (gen.); to advantage, often eombd. with hitāya sukhāya, e. g. D iii.211 sq.; It 79. -- Kh viii.1 (to my benefit); Pv i.43 (= upakārāya PvA 18), ii.129 (to great advantage). See also below 6.
Sometimes in a more concrete meaning = riches, wealth, e. g. J i.256 (= vaḍḍhiŋ C.); iii.394 (id.); Pv iv.14 (= dhanaŋ PvA 219). -- Often as -- ˚: att˚, one's own wellfare, usually combd. with par˚ and ubhay˚ (see above) S ii.29; v.121; A i.158, 216; iii.63 sq.; iv.134; Sn 75 (att-aṭṭha, v. l. attha Nd2), 284 (atta -- d -- attha); uttam˚ the highest gain, the very best thing Dh 386 (= arahatta DhA iv.142); Sn 324 (= arahatta SnA 332); param˚ id. Nd2 26; sad˚ one's own weal D ii.141; M i.4; S ii.29; v.145; A i.144; sāttha (adj.) connected with advantage, beneficial, profitable (of the Dhamma; or should we take it as "with the meaning, in spirit"? see sāttha) D i.62; S v.352; A ii.147; iii.152; Nd2 316. -- 2. need, want (c. instr.), use (for = instr.) S i.37 (˚jāta when need has arisen, in need); J i.254; iii.126, 281; iv.1; DhA i.398 (nɔ atthi etehɔ attho I have no use for them); VvA 250; PvA 24 (yāvadattha, adj. as much as is needed, sufficient = anappaka). -- 3. sense, meaning, import (of a word), denotation, signification. In this application attha is always spelt aṭṭha in cpds. aṭṭh -- uppatti and aṭṭha -- kathā (see below). On term see also Cpd. 4. -- S iii.93 (atthaŋ vibhajati explain the sense); A i.23 (id.), 60 (nīt˚ primary meaning, literal meaning; neyy˚ secondary or inferred meaning); ii.189 (˚ŋ ācikkhati to interpret); Sn 126 (˚ŋ pucchita asked the (correct) sense, the lit. meaning), 251 (˚ŋ akkhāti); Th 1, 374; attho paramo the highest sense, the ultimate sense or intrinsic meaning It 98, cp. Cpd. 6, 81, 223; Miln 28 (paramatthato in the absolute sense); Miln 18 (atthato according to its meaning, opp. vya˝janato by letter, orthographically); DhA ii.82; iii.175; KhA 81 (pad˚ meaning of a word); SnA 91 (id.); PvA 15 (˚ŋ vadati to explain, interpret), 16, 19 (hitatthadhammatā "fitness of the best sense", i. e. practical application), 71. Very frequent in Commentary style at the conclusion of an explained passage as ti attho "this is the meaning", thus it is meant, this is the sense, e. g. DA i.65; DhA iv.140, 141; PvA 33, etc. -- 4.Contrasted with dhamma in the combn. attho ca dhammo ca it (attha) refers to the (primary, natural) meaning of the word, while dhamma relates to the (interpreted) meaning of the text, to its bearing on the norm and conduct; or one might say they represent the theoretical and practical side of the text (pāḷi) to be discussed, the "letter" and the "spirit". Thus at A i.69; v.222, 254; Sn 326 (= bhāsitattha˝ ca pāḷidhamma˝ ca SnA 333); It 84 (duṭṭho atthaŋ na jānāti dhammaŋ na passati: he realises neither the meaning nor the importance); Dh 363 (= bhāsitattha˝ cɔ eva desanādhamma˝ ca); J ii.353; vi.368; Nd2 386 (meaning & proper nature); Pv iii.96 (but expld. by PvA 211 as hita = benefit, good, thus referring it to above 1). For the same use see cpds. ˚dhamma, ˚paṭisambhidā, esp. in adv. use (see under 6) Sn 430 (yenɔ atthena for which purpose), 508 (kena atthena v. l. BB for T attanā), J i.411 (atthaŋ vā kāraṇaŋ vā reason and cause); DhA ii.95 (+ kāraṇa(; PvA 11 (ayaŋ hɔ ettha attho this is the reason why). -- 5. (in very wide application, covering the same ground as Lat. res & Fr. chose): (a) matter, affair, thing, often untranslatable and simply to be given as "this" or "that" S ii.36 (ekena -- padena sabbo attho vutto the whole matter is said with one word); J i.151 (taŋ atthaŋ the matter); ii.160 (imaŋ a. this); vi.289 (taŋ atthaŋ pakāsento); PvA 6 (taŋ atthaŋ pucchi asked it), 11 (visajjeti explains it), 29 (vuttaŋ atthaŋ what had been said), 82 (id.). -- (b) affair, cause, case (cp. aṭṭa2 and Lat. causa) Dh 256, 331; Miln 47 (kassa atthaŋ dhāresi whose cause do you support, with whom do you agree?). See also alamattha. -- 6. Adv. use of oblique cases in the sense of a prep.: (a) dat. atthāya for the [p024] sake of, in order to, for J i.254 dhanɔ atthāya for wealth, kim˚ what for, why?), 279; ii.133; iii.54; DhA ii.82; PvA 55, 75, 78. -- (b) acc. atthaŋ on account of, in order to, often instead of an infinitive or with another inf. substitute J i.279 (kim˚); iii.53 (id.); i.253; ii.128; Dpvs vi.79; DhA i.397; PvA 32 (dassan˚ in order to see), 78, 167, etc. -- (c) abl. atthā J iii.518 (pitu atthā = atthāya C.). -- (d) loc. atthe instead of, for VvA 10; PvA 33; etc.
anattha (m. & nt.) 1. unprofitable situation or condition, mischief, harm, misery, misfortune S i.103; ii.196 (anatthāya saŋvattati); A iv.96 (˚ŋ adhipajjati) It 84 (˚janano doso ill -- will brings discomfort); J i.63, 196; Pug 37; Dhs 1060, 1231; Sdhp 87; DA i.52 (anatthajanano kodho, cp. It 83 and Nd2 420 Q2); DhA ii.73; PvA 13, 61, 114, 199. -- 2. (= attha 3) incorrect sense, false meaning, as adj. senseless (and therefore unprofitable, no good, irrelevant) A v.222, 254 (adhammo ca); Dh 100 (= aniyyānad˚īpaka DhA ii.208); Sn 126 (expld. at SnA 180 as ahitaŋ).
-- akkhāyin showing what is profitable D iii.187. -- attha riches J vi.290 (= atthabhūtaŋ atthaŋ C.). -- antara difference between the (two) meanings Miln 158. At Th 1, 374, Oldenberg's reading, but the v. l. (also C. reading) atthandhara is much better = he who knows the (correct) meaning, esp. as it corresponds with dhamma -- dhara (q. v.). -- abhisamaya grasp of the proficient S i.87 (see abhisamaya). -- uddhāra synopsis or abstract of contents ("matter") of the Vinaya Dpvs v.37. -- upaparikkhā investigation of meaning, (+ dhamma -- savanna) M iii.175; A iii.381 sq.; iv.221; v.126. -- uppatti (aṭṭh˚) sense, meaning, explanation, interpretation J i.89; DA i.242; KhA 216; VvA 197, 203 (cp. pāḷito) PvA 2, 6, 78; etc. -- kāma (adj.) (a) well -- wishing, a well -- wisher, friend, one who is interested in the welfare of others (cp. Sk. arthakāma, e. g. Bhagavadgīta ii.5: gurūn arthakāman) S i.140, 197, 201 sq.; A iii.143; D iii.164 (bahuno janassa a., + hitakāmo); J i.241; Pv iv.351; Pv A 25; SnA 287 (an˚). <-> (b) one who is interested in his own gain or good, either in good or bad sense (= greedy) S i.44; PvA 112. <-> -- kathā (aṭṭha˚) exposition of the sense, explanation, commentary J v.38, 170; PvA 1, 71, etc. freq. in N. of Com. -- kara beneficial, useful Vin iii.149; Miln 321. -- karaṇa the business of trying a case, holding court, giving judgment (v. l. aṭṭa˚) D ii.20; S i.74 (judgment hall?). -- kavi a didactic poet (see kavi) A ii.230. -- kāmin = ˚kāma, well -- wishing Sn 986 (devatā atthakāminī). -- kāraṇā (abl.) for the sake of gain D iii.186. -- kusala clever in finding out what is good or profitable Sn 143 (= atthacheka KhA 236). -- cara doing good, busy in the interest of others, obliging S i.23 (narānaŋ = "working out man's salvation"). -- caraka (adj.) one who devotes himself to being useful to others, doing good, one who renders service to others, e. g. an attendant, messenger, agent etc. D i.107 (= hitakāraka DA i.276); J ii.87; iii.326; iv.230; vi.369. -- cariyā useful conduct or behaviour D iii.152, 190, 232; A ii.32, 248; iv.219, 364. -- ˝u one who knows what is useful or who knows the (plain or correct) meaning of something (+ dhamma˝˝ū) D iii.252; A iii.148; iv.113 sq. -- dassin intent upon the (moral) good Sn 385 (= hitÔnupassin SnA 373). -- dassimant one who examines a cause (cp. Sk. arthadarśika) J vi.286 (but expld. by C. as "saṇha -- sukhuma -- pa˝˝a" of deep insight, one who has a fine and minute knowledge). -- desanā interpretation, exegesis Miln 21 (dhamm˚). -- dhamma "reason and morality", see above n0. 3. ˚anusāsaka one who advises regarding the meaning and application of the Law, a professor of moral philosophy J ii.105; DhA ii.71. -- pada a profitable saying, a word of good sense, text, motto A ii.189; iii.356; Dh 100. -- paṭisambhidā knowledge of the meaning (of words) combd. with dhamma˚ of the text or spirit (see above n0. 3) Ps i.132; ii.150; Vbh 293 sq. -- paṭisaŋvedin experiencing good D iii.241 (+ dhamma˚); A i.151; iii.21. -- baddha expecting some good from (c. loc.) Sn 382. -- bha˝janaka breaking the welfare of, hurting DhA iii.356 (paresaŋ of others, by means of telling lies, musāvādena). -- majjha of beautiful waist J v.170 (= sumajjhā C.; reading must be faulty, there is hardly any connection with attha; v. l. atta). -- rasa sweetness (or substance, essence) of meaning (+ dhamma˚, vimutti˚) Nd2 466; Ps ii.88, 89. -- vasa "dependence on the sense", reasonableness, reason, consequence, cause D ii.285; M i.464; ii.120; iii.150; S ii.202; iii.93; iv.303; v.224; A i.61, 77, 98; ii.240; iii.72, 169, 237; Dh 289 (= kāraṇa DhA iii.435); It 89; Sn 297; Ud 14. -- vasika sensible It 89; Miln 406. -- vasin bent on (one's) aim or purpose Th 1, 539. -- vādin one who speaks good, i. e. whose words are doing good or who speaks only useful speech, always in combn. with kāla˚ bhūta˚ dhamma˚ D i.4; iii.175; A i.204; ii.22, 209; Pug 58; DA i.76 (expld. as "one who speaks for the sake of reaping blessings here and hereafter"). -- saŋvaṇṇanā explanation, exegesis PvA 1. -- saŋhita connected with good, bringing good, profitable, useful, salutary D i.189; S ii.223; iv.330; v.417; A iii.196 sq., 244; Sn 722 (= hitena saŋhitaŋ SnA 500); Pug 58. -- sandassana determination of meaning, definition Ps i.105. -- siddhi profit, advantage, benefit J i.402; PvA 63.

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-- ▓ (nt.) [Vedic asta, of uncertain etym.] home, primarily as place of rest & shelter, but in P. phraseology abstracted from the "going home", i. e. setting of the sun, as disappearance, going out of existence, annihilation, extinction. Only in acc. and as ˚ -- in foll phrases: atthangacchati to disappear, to go out of existence, to vanish Dh 226 (= vināsaŋ natthibhāvaŋ gacchati DhA iii.324), 384 (= parikkhayaŋ gacchati); pp. atthangata gone home, gone to rest, gone, disappeared; of the sun (= set): J i.175 (atthangate suriye at sunset); PvA 55 (id.) 216 (anatthangate s. before sunset) fig. Sn 472 (atthagata). 475 (id.); 1075 (= niruddha ucchinṇa vinaṭṭha anupādi -- sesāya nibbāna -- dhātuyā nibbuta); It 58; Dhs 1038; Vbh 195. -- atthagatatta (nt. abstr.) disappearance SnA 409. -- atthangama (atthagama passim) annihilation, disappearance; opposed to samudaya (coming into existence) and synonymous with nirodha (destruction) D i.34, 37, 183; S iv.327; A iii.326; Ps ii.4, 6, 39; Pug 52; Dhs 165, 265, 501, 579; Vbh 105. -- atthagamana (nt.) setting (of the sun) J i.101 (suriyass' atthagamanā at sunset) DA i.95 (= ogamana). -- attha -- gāmin, in phrase udayɔ atthagāmin leading to birth and death (of pa˝˝ā): see udaya. -- atthaŋ paleti = atthangacchati (fig.) Sn 1074 (= atthangameti nirujjhati Nd2 28). -- Also atthamita (pp. of i) set (of the sun) in phrase anatthamite suriye before sunset (with anatthangamite as v. l. at both pass.) DhA i.86; iii.127. -- Cp. also abbhattha.


-- │ pres. 2nd pl. of atthi (q. v.).


-- [pp. of attharati] spread, covered, spread over with ( -- ˚) Vin i.265; iv.287; v.172 (also ˚an); A iii.50; PvA 141.


-- (nt.) [abstr. fr. attha1] reason, cause; only in abl. atthattā according to the sense, by reason of, on account of PvA 189 ( -- ˚).


-- [fr. attharati] a rug (for horses, elephants etc.) D i.7.


-- [= atthara] a covering J i.9; DA i.87. -- f. ˚ikā a layer J i.9; v.280.


-- (nt.) [fr. attharati] a covering, carpet, cover, rug Vin ii.291; A ii.56; iii.53; Mhvs 3, 20; 15, 40; 25, 102; ThA 22.


-- [ā + stṛ] to spread, to cover, to spread out; stretch, lay out Vin i.254; v.172; J i.199; v.113; vi.428; Dh i.272. -- pp. atthata (q. v.). -- Caus. attharāpeti to caused to be spread J v.110; Mhvs 3, 20; 29, 7; 34, 69.

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-- (adj.) [cp. Sk. arthavant] full of benefit S i.30; Th 1, 740; Miln 172.


-- [cp. Sk. āstāra, fr. attharati] spreading out Vin v.172 (see kaṭhina). atthāraka same ibid.; Vin ii.87 (covering).


-- [Sk. asti, 1st sg. asmi; Gr. ei)mi/ -- e)sti/; Lat. sum -- est; Goth. im -- ist; Ags. eom -- is E. am -- is] to be, to exist. <-> Pres. Ind. 1st sg. asmi Sn 1120, 1143; J i.151; iii.55, and amhi M i.429; Sn 694; J ii.153; Pv i.102; ii.82. <-> 2nd sg. asi Sn 420; J ii.160 (ɔsi); iii.278; Vv 324; PvA 4. -- 3rd sg. atthi Sn 377, 672, 884; J i.278. Often used for 3rd pl. (= santi), e. g. J i.280; ii.2; iii.55. -- 1st pl. asma [Sk. smaḥ] Sn 594, 595; asmase Sn 595, and amha Sn 570; J ii.128. 2nd pl. attha J ii.128; PvA 39, 74 (āgatɔ attha you have come). <-> 3rd pl. santi Sn 1077; Nd2 637 (= saŋvijjanti atthi upalabbhanti); J ii.353; PvA 7, 22 -- Imper. atthu Sn 340; J i.59; iii.26. -- Pot. 1st sg. siyā [Sk. syām] Pv ii.88, and assaŋ [Cond. used as Pot.] Sn 1120; Pv i.125 (= bhaveyyaŋ PvA 64). -- 2nd sg. siyā [Sk. syāḥ] Pv ii.87. -- 3rd sg. siyā [Sk. syāt] D ii.154; Sn 325, 1092; Nd2 105 (= jāneyya, nibbatteyya); J i.262; PvA 13, and assa D i.135, 196; ii.154; A v.194; Sn 49, 143; Dh 124, 260; Pv ii.324; 924. -- 1st pl. assu PvA 27. <-> 3rd pl. assu [cp. Sk. syuḥ] Sn 532; Dh 74; Pv iv.136 (= bhaveyyuŋ PvA 231). -- Aor. 1st sg. āsiŋ [Sk. āsaŋ] Sn 284; Pv i.21 (= ahosiŋ PvA 10); ii.34 (= ahosiŋ PvA 83). -- 3rd sg. āsi [Sk. āsīt] Sn 994. -- 3rd āsuŋ [cp. Sk. Perf. āsuḥ] Pv ii.321, 133 (ti pi pāṭho for su). <-> Ppr. *sat only in loc. sati (as loc. abs.) Dh 146; J i.150, 263, santa Sn 105; Nd2 635; J i.150 (loc. evaŋ sante in this case); iii.26, and samāna (q. v.) J i.266; iv.138.
-- bhāva state of being, existence, being J i.222, 290; ii.415; DhA ii.5; iv.217 (atthibhāva vā natthibhāva vā whether there is or not).


-- (adj.) [cp. Sk. arthika] 1. (to attha1) profitable, good, proper. In this meaning the MSS show a variance of spelling either atthika or aṭṭhika or aṭṭhita; in all cases atthika should be preferred D i.55 (˚vāda); M ii.212 (aṭṭhita); A iii.219 sq. (idaŋ atthikaŋ this is suitable, of good avail; T aṭṭhitaŋ, vv. ll. as above); Sn 1058 (aṭṭhita; Nd2 20 also aṭṭhita, which at this pass. shows a confusion between aṭṭha and a -- ṭhita); J v.151 (in def. of aṭṭhikatvā q. v.); Pug 69, 70 (T aṭṭhika, aṭṭhita SS; expld. by Pug A v.4 by kalyāṇāya). -- 2. (to attha1 2) desirous of ( -- ˚), wanting, seeking for, in need of (c. instr.) A ii.199 (uday˚ desirous of increase); Sn 333, 460, 487 (pu˝˝˚), 987 (dhan˚ greedy for wealth); J i.263 (rajj˚ coveting a kingdom); v.19; Pv ii.228 (bhojan˚ in need of food); iv.11 (kāraṇ˚), 121 (khiḍḍ˚ for play), 163 (pu˝˝˚); PvA 95 (sasena a. wanting a rabbit), 120; DA i.70 (atthikā those who like to). -- anatthika one who does not care for, or is not satisfied with (c. instr.) J v.460; PvA 20; of no good Th 1, 956 ("of little zeal" Mrs. Rh. D.).
-- bhāva (a) usefulness, profitableness Pug A v.4. (b) state of need, distress PvA 120.


-- (adj.) [atthika + vant] one who wants something, one who is on a certain errand D i.90 (atthikaŋ assa atthī ti DA i.255).


-- (f.) [f. abstr. fr. atthi cp. atthibhāva] state of being, existence, being, reality M i.486; S ii.17 (˚a˝ c˚ eva natthita˝ ca to be and not to be); iii.135; J v.110 (kassaci atthitaŋ vā natthitaŋ vā jānāhi see if there is anybody or not); DhsA 394. -- Often in abl. atthitāya by reason of, on account of, this being so DhA iii.344 (idamatthitāya under this condition) PvA 94, 97, 143.


-- (adj.) ( -- ˚) [Vedic arthin] desirous, wanting anything; see mant˚, vād˚.


-- (adj.) ( -- ˚) [= atthika] having a purpose or end S iii.189 (kim˚ for what purpose?); A v.1 sq. (id.), 311 sq.; Th 1, 1097 (att˚ having one's purpose in oneself), 1274; Sn 354 (yad atthiyaŋ on account of what).


-- (adv.) [Sk. atra] here; atra atra here & there J i.414 = iv.5 (in expln. of atriccha).


-- (adj.) [Sk. *ātma -- ja, corrupted form for attaja (see attā) through analogy with Sk. atra "here". This form occurs only in J and similar sources, i. e. popular lore] born from oneself, one's own, appl. to sons, of which there are 4 kinds enumd., viz. atraja khettaja, dinnaka, antevāsika p. Nd2 448. -- J i.135; iii.103 = Nd1 504; J iii.181; v.465; vi.20; Mhvs 4, 12; 13, 4; 36, 57.


-- (adj.) [the popular etym. suggested at JA iv.4 is atra atra icchamāna desiring here & there; but see atricchā] very covetous, greedy, wanting too much J i.414 = iv.4; iii.206.


-- (f.) [Sk. *atṛptyā, a + tṛpt + yā, influenced by Desid. titṛpsati, so that atricchā phonetically rather corresponds to a form *a. -- tṛpsyā (cch = psy, cp. P. chāta Sk. psāta). For the simple Sk. tṛpti see titti (from tappati2). According to Kern, but phonetically hardly justifiable it is Sk. atīccha = ati + icchā "too much desire", with r in dissolution of geminated tt, like atraja for attaja. See also atriccha adj. and cp. J.P.T.S. 1884, 69] great desire, greed, excessive longing, insatiability J iv.5, 327.


-- (f.) [see atricchā] excessive lust J. iii.222.


-- (indecl.) [Sk. atha, cp. atho] copulative & adversative part. 1. after positive clauses, in enumerations, in the beginning & continuation of a story: and, and also, or; and then, now D ii.2; iii.152, 199 (athÔparaŋ etad avoca); M i.435; Sn 1006, 1007, 1017; Sn p. 126 (athÔparaŋ etad avoca: and further, something else); Dh 69, 119, 377; J ii.158; Pv ii.64; PvA 3, 8 (atha na and not), 70. -- 2. after negative clauses: but M i.430; Sn 990, 1047; Dh 85, 136, 387; PvA 68. Often combd. with other part., e. g. atha kho (pos. & neg.) now, and then; but, rather, moreover Vin i.1; D i.141, 167, 174; A v.195; PvA 79, 221, 251. na -- atha kho na neither -- nor PvA 28. atha kho pana and yet D i.139. atha ca pana on the other hand J i.279. atha vā or (after prec. ca), nor (after prec. na) Sn 134; Dh 140, 271; Pv i.41; ii.14. athā vā pi Sn 917, 921.


-- [Vedic atharvan; as regards etym. see Walde, Lat. Wtb. under ater] (1) the Atharva Veda DA i.247 = SnA 447 (˚veda). -- (2) one who is familiar with the (magic formulas of the) Atharvaveda J vi.490 (sÔthabbaṇa=sahatthivejja, with the elephant -- healer or doctor). See also āthabbaṇa.


-- (indecl.) [Sk. atho, atha + u] copulative and adver- sative part.: and, also, and further, likewise, nay S i.106; Sn 43, 155, 647; Dh 151, 234, 423; J i.83; ii.185; iv.495; It 106; Kh viii.7; Pv iv.315; PvA 251 (atho ti nipātamattaŋ avadhāraṇ -- atthe vā). Also combd. with other part., like atho pi Sn 222, 537, 985; Pv ii.320; KhA 166.


-- (adj.) ( -- ˚) [to ad, see adeti, cp. ˚ga, ˚ṭha, ˚da etc.] eating S iv.195 (kiṭṭhÔda eating corn); J ii.439 (vantÔda = vantakhādaka C.).


-- (adj.) = ada J v.91 (purisÔdaka man -- eater).


-- (nt.) [from adeti] eating, food J v.374 (v.l. modana).


-- (adj.) see dasā.


-- [prob. = adaŋsa, from ḍasati to bite, cp. dāṭhā tooth; lit meaning "toothless" or "not biting"] a kind of bird J iv.466.

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-- [a + diṭṭhā, ger. of *dassati] not seeing, without seeing J iv.192 (T. adaṭṭhā, v. l. BB na diṭṭhā, C. adisvā); v.219.


-- (pp.) [a + dinna] that which is not given, freq. in phrase adinn' ādāna (BSk. adattādāna Divy 302) seizing or grasping that whieh is not given to one, i. e. stealing, is the 2nd of the ten qualifications of bad character or sīla (dasa -- sīla see sīla ii.). Vin i.83 (˚ā veramaṇī); D i.4 (= parassa haraṇaŋ theyyaŋ corikā ti vuttaŋ hoti DA i.71); iii.68 sq., 82, 92, 181 sq.; M i.361; It 63; Kh ii., cp. KhA 26. -- adinnādāyin he who takes what is not given, a thief; stealing, thieving (cp. BSK. adattādāyika Divy 301, 418) Vin i.85; D i.138; Sdhp 78.


adu (or ādu)
-- (indecl.) [perhaps identical with aduŋ, nt. of pron. asu] part. of affirmation: even, yea, nay; always in emphatic exclamations Vv 622 (= udāhu VvA 258; v. l. SS. ādu) = Pv iv.317 (ādu) = DhA i.31 (T. ādu, v. l. adu); Vv 631 (v. l. ādu); J v.330 (T. ādu, C. adu; expld. on p. 331 fantastically as adu˝ ca adu˝ ca kammaŋ karohī ti). See also ādu.


-- nt. of pron. asu.


-- (adj.) [a + dūsaka] innocent J v.143 (= nirapa- rādha C.); vi.84, 552. f. adūsikā Sn 312.


-- = adūsaka J v.220 (= anaparādha C.).


-- [Sk. ādayati, Caus. of atti, ad to eat, 1st sg. admi = Gr. e)/dw, Lat. edo; Goth. itan = Ohg. ezzan = E. eat] to eat. Pres. ind. ademi etc. J v.31, 92, 197, 496; vi.106. pot. adeyya J v.107, 392, 493.

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-- ╣ [cp. Sk. ārdraka] ginger J i.244 (˚singivera).


-- ▓ & Addā 3rd sg. aor. of *dassati; see *dassati 2. a.


-- │ (adj.) [Sk. ārdra, from ṛdati or ardati to melt, cp. Gr. a)/rdw to moisten, a)\rda dirt; see also alla] wet, moist, slippery J iv.353; vi.309; Miln 346.
-- Ôvalepana "smeared with moisture", i. e. shiny, glittering S iv.187 (kūṭāgāra); M i.86=Nd2 1996 (upakāriyo). See also addha2.
The reading allÔvalepana occurs at Nd2 40 (=S iv. 187), and is perhaps to be preferred. The meaning is better to be given as "newly plastered."


-- 3rd sg. aor. of *dassati; see *dassati 1 b.


-- 3rd sg. aor. of *dassati; see *dassati 2 a.


addā & addāyanā
-- at Vbh 371 in def. of anādariya is either faulty writing, or dial. form or pop. etym. for ādā and ādāyana; see ādariya.


-- [v. denom. fr. adda] to be or get wet, fig. to be attached to J iv.351. See also allīyati.


-- [Sk. ardri] a mountain Dāvs ii.13.


-- (pp.) [see aṭṭita which is the more correct spelling] afflicted, smarted, oppressed J i.21; ii.407; iii.261; iv.295; v.53, 268; Th 1, 406; Mhvs 1, 25; PvA 260; Sdhp 37, 281.


-- ╣ (num.) [= aḍḍha, q. v.] one half, half (˚ -- ) D i.166 (˚māsika); A ii.160 (˚māsa); J i.59 (˚yojana); iii. 189 (˚māsa).


-- ▓ (adj.) [= adda3, Sk. ārdra] soiled, wet; fig. attached to, intoxicated with (cp. sineha) M ii.223 (na anaddhabhūtaŋ attānaŋ dukkhena addhabhāveti he dirties the impure self with ill); S iii.1 (addhabhūto kāyo impure body); J vi.548 (˚nakha with dirty nails, C. pūtinakha).


-- (in cpds. addha˚) [Vedic adhvan, orig. meaning "stretch, length", both of space & time. -- Cases: nom. addhā, gen. dat. addhuno, instr. addhunā, acc. addhānaŋ, loc. addhani; pl. addhā. See also addhāna] 1. (of space) a path, road, also journey (see cpds. & derivations); only in one ster. phrase J iv.384 = v.137 (pathaddhuno paṇṇarase va cando, gen. for loc. ˚addhani, on his course, in his orbit; expld. at iv.384 by ākāsa -- patha -- sankhātassa addhuno majjhe ṭhito and at v.137 by pathaddhagato addha -- pathe gaganamajjhe ṭhito); Pv iii.31 (pathaddhani paṇṇarase va cando; loc. same meaning as prec., expld. at PvA 188 by attano pathabhūte addhani gaganatala -- magge). This phrase (pathaddhan) however is expld. by Kern (Toev. s. v. pathaddu) as "gone half -- way", i. e. on full -- moon -- day. He rejects the expln. of C. -- 2. (of time) a stretch of time, an interval of time, a period, also a lifetime (see cpds.); only in two standard applications viz. (a) as mode of time (past, present & future) in tayo addhā three divisions of time (atita, anāgata, paccuppanna) D iii.216; It 53, 70. (b) in phrase dīghaŋ addhānaŋ (acc.) a very long time A ii.1, 10 (dighaŋ addhānaŋ saŋsāraŋ); Sn 740 (dīghaŋ addhāna saŋsāra); Dh 207 (dīghaŋ addhāna socati); J i.137. gen. dīghassa addhuno PvA 148 (gatattā because a long time has elapsed), instr. dīghena addhunā S i.78; A ii.118; PvA 28.
-- āyu duration of life A ii.66 (dīghaŋ ˚ŋ a long lifetime. -- gata one who has gone the road or traversed the space or span of life, an old man [cp. BSk. adhvagata M Vastu ii.150], always combd. with vayo anuppatto, sometimes in ster. formula with jiṇṇa & mahallaka Vin ii.188; D i.48 (cp. DA i.143); M i.82; Sn pp. 50, 92; PvA 149. -- gū [Vedic adhvaga] a wayfarer, traveller, journeyman Th 255 = S i.212 (but the latter has panthagu, v. l. addhagū); J iii.95 (v. l. patthagu = panthagu); Dh 302.


-- (adv.) [Vedic addhā, cp. Av. azdā certainty] part. of affirmation and emphasis: certainly, for sure, really, truly D i.143; J i.19 (a. ahaŋ Buddho bhavissāmi) 66 (a. tvaŋ Buddho bhavissasi), 203, 279; iii.340; v.307, 410 (C. expln. differs) Sn 47, 1057; Nd2 30 = Ps ii.21 (ekaŋsa -- vacanaŋ nissaŋsaya -- vacanaŋ etc.) addhā hi J iv. 399; Pv iv.15 2.


-- (adj.) = adhaniya 2, lasting J v.507 (an˚).


-- (adj.) [fr. addhan] 1. belonging to the road, fit for travelling (of the travelling season) Th 1, 529. <-> 2. belonging to a (long) time, lasting a long period, lasting, enduring D iii.211; J i.393 (an˚) vi.71. See also addhaneyya.


-- [Vedic adhvaryu fr. adhvara sacrifice] a sacri- ficing priest, N. of a class of Brahmins D i.237 (brāhmaṇa).


-- (nt.) [orig. the acc. of addhan, taken as nt. from phrase dīghaŋ addhānaŋ. It occurs only in acc. which may always be taken as acc. of addhan; thus the assumption of a special form addhāna would be superfluous, were it not for later forms like addhāne (loc.) Miln 126; PvA 75 v. l. BB, and for cpds.] same meaning as addhan, but as simplex only used with reference to time (i. e. a long time, cp. VvA 117 addhānaŋ = ciraŋ). Usually in phrase atītaŋ (anāgataŋ etc.) addhānaŋ in the past (future etc.), e. g. D i.200; S i.140; A v.32; Miln 126 (anāgatamaddhāne for ˚aŋ); PvA 75 (v. l. addhāne). dīghaŋ addhānaŋ Pv i.105. Also in phrase addhānaŋ āpādeti to make out the length of time or period, i. e. to live out one's lifetime S iv.110; J ii.293 (= jīvitaddhānaŋ āpādi āyuŋ vindi C).
-- daratha exhaustion from travelling DA i.287. -- magga a (proper) road for journeying, a long road between two towns, high road D i.1, 73, 79; M i.276 (kantār˚); DA i.35 (interpreted as "addhayojanaŋ gacchissāmī ti bhu˝jitabban ti ādi vacanato addha -- yojanam pi addhāna maggo hoti", thus taken to addha "half", from counting by 1/2 miles); VvA 40, 292. Cp. also antarāmagga. -- parissama "fatigue of the road", i. e. fatigue from travelling VvA 305. -- vemattatā difference of time or period Miln 285 (+ āyuvemattatā).

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- [fr. addhan] a wanderer, wayfarer, traveller DA i.298 (= pathāvin), 270; PvA 78, 127 (˚jana people travelling). Often combd. with kapaṇa beggar, tramp, as kapaṇaddhikā (pl.) tramps and travellers (in which connection also as ˚iddhika, q. v.), e. g. J i.6 (v. l. ˚iddhika 262; DhA ii.26.


-- at Pv ii.62 is to be corrected to aṭṭita (sic v. l. BB).


-- (adj.) ( -- ˚) [fr. addhan] belonging to the road or travelling, one who is on the road, a traveller, in gataddhin one who has performed his journey (= addhagata) Dh 90.


-- see dhuva.


-- see dubbha.


-- see dvejjhatā.


-- in cpds. like adhagga see under adho.


-- see dhamma.


-- (adj.) [Vedic adhama = Lat. infimus, superl. of adho, q. v.] the lowest (lit. & fig.), the vilest, worst Sn 246 (narÔdhama), 135 (vasalÔdhama); Dh 78 (purisa˚); J iii.151 (miga˚); v.394 (uttamÔdhama), 437 (id.), 397; Sdhp 387.


-- (adj.) [Vedic adhara, compar. of adho] the lower J iii.26 (adharoṭṭha the l. lip).


-- [Vedic adhi; base of demonstr. pron. a˚ + suffix -- dhi, corresponding in form to Gr. e)/n -- qa "on this" = here, cp. o(/qi where, in meaning equal to adv. of direction Gr. de/ (toward) = Ohg. zuo, E. to].
A. Prep. and pref. of direction & place: (a) as direction denoting a movement towards a definite end or goal = up to, over, toward, to, on (see C 1 a). -- (b) as place where (prep. c. loc. or abs.) = on top of, above, over, in; in addition to. Often simply deictic "here" (e. g.) ajjhatta = adhi + ātman "this self here" (see C 1 b).
B. adhi is freq. as modification pref., i. e. in loose compn. with n. or v. and as first part of a double prefixcpd. , like ajjhā˚ (adhi + ā), adhippa˚ (adhi + pra), but never occurs as a fixed base, i. e. as 2nd part of a pref.<-> cpd., like ā in paccā˚ (prati + ā), paryā˚ (pari + ā) or ava in paryava˚ (pari + ava) or ud in abhyud˚ (abhi + ud), samud˚ (sam + ud). As such (i. e. modification) it is usually intensifying, meaning "over above, in addition, quite, par excellence, super" -- (adhideva a super -- god, cp. ati -- deva), but very often has lost this power & become meaningless (like E. up in "shut up, fill up, join up etc), esp. in double pref. -- cpds. (ajjhāvasati "to dwell here -- in" = āvasati "to dwell in, to inhabit") (see C 2). -- In the explns of P. Commentators adhi is often (sometimes far -- fetchedly) interpreted by abhibhū "overpowering" see e. g. C. on adhiṭṭhāti & adhiṭṭhita; and by virtue of this intens. meaning we find a close relationship between the prefixes ati, adhi and abhi, all interchanging dialectically so that P. adhi often represents Sk. ati or abhi; thus adhi > ati in adhikusala, ˚kodhita, ˚jeguccha, ˚brahmā; adhi > abhi in adhippatthita, ˚pātcti, ˚ppāya, ˚ppeta, ˚bādheti, ˚bhū, ˚vāha. Cp. also ati iv.
C. The main applications of adhi are the foll.: 1. primary meaning (in verbs & verb derivations): either direction in which or place where, depending on the meaning of the verb determinate, either lit. or fig. -- (a) where to: adhiyita (adhi + ita) "gone on to or into" = studied; ajjhesita (adhi + esita) "wished for"; ˚kata "put to" i. e. commissioned; ˚kāra commission; ˚gacchati "to go on to & reach it" = obtain; ˚gama attainment; ˚gaṇhāti to overtake = surpass, ˚peta (adhi + pra + ita) "gone in to" = meant, understood; ˚pāya sense meaning, intention; ˚bhāsati to speak to = address; ˚mutta intent upon; ˚vacana "saying in addition" = attribute, metaphor, cp. Fr. sur -- nom; ˚vāsāna assent, ˚vāseti to dwell in, give in = consent. -- (b) where: ˚tiṭṭhati (˚ṭṭhāti) to stand by = look after, perform; ˚ṭṭhāna place where; ˚vasati to inhabit; ˚sayana "lying in", inhabiting. -- 2. secondary meaning (as emphatic modification): (a) with nouns or adjectives: adhi -- jeguccha very detestable; ˚matta "in an extreme measure", ˚pa supreme lord; ˚pacca lordship; ˚pa˝˝ā higher, additional wisdom; ˚vara the very best; ˚sīla thorough character or morality. -- (b) with verbs (in double pref. -- cpds.); adhi + ava: ajjhogāheti plunge into; ajjhoṭhapeti to bring down to (its destination); ˚otthata covered completely; ˚oharati to swallow right down. adhi + ā: ajjhappatta having reached (the end); ajjhapīḷita quite overwhelmed; ˚āvuttha inhabited; ˚ārūhati grown up over; ˚āsaya desire, wish (cp. Ger. n. Anliegen & v. daranliegen). adhi + upa: ajjhupagacchati to reach, obtain; ˚upeti to receive; ˚upekkhati "to look all along over" = to superintend adhi + pra: adhippattheti to long for, to desire.
Note. The contracted (assimilation -- ) form of adhi before vowels is ajjh -- (q. v.).


-- (adj.) [fr. adhi; cp. Sk. adhika] exceeding, extra- ordinary, superior, Pug 35; VvA 80 (= anadhivara, visiṭṭha); DA i.141, 222; Dpvs v.32 (an˚); DhA iii.238; KhA 193 (= anuttara); Sdhp 337, 447. -- compar. adhikatara DhA ii.7; iii.176; nt. ˚ŋ as adv. extraordinarily PvA 86 (= adhimattaŋ). In combn. with numerals adhika has the meaning of "in addition, with an additional, plus" (cp. ādi + ādika, with which it is evidently confounded, adhika being constructed in the same way as ādika, i. e. preceding the noun -- determination), e. g. catunahutÔdhikāni dve yojana -- sahassāni 2000 + 94 (= 294 000) J i.25; sattamāsÔdhikāni sattavassāni 7 years and 7 months J v.319; pa˝˝āsÔdhikāni pa˝ca vassa -- satani 500 + 50 (= 550) PvA 152. See also sÔdhika.


-- (adj.) [adhi + kata; cp. Sk. adhikṛta] 1. com- missioned with, an overseer, Pv ii.927 (dāne adhikata = ṭhapita PvA 124). -- 2. caused by Miln 67 (kamma˚). <-> 3. affected by something, i. e. confused, puzzled, in doubt Miln 144 (+ vimātijāta).


-- (nt.) [adhi + karaṇa] 1. attendance, super- vision, management of affairs, administration PvA 209. <-> 2. relation, reference, reason, cause, consequence D ii.59 ( -- ˚: in consequence of); S ii.41; v.19. Esp. acc. ˚ŋ as adv. ( -- ˚) in consequence of, for the sake of, because of, from M i.410 (rūpÔdhikaraṇaŋ); S iv.339 (rāga˚); Miln 281 (mudda˚ for the sake of the royal seal, orig. in attendance on the r. s.). KimÔdhikaraṇaŋ why, on account of what J iv.4 (= kiŋkāraṇaŋ) yatvÔdhikaraṇaŋ (yato + adhi˚) by reason of what, since, because (used as conj.) D i.70 = A i.113 = ii.16 = D iii.225. -- 3. case, question, cause, subject of discussion, dispute. There are 4 sorts of a. enumd. at var. passages, viz. vivāda˚ anuvāda˚ āpatta˚ kicca˚ "questions of dispute, of censure, of misconduct, of duties" Vin ii.88; iii.164; iv.126, 238; M ii.247. <-> Often ref.: Vin ii.74; S iv.63 = v.346 (dhamma˚ a question of the Dh.); A i.53 (case), 79; ii.239 (vūpasanta); v.71, 72; Pug 20, 55; DhA iv.2 (˚ssa uppamassa vūpasama), adhikaraṇaŋ karoti to raise a dispute M i.122 ˚ŋ vūpasameti to settle a question or difficulty Vin ii.261.
-- kāraka one who causes dispute discussions or dissent Vin iv.230 (f. ˚ikā); A iii.252. -- samatha the settlings of questions that have arisen. There are seven rules for settling cases enumd. at D iii.254; M ii.247; A i.99; iv.144.


-- [fr. adhikaraṇa] one who has to do with the settling of disputes or questions, a judge A v.164, 167.


-- (f.) [to adhikaraṇa 1, orig. meaning "serving, that which serves, i. e. instrument"] a smith's anvil J iii.285; Dāvs iii.16 sq.; DhsA 263.


-- [cp. Sk. adhikāra] attendance, service, adminis- tration, supervision, management, help Vin i.55; J i.56; [p028] vi.251; Miln 60, 115, 165; PvA 124 (dāna˚; cp. Pv ii.927); DhA ii.41.

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- (adj.) ( -- ˚) [to adhikāra] serving as, referring to Vin iii.274 (Bdhgh).


-- (f.) [adhi + koṭṭanā or koṭṭana] an executi- oner's block Th 2, 58; cp. ThA 65 (v. l. kuḍḍanā, should prob. be read koṭṭana); ThA 287.


-- (adj.) [adhi + kusala] in ˚ā dhammā "items of higher righteousness" D iii.145.


-- (adj.) [adhi + kodhita] very angry J v.117.


-- [adhi + gacchati] to get to, to come into possession of, to acquire, attain, find; fig. to understand D i.229 (vivesaŋ) M i.140 (anvesaŋ nɔ Ôdhigacchanti do not find); S i.22 (Nibbānaŋ); ii.278 (id.); A i.162 (id.); Dh 187, 365; It 82 (santiŋ); Th 2, 51; Pug 30, 31; Pv i.74 (nibbutiŋ = labhati PvA 37); iii.710 (amataŋ padaŋ). opt. adhigaccheyya D i.224 (kusalaŋ dhammaŋ); M i.114 (madhu -- piṇḍikaŋ); Dh 61 and adhigacche Dh 368. ger. ˚gantvā D i.224; J i.45 (ānisaŋse); and ˚gamma Pv i.119 (= vinditvā paṭilabhitvā PvA 60). grd. ˚gantabba It 104 (nibbāna). cond. ˚gacchissaŋ Sn 446. 1st aor. 3 sg. ajjhagā Sn 225 (= vindi paṭilabhi KhA 180); Dh 154; Vv 327; 3 pl. ajjhagū J i.256 (vyasanaŋ) & ajjhāgamuŋ S i.12. 2nd aor. 3 sg. adhigacchi Nd1 457. <-> pp. adhigata (q. v.).


-- [adhi + gaṇhāti] to surpass, excel S i.87 = DA i.32; D iii.146; S iv.275; A iii.33; It 19. Ger. adhigayha Pv ii.962 = DhA iii.219 (v. l. BB at both pass. atikkamma); & adhiggahetvā It 20. -- pp. adhiggahīta (q. v.).


-- [pp. of adhigacchati] got into possession of, con- quered, attained, found J i.374; VvA 135.


-- (adj. -- n.) [fr. adhigata] one who has found or obtained VvA 296 (Nibbānaŋ).


-- [fr. adhigacchati] attainment, acquisition; also fig. knowledge, information, study (the latter mainly in Miln) D iii.255; S ii.139; A ii.148; iv.22, 332; v.194; J i.406; Nett 91; Miln 133, 215, 358, 362, 388; PvA 207.


-- [adhi + gameti, Caus. of gacchati] to make obtain, to procure PvA 30.


-- [pp. of adhigaṇhāti] excelled, surpassed; over- powered, taken by (instr.), possessed J iii.427 (= anuggahīta C.); v.102; vi.525 = 574; It 103; Miln 188, 189; Sdhp 98.


-- only at S iii.12, where v. l. is aviciṇṇa, which is to be preferred. See viciṇṇa.


-- (nt.) [adhi + citta] "higher thought", meditation, contemplation, nsually in combn. with adhisīla and adhipa˝˝ā Vin i.70; D iii.219; M i.451; A i.254, 256; Nd1 39 = Nd2 689 (˚sikkhā); Dh 185 (= aṭṭha -- samāpattisankhāta adhika -- citta DhA iii.238).


-- (adj.) [adhi + ceto] lofty -- minded, entranced Th 1, 68 = Ud 43 = Vin iv.54 = DhA iii.384.


-- ╣ [ger. of adhi + eti, see adhīyati] learning, studying, learning by heart J iii.218, 327 = iv.301; iv.184 (vede = adhīyitvā C.), 477 (sajjhāyitvā C.); vi.213; Miln 164.


-- ▓ (˚ -- ) [Sk. *adhṛtya, a + *dhicca, ger. of dhṛ, cp. dhāra, dhāraṇa 3, dhāreti 4] unsupported, uncaused, fortuitous, without cause or reason; in foll. phrases: ˚āpattika guilty without intention M i.443; ˚uppatti spontaneous origin DhsA 238; ˚laddha obtained without being asked for, unexpectedly Vv 8422 = J v.171 = vi.315 (expld. at J v.171 by ahetunā, at vi.316 by akāraṇena) ˚samuppanna arisen without a cause, spontaneous, unconditioned D i.28 = Ud 69; D iii.33, 138; S ii.22 -- 23 (sukhadukkhaŋ); A iii.440 (id.); Ps i.155; DA i.118 (= akāraṇa˚).


-- │ (adj.) [= adhicca 2 in adj. function, influenced by, homonym abhabba] without a cause (for assumption), unreasonable, unlikely S v.457.


-- (nt.) [adhi + jeguccha] intense scrupulous regard (for others) D i.174, 176.


-- (adj.) ( -- ˚) [fr. adhiṭṭhāti] bent on, given to, addicted to J v.427 (surā˚).


adhiṭṭhāti (adhiṭṭhahati)
-- [Sk. adhitiṣṭhati, adhi + sthā] 1. to stand on J iii.278 (ger. ˚āya); DhA iv.183 (ger. ˚hitvā); fig. to insist on Th 1, 1131 (aor. ˚āhi). -- 2. to concentrate or fix one's attention on (c. acc.), to direct one's thoughts to, to make up one's mind, to wish Vin i.115 (inf. ˚ṭhātuŋ), 297 (id.), 125 (grd. ˚ṭhātabba) J i.80 (aor. ˚ahi); iii.278; iv.134 (v. l. ati˚ C. expls. abhibhavitvā tiṭṭhati); DhA i.34; iv.201 (ger. ˚hitvā); PvA 23 (aor. ˚ṭhāsi) 171 (id.), 75 (ger. ˚hitvā). On adhiṭṭheyya see Cpd. 209, n. 2; 219, n. 1. -- 3. to undertake, practice, perform, look after, to celebrate S ii.17; A i.115 sq.; J i.50; PvA 209 (ger. ˚ṭhāya). -- pp. adhiṭṭhita (q. v.).


-- (nt.) [fr. adhi + sthā] 1. decision, resolution, self -- determination, will (cp. on this meaning Cpd. 62) D iii.229 (where 4 are enumd., viz. pa˝˝ā˚, sacca˚ cāga˚ upasama˚); J i.23; v.174; Ps i.108; ii.171 sq., 207; DhsA 166 (cp. Dhs. trsl. 44). -- 2. mentioned in bad sense with abhinivesa and anusaya, obstinacy, prejudice and bias M i.136; iii.31, 240; S ii.17; iii.10, 135, 194. -- As adj. ( -- ˚) applying oneself to, bent on A iii.363. -- 3. looking after, management, direction, power Miln 309 (devānaŋ); PvA 141 (so read for adhitaṭṭhāna). [adiṭṭhāna as PvA 89, used as explanatory for āvāsa, should perhaps be read adhiṭṭhāna in the sense of fixed, permanent, abode].


-- (adj.) ( -- ˚) superintending, watching, looking after, in kamma˚ Mhvs 5, 175; 30, 98; kammanta˚ DhA i.393.


-- (adj.) [pp. of adhiṭṭhāti] 1. standing on (c. loc.), esp. with the idea of standing above, towering over Vv 6330 (hemarathe a. = sakalaŋ ṭhānaŋ abhibhavitvā ṭhita VvA 269). -- (a) looked after, managed, undertaken, governed Vin i.57; S v.278 (svɔÔdhiṭṭhita); PvA 141 (kammanta). -- (b) undertaking, bent on (c. acc.) Sn 820 (ekacariyaŋ).


-- [adhi + deva] a superior or supreme god, above the gods M ii.132; A iv.304; Sn 1148; Nd2 307b, 422 a. Cp. atideva.


-- [Sk. adhipa, abbrev. of adhipati] ruler, lord, master J ii.369; iii.324; v.393; Pv ii.86 (jan˚ king); Dāvs iii.52; VvA 314.


-- (adj.) ( -- ˚) [fr. prec.] mastering, ruling or governed, influenced by (cp. adhipati) A i.150 (atta˚ loka˚ dhamma˚).


-- [adhi + pajjati] to come to, reach, attain A iv.96 (anatthaŋ); pp. adhipanna.


-- (f.) [adhi + pa˝˝ā] higher wisdom or know- ledge, insight (cp. jhāna & pa˝˝ā); usually in combn. with adhicitta & adhisīla Vin i.70; D i.174; iii.219 (˚sikkhā); A i.240; ii.92 sq., 239; iii.106 sq., 327; iv.360; Nd1 39 (id.); Ps i.20, 25 sq., 45 sq., 169; ii.11, 244; Pug 61.

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-- [adhi + patati] to fly past, vanish J iv.111 (= ativiya patati sīghaŋ atikkamati C.). -- Caus. adhipāteti (q. v.) in diff. meaning. Cp. also adhipāta.


-- (nt.) [fr. adhipatati] attack, pressing ThA 271.


-- (n. -- adj.) [adhi + pati, cp. adhipa] 1. ruler, master J iv.223; Vv 811; Miln 388; DhA i.36 (= seṭṭha). <-> 2. ruling over, governing, predominant; ruled or governed by Vbh 216 sq. (chandaŋ adhipatiŋ katvā making energy predominant); DhsA 125, 126 (atta˚ autonomous, loka˚ heteronomous, influenced by society). See alṣo Dhs. trsl. 20 & Cpd. 60.


-- (nt.) A i.147; iii 33 = S iv.275 is probably misreading for ādhipateyya.


-- [pp. adhi + pattheti, cp. Sk. abhi + arthayati] desired, wished, begged for D i.120.


-- [cp. Sk. abhipanna, adhi + pad] gone into, affected with, seized by ( -- ˚), a victim of (c. loc.) S i.72, Th 2, 345 (kāmesu); Sn 1123 (taṇhā˚ = taṇhÔnugata Nd2 32); Dh 288; J iii.38, 369; iv.396; v.91, 379 (= dosena ajjhotthaṭa); vi.27.


-- (nt.) [adhi + pāṭimokkha] the higher, moral, code Vin v.1 (pāṭim˚ +); M ii.245 (+ ajjhājīva).


-- ╣ [adhipāteti] splitting, breaking, only in phrase muddhā˚ head -- splitting Sn 988 sq., 1004, 1025 (v. l. Nd2 ˚vipāta).


-- ▓ [from adhipatati = Sk. atipatati, to fly past, flit] a moth Sn 964. Expld. at Nd1 484 as "adhipātikā ti tā uppatitvā khādanti taŋkāraṇā a. vuccanti"; Ud 72 (expld. by C. as salabhā).


-- (f.) [fr. adhipāta2] a moth, a mosquito Nd1 484 (see adhipāta2).


-- [Caus. fr. adhipatati, cp. Sk. abhipātayati & P. atipāteti] to break, split J iv.337 (= chindati). At Ud 8 prob. to be read adhibādheti (v. l. avibādeti. T. adhipāteti).


-- [adhi + ppa + gharati] to flow, to trickle ThA 284.


-- 3 sg. aor. of adhippagacchati to go to J v.59.


-- [adhi + ppa + i; Sk. abhiprāya] 1. intention, wish desire S i.124; v.108; A ii.81; iii.363 (bhoga˚); v.65; J i.79, 83; Sdhp 62. As adj. ( -- ˚) desiring PvA 226 (hass˚ in play = khiḍḍatthika). -- 2. sense, meaning, conclusion, inference (cp. adhigama) Miln 148; PvA 8, 16, 48, 131 (the moral of a story). -- adhippāyena (instr.) in the way of, like PvA 215 (kīḷ for fun).


-- [adhi + pāyosa] distinction, difference, pe- culiarity, special meaning M i 46; S iii.66; iv.208; A i.267; iv.158; v.48 sq.


-- [Sk. abhipreta, adhi + ppa + i, lit. gone into, gone for; cp. adhippāya] 1. desired, approved of, agreeable D i.120; ii.236; VvA 312, 315. -- 2. meant, understood, intended as J iii.263; PvA 9, 80, 120, 164.


-- (nt.) [abstr. fr. adhippeta] the fact of being meant or understood as, in abl. ˚ā with reference to, as is to be understood of VvA 13; PvA 52.


-- [adhi + bādheti, cp. Sk. abhibādhayati] to vex, oppress, gore (to death) Ud 8 (T. adhipāteti, v. l. avibādeti).


-- [adhi + Brahmā, cp. atibrahmā] a superior Brahmā, higher than Brahmā M ii.132.


-- [adhi + bhavati, cp. Sk. & P. abhibhavati] to overcome, overpower, surpass S iv.185 sq. (cp. adhibhū); A v.248, 282 (˚bhoti); J ii.336; V.30. -- aor. adhibhavi J ii.80. 3. pl. adhibhaŋsu S iv.185. See also ajjhabhavi & ajjhabhū pp. adhibhūta (q. v.).


-- [adhi + bhāsati] to address, to speak to; aor. ajjhabhāsi Vin ii.195; S i.103; iv.117; Sn p. 87; PvA 56, 90.


-- (adj.) ( -- ˚) [fr. adhi + bhū, cp. adhibhavati & Sk. adhibhū] overpowering, having power over; master, conqueror, lord S iv.186 (anadhibhū not mastering. For adhibhūta the v. l. abhi˚ is to be preferred as more usual in this connection, see abhibhū); Sn 684 (miga˚; v. l. abhi˚).


-- [cp. adhibhū & adhibhūta] overpowered S iv.186.


-- (adj.) [adhi + matta of ] extreme, exceeding, extraordinary; nt. adv. ˚ŋ extremely M i.152, 243; S iv. 160; A ii.150; iv.241; J i.92; Pug 15; Miln 146, 189, 274, 290; Pv ii.36 (= adhikataraŋ PvA 86); DhA ii.85; cp. PvA 281.


-- (nt.) [abstr. fr. prec.] preponderance A ii.150; DhsA 334 (cp. Dhs. trsl. 200).


-- (n. -- adj.) [adhi + mano] (n.) attention, direction of mind, concentration Sn 692 (adhimanasā bhavātha). <-> (adj.) directing one's mind upon, intent (on) J iv.433 (= pasannacitta); v.29 (an˚; v. l. ˚māna).


-- [adhi + māna] undue estimate of oneself M ii.252; A v.162 sq.


-- (adj.) [fr. adhimāna] having undue confidence in oneself, conceited A v.162, 169, 317; DhA iii.111.


-- [Pass. of adhi + muc] 1. to be drawn to, feel attached to or inclined towards, to indulge in (c. loc.) S iii.225; iv.185; A iv.24, 145 sq., 460; v.17; Pug 63. <-> 2. to become settled, to make up one's mind as to (with loc.), to become clear about Vin i.209 (aor. ˚mucci); D i.106; S i.116 (pot. ˚mucceyya); It 43; DA i.275. <-> 3. to take courage, to have faith Sn 559; Miln 234; DA i.214, 316; J iv.272; v.103; DhA i.196; iii.258; iv.170. <-> 4. of a spirit, to possess, to enter into a body, with loc. of the body. A late idiom for the older anvāvisati. J iv.172; v.103, 429; DhA i.196; iii.258; iv.170. <-> pp. adhimuccita and adhimutta. -- Caus. adhimoceti to incline to (trs.); to direct upon (with loc.) S v.409 (cittaŋ devesu a.).


-- (nt.) [fr. adhi + muc] making up one's mind, confidence DhsA 133, 190.


adhimuccita & adhimucchita
-- (pp.) [either adhi + muc or mūrch; it would seem more probable to connect it with the former (cp. adhimuccati) and consider all vv. ll. ˚mucchita as spurious; but in view of the credit of several passages we have to assume a regular analogy -- form ˚mucchita, cp. mucchati and see also J.P.T.S. 1886, 109] drawn towards, attached to, infatuated, indulging in (with loc.) M ii.223 (an˚); S i.113; Th 1, 732 (v. l. ˚muccita), 923 (cch), 1175; J ii.437 (cch); iii.242; v.255 (kāmesu ˚mucchita, v. l. ˚muccita). Cp. ajjhomucchita.


-- [n. ag. of adhimuccati] one who determines for something, easily trusting, giving credence A iii.165 (v. l. ˚mucchitā).


-- (adj.) [pp. of adhimuccati, cp. BSk. adhimukta. Av. Ś i.8, 112; Divy 49, 302 etc.] intent upon ( -- ˚ or with loc. or acc.), applying oneself to, keen on, inclined to, given to Vin i.183; A v.34, 38; Dh 226; Sn 1071, 1149 (˚citta); Nd2 33; J i.370 (dān˚) Pug 26; PvA 134 (dān˚).


-- (f.) [adhi + mutti] resolve, intention, disposition D i.174; A v.36; Ps i.124; Miln 161, 169; Vbh 340, 341; DA i.44, 103; Sdhp 378.

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-- (adj.) [= adhimutta] inclined to, attached to, bent on S ii.154, 158; It 70; Vbh 339 sq. + (f.) inclination D i.2.


-- [fr. adhi + muc] firm resolve, determination, decision M iii.25 sq.; Vbh 165 sq., 425; DhsA 145, 264. See Dhs. trsl. 5; Cpd. 17, 40, 95.


-- see adhīyati.


-- [fr. adhi + ruh] ascent, ascending; in dur˚ hard to ascend Miln 322.


-- (nt.) [adhi + vacana] designation, term, attrţ- bute, metaphor, metaphorical expression D ii.62; M i.113, 144, 460; A ii.70, 124; iii.310; iv.89, 285, 340; It 15, 114; Sn p. 218; J i.117; Nd2 34 = Dhs 1306 (= nāma sankhā pa˝˝atti etc.); Vbh 6; PvA 63. See on term Dhs. trsl. 340.
-- patha "process of synonymous nomenclature" (Mrs. Rh. D.) D ii.68; S iii.71; Dhs 1306; DhsA 51.


-- [adhi + vattati] to come on, proceed, issue, result S i.101; A ii.32.


-- (adj.) [pp. of adhivasati] inhabiting, living in (c. loc.) Vin i.28; S i.197; J i.223; ii.385; iii.327; PvA 17. The form adhivuttha occurs at J vi.370.


-- (adj.) [adhi + vara] superb, excellent, surpassing Vv 163 (an˚ unsurpassed, unrivalled; VvA 80 = adhika, visiṭṭha).


-- [fr. adhi + vas] endurance, forbearance, holding out; only as adj. in dur˚ difficult to hold out Th 1, 111.


adhivāsaka (& ˚ika)
-- (adj.) [fr. adhivāsa] willing, agree- able, enduring, patient Vin iv.130; M i.10, 526; A ii.118; iii.163; v.132; J iii.369 (an˚); iv.11, 77.


-- (nṭ.) [fr. adhi + vas] 1 assent A iii.31; DhA i.33. -- 2. forbearance, endurance M i.10; J ii.237; iii.263; iv.307; v.174.


-- (f.) [abstr. fr. adhivāsana] patience, endurance, Dhs 1342; Vbh 360 (an˚).


-- [Caus. of adhivasati, cp. BSk. adhivāsayati in meaning of 3] 1. to wait for (c. acc.) J i.254; ii.352; iii.277. -- 2. to have patience, bear, endure (c. acc.) D ii.128, 157; J i.46; iii.281 (pahāre); iv.279, 407; v.51, 200; VvA 336, 337. -- 3. to consent, agree, give in Vin i.17; D i.109 (cp. DA i.277); S iv.76; DhA i.33; PvA 17, 20, 75 and freq. passim. -- Caus. adhivāsāpeti to cause to wait J i.254.


-- [fr. adhi + vah; cp. Sk. abhivahati] a carrier, bearer, adj. bringing S iv.70 (dukkha˚); A i.6; Th 1, 494.


-- (nt. -- adj.) [fr. adhi + vah] carrying, bringing, bearing Sn 79; f. ˚ī Th 1, 519.


-- (nt.) = adhivimokkhatta & adhimutti, i. e. propensity, the fact of being inclined or given to J v.254 (T. kāmādhivimuttitā, v. l. ˚muttata).


-- (nt.) = adhimokkha; being inclined to DhsA 261.


-- (f.) [adhi + vutti, fr. adhi + vac, cp. Sk. abhi- vadati] expression, saying, opinion; only in tt. adhivuttipada (v. l. adhimutti -- p. at all passages) D i.13 (expld. by adhivacana -- pada DA i.103); M ii.228; A v.36.


-- see adhivattha.


-- (nt. -- adj.) [fr. adhiseti] lying on or in, inhabiting PvA 80 (ma˝caŋ).


-- [pp. of adhiseti] sat on, addled (of eggs) Vin iii.3; S iii.153.


-- (nt.) [adhi + sīla] higher morality, usually in threefold set of adhicitta -- sikkha, adhipa˝˝ā˚ adhis´la˚ Vin i.70; D i.174; iii.219; A iii.133; iv.25; DhA i.334; PvA 207. See also adhicitta, sikkhā & sīla.


-- [adhi + seti] to lie on, sit on, live in, to follow, pursue Dh 41; Sn 671 (= gacchati C.) -- pp. adhisayita.


-- (adj.) ( -- ˚) [cp. Sk. adhīna] subject, dependent D i.72 (atta˚ & para˚); J iv.112; DA i.217; also written ādhīna J v.350. See also under para.


adhīyati & adhiyati
-- [Med. of adhi + i, 1st sg. adhīye taken as base in Pāli] to study, lit. to approach (cp. adhigacchati); to learn by heart (the Vedas & other Sacred Books) Vin i.270; S i.202 (dhammapadāni); J iv.184 (adhīyitvā), 496 (adhīyamāna); vi.458; DhA iii.446 (adhīyassu). -- ger. adhīyitvā J iv.75; adhiyānaŋ J v.450 (= sajjhāyitvā C.) & adhicca: see adhicca 2; pp. adhiyita D i.96.


-- (adv.) [Vedic adhunā] just now, quite recently D ii.208; Vin ii.185 (kālakata); Miln 155; Dāvs ii.94.
-- āgata a new comer M i.457; J ii.105. -- Ôbhisitta newly or just anointed D ii.227. -- uppanna just arisen D ii.208, 221.


-- (nt.) [a + dhura, see dhura 2] irresponsibility, indifference to oblihations J iv.241.


-- (adv.) [Vedic adhaḥ; compar. adharaḥ = Lat. inferus, Goth. undar, E. under, Ind. *n̊dher -- ; superl. adhamaḥ = Lat. infimus] below, usually combd. or contrasted with uddhaŋ "above" and tiriyaŋ "across", describing the 3 dimensions. -- uddhaŋ and adho above and below, marking zenith & nadir. Thus with uddhaŋ and the 4 bearings (disā) and intermediate points (anudisā) at S i.122; iii.124; A iv.167; with uddhaŋ & tiriyaŋ at Sn 150, 537, 1055, 1068. Expld. at KhA 248 by heṭṭhā and in detail (dogmatically & speculatively) at Nd2 155. For further ref. see uddhaŋ. The compn. form of adho before vowels is adh˚.
-- akkhaka beneath the collar -- bone Vin iv.213. -- agga with the points downward (of the upper row of teeth) J v.156 (+ uddh˚ expld. by uparima -- danta C.). -- kata turned down, or upside down J i.20; vi.298. -- gata gone by, past. Adv. ˚ŋ since (cp. uddhaŋ adv. later or after) J vi.187 (ito māsaŋ adhogataŋ since one month ago). -- gala (so read for T. udho˚) down the throat PvA 104. -- mukha head forward, face downward, bent over, upturned Vin ii.78; M i.132, 234: Vv 161 (= heṭṭhā mukha VvA 78). -- bhāga the lower part (of the body) M i.473; DhA i.148. -- virecana action of a purgative (opp. uddha˚ of an emetic) D i.12; DA i.98 (= adho dosānaŋ nīharaṇaŋ); DhsA 404. -- sākhaŋ (+ uddhamūlaŋ) branches down (& roots up, i. e. uprooted) DhA i.75. -- sira (adj.) head downward J iv.194. -- siraŋ (adv.) with bowed head (cp. avaŋsiraŋ) J vi.298 (= siraŋ adhokatvā heṭṭhāmukho C.). -- sīsa (adj.) head first, headlong J i.233; v.472 (˚ka).

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{űn} /ʌn/

Bur-Myan {űn} is pronounced as /ʌn/ and not as /Šn/ nor /ɪŋ/. This syllable in Pal-Myan conjuncts has the same pronunciation /ʌn/. This vowel is realized in <uncle> /'ʌŋ.kḷ/ (DJPD16-558). Note: The vocalic L (L vocalization) is slightly misrepresented because of Windows font limitation. However, this does not affect my argument on /ʌn/.

-- form of the neg. prefix a -- before vowels. For negatives beginning with an˚ see the positive.


-- negative prefix, contained in anappameyya, (Th 1, 1089), anamatagga & anabhava. See Vinaya Texts ii.113.


-- (adj.) [an + ajjhiṭṭha] uncalled, unbidden, un- asked Vin i.113; Pv i.123 (T. anabbhita, v. l. anijjhiṭṭha; J iii.165 has anavhāta; Th 2, 129 ayācita; PvA 64 expls. by anavhāta).


-- [an, Vedic aniti & anati] to breathe KhA i.124 (in def. of bāla); DA i.244 (read ananti for aṇanti). Cp. pāṇa.


-- [ana + bhāva] the utter cessation of becoming. In the oldest Pali only in adj. form anabhāvaŋ kata or gata. This again found only in a string of four adjectives together expressing the most utter destruction. They are used at Vin iii.3 of bad qualities, at S ii.63 of certain wrong opinions, at M i.487; S iv.62 = v.527 of the khandas, at M i.331 of the Mental Intoxications (Āsavas), at A iv.73 of certain tastes, of a bad kamma A i.135, of evil passions A i.137, 184, 218; ii.214 of pride A ii.41, [p031] of craving A ii.249, of the bonds A iv.8. In the supplement to the Dīgha (D iii.326) and in the Iti -- vuttaka (p. 115) a later idiom, anabhāvaŋ gameti, cause to perish, is used of evil thoughts. Bdhgh (quoted Vin iii.267) reports as v. l. anubhāva. Cp. Nd i.90; and Nd2 under pahīna.

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-- (adj.) [an + abbhita] not restored, not to be restored Vin iv.242; Pv i.123 (where reading prob. faulty & due to a gloss; the id. p. at Th 2, 129 has ayācita & at J iii.165 anavhāta; PvA 64 expls. by anavhāta, v. l. anabbhita).


-- (f.) [an + abbhuṇṇata + tā] the state of not being erect, i. e. hanging down J v.156.


-- (f.) [an + abhijjhā] absence of covetousness or desire D iii.229, 269; Dhs 32, 35, 277.


-- (adj.) [an + abhijjhālū] not greedy or covetous D iii.82; Pug 40.


-- (adj.) [an + abhijjhita] not desired Sn 40 (cp. Nd2 38); Vv 474 (= na abhikankhita VvA 201).


-- etc. see abhi˚ etc.


-- (adj.) [an + abhirata] not taking delight in J i.61 (naccÔdisu).


-- (f.) [an + abhirati] not delighting in, dissatis- faction, discontent D i.17 (+ paritassanā); iii.289; J iii. 395; DA i.111.


-- (adj.) [an + abhiraddha] in anger Vin iv.236.


-- (f.) [an + abhiraddhi] anger, wrath D i.3 (= kopassɔetaŋ adhivacanaŋ DA i.52).


-- (adj.) [ppr. med. of an + abhisam- bhuṇāti] not obtaining, unable to get or keep up D i.101 (= asampāpuṇanto avisahamāno vā DA i.268).


-- (adj.) [ana (= a neg.) + mata (fr. man) + aggā (pl.). So Dhammapāla (avidit -- agga ThA 289); Nāṇakitti in Ṭīkā on DhsA 11; Trenckner, Notes 64; Oldenberg, Vin. Texts ii.114. Childers takes it as an + amata + agga, and Jacobi (Erzńhl. 33 and 89) and Pischel (Gram. ž 251) as a + namat (fr. nam) + agga. It is Sanskritized at Divy 197 by anavarāgra, doubtless by some mistake. Weber, Ind. Str. iii.150 suggests an + āmrta, which does not suit the context at all]. Ep. of Saṃsāra "whose beginning and end are alike unthinkable", i. e., without beginning or end. Found in two passages of the Canon: S ii.178, 187 sq. = iii.149, 151 = v.226, 441 (quoted Kvu 29, called Anamatagga -- pariyāya at DhA ii.268) and Th 2, 495, 6. Later references are Nd2 664; PvA 166; DhA i.11; ii.13, 32; Sdhp 505. [Cp. anāmata and amatagga, and cp. the English idiom "world without end". The meaning can best be seen, not from the derivation (which is uncertain), but from the examples quoted above from the Saṃyutta. According to the Yoga, on the contrary (see e. g., Woods, Yoga -- system of Pata˝jali, 119), it is a possible, and indeed a necessary quality of the Yogī, to understand the beginning and end of Saṃsāra].


-- (adj.) [according to Morris J.P.T.S. 1884, 70 = ana -- mha "unlaughing" with ana = an (cp. anabhāva & anamatagga) and mha from smi, cp. vimhayati = Sk. vismayati] being in consternation or distress, crying J iii. 223 (˚kāle = ārodana -- kāle C.).


-- [a + naya] misfortune, distress Miln 277, usually combd. with vyasana (as also in BSk, e. g. Jtm 215) Vin ii.199; S iv.159; A v.156; Miln 292; VvA 327; Sdhp 362.


-- (adj.) [an + ariya, see also anāriya] not Aiyan, ignoble, low Vin i.10; D iii.232 (˚vohāra, 3 sets of 4; the same at Vin v.125); Sn 664, 782 (˚dhamma); Pug 13. -- See ariya.


-- (adj.) [an + ala] 1. not sufficient, not enough; unable, impossible, unmanageable M i.455; J ii.326 = iv. 471. -- 2. dissatisfied, insatiate J v.63 (= atitta C.). <-> 3. ˚ŋ kata dissatisfied, satiated, S i.15 (kāmesu).


-- (adj.) [derivation doubtful. See Trenckner Pali Misc. 65] not lacking, complete in (loc.), fulfilling D i.88 (= anūna paripūra -- kārin DA i.248); A iii.152 (= samatta paripuṇṇa AA quoted by Tr. on Miln 10).


-- (adj.) [an + avosita; or ana + avosita = avusita?] unfulfilled, undone Th 1, 101.


-- (nt.) [an + asana, cp. Sk. an -- aśana] not eating, fasting, hunger D iii.75 & in same context at Sn 311 (= khudā SnA 324).


-- [ger. of an + aśati] without eating, fasting J iv.371.


-- [Sk. anasūyan, ppr. of an + asūyati] not grum- bling J iii.27 (v. l. for anusuyyaŋ T.).


-- [an + asuropa] absence of abruptness Dhs 1341.


-- (adj.) [Sk. anasūyaka, cp. usūya] not grumbling, not envious J ii.192.


-- (adj.) either an -- assaka or a -- nassaka (q. v.).


-- (nt.) [a + nassana, naś; cp. Sk. naśana] im- perishableness, freedom from waste J iv.168.


-- (adj.) [an + assāvin; cp. assāva + āsava] not intoxicated, not enjoying or finding pleasure in Sn 853 (sātiyesu a. = sātavatthusa kāmaguṇesu taṇhasanthavavirahita SnA 549).


-- (adj.) [an + assāsa + ika; cp. Sk. āśvāsana & BSk. anāśvāsika Divy 207] not consoling, discouraging, not comforting M i.514; S ii.191.


-- 1st sq, pret. of anusūyati (= Sk. anvaśruvaŋ) I have heard M i.393.


-- (adj.) [an + āgata] not come yet, i. e. future. On usual combn. with atīta: see this. D iii.100 sq., 134 sq., 220, 275; M iii.188 sq.; S i.5; ii.283; A iii.100 sq., 400; Sn 318, 373, 851; It 53; J iv.159; vi.364; Dhs 1039, 1416.


-- (nt.) [an + āgamana] not coming, not returning J i 203, 264.


-- (f.) [anāgāmin + tā] the state or condition of an Anāgāmin S v.129, 181, 285; A iii.82; v.108, 300 sq.; Sn p. 140 = A iii.143; It 1 sq., 39, 40.


-- (adj. -- n.) [an + āgāmin] one who does not return, a Never -- Returner, as tt. designating one who has attained the 3rd stage out of four in the breaking of the bonds (Saŋyojanas) which keep a man back from Arahantship. So near is the Anāgāmin to the goal, that after death he will be reborn in one of the highest heaven and there obtain Arahantship, never returning to rebirth as a man. But in the oldest passages referring to these 4 stages, the description of the third does not use the word anāgāmin (D i.156; ii.92; iii.107; M ii.146) and anāgāmin does not mean the breaking of bonds, but the cultivation of certain specified good mental habits (S iii.168, the anatta doctrine; S v.200 -- 2, the five Indriyas; A i.64, 120, cultivation of good qualities, ii 160; v.86, 171 = S 149). We have only two cases in the canon of any living persons being called anāgāmin. Those are at S v.177 and 178. The word there means one who has broken the lower five of the ten bonds, & the individuals named are laymen. At D ii.92 nine others, of [p032] whom eight are laymen, are declared after their death to have reached the third stage (as above) during life, but they are not called anāgāmins. At It 96 there are only 3 stages, the worldling, the Anāgāmin, and the Arahant; and the Saŋyojanas are not referred to. It is probable that already in the Nikāya period the older, wider meaning was falling into disuse. The Abhidhamma books seem to refer only to the Saŋyojana explanation; the commentaries, so far as we know them, ignore any other. See Ps ii.194; Kv. Tr. 74; Dhs. Tr. 302 n; Cp. 69.
-- phala fruition of the state of an Anāgāmin; always in combn. sotāpatti˚ sakadāgāmi˚ anāgāmi˚ arahatta˚ Vin i.293; ii.240; iv.29; D i.229; ii.227, 255; S iii.168; v.411; A i.23, 44; iii.272 sq.; iv.204, 276, 372 sq. -- magga the path of one who does not return (in rebirths) Nd2 569b.

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anāgāra & anāgāriyā
-- see agāra & agāriyā.


-- [an + āghāta] freedom from anger or ill -- will Vin ii.249.


-- [an + ācāra] misconduct, immorality J ii.133; iii. 276; adj. anācārin Pug 57.


-- (adj.) [an + ājāniya] of inferior race, not of good blood M i.367.


-- [an + ādara] (a) (m) disrespect PvA 257. -- (b.) (adj.) disrespectful Sn 247 (= ādaravirahita SnA 290).


-- (f.) [abstr. fr. anādara] want of consideration, in expln. of dovacassatā at Dhs 1325 = Vbh 359 = Pug 30 (where reading is anādariyatā).


-- (nt.) [fr. anādara] disregard, disrespect Vin i.176; iv.113 (where expld. in extenso); Dhs 1325 = dug 20 = Vbh 359.


-- [ger. of an + ādiyati] without taking up or on to oneself Vin iv.120 (= anādiyitvā C.).


-- (adj.) [an + ādāna] free from attachment (opp. sādāna) A ii.10 = It 9 = 109 = Nd2 172a; Sn 620, 741, 1094; Nd2 41 (where as nt. = taṇha); Dh 352 (= khandhādisu niggahaṇa DhA iv.70), 396, 406, 421.


-- [ger. of an + ādiyati] not taking up, not heeding J iv.352 (v. l. for T. anādiyitvā).


-- [ger. of an + ādiyati, Sk. anādāya] without assuming or taking up, not heeding Vin iv.120; J iv.352; DhA i.41. See also ādiyati.


-- represents the metrically lengthened from of ananu- (an + anu), as found e. g. in the foll. cpds.: ˚tappaŋ (ppr.) not regretting J v.492; ˚puṭṭha questioned Sn 782 (= apucchita SnA 521); ˚yāyin not following or not defiled by evil Sn 1071 (expld. at Nd2 42 by both avedhamāna (?) avigacchamāna & by arajjamāna adussamāna); ˚loma not fit or suitable D ii.273 (v. l. anu˚).


-- (adj.) [an + āpātha + gata] not fallen into the way of (the hunter), escaped him M i.174.


-- (adj.) [an + āpāda] unmarried (of a woman) J iv.178 (āpāda = apādāna C.; a˝˝ehi akata -- pariggahā).


-- see āpucchati.


-- (adj.) [an + ābādha] safe and sound VvA 351.


-- (adj.) [an + amata the ā being due to metrical lengthening] not affected by death, immortal J ii.56 (= asusāna -- ṭṭhāna C.); DhA ii.99.


-- (˚ -- ) [an + āmanta] without asking or being asked; in ˚kata unasked, unpermitted, uninvited J vi.226; ˚cāra living uninvited Vin v.132; A iii.259.


-- (adj.) [an + āmaya] free from illness, not decaying, healthy Vv 1510 (= aroga VvA 74), 177.


-- (adj.) [an + āmasita, pp. of āmassati] not touched, virgin -- VvA 113 (˚khetta).


-- (adj.) [grd. of an + āmassati, Sk. āmaśya] not to be touched J ii 360 (C. anāmāsitabba).


-- (nt.) [an + āyatana] nonexertion, not exerting oneself, sluggishness, indolence J v.121 (˚sīla = dussīla C.).


-- (adj.) [an + āya + sa, or should we read anāyāsa?] void of means, unlucky, unfortunate Vv 845 (= natthi ettha āyo sukhan ti anāyasaŋ VvA 335).


-- (adj.) [an + āyāsa] free from trouble or sorrow, peaceful Th 1, 1008.


-- [an + ārambha] that which is without moil and toil Sn 745 (= nibbāna SnA 507).


-- (adj.) [an + ārādhaka] one who fails, unsuc- cessful Vin i.70.


-- (adj.) [doublet of anariya] not Aryan, ignoble, Sn 815 (v. l. SS. anariya).


-- (adj.) [an + ālamba] without support (from above), unsuspended, not held Sn 173 (+ appatiṭṭha; expld. at SnA 214 by heṭṭhā patiṭṭhÔbhāvena upari ālambhāvena ca gambhīra).


-- [an + ālaya] aversion, doing away with Vin i.10 (taṇhāya).


anāḷhiya & anāḷhika
-- (adj.) [an + ālhiya, Sk. āḍhya, see also addha2] not rich, poor, miserable, destitute, usually combd. with daḷidda M i.450; ii.178 (v. l. BB. anāḷiya); A iii.352 sq. (vv. ll. BB. anāḷhika), 384; J v.96.


-- (˚ -- ) [an + āvaṭa] not shut; in ˚dvāratā (f.) not closing the door againṡt another, accessibility, openhand edness D iii.191.


-- (adj. -- n.) [an + āvattin] one who does not return, almost syn. with anāgāmin in phrase anāvatti -- dhamma, one who is not destined to shift or return from one birth to another, D i.156 (cp. DA i.313); iii.132; Pug 16 sq., 62.


-- (adv.) [an + ava + sūra = suriya, with ava lengthened to āva in verse] as long as the sun does not set, before sun -- down J v.56 (= anatthangata -- suriyaŋ C.) cp. Sk. utsūra.


-- (adj. -- n.) [an + āvāsa] uninhabited, an uninhabited place Vin ii.22, 33; J ii.77.


-- etc. see āvikata.


-- (adj.) [an + āvila] undisturbed, unstained, clean, pure D i.84 (= nikkaddama DA i.226); iii.269, 270; Sn 637 (= nikkilesa SnA 469 = DhA iv.192); Th 2, 369 (āvilacitta +); Dh 82, 413; ThA 251; Sdhp 479.


-- (adj.) [an + āvuttha, pp. of āvasati] not dwelt in D .ii50.


-- (adj.) [an + āsaka] fasting, not taking food S iv.118. f. ˚ā [cp. Sk. anāśaka nt.] fasting, abstaining from food Dh 141 (= bhatta -- paṭikkhepa DhA iii.77).


-- (nt.) [abstr. of anāsaka] fasting Sn 249 (= abhojana SnA 292).


-- (adj.) [an + āsava] free from the 4 intoxications (see āsava) Vin ii.148 = 164; D iii.112; Sn 1105, 1133; Dh 94, 126, 386; Nd2 44; It 75; Pug 27, Dhs 1101, 1451; Vbh 426; Th 1, 100; Pv ii.615; VvA 9. See āsava and cp. nirāsava.

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-- (adj.) [an + āsasāna] not longing after anything Sn 369 (SnA 365 however reads anāsayāna & has anāsasāna as v. l. Cp. also vv. ll. to āsasāna. Expld by ka˝ci rūpÔdi -- dhammaŋ nÔsiŋsati SnA 365.


-- (adj.) [an + āhāra] being without food M i.487; Sn 985.


-- (f.) [a + nikkaḍḍhanā] not throwing out or expelling J iii.22.


-- (adj.) [a + nikkasāva, cp. nikasāva] not free from impurity, impure, stained Dh 9 = Th 1, 969 = J ii.198 = v.50; DhA i.82 (= rāgÔdīhi kasāvehi sakasāva).


-- (adj.) [a + nikhāta, pp. of nikhanati] not dug into, not dug down, not deep J vi.109 (˚kūla; C. agambhīrā).


-- see nigha1 and īgha.


-- (f.) [an + icchā] dispassion S v.6; adj. ˚a without desires, not desiring Sn 707.


-- (nt.) [an + i˝jana] immobility, steadfastness Ps i.15.


-- (adj.) [an + i˝jita] immoveable, undisturbed, un- shaken Th 1, 386.


-- see niṭṭhā2.


-- see niṭṭhita.


-- (f.) [an + itthi] a woman lacking the characteristics of womanhood, a woman ceasing to be a woman, "nonwoman" J ii.126 (compd with anadī a river without water; interpreted by ucchiṭṭh -- itthi).


-- [the compn. form of nindā] in ˚ḷocana (with) fault- less eyes J vi.265.


-- (adj.) [a + nindita] blameless, faultless J iv.106 (˚angin of blameless body or limbs).


-- [ppr. of nibbisati, q. v.] not finding Th 1, 78 = Dh 153 (= taŋ ˝āṇaŋ avindanto DhA iii.128).


-- (adj.) [Ved. animeṣa, cp. nimisati] not winking, waking, watchful Dāvs v.26 (nayana).


-- (adj.) [a + niyata] not settled, uncertain, doubtful Vin i.112; ii.287; D iii.217.


-- (adj.) [pp. of a + niyameti] indefinite (as tt. g.) VvA 231.


-- [from an, cp. Sk. aniti to breathe, cp. Gr. a)/nemos wind; Lat. animus breath, soul, mind] wind J iv.119 (˚patha air, sky); Miln 181; VvA 237; Sdhp 594.


-- (adj.) [a + nirākata] see nirankaroti.


-- (adj.) [an + issara] without a personal ereator Th 1, 713.


-- (adj.) [an + issukin, see also an -- ussukin] not hard, not greedy, generous D iii.47 (+ amaccharin; v. l. anussukin); SnA 569 (see under niṭṭhurin).


-- (nt.) [Ved. anīka face, front, army to Idg. *og&uarc; (see), cp. Gr. o)/mma eye, Lat. oculus, see also Sk. pratīka and P. akkhi] army, array, troops (orig. "front", i. e. of the battle -- array) Vin iv.107 (where expld. in detail); Sn 623 (bala˚ strong in arms, with strong array i. e. of khanti, which precedes; cp. SnA 467).
-- agga a splendid army Sn 421 (= balakāya senāmukha SnA 384). -- ṭṭha a sentinel, royal guard D iii.64, 148; J v.100; vi.15 ("men on horseback", horseguard); Miln 234, 264. -- dassana troop -- inspection D i.6 (aṇīka˚ at DA i.85, q. v. interpretation); Vin iv.107 (senābyūha +).


-- see nigha1 and cp. īgha.


-- (f.) [an + īti] safety, soundness, sound condition, health A iv.238; Miln 323 (abl. ˚ito).


-- (adj.) [fr. anīti] free from injury or harm, healthy, secure Vin ii.79 = 124 (+ anupaddava); iii.162; S iv.371; Sn 1137 (ītī vuccanti kilesā etc. Nd2 48); Miln 304.


-- (adj.) [an + ītīha, the latter a cpd. der. fr. iti + ha = saying so and so, cp. itihāsa & itihītihaŋ] not such and such, not based on hearsay (itiha), not guesswork or (mere) talk A ii.26; Th 1, 331 (cp. M i.520); Sn 1053 (= Nd2 49, 151); J i.456; Nett 166 (cp. It 28).


-- ╣ (indecl.) [Vedic anu, Av. anu; Gr. a)/nw to a)/na along, up; Av. ana, Goth. ana, Ohg. ana, Ags. on, Ger. an, Lat. an (in anhelare etc.)] prep. & pref. -- A. As prep. anu is only found occasionally, and here its old (vedic) function with acc. is superseded by the loc. <-> Traces of use w. acc. may be seen in expressions of time like anu pa˝cāhaŋ by 5 days, i. e. after (every) 5 days (cp. ved. anu dyūn day by day); a. vassaŋ for one year or yearly; a. saŋvaccharaŋ id. -- (b) More freq. w. loc. (= alongside, with, by) a. tīre by the bank S iv.177; pathe by the way J v.302; pariveṇiyaŋ in every cell Vin i.80; magge along the road J v.201; vāte with the wind J ii.382.
B. As pref.: (a) General character. anu is freq. as modifying (directional) element with well -- defined meaning ("along"), as such also as 1st component of pref. -- cpds., e. g. anu + ā (anvā˚), anu + pra (anuppa˚), + pari, + vi, + saŋ. -- As base, i. e. 2nd part of a pref. -- cpd. it is rare and only found in combn sam -- anu˚. The prefix saŋ is its nearest relation as modifying pref. The opp. of anu is paṭi and both are often found in one cpd. (cp. ˚loma, ˚vāta). (b) Meanings. I. With verbs of motion: "along towards". -- (a) the motion viewed from the front backward = after, behind; esp. with verbs denoting to go, follow etc. E. g. ˚aya going after, connexion; ˚āgacch˚ follow, ˚kkamati follow, ˚dhāvati run after, ˚patta received, ˚parivattati move about after, ˚bandhati run after, ˚bala rear -- guard, ˚bhāsati speak after, repeat, ˚vāda speaking after, blame, ˚vicarati roam about ˚viloketi look round after (survey), ˚saŋcarati proceed around etc. -- (b) the motion viewed from the back forward = for, towards an aim, on to, over to, forward. Esp. in double pref. -- cpds. (esp. with ˚ppa˚), e. g. anu -- ādisati design for, dedicate ˚kankhin longing for, ˚cintana care for, ˚tiṭṭhati look after, ˚padinna given over to, ˚pavecchati hand over, ˚paviṭṭha entered into, ˚pasaŋkamati go up to, ˚rodati cry for, ˚socati mourn for. -- II. Witb verbs denoting a state or condition: (a) literal: along, at, to, combined with. Often resembling E. be -- or Ger. be -- , also Lat. ad -- and con -- . Thus often transitiving or simply emphatic. E. g. ˚kampā com -- passion, ˚kiṇṇa be -- set, ˚gaṇhāti take pity on, ˚gāyati be -- singen, ˚jagghati laugh at, belaugh, ˚ddaya pity with, ˚masati touch at, ˚yu˝jati order along, ˚yoga devotion to, ˚rakkhati be -- guard, ˚litta be -- smeared or an -- ointed, ˚vitakheti reflect over, ˚sara con -- sequential; etc. -- (b) applied: according to, in conformity with. E. g. ˚kūla being to will, ˚chavika befitting, ˚˝āta permitted, al -- lowed, ˚mati con- sent, a -- greement, ˚madati ap -- preciate, ˚rūpa = con -- form, ˚vattin acting according to, ˚ssavana by hearsay, ˚sāsati ad -- vise, com -- mand etc. -- III. (a) (fig.) following after = second to, secondary, supplementary, inferior, minor, after, smaller; e. g. ˚dhamma lesser morality, ˚pabbajā discipleship, ˚pavattaka ruling after, ˚bhāga after -- share, ˚majjha mediocre, ˚yāgin assisting in sacrifice, ˚vya˝jana smaller marks, etc.; cp. paṭi in same sense. -- (b) distributive (cp. A. a.) each, every, one by one, (one after one): ˚disā in each direction, ˚pa˝cāhaŋ every 5 days, ˚pubba one after the other. -- IV. As one of the contrasting ( -- comparative) prefixes (see remarks on ati & cp. ā3) anu often occurs in reduplicative cpds. after the style of khuddÔnukhuddaka "small and still smaller", i. e. all sorts of [p034] small items or whatever is small or insignificant. More freq. combns. are the foll.: (q. v. under each heading) padÔnupadaŋ, pubbÔnupubbaka, ponkhÔnuponkhaŋ, buddhÔnubuddha, vādÔnuvāda, seṭṭhÔnuseṭṭhi. -- V. As regards dialectical differences in meanings of prefixes, anu is freq. found in Pāli where the Sk. variant presents apa (for ava), abhi or ava. For P. anu = Sk. (Ved.) apa see anuddhasta; = Sk. abhi see anu -- gijjhati, ˚brūheti, ˚sandahati; = Sk. ava see anu -- kantati, ˚kassati2, ˚kiṇṇa, ˚gāhati, ˚bujjhati ˚bodha, ˚lokin, ˚vajja.
Note (a) anu in compn. is always contracted to ˚Ônu˚, never elided like adhi = ˚dhi or abhi = ˚bhi. The rigid character of this rule accounts for forms isolated out of this sort of epds. (like mahÔnubhāva), like ānupubbikathā (fr. *pubbānupubba˚), ānubhāva etc. We find ānu also in combn. with an -- under the influence of metre. -- (b) the assimilation (contracted) form of anu before vowels is anv˚.

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-- ▓ (adj.) subtile; freq. spelling for aṇu, e. g. D i.223 Sdhp 271, 346 (anuŋ thūlaŋ). See aṇu.


-- (adj.) [fr. anu + kānkṣ] striving after, longing for J v.499 (piya˚).


-- [anu + kantati2] to cut Dh 311 (hatthaŋ = phāleti DhA iii.484).


-- & ˚ika (adj.) [fr. anukampati] kind of heart, merciful, compassionate, full of pity ( -- ˚ or c. loc.) D iii.187; S i.105 (loka˚), 197; v.157; A iv.265 sq.; It 66 (sabba -- bhūta˚); Pv i.33 (= kārunika PvA 16), 53 (= atthakāma, hitesin PvA 25), 88; ii.14 (= anuggaṇhataka PvA 69), 27; ThA 174; PvA 196 (satthā sattesu a.).


-- [anu + kampati] to have pity on, to com- miserate, to pity, to sympathise with (c. acc.) S i.82, 206; v.189. Imper. anukampa Pv ii.16 (= anuddayaŋ karohi PvA 70) & anukampassu Pv iii.28 (= anuggaṇha PvA 181). Med. ppr. anukampamāna Sn 37 (= anupekkhamāna anugayhamāna Nd2 50); PvA 35 (taŋ), 62 (pitaraŋ), 104. -- pp. anukampita (q. v.).


-- (nt.) [fr. last] compassion, pity PvA 16, 88.


-- (f.) [abstr. fr. anukampati] compassion, pity, mercy D i.204; M i.161; ii.113; S i.206; ii.274 (loka˚); iv.323; v.259 sq.; A i.64, 92; ii.159; iii.49; iv.139; Pug 35. -- Often in abl. anukampāya out of pity, for the sake of D iii.211 (loka˚ out of compassion for all mankind, + atthaya hitāya); J iii.280; PvA 47, 147.


-- (adj.) [pp. of anukampati] compassioned, gra- tified, remembered, having done a good deed (of mercy) Pv iii.230.


-- (adj.) [cp. anukampaka] compassionate, anxious for, commiserating. Only in foll. phrases: hita˚ full of solicitude for the welfare of S v.86; Sn 693; Pv iii.76. sabbapāṇa -- bhūta -- hita˚ id. S iv.314; A ii.210; iii.92; iv.249; Pug 57, 68. sabba -- bhūta˚ S i.25, 110; A ii.9; It 102.


-- [anu + kṛ] to imitate, "to do after" A i.212; J i.491; ii.162; DhA iv.197. -- ppr. anukabbaŋ Vin ii.201 (mamÔ˚). -- Med. anukubbati S i.19 = J iv.65. <-> See also anukubba. On anvakāsi see anukassati 2.


-- [anu + kassati, kṛṣ] 1. [Sk. anukaṛṣati] to draw after, to repeat, recite, quote D ii.255 (silokaŋ). -- 2. [Sk. ava -- kaṛṣati] to draw or take of, to remove, throw down, Th 1, 869 (aor. anvakāsi = khipi, chaḍḍesi C.).


-- (adj.) [anu + kāma] responding to love, loving in return J ii.157.


-- [cp. anukaroti] imitation Dpvs v.39.


-- (adj.) imitating Dāvs v.32.


-- [pp. of anu + kirati] strewn with, beset with, dotted all over Pv iv.121 (bhamara -- gaṇa˚).


-- (adj.) ( -- ˚) [= Sk. anukurvat, ppr. of anu- karoti] "doing correspondingly" giving back, retaliating J ii.205 (kicca˚).


-- see anukaroti.


-- freq. spelling for anukūla.


-- (adj.) = anukula Sdhp 242 (iccha˚ according to wish).


-- (adj.) [anu + kūla, opp. paṭikūla] favourable, agreeable, suitable, pleasant VvA 280; spelt anukula at Sdhp 297, 312.
-- bhava complaisance, willingness Vva 71. -- ya˝˝a a propitiative sacrifice D i.144 (expld. at DA i.302 as anukula˚ = sacrifice for the propagation of the clan).


-- [an + ukkaṇṭhati] not to be sorry or not to lack anything, in ppr. ˚anto J v.10; and pp. ˚ita without regret or in plenty PvA 13.


-- (nt.) [an + ukkaṇṭhana] having no lack anything, being contented or happy J vi.4.


- [to anukkamati] 1. order, turn, succession, going along; only in instr. anukkamena gradually, in due course or succession J i.157, 262, 290; VvA 157; PvA 5, 14, 35 etc. -- 2. that which keeps an animal in (regular) step, i. e. a bridle M i.446; Sn 622 (sandānaŋ saha˚).


-- [anu + kram] 1. to follow, go along (a path = acc.) A v.195; It 80 (maggaŋ). -- 2. to advance (not with Morris J P T S. 1886, 111 as "abandon") S i.24, Th 1, 194.


-- [anu + khipati] to throw out Cp. xi.6 (vaṭṭaŋ).


-- [anu + khepa, see anukkhipati] compensation Vin i.285.


-- [anu + khaṇati] to dig after or further J v.233.


-- (adj.) [anu + khuddaka] in cpd. khudda˚ whatever there is of minor things, all less important items Vin ii.287 = D ii.154 = Miln 142; Miln 144.


-- ( -- ˚) (adj. -- suff.) [fr. anu + gam] following or fol- lowed by, going after, undergoing, being in or under, standing under the influence of Sn 332 (vasa˚ in the power of), 791 (ejā˚ = abhibhūta Sn 527), 1095 (Māra<-> vasa˚ = abhibhuyya viharanti Nd2 507); It 91 (ejā˚); J iii.224 (vasa˚ = vasavattin C.); Mhvs 7, 3.


-- [anu + gacchati] to go after, to follow, to go or fall into (w. acc.) KhA 223; PvA 141 (˚gacchanto); aor. ˚gamāsi Vin i.16, & anvagā Mhvs 7, 10; 3rd pl. anvagū Sn 586 (vasaŋ = vasaŋ gata SnA 461). Pass. anugammati, ppr. anugammamāna accompanied or followed by, surrounded, adorned with J i.53; v.370. <-> pp. anugata (q. v.).


-- (adj.) [pp. of anugacchati] gone after, accompanied by, come to; following; fig. fallen or gone into, affected with ( -- ˚), being a victim of, suffering M i.16; D iii.85, 173 (parisā); A ii.185 (sota˚, v. l. anudhata); J ii.292 (samudda˚); v.369; Nd2 32 (taṇhā˚); PvA 102 (nāmaŋ mayhaŋ a. has been given to me), 133 (kammaphala˚).


-- (f.) ( -- ˚) [fr. anu + gam] following, being in the train of, falling under, adherence to, dependence on S i.104 (vas˚ being in the power). Usually in cpd. diṭṭhÔnugati a sign (lit. belonging to) of speculation Vin ii.108; S ii.203; Pug 33; DhA iv.39.

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-- [fr. anu + gam] following after, only as adj. in dur˚ difficult to be followed J iv.65.


-- (adj.) going along with, following, accompa- nying; resulting from, consequential on Kh viii.8 (nidhi, a treasure acc. a man to the next world); J iv.280 (˚nidhi); Miln 159 (parisā); PvA 132, 253 (dānaŋ nāma ˚aŋ nidānan ti).


-- (adj.) [fr. anugacchati] following, attending on; an attendant, follower SnA 453 (= anuyutta).


-- [anu + gāyati] to sing after or to, recite (a magic formula or hymn) praise, celebrate D i.104, 238; Sn 1131 (anugāyissaŋ); Miln 120.


-- [anu + gāhati] to plunge into, to enter (acc.) Sdhp 611.


-- [anu + gijjhati] to be greedy after, to covet Sn 769 (cp. Nd1 12); J iii.207; iv.4 (= giddhā gathitā hutvā allīyanti C.). pp. ˚giddhā (q. v.). Cp. abhigijjhati.


-- [pp. of anugijjhati] greedy after, hankering after, desiring, coveting Sn 86 (anÔnu˚), 144, 952; Th 1, 580.


-- (adj.) [cp. anuggaha] compassionate, ready to help PvA 42 ˚sīla.


-- (adj.) [= anugganha] compassionate, com- miserating, helping PvA 69 (= anukampaka).


-- (nt.) anuggaha1 DhsA 403.


-- [anu + gaṇhāti] to have pity on, to feel sorry for, to help, give protection D i.53 (vācaŋ; cp. DA i.160: sārato agaṇhaṇto); J ii.74; Nd2 50 (ppr. med. ˚gayhamāna = anukampamāna); Pug 36; PvA 181 (imper. anuggaṇha = anukampassu). pp. anuggahīta (q. v.).


-- ╣ [anu + grah] "taking up", compassion, love for, kindness, assistance, help, favour, benefit S ii.11; iii.109; iv.104; v.162; A i.92, 114; ii.145; iv.167; v.70; It 12, 98; J i.151; v.150; Pug 25; PvA 145; ThA 104.


-- ▓ (adj.) [an + uggaha] not taking up Sn 912 (= na gaṇhāti Nd1 330).


-- (& ˚ita) [pp. of anuggaṇhāti] commiserated, made happy, satisfied M i.457; S ii.274; iii.91; iv.263; A iii.172; J iii.428.


-- (adj.) [fr. anuggaha] helping, assisting S iii.5; v.162; Miln 354 (nt. = help).


-- [an + ugghāṭeti] not to unfasten or open (a door) Miln 371 (kavāṭaŋ).


-- [an + ugghāta] not shaking, a steady walk J vi.253.


-- (adj.) [fr. last] not shaking, not jerking, J vi.252; Vv 53 (read ˚ī for i); VvA 36.


-- [anu + ghāyati1] to smell, snuff, sniff up Miln 343 (gandhaŋ).


-- [anu + cankamati] to follow (along) after, to go after D i.235; M i.227; Th 1, 481, 1044; Caus. ˚āpeti M i.253, cp. Lal. Vist. 147, 3; M Vastu i.350.


-- (nt.) [fr. anucankamati] sidewalk J i.7.


-- [anu + cariti] to move along, to follow; to practice; pp. anuciṇṇa & anucarita (q. v.)


-- ( -- ˚) [pp. of anucarati] connected with, ac- companied by, pervaded with D i.16, 21 (vīmaŋsa˚ = anuvicarita DA i.106); M i.68 (id.); Miln 226.


-- (pp.) [pp. of anucarati] 1. pursuing, following out, practising, doing; having attained or practised Vin ii.203 = It 86 (pamādaŋ); J i 20 (v.126); Th 1, 236; 2, 206; Dpvs iv.9. -- 2. adorned with, accompanied by, connected with J iv.286.


-- (nt.) [fr. anucinteti] thinking, upon, intention, care for PvA 164.


-- [anu + cinteti] to think upon, to meditate, consider S i.203 (v. l. for anuvicinteti).


-- see anujjangin.


-- (& ˚ya) (adj.) [anu + chavi + ka] "according to one's skin", befitting, suitable, proper, pleasing, fit for, J i.58, 62, 126, 218; ii.5; iv.137, 138; Miln 358; DhA i.203, 390; ii.55, 56; VvA 68, 78; PvA 13, 26 (= kappiya), 66, 81, 286. anucchaviya at Vin ii.7 (an˚); iii.120 (id. + ananulomika); Miln 13.


-- (adj.) [see ucchiṭṭha] (food) that is not thrown away or left over; untouched, clean (food) J iii.257; DhA ii.3 (vv. ll. anucciṭṭha).


-- [anu + jagghati] to laugh at, deride, mock D i.91; DA i.258 (cp. sa˝jagghati ibid 256).


-- [anu + javati] to run after, to hasten after, to follow J vi.452 (= anubandhati).


-- (adj.) [anu + jāta] "born after" i. e. after the image of, resembling, taking after; esp. said of a son (putta), resembling his father, a worthy son It 64 (atijāta +, opp. avajāta); Th 1, 827 (fig. following the example of), 1279; J vi.380; DhA i.129; Dāvs ii.66.


-- [anu + jānāti] 1. to give permission, grant, allow Vin iv.225; A ii.197; Pv iv.167; PvA 55, 79, 142. -- 2. to advise, prescribe Vin i.83; ii.301: Sn 982. <-> grd. anu˝˝eyya that which is allowed A ii.197; pp. anu˝˝āta (q. v.) Caus. anujānāpeti J i.156.


-- [anu + jīvati] to live after, i. e. like (acc.), to live for or on, subsist by J iv.271 (= upajīvati, tassÔnubhāvena jīvitaŋ laddhaŋ (C.). -- pp. anujīvata (q. v.).


-- (nt.) [pp. of anujīvati] living (after), living, livelihood, subsistence, life Sn 836 (= jīvitaŋ SnA 545).


-- (adj. -- n.) [fr. anujīvati] living upon, another, dependent; a follower, a dependant A i.152; iii.44; J iii.485; Dāvs v.43.


-- (adj.) [an + ujju] not straight, crooked, bent, in cpds. ˚angin (anujjangin) with (evenly) bent limbs, i. e. with perfect limbs, graceful f. ˚ī Ep. of a beautiful woman J v.40 (= ka˝cana -- sannibha -- sarīrā C.); vi.500 (T. anuccangī, C. aninditā agarahitangī); ˚gāmin going crooked i. e. snake J iv.330; ˚bhūta not upright (fig. of citta) J v.293.


-- = anujju J iii.318.


-- (nt.) [anu + jhāna] meditation, reflection, intro- spection Miln 352 (˚bahula).


-- (adj.) [pp. of anujānāti] permitted, allowed; sanctioned, given leave, ordained D i.88; J i.92; ii.353, 416; Pv i.123 (na a. = ananu˝˝āta at id. p. Th 2, 129; expld. at PvA 64 by ananumata); Pug 28; DA i.247, 248, 267; PvA 12, 81.


-- (nt.) [abstr. to anu˝˝āta] being permitted, permission J ii.353.


-- (adj.) [fr. an + uṭṭhahati] not rising, not rousing oneself, inactive, lazy Th 1, 1033.

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-- [anu + ṭhahati = ˚thāti, see ˚tiṭṭhati] to carry out, look after, practise do J v.121. -- pp. anuṭṭhita (q. v.).


-- (adj.) [ppr. of an + uṭṭhahati] one who does not rouse himself, not getting up, inactive Dh 280 (= anuṭṭhahanto avāyāmanto DhA iii.409).


-- [n. ag. to an + uṭṭhahati] one without energy or zeal Sn 96 (niddāsīlin sabhāsīlin +) SnA 169 (= viriya -- tejavirahita).


-- (nt.) [an + uṭṭhāna] "the not getting up", in- activity, want of energy Dh 241 (sarīra -- paṭijagganaŋ akaronto DhA iii.347).


-- [pp. of anuṭṭhati = anutiṭṭhati] practising, effecting or effected, come to, experienced, done D ii.103; S iv. 200; A iii.290 sq.; iv.300; J ii.61; Miln 198; PvA 132 (cp. anugata).


-- [formally Sk. anuṣṭobhati, but in meaning = *anuṣṭīvati; anu + ṭṭhubhati, the etym. of which see under niṭṭhubhati] to lick up with one's saliva DA i.138.


-- v. l. at SnA 569, see niṭṭhurin.


-- [anu + ḍasati] to bite J vi.192.


-- [anu + ḍahati] to burn over again, burn tho- roughly, fig. to destroy, consume J ii.330; vi.423. Pass. ˚ḍayhati J v.426. -- Also spelt ˚dahati, e. g. at S iv. 190 = v.53; Th 2, 488.


-- (nt.) [fr. anuḍahati] conflagration, burning up, consumption J v.271; ThA 287 (d).


-- (adj.) [uṇṇata] not raised, not elated, not haughty, humble Sn 702 (care = uddhaccaŋ nÔpajjeyya SnA 492).


-- [anu + tappati1; Sk. anutapyate, Pass. of anutapati] to be sorry for, to regret, repent, feel remorse J i.113; iv.358; v.492 (ppr. an -- anutappaŋ); Dh 67, 314; Pv ii.942; DhA ii.40. grd. anutappa to be regretted A i.22, 77; iii.294, and anutāpiya A iii.46 (an˚).


-- [fr. anu + tāpa] anguish, remorse, conscience Vv 405 (= vippaṭisāra VvA 180); DhsA 384.


-- (adj.) [fr. anutāpa] repenting, regretting Th 2, 57, 190; Vv 21; VvA 115.


-- grd. of anutappati, q. v.


-- [anu + taḷeti] to beat J ii.280.


-- [anu + tiṭṭhati see also anuṭṭhahati] to look after, to manage, carry on J v.113 (= anugacchati); PvA 78.


-- (adv.) [anu + tīre, loc. of tīra] along side or near the bank (of a river) Sn 18 (= tīra -- samīpe SnA 28). Cp. anu A b.


-- (adj.) [an + uttara] "nothing higher", without a superior, incomparable, second to none, unsurpassed, excellent, preeminent Sn 234 (= adhikassa kassaci abhāvato KhA 193), 1003; Dh 23, 55 (= asadisa appaṭibhāga DhA i.423); Pv iv.35 2 (dhamma); Dhs 1294; DA i.129; PvA 1, 5, 6, 18, etc.


-- (nt.) [abstr. fr. anuttara] preeminence, superi- ority, excellency; highest ideal, greatest good. They are mentioned as sets of 3 (viz. dassana˚, paṭipadā˚, vimutti˚) at D iii.219, or of 6 (viz. dassana˚, savana˚, lābha˚, sikkhā˚, pāricariyā˚, anussata˚) at D iii.250, 281; A i.22; iii.284, 325 sq., 452; Ps i.5. Cp. M i.235; A v.37. See also ānuttariya.


-- (adj.) [an + uttāna] not (lying) open, not exposed; fig. unexplained, unclear J vi.247.


-- (f.) [fr. anutthunāti] wailing, crying, lamenting Nd1 167 (= vācāpalāpa vippalāpa etc.).


-- [anu + thunati (thunāti); anu + stan] to wail, moan, deplore, lament, bewail D iii.86; Sn 827 (cp. Nd1 167); Dh 156; J iii.115; v.346, 479; DhA iii.133; PvA 60 (wrongly applied for ghāyati, of the fire of conscience).


-- (adj.) [an + utrāsin] not terrified, at ease Th 1, 864.


-- [anu + thera] an inferior Thera, one who comes next to the elder Vin ii.212 (therÔnutherā Th. & next in age).


-- [anu + dadāti] to concede, grant, admit, fut. anudassati Miln 276, 375.


-- (to sympathise with) see under anuddā.


-- [pp. of anudasseti] manifested Miln 119.


-- see anuḍahati.


-- [pp. of anudisati] pointed out, appointed, dedi- cated, nt. consecration, dedication J v.393 (anudiṭṭha = asukassa nāma dassatī ti C.); Pv i.107 (= uddiṭṭha PvA 50).


-- (f.) [anu + diṭṭhi] an "after -- view", sceptical view, speculation, heresy D i.12; M ii.228; S iii.45 sq.; Th 1, 754; Miln 325; DA i.103. attÔnudiṭṭhi (q. v.) a soul -- speculation.


-- [anu + disati] to point out, direct, bid, address PvA 99 (aor. anudesi + anvesi). -- pp. anudiṭṭha (q. v.).


-- (f.) [anu + disā] an intermediate point of ihe compass, often collectively for the usual 4 intermediate points D i.222; S i.122; iii.124.


-- [anu + dīpeti] to explain Miln 227 (dhammÔ- dhammaŋ).


-- [anu + dūta] a person sent with another, a travelling companion Vin ii.19, 295; DhA ii.76, 78.


-- see anvadeva.


-- (f.) [abstr. to anuddayā] sympathy with ( -- ˚) compassion, kindness, favour, usually as par˚ kindness to or sympathy with other people S ii.218; v.169 (T. anudayatā); A iii.184; It 72; Vbh 356.


-- (& anudayā) (f.) [anu + dayā] compassion, pity, mercy, care Vin ii.196; S i.204; ii.199; iv.323; A ii.176; iii.189; Pug 35 (anukampā); J i.147, 186, 214; PvA 70, 88, 181 (= anukampā). In compn anudaya˚ e. g. ˚sampanna full of mercy J i.151, 262; PvA 66.


-- (f.) [contracted form of anuddayā] = anuddayā Dhs 1056, where also the other abstr. formations anuddāyanā & anuddāyitattaŋ "care, forbearance & consideration"; DhsA 362 (anudayatī ti anuḍdā).


-- [anu + dhaŋseti] to spoil, corrupt, degrade Vin iv.148 (expln. here in slightly diff. meaning = codeti vā codāpeti vā to reprove, scold, bring down); It 42. Usually in ster. phrase rāgo cittaŋ a. lust degrades the heart Vin iii.111; M i.26; S i.186; A i.266; ii.126; iii. 393 sq. -- pp. anuddhasta (q. v.).


-- (adj.) [an + uddhata] not puffed up, not proud, unconceited calm, subdued Sn 850 (= uddhacca -- virahita SnA 549, cp. anuṇṇata); It 30; Dh 363 (= nibbutacitta DhA iv.93); Vv 648; Pug 59.


-- (adj.) [an + uddharin] not proud Sn 952 (= anussukin SnA 569) see niṭṭhurin.

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-- (adj.) [anu + dhasta, pp. of anuddhaŋseti, cp. Sk. apadhvasta] spoilt, corrupt, degraded M i.462 (citta); A ii.126 (id.).


-- [anu + dhamma] 1. in compn. with dhamma as dhammÔnudhamma to be judged as a redupl. cpd. after the manner of cpds. mentioned under anu iv. & meaning "the Law in all its parts, the dhamma and what belongs to it, the Law in its fullness". For instances see dhamma C. iv. Freq. in phrase dh˚ -- Ônudh˚ -- paṭipanna "one who masters the completeness of the Dh.", e. g. S ii.18; iii.163; It 81; Ps ii.189. -- 2. conformity or accordance with the Law, lawfulness, relation, essence, consistency, truth; in phrase dhammassa (c˚) anudhammaŋ vyākaroti to explain the truth of the Dh. Vin i.234; D i.161; M i.368, 482; S ii.33; iii.6; iv.51; v.7. See further M iii.30; Sn 963 (cp. Nd1 481 for exegesis). Also in cpd. ˚cārin living according to the Dhamma, living in truth S ii.81, 108; A ii.8; Dh 20 (cp. DhA i.158); Vv 317; Sn 69 (see Nd2 51).


-- (f.) [abstr. to anudhamma) lawfulness, con- formity to the Dhamma A ii.46; Ps i.35, 36.


-- [anu + dhāreti] to hold up DA i.61 (chattaŋ), cp. J 1.53, dhariyamāna.


-- [anu + dhāvati] to run after, to chase, follow, persecute, pursue M i.474; S i.9; Dh 85; Th 1, 1174; Miln 253, 372.


-- (adj. -- n.) [fr. anudhāvati] one who runs after S i.9, 117.


-- ( -- tire) along the bank of the river S iv.177 should be read anu nadītīre (= anu prep. c. loc.; see under anu A).


-- [anu + namati] to incline, bend (intrs.), give way Miln 372 (of a bow).


-- [fr. anuneti] "leading along", friendliness, courtesy, falling in with, fawning D iii.254 (˚saŋyojana); A iv.7 sq. (id.) M i.191; Dhs 1059; Vbh 145; Nett 79; combd. w. opp. paṭigha (repugnance) at Miln 44, 122, 322.


-- (nt.) [fr. anuneti] fawning DhsA 362.


-- (adj.) [anu + nāsā + ika] nasal; as tt. g. the sound ŋ; in ˚lopa apocope of the nasal ŋ VvA 114, 253, 275, 333.


-- (adj.) [pp. of anuneti] led, induced S iv.71; Sn 781.


-- [n. ag. fr. anuneti] one who reconciles or con- ciliates Ps ii.194 (netā vinetā anunetā).


-- [anu + neti] to conciliate, appease, win over, flatter S i.232 (ppr. anunayamāna); pp. anunīta (q. v.).


-- see anūpa.


-- [anu + pakampati] to shake, move, to be unsteady Th 1, 191 = Ud 41.


-- [an + upakkama] not attacking, instr. ˚ena not by attack (from external enemies) Vin ii.195.


-- (adj.) [an + upak˚] blameless, irreproachahle D i.113; Vin iv.160; Sn p. 115; DA i.281.


-- [anu + pa + khandati] to push oneself forward, to encroach on D i.122 (= anupavisati DA i.290); ger. anupakhajja pushing oneself in, intruding Vin ii.88 (= antopavisati), 213; iv.43 (= anupavisati); M i.151, 469; S iii.113; Vism 18.


-- [den. fr. anupakhajja, ger. of anupakkhan- dati] to encroach, intrude Vin v.163.


-- [anu + pa + gacchati] to go or return into (c. acc.) D i.55 (anupeti +).


-- [an + upaghāta] not hurting Dh 185 (anūpa˚ metri causa; expld. by anupahanana˝ cɔeva anupaghātana˝ ca DhA iii.238).


-- (adj.) [anu + pa + cita, pp. of anupacināti] heaped up, accumulated ThA 56.


-- [an + upacināti] not to observe or notice J v.339 (= anoloketi C.; v. l. anapaviṇāti).


-- [anu + pa + jagghati] to laugh at, to deride, mock over A i.198 (v. l. anusaŋ˚).


-- [anu + pad] to follow, accompany J iv.304. - pp. anupanna (q. v.).


-- (adv.) [anu + pa˝cā + ahaŋ] every five days PvA 139 (+ anudasāhaŋ).


-- (f.) [anu + pa˝˝atti] a supplementary regula- tion or order Vin ii.286; v.2 sq.


-- (f.) [anu + paṭipāti] succession; as adv. in order, successively DA i.277 (kathā = anupubbikathā); DhA iii.340 (anupaṭipāṭiyā = anupubbena); Vism 244.


-- (adj.) [anu + pa + ṭhita] setting out after, following, attacking J v.452.


-- [anu + patati] 1. to follow, go after, J vi.555 anupatiyāsi Subj.). -- 2. to fall upon, to befall, attack Vin iii.106 = M i.364; S i.23 (read ˚patanti for ˚patatanti) = Dh 221 (dukkhā); Th 1, 41 = 1167 (of lightning). <-> pp. anupatita (q. v.). Cp. also anupāta & anupātin.


-- [pp. of anupatati] "befallen", affected with, op- pressed by ( -- ˚) S ii.173 (dukkha˚); iii.69 (id.); Sn 334 (pamāda˚).


-- (nt.) [abstr. of anupatita] the fact of being attacked by, being a victim of ( -- ˚) SnA 339.


-- (anuppatta) [pp. of anupāpuṇāti; cp. Sk. anu- prāpta] (having) attained, received, got to (c. acc), reached D i.87 -- 111; ii 2; It 38; Sn 027, 635; Dh 386, 403; Pv iv.166; PvA 59 (dukkhaŋ), 242. In phrase addhagata vayo -- anuppatta having reached old age, e. g. Vin ii.188; D i.48; Sn pp. 50, 92; PvA 149.


-- (anuppatti) (f.) [anu + patti] attainment, accom- plishment, wish, desire (fulfilled), ideal S i.46, 52.


-- at J v.302 should be read as anu pathe by the way at the wayside; anu to be taken as prep. c. loc. (see anu A). C. explns. as janghamagga -- mahāmaggānaŋ antare.


-- [cp. Sk. anupadaŋ adv., anu + pada] 1. the "after- foot", i. e. second foot a verse, also a mode of reciting, where the second foot is recited without the first one Vin iv.15 (cp. 355); Miln 340 (anupadena anupadaŋ katheti). -- 2. (adj.) (following) on foot, at every, step, continuous, repeated, in ˚dhamma -- vipassanā uninterrupted contemplation M iii.25; ˚vaṇṇanā word -- by -- word explanation DhsA 168. As nt. adv. ˚ŋ close behind, immediately after (c. gen.) J ii.230 (tassÔnupadaŋ agamāsi); vi.422. Esp. freq. in combn. padÔnupadaŋ (adv.) foot after foot, i. e. in the footsteps, immediately behind J iii. 504; vi.555; DhA i.69; ii.38.


-- (anuppadātar) [n. ag. of anupadeti] one who gives, or one who sets forth, effects, designs D i.4 (cp. DA i.74); A ii.209.


-- (anuppadāna) (nt.) [anu + pa + dāna, cp. anu- padeti] giving, administering, furnishing, the giving of ( -- ˚) D i.12 (cp. DA i.98; both read anuppādāna); J iii.205; Miln 315.

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-- (anuppadinna) [pp. of anupadeti] given, handed over, furnished, dedicated Pv i.512.


-- (anuppadeti) [anu + pa + dadāti] to give out, give as a present, hand over; to design, set forth, undertake S iii.131 (Pot. anuppadajjuŋ); M i.416 (Pot. anupadajjeyya. see dadāti i.3); Miln 210 (˚deti). fut. ˚dassati (see dadāti i.1); D iii.92; S iv.303 (v. l. SS for T. anusarissati); A iii.43; Sn 983. ger. ˚datvā SnA 35. inf. ˚dātuŋ A i.117. pp. ˚dinna (q. v.).


-- (adj.) [an + upaddava] free from danger, uninjured, safe Vin ii.79 = 124 (+ anītika); iii.162; Dh 338; DhA iv.48; PvA 250 (expln. for siva).


-- [an + upadhār˚] to disregard, to heed not, to neglect DhA iv.197; VvA 260.


-- (adj.) [an + upadhi + ka] free from attach- ment (see upadhi) Vin i 36 (anupadhīka); D. iii 112 (anupadhika opp. to sa -- upadhika); Sn 1057 (anūpadhīka T., but Nd2 anūpadhika. with ū for u metri causa).


-- [pp. of anupajjati] gone into, reached, attained Sn 764 (māradheyya˚).


-- (anuppa˚) [anu + pa + bandhati] to follow immediately, to be incessant, to keep on (without stopping), to continue Miln 132. -- Caus. ˚āpeti ibid.


-- (anuppa˚) (f.) [abstr. to prec.] non- stopping, not ceasing Miln 132.


-- (anuppa˚) (f.) [abstr. fr. anupabandhati] continuance, incessance, Pug 18 = Vbh 357 (in exegesis of upanāha).


-- (f.) [anu + pabbajjā, cp. BSk. anupravrajati Divy 61] giving up worldly life in imitation of another S v.67 = It 107.


-- (adj.) [an + upaya] unattached, "aloof" S i.181 (akankha apiha +).


-- [anu + pari + gacchati] to walk round and round, to go round about (c. acc.) Vin iii.119; S i.75 (ger. ˚gamma); Sn 447 (aor. ˚pariyagā = parito parito agamāsi Sn A 393); J iv.267.


-- [anu + pari + dhāvati] to run up & down or to move round & round (cp. anuparivattati) S. iii.150 (khīlan).


-- [auu + pari + yāti] to go round about, to go about, to wander or travel all over (c. acc.) Vin ii.111; S i.102, 124; Th 1, 1235 (˚pariyeti), 1250 (id. to search); Pv iii.34 (= anuvicarati); Miln 38; PvA 92 (˚yāyitvā, ger.) 217.


-- (adj) [adjectivised ger. of anupariyāti] going round, encircling, in ˚patha the path leading or going round the city D ii.83 = S iv 194 = A v.195; A iv.107.


-- [anu + pari + vṛt] to go or move round, viz. 1. to deal with, be engaged in, perform, worship Vin iii.307 (ādiccaŋ); D i.240; PvA 97. -- 2. to meet Miln 204 (Devadatto ca Bodhisatto ca ekato anuparivattanti). -- 3. to move round & round, move on and on, keep on rolling (c. acc.), evolve S. iii.150 (anuparidhāvati +) Miln 253 (anudhāvati + kāyan).


-- (f.) ( -- ˚) [anu + parivatti] dealing with, oc- cupation, connection with S iii.16.


-- [anu + pari + vāreti] to surround, stand by, attend on (c. acc.) Vin i.338; M i.153; DhA 1.55.


-- [anu + pariveṇiyaŋ = loc. of pariveṇi] should be written anu pariveṇiyaŋ ("in every cell, cell by cell"), anu here functioning as prep. c. loc. (see anu A) Vin i.80, 106.


-- [anu + pari + sakkati] to move round, to be occupied with, take an interest in (c. acc.) S iv.312 (v.l. ˚vattati).


-- (nt.) [fr. anuparisakkati] dealing with, interest in S iv.312 (v.l. ˚vattana).


-- [anu + pari + harati] to surround, enfold, embrace M i.306.


-- (adj.) [an + upalitta] unsmeared, unstained, free from taint M i.319, 386 (in verse); as ˚ūpalitta in verse of Sn & Dh: Sn 211 (= lepānaŋ abhāvā SnA 261), 392, 468, 790, 845; Dh 353.


-- (adj.) [grd. of an + upavadati] blameless, without fault, Miln 391.


-- (anuppa˚) (adj.) to anupavatteti] one who succeeds (another) King or Ruler in the ruling of an empire (cakkaŋ) Miln 342, 362; SnA 454. See also anuvattaka.


-- (anuppa˚) [anu + pa + vatteti, fr. vṛt] to keep moving on after, to continue rolling, with cakkaŋ to wield supreme power after, i.e. in succession or imitation of a predecessor S i.191; Miln 362. See also anuvatteti.


-- [an + upavāda] not blaming or finding fault, abstaining from grumbling or abuse Dh 185 (anūpa˚ in metre; expld at DhA iii.238 as anupavādana˝ c'eva anupavādāpana˝ ca "not scolding as well as not inciting others to grumbling"); adj. ˚vādaka Pug 60, & ˚vādin M i.360.


-- (anuppa˚) [pp. of anupavisati] entered, gone or got into, fallen into (c. acc.) Miln 270, 318 sq., 409 (coming for shelter); PvA 97, 152 (Gangānadiŋ a. nadī: flowing into the G.).


-- (f.) [abstr. to anupaviṭṭha] the fact of having entered Miln 257.


-- [anu + pa + visati] to go into, to enter Dh i.290; VvA 42 (= ogāhati). -- pp. ˚paviṭṭha (q.v.) <-> Caus. ˚paveseti (q.v.).


-- (anuppa˚) [see under pavecchati] to give, give over to, offer up, present, supply Vin i.221 (˚pavacchati); D i.74 (= pavesati DA i.218); ii.78; M i.446; iii.133; A ii.64; iii.26 (v.l. ˚vacch˚); J v.394; Sn 208 (v.l. ˚vacch˚); SnA 256 (= anupavesati); PvA 28.


-- [anu + pa + vis, cp. BSk. anupraveśayati Divy 238] to make enter, to give over, to supply SnA 256 (= ˚pavecchati).


-- ╣ [anu + pa + saŋkamati] to go along up to (c. acc.) PvA 179.


-- ▓ [an + upasank˚] not to go to. not to approach DhA ii.30 (+ apayirupāsati).


-- (f.) [an + upasaṇṭhapanā] not stopping, incessance, continuance Pug 18 (but id. p. at Vbh 357 has anusansandanā instead); cp. anupabandhanā.


-- (adj.) [fr. anupassati] observing, viewing, contemplating Th 1, 420.


-- [anu + passati] to look at, contemplate, observe Sn 477; Ps i.57, 187; Sn A 505.

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-- (f.) [abstr. of anupassati, cf. Sk. anudarśana] looking at, viewing, contemplating, consideration, realisation S v.178 sq., Sn p. 140; Ps i.10, 20, 96; ii.37, 41 sq., 67 sq.; Vbh 194. See anicca˚, anatta˚, dukkha˚.


-- ( -- ˚) (adj.) [fr. anupassati] viewing, observing, realising S ii.84 sq., v.294 sq., 311 sq., 345, Dh 7, 253; Sn 255, 728; Ps i.191 sq.; Vbh 193 sq., 236; Sdhp 411.


-- ╣ [anu + pa + hata, pp. of anu + pa + han] thrown up, blown up Miln 274.


-- ▓ (adj.) [an + upahata] not destroyed, not spoilt DhA ii.33 (˚jivhapasāda).


-- [of anupatati] attack in speech, contest, reproach A i.161 (vāda˚).


-- (adj.) [fr. anupāta] 1. following, indulging in J iii.523 (khaṇa˚). -- 2. attacking, hurting J v.399.


-- (adv.) [anu + pāda] at the foot Vism 182 (opp. anusīsaŋ at the head).


-- [ger. of an + upādiyati = anupādāya] anupādā- niya, anupādāya, anupādiyāna, anupādiyiṭvā see upādiyati.


anupādāna & anupādi
-- see upādāna & upādi.


-- [pp. of anupāpeti] having been lead to or made to reach, attained, found Miln 252.


-- (anuppā˚) [anu + pāpuṇāti] to reach, attain, get to, find S i.105; ger. anuppatvāna Pv ii.924 (= ˚pāpuṇitvā PvA 123). -- pp. anupatta (q. v.). -- Caus. anupāpeti (q. v.).


-- [Caus. of anupāpuṇāti] to make reach or attain, to lead to, to give or make find J vi.88; Cp. xi. 4 (aor. anupāpayi); Miln 276. -- pp. anupāpita (q. v.).


-- [an + upāya] wrong means J i.256; Sdhp 405.


-- see upāyāsa.


-- (adj.) [anu + pālaka] guarding, preserving Sdhp 474.


-- (nt.) [fr. anupāleti] maintenance, guarding, keeping Dpvs iii.2.


-- [anu + pāleti] to safeguard, warrant, maintain Miln 160 (santatiŋ).


-- (adj.) [an + upāhana] without shoes J vi.552.


-- (anuppiya) (adj) [anu + piya] flattering, plessant, nt. pleasantness, flattery, in ˚bhāṇin one who flatters I) iii.185; J ii.390; v.360; and ˚bhāṇitar id. Vbh 352.


-- at PvA 161 is to be read anuppīḷan (q. v.).


-- [anu + pucchati] to ask or inquire after (c. acc.) Sn 432, 1113. -- pp. anupuṭṭha (q. v.).


-- [pp. of anupucchati] asked Sn 782 (= pucchita SnA 521).


-- (adj.) [anu + pubba] following in one's turn, successive, gradual, by and by, regular Vin ii.237 (mahāsamuddo a˚ -- ninno etc.); D i.184; Sn 511; J v.155 (regularly formed, of ūrū). Cases adverbially: anupubbena (instr.) by and by, in course of time, later, gradually Vin i.83; Dh 239 (= anupaṭipāṭiyā DhA iii.340); Pug 41, 64; J ii.2, 105; iii.127; Miln 22; PvA 19. anupubbaso (abl. cp. Sk. anupūrvaśaḥ) in regular order Sn 1000. <-> In compn. both anupubba˚ & anupubbi˚ (q. v.).
-- kāraṇa gradual performance, graded practice M i.446. -- nirodha successive passing away, fading away in regular succession, i. e. in due course. The nine stages of this process are the same as those mentioned under ˚vihāra, & are enumd. as such at D iii.266, 290; A iv.409, 456; Ps i.35. -- vihāra a state of gradually ascending stages, by means of which the highest aim of meditation & trance is attained, viz. complete cessation of all consciousness. These are 9 stages, consisting of the 4 jhānas, the 4 āyatanāni & as the crowning phrase "sa˝˝ā -- vedayitanirodha" (see jhāna1). Enumd. as such in var. places, esp. at the foll.: D ii.156; iii.265, 290; A iv.410; Nd2 under jhāna; Ps i.5; Miln 176. -- sikkhā regular instruction or study (dhammavinaye) M i.479; iii.1 (+ ˚kiriyā ˚paṭipadā).


-- (adj.) = anupubba, in cpd. pubbÔnupubbaka all in succession or in turn, one by one (on nature of this kind of cpd. see anu B iv.) Vin i.20 (˚ānaŋ kulānaŋ puttā the sons of each clan, one by one).


-- (nt.) [fr. anupubba] acting in turn, gradation, succession Vv 6414 (= anukūla kiriyā i. e. as it pleases VvA 280) cp. ānupubbatā.


anupubbi -- kathā
-- (f.) [anupubba + kathā, formation like dhammi -- kathā] a gradual instruction, graduated sermon, regulated exposition of the ever higher values of four subjects (dāna -- kathā, sīla˚, sagga˚, magga˚) i. e. charity, righteousness, the heavens, and the Path. Bdhgh. explains the term as anupubbikathā nāma dānÔnantaraŋ sīlaŋ sīlÔnantaro saggo saggÔnantaro maggo ti etesaŋ dīpana -- kathā" (DA i.277). Vin i.15, 18; ii.156, 192; D i.110; ii.41; M i.379; J i.8; VvA 66, 197, 208; DA i.308; DhA i.6; Miln 228. -- The spelling is frequently ānupubbikathā (as to lengthening of anu see anu Note (a)), e. g. at D i.110; ii.41; M i.379; J i.8; Miln 228.


-- [anu + pekkhati] 1. to concentrate oneself on, to look carefully A iii.23. -- 2. to consider, to show consideration for, Nd2 50 (ppr. ˚amāna = anukampamāna). -- Caus. anupekkheti to cause some one to consider carefully Vin ii.73.


-- (f.) [abstr. fr. anupekkhana, see anupek- khatī] concentration (of thought) Dhs 8, 85, 284, 372.


-- [anu + pa + i] to go into D i.55 (+ anupagacchati) S iii.207; DA i.165.


-- [anu + pa + iṣ] to send forth after Miln 36.


-- see anvaḍḍhamāsaŋ.


-- (adj.) [grd. of anu + puṣ] to be nourished or fostered Sdhp 318.


-- in all combns. of anu + ppa see under headings anupa˚.


-- (S iii.131) see anupadeti.


-- (˚uppāda, ˚uppādeti) see uppanna etc.


-- (adj.) [an + uppīḷa] not molested, not oppressed (by robbers etc.) not ruined, free from harm J iii.443; v.378; VvA 351; PvA 161.


-- (nt.) [anu + pharaṇa] flashing through, per- vading Miln 148.


-- [anu + phusīyati, cp. Sk. pruṣāyati, Caus. of pruṣ] to sprinkle, moisten, make wet J v.242 (himaŋ; C. pateyya).


-- at PvA 56 is faulty reading for anubandh- ati (q. v.).


-- [pp. of anubandhati] following, standing be- hind (piṭṭhito) D i.1, 226.


-- [anu + bandh] bondage M iii.170; It 91.


-- [anu + bandhati] to follow, run after, pursue J i.195; ii.230; vi.452 (= anujavati); PvA 56 (substitute [p040] for anubajjhanti!), 103, 155. aor. ˚bandhi J ii.154, 353; iii.504; PvA 260 (= anvāgacchi). ger. ˚bandhitvā J i.254. grd. ˚bandhitabba M i.106. -- pp. anubaddha (q. v.).

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-- (nt.) [fr. anubandhati] that which connects or follows, connection, consequence J vi.526 (˚dukkha).


-- (nt.) [anu + bala] rear -- guard, retinue, suite, in ˚ŋ bhavati to accompany or follow somebody Miln 125.


-- [anu + bujjhati, Med. of budh, cp. Sk. ava- budhyate] to remember, recollect J iii.387 (with avabujjhati in prec. verse).


-- (nt.) [fr. anubujjhati] awakening, recognition Ps i.18 (bujjhana +).


-- [pp. of anu + bodhati] 1. awakened (act. & pass.), recognised, conceived, seen, known D ii.123 (˚ā ime dhammā); S i.137 (dhammo vimalenɔ Ônubuddho) ii.203; iv.188; A ii.1; iii.14; iv.105; SnA 431. In phrase buddhÔnubuddha (as to nature of cpd. see anu B iv.) either "fully awakened (enlightened)" or "wakened by the wake" (Mrs. Rh. D.) Th 1, 679 = 1246. -- 2. a lesser Buddha, inferior than the Buddha DA i.40. Cp. buddhÔnubuddha.


-- [anu + budh] awakening; perception, recogni- tion, understanding S i.126 (?) = A v.46 (anubodhiŋ as aor. of anubodhati?); Pug 21; Miln 233. Freq. in compn. ananubodha (adj.) not understanding, not knowing the truth S ii.92; iii.261; v.431; A ii.1; iv.105; Dhs 390, 1061; VvA 321 (= anavabodha) and duranubodha (adj.) hard to understand, difficult to know D i.12, 22; S i.136.


-- [anu + budh] to wake up, to realise, perceive, understand; aor. anubodhiŋ A v.46 (?) = S i.126 (anubodhaŋ). -- Caus. ˚bodheti to awaken, fig. to make see to instruct J vi.139 (˚ayamāna) -- pp. anubuddha (q. v.).


-- (nt.) [fr. anubodhati] awakening, understanding, recognition Ps i.18 (bodhana +).


-- [anu + vraj] to go along, wander, follow, tread (a path) J iv.399 (maggaŋ = pabbajati C.).


-- (adj.) [Vedic anuvrata, anu + vata] subject to the will of another, obedient, faithful, devoted J iii.521; vi.557.


-- see ubbill˚.


-- see anuvya˝jana.


-- [pp. of anubrūheti] strengthened with ( -- ˚), full of Ps i.167.


-- [brūheti] to do very much or often, to practice, frequent, to be fond of (c. acc.), foster S i.178 (anubrūhaye); M iii.187 (id., so read for manu˚), Th 2, 163 (˚ehi); Cp. iii.12 (saŋvegaŋ anubrūhayiŋ aor.); J iii.191 (su˝˝āgāraŋ). Often in phrase vivekaŋ anubrūheti to devote oneself to detachment or solitude, e.g. J i.9 (inf. ˚brūhetuŋ); iii.31 (˚brūhessāmi), Dh 75 (˚brūhaye = ˚brūheyya vaḍḍheyya DhA ii.103). -- pp. anubrūhita (q.v.) Cp. also brūhana.


-- (f.) [anu + bhaṇana] talking to, admonition, scolding Vin ii.88 (anuvadanā +).


Ą {a.nu.Ba-wa.}
-- UHS-PMD0070

UKT from UHS: m. feel, magical power
This word is given in i1.htm p121 as  Ônubhāva spelled with Ô . My quest is find out the pronunciation of circumflex Ô .


-- & anubhoti - [anu + bhavati] to come to or by, to undergo, suffer (feel), get, undertake, partake in, experience D i.129; ii.12 (˚bhonti); M ii.204; A i.61 (atthaŋ ˚bhoti to have a good result); J vi.97 (˚bhoma); Pv i.1011 (˚bhomi vipākaŋ); PvA 52 (˚issati = vedissati); Sdhf 290. Esp. freq. with dukkhaŋ to suffer pain, e.g. PvA i.1110 (˚bhonti); PvA 43, 68, 79 etc. (cp. anubhavana). -- ppr. med. ˚bhavamāna J i.50; aor. ˚bhavi PvA 75 (sampattiŋ); ger. ˚bhavitvā J iv.1; PvA 4 (sampattiŋ), 67 (dukkhaŋ), 73 (sampattiŋ); grd. ˚bhaviyāna (in order to receive) Pv ii.85 (= anubhavitvā PvA 109). <-> Pass. anubhūyati & ˚bhavīyati to be undergone or being experienced; ppr. ˚bhūyamāna PvA 8, 159 (mayā a. = anubhūta), 214 (attanā by him) & ˚bhavīyamāna PvA 33 (dukkhaŋ). -- pp. anubhūta (q.v.).


-- (nt.) [fr. anubhavati] experiencing, suffering; sensation or physical sensibility (cf. Cpd. 229, 2321) Nett 28 (iṭṭhÔniṭṭh -- Ônubhavana -- lakkhanā vedanā "feeling is characterised by the experiencing of what is pleasant and unpleasant"); Miln 60 (vedayita -- lakkhaṇā vedanā anubhavana -- lakkhaṇā ca); PvA 152 (kamma -- vipāka˚). Esp. in combn. with dukkha˚ suffering painful sensations, e.g. at J iv.3; Miln 181; DhA iv.75; PvA 52.


-- [anu + bhāga] a secondary or inferior part, (after -- )share, what is left over Vin ii.167.


-- [anu + bhāyati] to be afraid of J vi.302 (kissa nvɔ Ônubhāyissaŋ, so read for kissÔnu˚).


-- [fr. anubhavati] orig. meaning "experience, con- comitance" and found only in cpds. as -- ˚, in meaning "experiencing the sensation of or belonging to, experience of, accordance with", e.g. maha˚ sensation of greatness, rājÔ˚ s. belonging to a king, what is in accordance with kingship, i. e. majesty. Through preponderance of expressions of distinction there arises the meaning of anubhāva as "power, majesty, greatness, splendour etc." & as such it was separated from the 1st component and taken as ānubhāva with ā instead of a, since the compositional character had obliterated the character of the a. As such (ānubhāva abs.) found only in later language. -- (1) anubhāva ( -- ˚): mahānubhāva (of) great majesty, eminence, power S i.146 sq.; ii.274; iv.323; Sn p. 93; Pv ii.112; PvA 76. deva˚ of divine power or majesty D ii.12; devatā˚ id. J i.168; dibba˚ id. PvA 71, 110. rājā˚ kingly splendour, pomp D i.49; J iv 247; PvA 279 etc. -- anubhāvena (instr. -- ˚) in accordance with, by means of J ii.200 (angavijjā˚); PvA 53 (iddh˚), 77 (kamma˚), 148 (id.), 162 (rāja˚), 184 (dāna˚), 186 (pu˝˝a˚). yathÔnubhāvaŋ (adv.) in accordance with (me), as much as (1 can); after ability, according to power S i.31; Vv 15 (= yathābalaŋ VvA 25). -- (2) ānubhāva majesty power, magnificence, glory, splendour J v.10, 456; Pv ii.811; VvA 14; PvA 43, 122, 272. See also ānu˚.


-- (f.) [= anubhāva + tā] majesty, power S i.156 (mahÔ˚).


-- [anu + bhāsati] to speak after, to repeat D i.104; Miln 345; DA i.273.


-- [pp. of anubhavati] (having or being) experienced, suffered, enjoyed PvA ii.1218. nt. suffering, experience J i.254; Miln 78, 80.


-- (nt.) [abstr. fr. ppr. Pass. of anubhavati] the fact of having to undergo, experiencing PvA 103.


-- ( -- dassika) see anoma˚.


-- at J v.201 should be read anu magge along the road, by the way; anu here used as prep. c. loc. (see anu A b).


-- [anu + majjati] 1. to strike along, to stroke, to touch DA i.276 (= anumasati). -- 2. to beat, thresh, fig. to thresh ont J vi.548; Miln 90. -- Pass. anumajjīyati Miln 275 (cp. p. 428).


-- (nt.) [abstr. fr. anumajjati] threshing out, pounding up (Dhs. trsl. 11), always used with ref. to the term vicāra (q.v.) Miln 62; DhsA 114; DA i.63, 122.


-- (adj.) [anu + majjha] mediocre, without going to extremes J iv.192; v.387.


-- [anu + ma˝˝ati] to assent, approve, give leave Th 1, 72. -- pp. anumata (q.v.).

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-- [pp. of anuma˝˝ati] approved of, given consent to, finding approval, given leave D i.99 (= anu˝˝āta DA i.267); J v.399 (= muta); Miln 185, 212, 231, 275; PvA 64 (= annu˝˝āta).


-- (f.) [from anuma˝˝ati] consent, permission, agree- ment, assent, approval Vin ii.294, 301, 306; D. i.137, 143; Dpvs iv.47, Cf. v.18; DA i.297; VvA 17, PvA 114.


-- see aṇu˚.


-- [anu + masati] to touch D i.106 (= anumajjati DA i.276).


-- [fr. anu + man] inference Miln 330 (naya +), 372, 413; Sdhp 74.


-- [anu + mitta] a secondary friend, a follower. acquaintance J v.77.


-- [cf. Sk. anumāti, anu + mināti from mi, Sk. minoti, with confusion of roots mā & mi] to observe, draw an inference M i.97; PvA 227 (˚anto + nayaŋ nento). See also anumīyati.


-- [Sk. anumīyate, Pass. of anu + , measure, in sense of Med.] to observe, conclude or infer from S iii.36. Cp. anumināti.


-- (adj.) [fr. anumodati] one who enjoys, one who is glad of or thankful for (c. acc.) Vin v.172; PvA 122; Sdhf 512.


-- [anu + modati] to find satisfaction in (acc.), to rejoice in, be thankful for (c. acc.), appreciate, benefit from, to be pleased, to enjoy Vin ii.212 (bhattagge a. to say grace after a meal); S ii.54; A iii.50 (˚modanīya); iv.411; Dh 177 (ppr. ˚modamāna); It 78; Pv ii.919 (dānaŋ ˚modamāna = enjoying, gladly receiving); 1,54 (anumodare = are pleased; pitisomanassajātā honti PvA 27); J ii.112; PvA 19, 46, 81, 201) imper. modāhi); Sdhp. 501 sq. -- pp. anumodita (q.v.).


-- (nt.) [fr. anumodati] "according to taste", i.e. satisfaction, thanks, esp. after a meal or after receiving gifts = to say grace or benediction, blessing, thanksgiving. In latter sense with dadāti (give thanks for = loc.), karoti (= Lat. gratias agere) or vacati (say or tell thanks): ˚ŋ datvā PvA 89; ˚ŋ katvā J i.91; DhA iii.170, 172; VvA 118; PvA 17, 47; ˚ŋ vatvā VvA 40 (pānīyadāne for the gift of water), 295, 306 etc. ˚ŋ karoti also "to do a favour" PvA 275. Cp. further DhA i.198 (˚gāthā verses expressing thanks, benediction); ii.97 (Satthāraŋ ˚ŋ yāciŋsu asked his blessing); PvA 23 (˚atthaŋ in order to thank), 26 (id.), 121, 141 (katabhatta˚), 142; Sdhp 213, 218, 516.


-- [pp. of anumodati] enjoyed, rejoiced in PvA 77.


-- (adj.) [an + ummatta] not out of mind, sane, of sound mind Miln 122; Sdhp 205.


-- at A v.22 is doubtful reading (v.l. anuyutta). The meaning is either "inferior to, dependent on, a subject of, a vassal" or "attending on". The explanation may compare Sk. anuyātaŋ attendance [anu + , cp. anuyāyin] or Sk. yantṛ ruler [yam], in which latter case anu -- yantṛ would be "an inferior ruler" and P. yanta would represent the n. a.g. yantā as a -- stem. The v. l. is perhaps preferable as long as other passages with anuyanta are not found (see anuyutta 2).


-- (adj) [fr. anu + yaj] offering after the example of another D i.142.


-- [pp. of anuyāti] gone through or after, followed, pursued S ii.105 (magga); A v.236; It 29; Miln 217.


-- (& anuyāyati) [anu + ] 1. to go after, to follow J vi.49 (fut. ˚yissati), 499 (yāyantaŋ anuyāyati = anugacchati C). -- 2. to go along by, to go over, to visit Miln 391 (˚yāyati). -- pp. anuyāta (q. v.). See also anusaŋyāyati.


-- (adj.) [cp. Sk. anuyāyin, anu + ] going after, following, subject to (gen.) Sn 1017 (anÔnuyāyin); J vi.309; Miln 284.


-- (f.) (& ˚yu˝jana nt.) [abstr. fr. anuyu˝jati] application or devotion to ( -- ˚) Miln 178; VvA 346 (anuyujjanaŋ wrong spelling?)


-- [anu + yu˝jati] 1. to practice, give oneself up to (acc.), attend, pursue S i.25, 122 (˚yu˝jan "in loving self -- devotion" Mrs. Rh. D.); iii.154; iv.104, 175; Dh 26 (pamādaŋ = pavatteti DhA i.257), 247 (surāmeraya -- pānaŋ = sevati bahulīkaroti DhA iii.356); PvA 61 (kammaṭṭhānaŋ). -- 2. to ask a question, to call to account, take to task Vin ii.79; Vv 335; ppr. Pass. ˚yu˝jiyamāna PvA 192. -- pp. anuyutta (q. v.). -- Caus. anuyojeti "to put to", to address, admonish, exhort DhA iv.20.


-- [pp. of anuyu˝jati] 1. applying oneself to, dealing with, practising, given to, intent upon D i.166, 167; iii. 232 = A ii.205 (attaparitāpanɔ Ônuyogaŋ a.); S iii.153; iv.104; Sn 663 (lobhaguṇe), 814 (methunaŋ = samāyutta SnA 536), 972 (jhān˚); Pug 55; PvA 163 (jāgariya˚), 206. -- 2. following, attending on; an attendant, inferior, vassal, in expression khattiya or rājā anuyutta a prince royal or a smaller king (see khattiya 3 b) A v.22 (v l. for T. anuyanta, q. v.); Sn 553 (= anugāmin, sevaka SnA 453).


-- [Sk. anuyoga, fr. anu + yuj] 1. application, devo- tion to ( -- ˚), execution, practice of ( -- ˚); often combd. with anuyutta in phrase ˚anuyogaŋ anuyutta = practising, e. g. Vin i.190 (maṇḍanɔ Ônuyogaŋ anuyutta); D iii.113 (attakilamathɔ Ônuyogaŋ a.); A ii.205 (attaparitāpanɔ Ônuyogaŋ a.). -- As adj. ( -- ˚) doing, given to, practising (cp. anuyutta). D i.5; iii.107; M i.385; S i.182; iii.239; iv.330; v.320; A i.14; iii.249; iv.460 sq.; V. 17 sq., 205; J i.90 (padhānɔ Ônuyogakiccaŋ); Vv 8438 (dhamma˚); Miln 348; DA i. 78, 104. -- 2. invitation, appeal, question (cp. anuyu˝jati 2) Miln 10 (ācariyassa ˚ŋ datvā).


-- (adj.) [anuyoga + vant] applying oneself to, full of application or zeal, devoted PvA 207.


-- (adj.) [fr. anuyoga] applying oneself to, devoted to ( -- ˚) Dh 209 (atta˚ given to oneself, self -- concentrated).


-- (adj.) [fr. anurakkhati, cp. ˚rakkhin] preserving, keeping up J iv.192 (vaŋsa˚); vi.1 (id.).


-- (nt.) & ˚ā (f.) [abstr. fr. anurakkhati] guarding, protection, preservation D iii.225 sq.; A ii.16 sq.; J i.133; Pug 12; Dpvs iv.24 (adj.); VvA 32 (citta˚); Sdhp 449.


-- [anu + rakkhati] to guard, watch over (acc.), preserve, protect, shield Sn 149; Dh 327; J i.46; Pug 12. -- ppr. med.˚ rakkhamāna(ka) as adj. Sdhp 621.


-- (f.) [= anurakkhaṇā] guarding, protection, preservation S iv.323 (anuddayā a. anukampā).


-- (adj.) [fr. anurakkhati] guarding, preserving, keeping J v.24.


-- (adj.) [f. anurakkhati] in dur˚ difficult to guard Vin iii.149.


-- [pp. of anu + ra˝jeti, Caus. of ra˝j] illumined, brighterted, beautified Bu i.45 (byāmapabhā˚ by the shine of the halo); VvA 4 (sa˝jhātapa˚ for sa˝jhāpabhā˚).

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-- (adj.) pp. of anu + ra˝j] attached or devoted to, fond of, faithful Th 2, 446 (bhattāraŋ); J i.297; Miln 146.


-- [anu + ravati] to resound, to sound after, linger (of sound) Miln 63.


-- (f.) [abstr. fr. anuravati] lingering of the sound, resounding Miln 63.


-- (adv.) [anu + raho] in secret, face to face, private M i.27.


-- [Sk. anurudhyate, Pass. of anu + rudh] to conform oneself to, have a regard for, approve, to be pleased A iv.158; Dhs A 362. -- pp. anuruddha (q. v.).


-- [pp. of anurujjhati] enggaged in, devoted to; compliant or complied with, pleased S iv.71, (anānuruddha).


-- (adj.) [anu + rūpa] suitable, adequate, seeming, fit, worthy; adapted to, corresponding, conform with ( -- ˚) J i.91; vi.366 (tad˚); PvA 61 (ajjhāsaya˚ according to his wish), 128 (id.) 78, 122, 130, 155; etc. Cp. also paṭirūpa in same meaning.


-- [anu + rodati] to cry after, cry for J iii.166 = Pv i.127 (dārako candaŋ a.).


-- [fr. anu + rudh] compliance, consideration satis- faction (opp. virodha) S i.111; iv.210; Sn 362; Dhs 1059; Vbh 145; DhsA 362.


-- (f.) [anu + lapanā, lap] scolding, blame, accusa- tion Vin ii.88 (spelt anullapanā; combd. with anuvadana & anubhaṇanā).


-- (adj.) [cp. Sk. anulipta, pp. of anulimpati] anointed, besmeared J i.266; PvA 211.


-- [anu + limpati] to anoint, besmear, Miln 394 (˚limpitabba). Caus. ˚limpeti in same meaning Miln 169, and ˚lepeti Milm 169 (grd. ˚lepanīya to be treated with ointment). -- pp. anulitta (q. v.).


-- (nt.) [fr. anulimpati] anointing Miln 353, 394.


-- [fr. anu + lip] anointing Miln 152.


-- (adj.) [fr. anu + loketi, cp. Sk. & P. avalokin & anuviloketi] looking (up) at, seeing ( -- ˚) M i.147 (sīsa˚).


-- (adj.) [Sk. anu + loma] "with the hair or grain", i. e. in natural order, suitable, fit, adapted to, adaptable, straight forward D ii.273 (anānuloma, q. v.) S iv.401; Ps ii.67, 70; DhA ii.208. -- nt. direct order, state of fitting in, adaptation Miln 148.
-- ˝āṇa insight of adaptation (cp. Cpd. 66, 68) DhA ii.208. -- paṭiloma in regular order & reversed, forward & backward (Ep. of paṭiccasamuppāda, also in BSk.) Vin i.1; A iv.448.


-- (& ˚ya) (adj.) [fr. anuloma] suitable, fit, agree- able; in proper order, adapted to ( -- ˚) Vin ii.7 (an˚); iii.120 (an˚ = ananucchaviya); iv.239; A i.106; iii.116 sq.; It 103 (sāma˝˝assa˚); Sn 385 (pabbajita˚); KhA 243 (ananulomiya); DhsA 25; Sdhp 65.


-- [v. denom. fr. anuloma] to conform to, to be in accordance with Miln 372.


-- (nt.) [abstr. fr. an + uḷāra] smallness, littleness, insignificance VvA 24.


-- (adj.) [grd. of anu + vadati, cp. anuvāda & Sk. avavadya] to be blamed, censurable, worthy of reproach Sn p. 78 (an˚ = anuvādavimutta SnA 396).


-- (adj.) [fr. anuvatteti] 1. = anupavattaka (q. v.) Th 1, 1014 (cakka˚). -- 2. following, siding with ( -- ˚) Vin iv.218 (ukkhittÔnuvattikā f.).


-- [Sk. anuvartati, anu + vattati] 1. to follow, imitate, follow one's example (c. acc.), to be obedient D ii.244; Vin ii.309 (Bdhgh.); iv.218; J i.125, 300; DA i.288; PvA 19. -- 2. to practice, execute Pv iv. 712. -- Caus. ˚vatteti (q. v.).


-- (nt.) [abstr. fr. anuvattati] complying with, conformity with ( -- ˚), compliance, observance, obedience J i.367 (dhamma˚); v.78.


-- (adj.) [fr. anuvattati] following, acting according to or in conformity with ( -- ˚), obedient J ii.348 (f. ˚inī); iii.319 (id.); Dh 86 (dhamma˚); Vv 155 (vasa˚ = anukūlabhāvena vattana sīla VvA 71); DhA ii.161.


-- [anu + vatteti] = anupavatteti (q. v.) Th 1, 826 (dhammacakkaŋ: "after his example turn the wheel" Mrs. Rh. D.).


-- [Sk. ava˚; anu + vadati] to blame, censure, reproach Vin ii.80, 88. -- grd. anuvajja (q. v.).


-- (f.) [fr. anuvadati] blaming, blame, censure Vin ii.88 (anuvāda +).


-- [anu + vasati] to live with somebody, to dwell, inhabit J ii.421. Caus. ˚vāseti to pass, spend (time) J vi.296. -- pp. ˚vuttha (q. v.).


-- (adv.) [anu + vassa] for one rainy season; every rainy season or year, i. e. annually C. on Th 1, 24.


-- (adj.) [fr. anuvassaŋ] one who has (just) pas- sed one rainy season Th 1, 24 ("scarce have the rains gone by" Mrs. Rh. D.; see trsl. p. 29 n. 2).


-- [anu + Caus. of vac] to say after, to repeat (words), to recite or make recite after or again D i.104 (= tehi a˝˝esaŋ vācitaŋ anuvācenti DA i.273); Miln 345. Cp. anubhāseti.


-- ╣ [anu + to blow] a forward wind, the wind that blows from behind, a favourable wind; ˚ŋ adv. with the wind, in the direction of the wind (opp. paṭivātaŋ). A i.226 (˚paṭivātaŋ); Sdhp 425 (paṭivāta˚). In anuvāte (anu + vāte) at J ii.382 "with the wind, facing the w., in front of the wind" anu is to be taken as prep. c. loc. & to be separated from vāte (see anu A b.).


-- ▓ [anu + to weave (?) in analogy to vāta from to blow] only in connection with the making of the bhikkhus' garments (cīvara) "weaving on, supplementary weaving, or along the seam", i. e. hem, seam, binding Vin i.254, 297; ii.177; iv.121 (aggala +); PvA 73 (anuvāte appabhonte since the binding was insufficient).


-- [fr. anuvadatī, cp. Sk. anuvāda in meaning of "repetition"] 1. blaming, censure, admonition Vin ii.5, 32; A ii.121 (atta˚, para˚); Vbh 376. -- 2. in combn. vādÔnuvāda: talk and lesser or additional talk, i. e. "small talk" (see anu B iv.) D i.161; M i.368.
-- adhikaraṇa a question or case of censure Vin ii.88 sq.; iii.164 (one of the 4 adhikaraṇāni, q. v.).


-- (nt.) [fr. anuvāseti] an oily enema, an injection Miln 353.


-- [anu + vāseti, Caus. of vāsa3 odour, perfume] to treat with fragrant oil, i. e. to make an injection or give an enema of salubrious oil Miln 169; grd. ˚vāsanīya ibid.; pp. ˚vāsita Miln 214.


-- (adj.) [anu + vi + khitta, pp. of anu + vikkhipati] dispersed over S v.277 sq. (+ anuvisaṭa).


-- [anu + vi + gaṇeti] to take care of, regard, heed, consider Th 1, 109.

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-- [anu + vi + carati] to wander about, stroll roam through, explore D i.235; J ii.128; iii.188; PvA 189 (= anupariyāti). -- Caus. ˚vicāreti to think over (lit. to make one's mind wander over), to meditate, ponder (cp. anuvicinteti); always combd. with anuvitakketi (q. v.) A i.264 (cetasā), iii.178 (dhammaŋ cetasā a.). -- pp. anuvicarita (q. v.).


-- [pp. of anuvicāreti] reflected, pondered over, thought out S iii.203 (manasā); DA i.106 (= anucarita).


-- [anu + vicāra, cf. anuvicāreti] meditation, reflexion, thought Dhs 85 (= vicāra).


-- [fr. anu + vicināti] one who examines, an examiner Miln 365.


-- [anu + vi + cinteti] to think or ponder over, to meditate D ii.203; S i 203 (yoniso ˚cintaya, imper. "marshall thy thoughts in ordered governance" Mrs. Rh. D.; v. l. anucintaya); Th 1, 747; Dh 364; It 82 (dhammaŋ ˚ayaŋ); J iii.396; iv.227; v.223 (dhammaŋ ˚cintayanto).


-- [ger. of anuvijjati, for the regular from anuvijja prob. through influence of anu + i (anu -- v -- icca for anvicca), cf. anveti & adhicca; & see anuvijjati] having known or found out, knowing well or thoroughly, testing, finding out M i.301, 361 (v. l. ˚vijja); A ii.3, 84; v.88; Dh 229 (= jānitvā DhA iii.329); Sn 530 (= anuviditvā SnA 431); J i.459 (= jānitvā C.); iii.426; Pug. 49.
-- kāra a thorough investigation, examination, test Vin i.236 (here spelt anuvijja) = M i.379 (= ˚viditvā C.) = A iv.185.


-- [fr. anuvijja, ger. of anuvijjati] one who finds out, an examiner Vin v.161.


-- [anu + vid, with fusion of Vedic vetti to know, and Pass. of vindati to find (= vidyate)] to know thoroughly, to find out, to trace, to come to know; inf. ˚vijjitiŋ J iii.506; ger. ˚viditvā Sn A 431, also ˚vijja & vicca (see both under anuvicca); grd. ananuvejja not to be known, unfathomable, unknowable M i.140 (Tathāgato ananuvejjo). -- Caus. anuvijjāpeti to make some one find out J v.162. -- pp. anuvidita (q. v.).


-- [anu + vyadh] 1. to pierce or be pierced, to be struck or hurt with (instr.) J vi.439 -- 2. to be affected with, to fall into, to incur DhA iii.380 (aparādhaŋ). -- pp. anuviddha (q. v.).


-- [anu + vi + takketi] to reflect, think, ponder over, usually combd with anuvicāreti D i.119; iii.242; S v.67 = It 107 (anussarati +); A iii.383.


-- [pp. of anuvijjati] found out, recognised; one who has found out or knows well Sn 528, 530 (= anubuddha Sn A 431). Same in B.Sk., e.g. M Vastu iii.398.


-- (adj.) [pp. of anuvijjhati] pierced, intertwined or set with ( -- ˚) VvA 278.


-- [cf. Sk. anuvidhīyate & adj. anuvidhāyin; Pass. of anu + vi + dhā, cf. vidahati] to act in conformity with, to follow (instruction) M ii.105 = Th 1, 875; S iv.199; J ii.98; iii.357.


-- (f.) [abstr. fr. anuvidhīyati] acting according to, conformity with M i.43.


-- [anu + vi + loketi; B.Sk. anuvilokayati] to look round at, look over, survey, muster M i.339; Sn p. 140; J i.53; Miln 7 (lakaŋ), 21 (parisaŋ), 230.


-- [anu + vivaṭṭa] an "after -- evolution", devolution; as part of a bhikkhuɔs dress: a sub -- vivaṭṭa (q. v.) Vin i.287 (vivaṭṭa +).


-- (anu + visaṭa, pp. of anu + vi + sṛ] spread over S v.277 sq.; J iv.102.


-- [pp. of anuvasati, cf. Sk. anūṣita] living with, staying, dwelling J ii.42 (cira˚); v.445 (id.).


-- (adj.) in an˚ see anuvijjati.


-- & anubya˝jana (e. g. Vin iv.15; J i.12) (nt.) [anu + vya˝jana] accompanying (i. e. secondary) attribute, minor or inferior characteristic, supplementary or additional sign or mark (cf. mahāpurisa -- lakkhaṇa) Vin i.65 (abl. anuvya˝janaso "in detail"); M iii.126; S iv.168; A iv.279 (abl.); v.73 sq.; Pug 24, 58; Miln 339; VvA 315; DhsA 400.
-- gāhin taking up or occupying oneself with details, taken up with lesser or inferior marks D i.70 (cf. MVastu iii.52); iii.225; S iv.104; A i.113; ii.16, 152 sq.; Dhs 1345 (cf. Dhs trsl. 351).


-- [anu + saŋ + yāyati] to traverse; to go up to, surround, visit (acc.) M i.209 (Bhagavantaŋ ˚itvā), J iv.214 (v.l. anuyāyitvā). See also anuyāti and anusa˝˝āti.


-- (adj.) [anu + saŋv˚] yearly DhA i.388 (nakkhattaŋ). Usually nt. ˚ŋ as adv. yearly, every year J i.68; v.99. On use of anu in this combn. see anu A a.


-- [anu + saŋ + carati] to walk along, to go round about, to visit M i.279; S v.53, 301; J i.202; iii.502; PvA 279 (nagaraŋ). -- pp. anusa˝carita (q. v.).


-- [pp. of anusa˝carati] frequented, visited, resorted to Miln 387.


-- [anu + saŋ + ceteti] to set ones mind on, concentrate, think over, meditate Pug 12.


-- [either anu + saŋ + j˝ā (jānāti) or (preferably) = anusaŋyāti as short form of anusaŋyāyati, like anuyāti > anuyāyati of anu + saŋ + , cf. Sk. anusaŋyāti in same meaning] to go to, to visit, inspect, control; ppr. med. ˚sa˝˝āyamāna Vin iii.43 (kammante); inf. ˚sa˝˝ātuŋ A i.68. (janapade).


-- [Sk. anusṛta, pp. of anu + sṛ] sprinkled with ( -- ˚), bestrewn, scattered Vv 53 (paduma˚ magga = vippakiṇṇa VvA 36).


-- [n. ag. to anu + sās, cf. Sk. anuśāsitṛ & P. satthar] instructor, adviser J iv.178 (ācariya +). Cp. anusāsaka.


-- (f.) [Sk. anuśāsti, anu + śās, cp. anusāsana] admonition, rule, instruction J i.241; Miln 98, 172, 186 (dhamma˚), 225, 227, 347.


-- [Vedic anusyandati, anu + syad] to stream along after, to follow, to be connected with. Thus to be read at Miln 63 for anusandahati (anuravati +; of sound), while at A iv.47 the reading is to be corrected to anusandahati.


-- [anu + saŋ + dhā, cf. Vedic abhi + saŋ + dhā] to direct upon, to apply to A iv.47 sq. (cittaŋ samāpattiyā; so to be read with v. l. for anusandati); Miln 63 (but here prob. to be read as anusandati, q.v.).


-- (f.) [= anusandhi] application, adjusting Dhs 8 (cittassa).


-- (f.) [fr. anu + saŋ + dhā] connection, (logical) conclusion, application DA i.122 (where 3 kinds are enumd., viz. pucchā˚, ajjhāsayā˚, yathā˚); Nett 14 (pucchato; Hard., in Index "complete cessation"?!). Esp. freq. in (Jātaka) phrase anusandhiŋ ghaṭeti "to form the connection", to draw the conclusion, to show the application of the story or point out its maxim J i.106; 308; DhA ii.40, 47; etc.

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-- (f.) [anu + saŋ + pavankatā; is reading correct?] disputing, quarrelling(?) Vin ii.88 (under anuvādÔdhikaraṇa).


-- [anu + śī, seti Sk. anuśaya has a diff. meaning] (see Kvu trsl. 234 n. 2 and Cpd. 172 n. 2). Bent, bias, proclivity, the persistance of a dormant or latent disposition, predisposition, tendency. Always in bad sense. In the oldest texts the word usually occurs absolutely, without mention of the cause or direction of the bias. So Sn. 14 = 369, 545; M. iii.31; S. iii.130, iv.33, v.28 236; A. i.44; ii.157; iii.74, 246, 443. Or in the triplet obstinacy, prejudice and bias (adhiṭṭhānÔbhinivesÔnusayā) S. ii.17; iii.10, 135, 161; A. v.iii. Occasionally a source of the bias is mentioned. Thus pride at S. i.188; ii.252 ff., 275; iii.80, 103, 169, 253; iv.41, 197; A i.132, iv.70 doubt at M. i.486 -- ignorance lust and hatred at S iv.205, M iii.285. At D iii.254, 282; S v.60; and A iv.9. we have a list of seven anusaya's, the above five and delusion and craving for rebirth. Hence -- forward these lists govern the connotation of the word; but it would be wrong to put that connotation back into the earlier passages. Later references are Ps i.26, 70 ff., 123, 130, 195; ii.36, 84, 94, 158; Pug 21; Vbh 340, 383, 356; Kvu 405 ff. Dpvs i.42.


-- [pp. of anuseti, anu + śī] dormant, only in combn. dīgharatta˚ latent so long Th 1, 768; Sn 355, 649. Cp. anusaya & anusayin.


-- (adj.) [fr. anusaya] D ii.283 (me dīgharatta˚), "for me, so long obsessed (with doubts)". The reading is uncertain.


-- [anu + sṛ] to follow, conform oneself to S iv. 303 (phalaŋ anusarissati BB, but balaŋ anupadassati SS perhaps to be preferred). -- Caus. anusāreti to bring together with, to send up to or against Miln 36 (a˝˝ama˝˝aŋ a. anupeseti).


-- at S ii.54 (āsavā na a.; v. l. anusayanti) & iv. 188 (akusalā dhammā na a.; v. l. anusenti) should preferably be read anusayati: see anuseti 2.


-- (adj.) having a residuum, accompanied by a minimum of . . S iii.130; Kvu 81, see aṇu˚.


-- (adj.) [fr. anusaya] attached to one, i. e. inherent, chronic (of disease) M ii.70 (ābādha, v. l. BB anussāyika); DhA i.431 (roga).


-- [fr. anu + sṛ] "going along with", following, conformity. Only in obl. eases ( -- ˚) anusārena (instr.) in consequence of, in accordance with, according to J i.8; PvA 187 (tad), 227; and anusārato (abl.) id. Sdhp 91.


-- ( -- ˚) (adj.) [fr. anu + sarati] following, striving after, acting in accordance with, living up to or after. Freq. in formula dhammÔnusārin saddhÔnusārin living in conformity with the Norm & the Faith D iii.254; M i.142, 479; S iii.225; v.200 sq.; A i.74; iv.10; Pug 15. -- Cp. also S i.15 (bhavasota˚); iv.128 (id.); J vi.444 (paṇḍitassa˚ = veyyāvaccakara C.); Sdhp 528 (attha˚).


-- see anusarati.


-- [fr. anusāsati] adviser, instructor, counsellor J ii.105; Miln 186, 217, 264. Cp. anusatthar.


-- [Vedic anuśāsati, anu + sās] 1. to advise, ad- monish, instruct in or give advice upon (c. acc.) to exhort to Vin i.83; D i.135; ii.154; Dh 77, 159 (a˝˝aŋ); J vi.368; cp. i.103; Pv ii.68; PvA 148. -- grd. anusāsiya Vin i.59; and ˚sāsitabba DhA iii.99. -- Pass ˚sāsiyati Vin ii.200; Miln 186. -- 2. to rule, govern (acc.) ādminister to (dat.) S i.236 = Sn 1002 (paṭhaviŋ dhammenam -- anusāsati, of a Cakkavattin); J ii.2; vi.517 (rajjassa = rajjaŋ C., i. e. take care of) DA i.246 (read ˚sāsantena); PvA 161 (rajjaŋ). -- pp. anusiṭṭha (q. v.); cp. anusatthar, anusatthi & ovadati.


-- (nt.) [Vedic anuśāsana, fr. anu + śās] advice, instruction, admonition D iii.107; A i.292 (˚pāṭihāriya, cp. anusāsanī); Miln 359.


-- (f.) [fr. anusāsati, cp. anusāsana] instruction, teaching, commandment, order S v.108; A ii.147; iii.87; v.24 sq., 49, 338; J v.113; Th 2, 172, 180; Pv iii.76; ThA 162; VvA 19, 80, 81.
-- pāṭihāriya (anusāsani˚) the miracle of teaching, the wonder worked by the commandments (of the Buddha) Vin ii.200; D i.212, 214; iii.220; A i.170; v.327; J iii.323; Ps ii.227 sq.


-- [Vedic anuśikṣati; anu + Desid. of śak] to learn of somebody (gen.); to follow one's example, to imitate Vin ii.201 (ppr. med. ˚amāna); S i.235; A iv. 282, 286, 323; Sn 294 (vattaŋ, cp. RV iii.59, 2: vratena śikṣati), 934; J i.89; ii.98; iii.315; v.334; vi.62; Th 1, 963; Miln 61. -- Caus anusikkhāpeti to teach [= Sk. anuśikṣayati] Miln 352.


-- (adj.) [fr. anusikhati] studying, learning M i. 100; Dh 226 (ahoratta˚ = divā ca ratti˝ ca tisso sikkhā sikkhamāna DhA iii.324).


-- (Vedic anuśiṣṭa, pp. of anusāsati] instructed, ad- monished, advised; ordered, commanded M ii.96; J i.226; Pv ii.811; Miln 284, 349.


-- [anu + sibbati, siv to sew] to interweave Vin iii.336 (introd. to Sam. Pās.).


-- [anu + śru] to hear; pret. anassuŋ [Sk. an- vaśruvaŋ] I heard M i.333.


-- [anu + sumbhati (sobhati); śubh or (Vedic) śumbh] to adorn, embellish, prepare J vi.76.


-- [cp. Sk. anasūyaŋ] reading at J iii.27, see anasuyyaŋ.


-- (adj.) [an + usuyyaka] not envious, not jealous Sn 325 (= usuyyāvigamena a. SnA 332); J ii.192 (v. l. anussuyyaka); v.112.


-- [anu + seṭṭhi] 1. an under -- seṭṭhi (banker, mer- chant) J v.384 (see anu B iii. a.). -- 2. in redupl. cpd. seṭṭhÔnuseṭṭhi (see anu B iv) "bankers & lesser bankers", i. e. all kinds of well -- to -- do families J vi.331.


-- [anu + seti. cp. Sk. anuśayate or˚ śete, from śī] to "lie down with", i. e. (1) trs. to dwell on, harp on (an idea) S ii.65; iii.36; iv.208. -- 2. (of the idea) to obsess, to fill the mind persistently, to lie dormant & be continually cropping up. M i.40, 108, 433; S ii.54 (so read with SS for anusavanti) iv.188; A i.283; iii.246; Pug 32, 48. -- pp. anusayita (q. v.).


-- [anu + socati] to mourn for, to bewail Sn 851 (atītaŋ na a.; cp. Nd1 222); Pv i.127; ii.68; PvA 95.


-- (nt.) [abstr. fr. anusocati] bewailing, mourning PvA 65.


-- [anu + sota, in ˚ŋ as adv. or acc. to expln. under anu A a.] in anusotaŋ (adv.) along the stream or current, down -- stream A ii.12; J i.70 (opp. paṭisotaŋ against the stream); PvA 169 (Gangāya a. āgacchanto).
-- gāmin "one who follows the stream", i. e. giving way to ones inclinations, following ones will A ii.5, 6 (opp. paṭi˚); Sn. 319 (= sotaŋ anugacchanto Sn A 330); Pug 62.

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-- (f.) [Sk. anusmṛti, fr. anu + smṛ, cp. sati] remembrance, recollection, thinking of, mindfulness. A late list of subjects to be kept in mind comprises six anussati -- ṭṭhānāni, viz. Buddha˚, Dhamma˚, Sangha˚, sīla˚, cāga˚, devatā˚, i. e. proper attention to the Buddha, the Doctrines, the Church, to morality, charity, the gods. Thus at D iii.250, 280 (cp. A i.211); A iii.284, 312 sq., 452; v.329 sq.; Ps i.28. Expanded to 10 subjects (the above plus ānāpāna -- sati, maraṇa -- sati, kāyagatā -- sati, upasamÔnussati) at A i.30, 42 (cp. Lal. Vist 34). For other references see D i.81; S v.67 = It 107 (anussaraṇa at latter pass.); A iii.284, 325, 452. Ps i.48, 95, 186; Pug 25, 60; Dhs 14, 23, 1350 (anussati here to be corr. to asati, see Dhs. trsl. 351); Sdhp. 225, 231, 482. See also anuttariya (anussat -- Ônuttariya).


-- (adj.) [an + ussada without haughtiness Sn 624 (vv. ll. anusaddha & anussuda; Sn A 467 expln. by taṇhā ussadÔbhāva) = Dh 400 (which pass. has anussuta; v.l. K.B. anussada; DhA iv.165 expls. with taṇhā -- ussāvÔbhāva, vv. ll. ˚ussada˚); It 97 (vv. ll. anussata & anussara).


-- (nt.) [abstr. to anussarati] remembrance, me- mory, recollection It 107 (= anussati at id. p. S v.67); PvA 25, 29.


-- [Vedic anusmarati, anu + smṛ] to remember, recollect, have memory of (acc.), bear in mind; be aware of D ii.8, 53, 54 (jātito etc.); S iii.86 sq. (pubbenivāsaŋ); v.67 (dhammaŋ a. anuvitakketi), 303 (kappasahassaŋ); A i.25, 164 (pubbenivāsaŋ), 207 (Tathāgataŋ, Dhammaŋ etc.); iii.285 (id.), 323 (nivāsaŋ), 418; v.34, 38, 132, 199, 336 (kalyāṇamitte); It 82 (dhammaŋ), 98 (pubbenivāsaŋ); J i.167; ii.111; Dh 364; Pv i.59; Pug 60; Sdhp 580, 587; DA i.257; KhA 213; DhA ii.84; iv.95; PvA 29, 53, 69, 79, 107. -- pp. anussarita (see anussaritar). -- Caus anussarāpeti to remind someone, to call to mind J ii.147.


-- [n. ag. to anussarita, pp. of anussarati] one who recollects or remembers S v.197, 225 (saritar +); A v.25, 28.


-- [anu + sava fr. śru, cp. Vedic śravas nt.] hear- say, report, tradition M i.520; ii.211; S ii.115; iv.138; A i.26; J i.158 (with ref. to part. kira = annussav'atthe nipāto; so also at VvA 322, cf. anussavana); ii.396, 430 (id.); iv.441; instr. ˚ena from hearsay, by report A ii.191 (cf. itihītihaŋ).


-- (nt.) [anu + savana fr. śru] = anussava PvA 103 (kira -- saddo anussavane, from hearsay).


-- (adj.) [fr. anussava] "belonging to hearsay", traditional; one who is familiar with tradition or who learns from hearsay M i.520; ii.211. Cp. anussutika.


-- [fr. anussāveti] one who proclaims or announces, a speaker (of a kammavācā) Vin i.74.


-- (nt.) & ˚ā (f.) [fr. anussāveti] a proclamation Vin i.317, 340; v.170, 186, 202 sq.


-- [pp. of anussāveti] proclaimed, announced Vin i.103.


-- [anu + sāveti, Caus. of śru, cp. B.Sk. anuśrā- vayati "to proclaim aloud the guilt of a criminal" AvŚ. i.102; ii.182] to cause to be heard or sound; to proclaim, utter, speak out Vin i.103 (˚ssāviyamāna ppr. Pass.); ii.48 (saddaŋ a.). -- pp. anussāvita.


-- (adj.) [an + ussuka] free from greed Dh 199; cf. anussukin v. l. D iii.47, also anissukin and apalāsin.


-- [an + ussuk˚] VvA 74 & anussukin Pug 23 = anussuka.


-- ╣ (adj.) [an + ussuta, ud + sṛ] free from lust Dh 400 (= ussāvÔvena anussuta C.). See also anussada.


-- ▓ [anu + suta, pp. of śru] heard of; only in cpd. ananussuta unheard of S ii.9; Pug 14.


-- (adj.) [fr. anu + śru, cp. anussavika] according to tradition or report, one who goes by or learns from hearsay DA i.106, 107.


-- see anusuyyaka.


-- [anu + hasati] to laugh at, to ridicule DA i.256.


-- [for ˚hariyati, anu + hṛ] to be held up over, ppr. anuhīramāna D ii.15 (vv. ll. v. l. anubhiram˚; glosses B. K. anudhāriyam˚, cp. Trenckner, Notes 79).


-- (adj.) [Vedic anūna, an + ūna] not lacking, entire, complete, without deficiency J vi 273; Dpvs v.52; Miln 226; DA i.248 (+ paripūra, expld by anavaya).


-- = anūna Dpvs iv.34.


-- (f.) [abstr. fr. anūna] completeness Cp. iii.611.


-- (adj.) [Vedic anūpa, anu + ap: see āpa, orig. along- side of water] watery, moist; watery land, lowland J. iv.358 (anopa T; anupa C. p. 359), 381 (˚khetta); Miln 129 (˚khetta).


-- [metrically for anupa˚] not killing, not mur- dering. Dh 185 (= anupahanana˝ cɔeva anupaghātana˝ ca DhA iii.238).


-- for anu˚ in metre Sn 1057, see upadhi.


-- (adj.) [an + upanāhin, with ū metri causa] not bearing ill -- will, not angry with J iv.463.


-- at It 122 is metric reading for anupama (see upama).


-- (adj.) [an + upalitta, with ū in metre] free from taint, unstained, unsmeared Sn 211, 392, 468, 790, 845; Dh 353; cf. Nd1 90 and DhA iv.72.


-- [an + upavāda, with metrically lengthened u] not grumbling, not finding fault Dh 185 (= anupavādana˝ cɔ eva anupavadāpana˝ ca DhA iii.238).


-- (adj.) [pp. of an + ūha˝˝ati, ud + han] not rooted out, not removed or destroyed Th 1, 223 = Nd2 974; Dh 338 (= asamucchinna DhA iv.48).


-- (adj.) (usually ˚ -- ) [an + eka] not one, i. e. many, various; countlcss, numberless It 99 (saŋvaṭṭakappā countless aeons); Sn 688 (˚sākhā); Dh 153 (˚jātisāra); J iv.2; vi.366.
-- pariyāyena (instr.) in many ways Vin i.16; Sn p. 15. -- rūpa various, manifold Sn 1049, 1079, 1082; Nd2 54 (= anekavidha). -- vidha manifold Nd2 54; DA i.103. -- vihita various, manifold D i.12, 13, 178; It 98; Pug 55; DA i.103 (= anekavidha).


-- (f.) [an + ekaŋsā] doubt Nd2 1.


-- (f.) [abstr. fr. anekaŋsa + kata] uncertainty, doubtfulness Miln 93.


-- (adj.) [an + ejā] free from desires or lust D ii.157; Sn 920, 1043, 1101, 1112; It 91 (opp. ejÔnuga Nd1 353 = Nd2 55; Dh 414 (= taṇhāya abhāvena DhA iv. 194), 422; Pv iv.135 (nittaṇha PvA 230).


-- (adj.) [an + edha] without fuel J iv.26 (=anindhana).


-- (adj.) [an + eḷa = ena, see neḷa & cp. BSk. eḍa (mūka); Vedic anena] faultless, pure; only in foll. cpds.: ˚gala free from the dripping or oozing of impurity (thus [p046] expld. at DA i.282, viz. elagalana -- virahita), but more likely in lit. meaning "having a pure or clear throat" or, of vācā speech: "clearly enunciated" (thus Mrs. Rh. D. at Kindred Sayings i.241) Vin i.197 = D i.114 = S i.189; A ii.51, 97; iii.114, 195. Cp. also M Vastu iii. 322. -- ˚mūga same as prec. "having a clear throat", i. e. not dumb, fig. clever, skilled D iii.265; Sn 70 (= alālāmukha SnA 124), cp. Nd2 259.

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-- (adj.) [cp. BSk. aneḍaka, e. g. Av. Ś. i.187, 243; M Vastu i.339; iii.322] = aneḷa, pure, clear M ii.5; J vi.529.


-- (f.) [an + esanā] impropriety S ii.194; J ii.86; iv.381; Miln 343, 401; DA i.169; DhA iv.34; Sdhp 392, 427.


-- is a frequent form of compn. an -- ava, see ava.


-- (nt.) [an + oka] houselessness, a houseless state, fig freedom from worldliness or attachment to life, singleness S v.24 = A v.232 = Dh 87 (okā anokaŋ āgamma). <-> adj. homeless, free from attachment S i.176; Dh 87 (= anālaya DhA ii.162); Sn 966 (adj.; expld at Nd1 487 by abhisankhāra -- sahagatassa vi˝˝āṇassa okāsaŋ na karoti, & at SnA 573 by abhisankhāra -- vi˝˝ānɔ ādīnaŋ anokāsabhūta).
sārin living in a houseless state, fig. being free from worldly attachment S iii.10 = Nd1 197; Sn 628 (= anālaya -- cārin SnA 468); Ud 32; Dh 404 (v. l. anokka˚); DhA iv.174 (= anālaya -- cārin); Miln 386.


-- in anogha -- tiṇṇa see ogha.


-- = anojā Vv 354 (= VvA 161, where classed with yodhikā bandhujīvakā).


-- at D i.91 is v. l. for anujagghati.


-- (f.) [*Sk. anujā] a kind of shrub or tree with red flowers J vi.536 (korandaka +); usually in cpd. anojapuppha the a. flower, used for wreaths etc. J i.9 (˚dāma, a garland of a flowers); vi.227 (id.); DhA ii.116 (˚cangoṭaka).


-- (nt.) [an + ottappa] recklessness, hardness D iii.212; It 34 (ahirika +); Pug 20; Dhs 365. Cp. anottāpin.


anottāpin & anottappin
-- (adj.) [fr. anottappa] not afraid of sin, bold, reckless, shameless D iii.252, 282 (pp; ahirika); Sn 133 (p; ahirika +); It 27, 115 (anatāpin anottappin, vv. ll. anottāpin); Pug 20, 24.


-- (adj.) [an + udaka] without water, dry J i.307; DhA i.52; Sdhp 443.


-- (adj.) [an + odissa + ka] unrestricted, without exception, general, universal; only in cpd. ˚vasena universally, thoroughly (with ref. to mettā) J i.81; ii 146; VvA 97 (in general; opp. odissaka -- vasena). See also Mrs. Rh. D. Psalms of the Brethren p. 5 n. 1.


-- [an + onamati] not to bend, to be inflexible, in foll. expressions: anonamaka (nt.) not stooping DhA ii.136; auonamanto (ppr.) not bending D ii.17 = iii. 143; anonami -- daṇḍa (for anonamiya˚) an inflexible stick Miln 238 (anoṇami˚ T, but anonami˚ vv. ll., see Miln 427).


-- see anūpa.


-- (adj.) (only ˚ -- ) [an + oma] not inferior, superior, perfect, supreme, in foll. cpds.
-- guṇa supreme virtue DA i.288. -- dassika of superior beauty Vv 207, VvA 103 (both as v. l.; T. anuma˚); Vv 437. -- dassin one who has supreme knowledge; of unexcelled wisdom (Name of a Buddha) J i.228. -- nāma of perfect name S i.33 ("by name the Peerless" Mrs. Rh. D.), 235; Sn 153, 177 (cp. SnA 200). -- nikkama of perfect energy Vv 6427 (= paripuṇṇa -- viriyatāya a. VvA 284). -- pa˝˝a of lofty or supreme wisdom (Ep. of the Buddha) Sn 343, 352 (= mahāpa˝˝a SnA 347); Th 2, 522 (= paripuṇṇa -- pa˝˝a ThA 296), DhA i.31. -- vaṇṇa of excellent colour Sn 686 J vi.202. -- viriya of supreme exertion or energy Sn 353.


-- [anu + ava + majjati, mṛj] to rub along over, to stroke, only in phrase gattāni pāṇinā a. to rub over one's limbs with the hand M i.80, 509; S v.216.


-- (adj.) [an + ora + pāra] having (a shore) neither on this side nor beyond Miln 319.


-- [an + ava + ram] not to stop, to continue J iii.487; DhA iii.9 (ger. ˚itvā continually).


-- (nt.) [an + ovassa; cp. Sk. anavavarṣana] absence of rain, drought J v.317 (v. l. BB for anvāvassa T.; q. v.).


-- (adj.) [an + ovassaka] sheltered from the rain, dry Vin ii.211; iv.272; J i.172; ii.50; iii.73; DhA ii. 263; ThA 188.


-- (adj.) [an + ava + sita, pp. of ] not inhabited (by), not accessible (to) Sn 937 (= anajjhositaŋ Nd1 441; jarādīhi anajjhāvutthaŋ ṭhānaŋ SnA 566).

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{űn~ta.} from {na.■űt} {űn}

-- ╣ [Vedic anta; Goth. andeis = Ohg. anti = E. end; cp. also Lat. antiae forehead (: E. antler), and the prep. anti opposite, antika near = Lat. ante; Gr. a)nti/ & a)/nta opposite; Goth., Ags. and; Ger. ant -- ; orig. the opposite (i. e. what stands against or faces the starting -- point)]. 1. end, finish, goal S iv.368 (of Nibbāna); Sn 467; J ii.159. antaŋ karoti to make an end (of) Sn 283, 512; Dh 275, cp. antakara, ˚kiriyā. -- loc. ante at the end of, immediately after J i.203 (vijay˚). -- 2. limit, border, edge Vin i.47; Dh 305 (van˚); J iii.188. -- 3. side: see ekamantaŋ (on one side, aside). -- 4. opposite side, opposite, counterpart; pl. parts, contrasts, extremes; thus also used as "constituent, principle" (in tayo & cattāro antā; or does it belong to anta2 2. in this meaning? Cp. ekantaŋ extremely, under anta2): dve antā (two extremes) Vin i.10; S ii.17; iii.135. ubho antā (both sides) Vin i.10; S ii.17; J i.8; Nd1 109. eko, dutiyo anto (contrasts) Nd1 52. As tayo antā or principles(?), viz. sakkāya, s. -- samudaya, s. -- nirodha D iii.216, cp. A iii. 401; as cattāro, viz. the 3 mentioned plus s. -- nirodhagāmini -- paṭipadā at S iii.157. Interpreted by Morris as "goal" (J P T S. 1894, 70). -- Often pleonastically, to be expld as a "pars pro toto" figure, like kammanta (q. v.) the end of the work, i. e. the whole work (cp. E. sea -- side, country -- side); vananta the border of the wood = the woods Dh 305; Pv ii.310 (expld by vana PvA 86; same use in BSk., vanÔnta e. g. at Jtm vi.21; cp. also grāmÔnta Av. Ś. i.210); suttanta (q. v.), etc. Cp. ākāsanta J vi.89 & the pleonastic use of patha. -- ananta (n.) no end, infinitude; (adj.) endless, corresponds either to Sk. anta or antya, see anta2.
-- Ônanta end & no end, or finite and endless, D i.22; DA i.115. -- Ônantika (holding views of, or talking about) finiteness and infinitude D i.22 (see expln. at DA i.115); S iii.214, 258 sq.; Ps i.155. -- kara putting an end to, (n.) a deliverer, saviour; usually in phrase dukkhassɔa. (of the Buddha) M i.48, 531; A ii.2; iii.400 sq.; Th 1, 195; It 18; Sn 32, 337, 539; Pug 71. In other combn. A ii.163 (vijjāyɔ); Sn 1148 (pa˝hānɔ). -- -- kiriyā putting an end to, ending, relief, extirpation; always used with ref. to dukkha S iv.93; lt 89; Sn 454, 725; DhA iv.45. -- gata = antagū Nd2 436 (+ koṭigata). -- gāhikā (f.), viz. diṭṭhi, is an attribute of micchādiṭṭhi, i. e. heretical doctrine. The meaning of anta in this combn. is not quite clear: either "holding (wrong) principles (goals, Morris)", viz. the 3 as specified above 4 under tayo antā (thus Morris J P T S. 1884, 70), or "taking extreme sides, i. e. extremist", or "wrong, opposite (= antya, see anta2)" (thus Kern, Toev. s. v.) Vin i.172; D iii.45, 48 (an˚); S i.154; A i.154; ii.240; iii.130; Ps i.151 sq. -- gū one [p047] who has gone to the end, one who has gone through or overcome (dukkha) A iv.254, 258, 262; Sn 401 (= vaṭṭadukkhassa antagata); 539. -- ruddhi at J vi.8 is doubtful reading (antaruci?). -- vaṭṭi rimmed circumference J iii.159. -- sa˝˝in being conscious of an end (of the world) D i.22, cp. DA i 115.

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-- ▓ (adj.) [Vedic antya] 1. having an end, belonging to the end; only in neg. ananta endless, infinite, boundless (opp. antavant); which may be taken as equal to anta1 (corresp. with Sk. anta (adj.) or antya; also in doublet ana˝ca, see ākāsɔÔna˝ca and vi˝˝āṇɔÔna˝ca); D i.23, 34 = D iii.224, 262 sq.; Sn 468 (˚pa˝˝a); Dh 179, 180 (˚gocara having an unlimited range of mental vision, cp. DhA iii.197); J i.178. -- 2. extreme, last, worst J ii.440 (C. hīna, lāmaka); see also anta1 4. -- acc. as adv. in ekantaŋ extremely, very much, "utterly" Dh 228 etc. See eka.


-- │ (nt.) [Vedic āntra, contr. fr. antara inner = Lat. interus, Gr. e)/ntera intestines] the lower intestine, bowels, mesentery It 89; J i.66, 260 (˚vaddhi -- maŋsa etc.); Vism 258; DhA i.80.
-- gaṇṭhi twisting of the bowels, lit. "a knot in the intestines" Vin i.275 (˚ābādha). -- guṇa [see guṇa2 = gula1] the intestinal tract, the bowels S ii.270; A iv.132; Kh iii. = Miln 26; Vism 42; KhA 57. -- mukha the anus J iv.402. -- vaṭṭi = ˚guṇa Vism 258.


-- [Vedic antaka] being at the end, or making an end, Ep. of Death or Māra Vin i.21; S i.72; Th 2, 59 (expld by ThA 65 as lāmaka va Māra, thus taken = anta2); Dh 48 (= maraṇa -- sankhāto antako DhA ii.366), 288 (= maraṇa DhA iii.434).


-- (adv.) [orig. abl. of antama, *Sk. antamaśah; cp. BSk. antaśah as same formation fr. anta, in same meaning ("even") Av. Ś. i.314; Divy 161] even Vin iii. 260; iv.123; D i.168; M iii.127; A v.195; J ii.129; DA i.170; SnA 35; VvA 155.


-- (adj.) [Vedic antara, cp. Gr. e)/ntera = Sk. antra (see anta3), Lat. interus fr. prep. inter. See also ante & anto]. Primary meanings are "inside" and "in between"; as adj. "inner"; in prep. use & in cpds. "inside, in between". Further development of meaning is with a view of contrasting the (two) sides of the inside relation, i. e. having a space between, different from; thus nt. antaraŋ difference.
I. (Adj. -- n) 1. (a) inner, having or being inside It 83 (tayo antarā malā three inward stains); esp. as -- ˚ in cpds. āmis˚ with greed inside, greedy, selfish Vin i.303; dos˚ with anger inside, i. e. angry Vin ii.249; D iii.237; M i.123; PvA 78 (so read for des˚). Abl. antarato from within It 83. (b) in between, distant; dvādasa yojan˚ antaraŋ ṭhānaŋ PvA 139 139. -- 2. In noun -- function (nt.): (a). spatial: the inside (of) Vv 361 (pītantara a yellow cloak or inside garment = pītavaṇṇa uttariya VvA 116); Dāvs i.10 (dīpɔ antara -- vāsin living on the island); DhA i.358 (kaṇṇa -- chidd˚ the inside of the ear; VvA 50 (kacch˚ inner room or apartment). Therefore also "space in between", break J v.352 (= chidda C.), & obstacle, hindrance, i. g. what stands in between: see cpds. and antara -- dhāyati (for antaraŋ dhāyati). -- (b). temporal: an interval of time, hence time in general, & also a specified time, i. e. occasion. As interval in Buddhantaraŋ the time between the death of one Buddha and the appearance of another, PvA 10, 14, 21, 47, 191 etc. As time: It 121 (etasmiŋ antare in that time or at this occasion); Pv i.1011 (dīghaŋ antaraŋ = dīghaŋ kālaŋ PvA 52); PvA 5 (etasmiŋ antare at this time, just then). As occasion: J v.287; Pug 55 (eḷaka -- m -- antaraŋ occasion of getting rain). S i.20, quoted DA i.34, (ma˝ ca ta˝ ca kiŋ antaraŋ what is there between me and you?) C. expls. kiŋ kāraṇā. Mrs. Rh. D. in trsln. p. 256 "of me it is and thee (this talk) -- now why is this"; J vi.8 (assa antaraŋ na passiŋsu they did not see a diff. in him). -- 3. Phrases: antaraŋ karoti (a) to keep away from or at a distance (trs. and intrs.), to hold aloof, lit. "to make a space in between" M iii.14; J. iv.2 (˚katvā leaving behind); Pug A 231 (ummāraŋ a. katvā staying away from a threshold); also adverbially: dasa yojanāni a. katvā at a distance of 10 y. PvA 139. -- (b.) to remove, destroy J vi.56 (v. l. BB. antarāyaŋ karoti).
II. In prep. use (˚ -- ) with acc. (direction) or loc. (rest): inside (of), in the midst of, between, during (cp. III. use of cases). (a.) w. acc.: antaragharaŋ paviṭṭha gone into the house Miln 11. -- (b.) w. loc.: antaraghare nisīdanti (inside the house) Vin ii.213; ˚dīpake in the centre of the island J i.240; ˚dvāre in the door J v.231; ˚magge on the road (cp. antarāmagge) PvA 109; ˚bhatte in phrase ekasmiŋ yeva a. during one meal J i 19 = DhA i.249; ˚bhattasmiŋ id. DhA iv.12; ˚vīthiyan in the middle of the road PvA 96. ˚satthīsu between the thighs Vin ii.161 (has antarā satthīnaŋ) = J i.218.
III. Adverbial use of cases, instr. antarena in between D i.56; S iv.59, 73; J i.393; PvA 13 (kāl˚ in a little while, na kālantarena ib. 19). Often in combn. antarantarena (c. gen.) right in between (lit. in between the space of) DhA i.63, 358. -- loc. antare in, inside of, in between ( -- ˚ or c. gen. KhA 81 (sutt˚ in the Sutta); DhA iii.416 (mama a.); PvA 56, 63 (rukkh˚). Also as antarantare right inside, right in the middle of (c. gen.) KhA 57; DhA i.59 (vanasaṇḍassa a.). -- abl. antarā (see also sep. article of antarā) in combn. antarantarā from time to time, occasionally; successively time after time Sn p. 107; DhA ii.86; iv.191; PvA 272.
IV. anantara (adj.) having or leaving nothing in between i. e. immediately following, incessant, next, adjoining J iv.139; Miln 382 (solid; DhA i.397; PvA 63 (tadantaraŋ immediately hereafter), 92 (immed. preceding), 97 (next in caste). See also abbhantara.
-- atīta gone past in the meantime J ii.243. -- kappa an intermediary kappa (q. v.) D i 54. -- kāraṇa a cause of impediment, hindrance, obstacle Pug A 231 -- cakka "the intermediate round", i. e. in astrology all that belongs to the intermediate points of the compass Miln 178. -- cara one who goes in between or inside, i. e. a robber S iv.173. -- bāhira (adj.) inside & outside J i.125. -- bhogika one who has power (wealth, influence) inside the kings dominion or under the king, a subordinate chieftain (cp. antara -- raṭṭha) Vin iii.47 -- raṭṭha an intermediate kingdom, rulership of a subordinate prince J v.135. -- vāsa an interregnum Dpvs v.80. -- vāsaka "inner or intermediate garment", one of the 3 robes of a Buddhist bhikkhu (viz. the sanghāṭī, uttarāsanga & a.) Vin i.94, 289; ii.272. Cf. next. -- sāṭaka an inner or lower garment [cp. Sk. antarīya id.], under garment, i. e. the one between the outer one & the body VvA 166 (q. v.).


-- [B.Sk. antarÔŋsa; antara + aŋsa] "in between the shoulders", i. e. the chest J v.173 = vi.171 (phrase lohitakkho vihatɔ antaraŋso).


-- (adj.) [antara + aṭṭhaka] only in phrases rattisu antaraṭṭhakāsu and antaraṭṭhake hima -- pātasamaye (in which antara functions as prep. c. loc., according to antara II. b.) i. e. in the nights (& in the time of the falling of snow) between the eighths (i. e. the eighth day before & after the full moon: see aṭṭhaka2). First phrase at Vin i.31, 288; iii 31; second at M i.79 (cp. p. 536 where Trenckner divides anta -- raṭṭhaka); A i.136 (in nom.); J i.390; Miln 396.


-- (nt.) [fr. antaradhāyati] disappearance A i.58 (saddhammassa); ii.147; iii.176 sq.; Miln 133; Dhs 645, 738, 871. Cp. ˚dhāyana.


-- [antara + dhāyati] to disappear Sn 449 (˚dhāyatha 3rd sg. med.); Vv 8128 (id.); J i.119 = DhA i.248; DhA iv.191 (ppr. ˚dhāyamāna & aor. dhāyi) PvA 152, 217, (˚dhāyi), 245; VvA 48. -- ppr. antarahita (q. v.). -- Caus. antaradhāpeti to cause to disappear, to destroy J i.147; ii.415; PvA 123.

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-- (nt.) [fr. antaradhāyati] disappearance DhA iv.191. (v. l. ˚adhāna).


-- [cp. denom. fr. antara] to go or step in be- tween, ger. antaritvā (= antarayitvā) J i.218.


-- (adj.) [pp. of antaradhāyati] 1. disappeared, gone, left D i.222. M i.487. Miln 18. PvA 245. -- 2 in phrase anantarahitāya bhūmiyā (loc) on the bare soil (lit. on the ground with nothing put in between it & the person lying down, i. e. on an uncovered or unobstructed ground) Vin i.47; ii.209; M ii.57.


-- (adv.) [abl. or adv. formation fr. antara; Vedic antarā.] prep. (c. gen. acc. or loc.), pref. (˚ -- ) and adv. "in between" (of space & time), midway, inside; during, meanwhile, between. On interpretation of term see DA i.34 sq. -- (1). (prep.) c. acc. (of the two points compared as termini; cp. B.Sk. antarā ca Divy 94 etc.) D i.1 (antarā ca Rājagahaŋ antarā ca Nāḷandaŋ between R. and N.). -- c. gen. & loc. Vin ii.161 (satthīnaŋ between the thighs, where id. p. at J i.218 has antara -- satthīsu); A ii.245 (satthīnaŋ. but v. l. satthimhi). -- (2) (adv.) meanwhile Sn 291, 694; It 85; Dh 237. -- occasionally Miln 251. -- (3). (pref.) see cpds.
-- kathā "in between talk, talk for pastime, chance conversation, D ii.1, 8, 9; S i.79; iv.281; A iii.167; Sn p. 115; DA i.49 and freq. passim. -- gacchati to come in between, to prevent J vi.295. -- parinibbāyin an Anāgāmin who passes away in the middle of his term of life in some particular heaven D iii.237; A i.233; Pug 16. -- magge (loc.) on the road, on the way J i.253; Miln 16; DhA ii.21; iii.337; PvA 151, 258, 269, 273 (cp. antara˚). -- maraṇa premature death DhA i.409; PvA 136. -- muttaka one who is released in the meantime Vin ii.167.


-- (nt.) [antarā + paṇa "in between the shopping or trading"] place where the trading goes on, bazaar J i.55; vi.52; Miln 1, 330; DhA i.181.


-- ╣ [antara + aya from i, lit. "coming in between"] obstacle, hindrance, impediment to ( -- ˚); prevention, bar; danger, accident to ( -- ). There are 10 dangers (to or from) enumd. at Vin i.112, 169 etc., viz. rāja˚, cora˚, aggi˚, udaka˚, manussa˚, amanussa˚, vāḷa˚, siriŋsapa˚, jīvita˚, brahmacariya˚. In B.Sk. 7 at Divy 544, viz. rājā -- caura -- manuṣy -- amanuṣya -- vyāḍ -- agny -- udakaŋ. -- D i.3, 25, 26; A iii.243, 306; iv.320; Sn 691, 692; Dh 286 (= jīvit˚ DhA iii.431); J i.62, 128; KhA 181; DhA ii 52; VvA 1 = PvA 1 (hat˚ removing the obstacles) -- antarāyaŋ karoti to keep away from, hinder, hold back, prevent, destroy Vin i.15; J vi.171; Vism 120; PvA 20.
-- kara one who causes impediments or bars the way, an obstructor D i.227; S i.34; A i.161; Pv iv.322.


-- ▓ (adv.) [dat. of antara or formation fr. antara + ger. of i?) in the meantime Sn 1120 (cp Nd2 58) = antarā Sn A 603.


-- (adj.) [fr. antarāya] causing an obstacle, forming an impediment Vin i.94 = ii.272; M i.130; S ii.226; ThA 288.


-- (adj. -- n.) [cp. antarāyika] one who meets with an obstacle, finding difficulties Vin iv.280 (an˚ = asati antarāye).


-- (nt.) [Sk antarāla] interior, interval Dāvs i.52; iii.53 (nabh˚).


-- (adj.) [fr. antara] "being in between", i. e. - 1. intermediate, next, following: see an˚. -- 2. distant, lying in between PvA 173 (aneka -- yojan˚ ṭhāna). See also f. antarikā. -- 3. inside: see antarikā. -- anantarika with no interval, succeeding, immediately following, next Vin ii.165, 212 (ān˚); iv.234.


-- (f.) [abstr. fr. antarika] "what lies in between or near", i. e. -- 1. the inside of Vin iv.272 (bhājan˚). <-> 2. the neighbourhood, region of ( -- ˚), sphere, compass Vin iii.39 (ur˚, angul˚); J i.265 (yakkhassa sīm˚ inside the yṡ sphere of influence). -- 3. interval, interstice Vin ii.116 (sutt˚ in lace); A i.124 (vijj˚ the interval of lightning).


-- (nt.) [Vedic antarikṣa = antari -- kṣa (kṣi), lit. situated in between sky and earth] the atmosphere or air D ii.15; A iii.239; iv.199; Sn 222, 688; Dh 127 = Miln 150 = PvA 104; Pv i.31 (= vehāyasa -- sa˝˝ita a. PvA 14); KhA 166.
-- ga going through the air A i.215. -- cara walking through the air Vin i.21; D i.17; S i.111; J v.267; DA i.110.


-- (ādj.) [anta1 + ˚vant] having an end, finite D i.22, 31, 187; Ps i.151 sq.; 157; Dhs 1099, 1117, 1175; Miln 145. -- anantavant endless, infinite A v.193 (loka). See also loka.


-- (indecl.) [Vedic anti = Lat ante, Gr. a)nti/, Goth. and; Ags. and -- , Ger. ant -- , ent -- ] adv. & prep. c. gen.: opposite, near J v.399 (tavɔ antiŋ āgatā, read as tavɔ anti -- m -- āgatā; C. santikaŋ), 400, 404; vi.565 (sāmikassɔ anti = antike C.). -- Cp. antika.


-- (adj. -- n.) -- 1. [der fr. anti] near KhA 217; nt. neighbourhood Kh viii.1. (odak˚); J vi.565 (antike loc. = anti near). -- 2. [der fr. anta = Sk. antya] being at the end, final, finished, over S i.130 (purisā etad -- antikā, v. l. SS antiyā: men are (to me) at the end for that, i. e. men do not exist any more for me, for the purpose of begetting sons.


-- (adj.) [Cp. superl. of anta] last, final (used almost exclusively with ref. to the last & final reincarnation; thus in combn. with deha & sarīra, the last body) D ii.15; Dh 351; It 50 (antimaŋ dehaŋ dhāreti), 53 (id.); Vv 512; Sn 478 (sarīraŋ antimaŋ dhāreti) 502; Miln 122, 148; VvA 106 (sarīrɔ antima -- dhārin); Sdhp 278.
-- dehadhara one who wears his last body It 101 (dhāra T, ˚dhara v. l.); VvA 163. -- dhārin = prec. S i.14, 53 (+ khīṇāsava); ii.278; It 32, 40; Sn 471. -- vatthu "the last thing", i. e. the extreme, final or worst (sin) Vin i. 121, 135, 167, 320. -- sarīra the last body; (adj.) having ones last rebirth S i.210 (Buddho a˚ -- sarīro); A ii.37; Sn 624; Dh 352, 400; DhA iv.166 (= koṭiyaŋ ṭhito attabhāvo).


-- (pref.) [Sk. antaḥ, with change of -- aḥ to -- e, instead of the usual -- o, prob. through interpreting it as loc. of anta] near, inside, within; only in foll. cpds.: ˚pura (nt.) "inner town", the king's palace, esp. its inner apartments, i. e. harem [Sk. antaḥpura, cp. also P. antopura] Vin i.75, 269; A v.81; J ii.125; iv.472; Miln 1; PvA 23, 81, 280; ˚purikā harem woman DhsA 403; ˚vāsika one who lives in, i. e. lodges or lives with his master or teacher, a pupil Vin i.60; iii.25; S i.180; iv.136; J i. 166; ii.278; iii.83, 463; PvA 12; VvA 138; ˚vāsin = ˚vāsika Vin iii.66; D i.1, 45, 74, 78, 88, 108, 157; M iii.116; DA i.36.


-- (indecl.) [Sk. antaḥ; Av antarə Lat. inter, Oir. etar between, Ohg. untar; Idg. *entar, compar. of *en (in) = inner, inside] prep. inside, either c. acc. denoting direction = into, or c. loc. denoting place where = in. As prefix (˚ -- ) in, within, inside, inner (see cpds.) (1.) prep. c. acc. anto nivesanaŋ gata gone into the house J i.158; anto jālaŋ pavisati go into the net DhA iii.175; anto gāmaŋ pavisati to go into the village DhA ii.273; anto nagaraŋ pavisati DhA ii.89; PvA 47. -- (2) c. loc. anto gabbhe J ii.182; gāme DhA ii.52; gehe DhA ii.84; nadiyaŋ J vi.278; nivesane J ii.323; vasse in the rainy season J iv.242; vimānasmiŋ Pv i.101; sattāhe inside of a week PvA 55. [p049] -- koṭisanthāra "house of the Golden Pavement" J iv.113. -- gadha (˚gata? Kern Toev.) in phrase ˚hetu, by inner reason or by reason of its intensity PvA 10; VvA 12. -- jana "the inside people", i. e. people belonging to the house, the family (= Lat. familia) D iii.61 (opp. to servants); A i.152; J vi.301; DA i.300. -- jāla the inside of the net, the net DhA iv.41. -- jālikata "in -- netted", gone into the net D i.45; DA i.127. -- nijjhāna inner conflagration PvA 18. -- nimugga altogether immersed D i.75; A iii.26. -- parisoka inner grief Ps i.38. -- pura = antepura J i.262. -- mano "turning ones mind inside", thoughtful, melancholy Vin iii.19. -- bhavika being inside Miln 95. -- rukkhatā being among trees J i.7. -- vasati to inhabit, live within S iv.136. -- vaḷa˝janaka (parijana) indoorpeople J v.118. -- vassa the rainy season (lit. the interval of the r. s.) VvA 66. -- vihāra the inside of the V. DhA i.50 (˚Ôbhimukhī turning towards etc.), -- samorodha barricading within Dhs 1157 (so read for anta˚, cp. Dhs. trsl. 311). -- soka inner grief Ps i.38.

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-- [cp. Sk. andu, andū & anduka] a chain, fetter Vin i.108 = iii.249 (tiṇ˚); D i.245; J i.21 (˚ghara prisonhouse); DhA iv.54 (˚bandhana).


-- (adj.) [Vedic andha, Lat. andabata (see Walde, Lat. Wtb. s. v.), other etym. doubtful] 1. (lit.) blind, blinded, blindfolded J i.216 (dhūm˚); Pv iv.148; PvA 3. -- dark, dull, blinding M iii.151 (˚andhaŋ adv. dulled); Sn 669 (Ep. of timisa, like Vedic andhaŋ tamaḥ); DhA ii.49 (˚vana dark forest). -- 2. (fig.) mentally blinded, dull of mind, foolish, not seeing D i.191 (+ acakkhuka), 239 (˚veṇi, reading & meaning uncertain); A i.128; Th 2, 394 (= bāla ThA 258). See cpds. ˚karaṇa, ˚kāra, ˚bāla, ˚bhūta.
-- ākula blinded, foolish Vv 849 (= pa˝˝ācakkhuno abhāvena VvA 337). -- karaṇa blinding, making blind, causing bewilderment (fig.), confusing It 82 (+ acakkhukaraṇa); Miln 113 (pa˝ha, + gambhīra). -- kāra blindness (lit. & fig), darkness, dullness, bewilderment Vin i.16; D ii.12; A i.56; ii.54; iii.233; J iii.188; Th 1, 1034; Dh 146; Sn 763; Vv 214 (= avijj˚ VvA 106); Pug 30; Dhs 617; DA i.228; VvA 51, 53, 116, 161; PvA 6; Sdhp 14, 280. -- tamo deep darkness (lit. & fig.) S v.443; It 84 (v. l.; T. andhaŋ tamaŋ); J vi.247. -- bāla blinded by folly, foolish, dull of mind, silly J i.246, 262; vi.337; DhA ii.43, 89; iii.179; VvA 67; PvA 4, 264. -- bhūta blinded (fig.), mentally blind, not knowing, ignorant S iv.21; A ii.72; J vi.139 (spelled ˚būta); Dh 59, 174 (= pa˝˝ā -- cakkhuno abhāvena DhA iii.175). -- vesa "blind form", disguise J iii.418.


-- [fr. andha] "blind fly", i. e. dark or yellow fly or gad -- fly Sn 20 (= kāṇa -- makkhikānaŋ adhivacanaŋ SnA 33).


-- (nt.) [Vedic anna, orig. pp. of adati to eat] "eating", food, esp. boiled rice, but includes all that is eaten as food, viz. odana, kummāsa, sattu, maccha, maŋsa (rice, gruel, flour, fish, meat) Nd1 372 = 495. Anna is spelt aṇṇa in combns aparɔ aṇṇa and pubbɔ aṇṇa. Under dha˝˝a (Nd2 314) are distinguished 2 kinds, viz. raw, natural cereals (pubbɔ aṇṇaŋ: sāli, vīhi, yava, godhūma, kangu, varaka, kudrūsaka) and boiled, prepared food (aparɔ aṇṇaŋ: sūpeyya curry). SnA 378 (on Sn 403) expls. anna by yāgubhattÔdi. -- D i.7; A i.107, 132; ii.70, 85, 203; Sn 82, 240, 403, 924; J iii.190; Pug 51; Sdhp 106, 214.
-- āpa food & water Sdhp 100. -- da giving food Sn 297. -- pāna food & water, eating & drinking, to eat & to drink Sn 485, 487; Pv i.52, 82; KhA 207, 209; PvA 7, 8, 30, 31, 43.


-- in dur˚ see anvaya.


-- 3rd sg. aor. of anukassati 2: drew out, removed, threw down Th 1, 869 (= khipi, chaḍḍesi C.).


-- (adj.) [anu + akkhara] "according to the syl- table", syll. after syll., also a mode of reciting by syllables Vin iv.15, cp. 355. Cp. anupadaŋ.


-- 3rd sg. aor. of anugacchati Mhvs 7, 10. Also in assim. form annagā J v.258.


-- 3rd pl. aor. of anugacchati S i.39; Sn 586.


-- (adv.) [anu + aḍḍha + māsa] every fort- night, twice a month M ii.8; Vin iv.315 (= anuposathikaŋ); DhA i.162; ii.25.


-- (adj.) [anu + attha] according to the sense, ans- wering to the matter, having scnse ThA 6 (˚sa˝˝ābhāva).


-- (adv.) [anva -- d -- eva with euphonic d.; like samma- d -- eva corresponding to Sk. anvag -- eva] behind, after, later D i.172; M iii.172; S v.1 (spelt anudeva); A i.11; v. 214; It 34.


-- (n. -- adj.) [Vedic anvaya in diff. meaning; fr. anu + i, see anveti & anvāya] 1. (n.) conformity, accordance D ii. 83 = iii.100; M i.69 (dhamm˚ logical conclusion of); S ii.58; D iii.226 (anvaye ˝āṇaŋ); Pv ii.113 (tassa kammassa anvāya, v. l. BB anvaya & anvāya; accordingly, according to = paccayā PvA 147); PvA 228 (anvayato, adv. in accordance). -- 2. (adj.) following, having the same course, behaving according to, consequential, in conformity with ( -- ˚) D i.46 (tad˚); M i.238 (kāyo citt˚ acting in conformity to the mind, obeying the mind); Sn 254 (an˚ inconsistent); It 79 (tass˚). -- dur˚ spelt durannaya conforming with difficulty, hard to manage or to find out Dh 92 (gati = na sakkā pa˝˝āpetuŋ DhA ii.173); Sn 243, 251 (= duvi˝˝āpaya SnA 287 dunneyya ibid. 293).


-- (f.) [abstr. to anvaya] conformity, accordance M i.500 (kāy˚ giving in to the body).


-- (adv.) [anu + aha] every day, daily Dāvs iv.8.


-- [anu + ā + gacchati] 1. to go along after, to follow, run after, pursue; aor. anvāgacchi Pv. iv.56 (= anubandhi PvA 260). -- 2. to come back again J i.454 (ger. ˚gantvāna). -- pp. anvāgata (q. v.).


-- [pp. of anvāgacchati] having pursued, attained; endowed with Th 1, 63; J iv.385; v.4.


-- [anu + ā + disati] to advise, dedicate, assign; imper. ˚disāhi Pv ii.26 (= uddissa dehi PvA 80); iii.28 (= ādisa PvA 181).


-- (adj.) [derivation uncertain] a tailoring term. Only at Vin i.297. Rendered (Vinaya Texts ii.232) by ʻ half and half ʼ; that is a patchwork, half of new material, half of old. Bdhgh's note (see the text, p. 392) adds that the new material must be cut up.


-- [anu + ā + maddati] to squeeze, wring J iii. 481 (galakaŋ anvāmaddi wrung his neck; vv. ll. anvānumaṭṭi & anvāvamaddi; C. gīvaŋ maddi).


-- [ger. of anveti; cp. anvaya] undergoing, experiencing, attaining; as prep. (c. acc.) in consequence of, through, after D i.13 (ātappaŋ by means of self -- sacrifice), 97 (saŋvāsaŋ as a result of their cohabitation); J i.56 (buddhiŋ), 127 (piyasaŋvāsaŋ), 148 (gabbhaparipākaŋ). Often in phrase vuddhiŋ anvāya growing up, e. g. J i.278; iii. 126; DhA ii.87.


-- (adj. -- n.) [fr. anvāya] following; one who follows, a companion D iii.169; Nd2 59; J iii.348.


-- [anu + ā + rohati] to go up to, visit, ascend J iv.465 (aor. anvāruhi).

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-- at J v.317 should be read with v. l. BB as anovassa absence of rain.


-- [pp. of anvāvisati] possessed (by evil spirits) S i.114.


-- [anu + ā + visati] to go into, to take posses- sion of, to visit M i.326; S i.67; Miln 156. -- pp. anvāviṭṭha (q. v.). Cp. adhimuccati.


-- [pp. of anu + ā + sa˝j, cp. anusatta = Sk. anusakta] clung on to, befallen by (instr.), attached to A iv.356 (v. l. anvāhata), cp. Ud 35 (anvāsanna q. v.). See also foll.


-- (f.) [abstr. fr. anvāsatta] being attacked by, falling a prey to (instr.), attachment to DhA i.287 (in same context as anvāsatta A iv.356 & anvāsanna Ud 35).


-- [pp. of anu + ā + sad] endowed with, pos- sessed of, attacked by, Ud 35 (doubtfull; v. l. ajjhāpanna), = A iv.356 which has anvāsatta.


-- [anu + ā + savati, sru] to stream into, to attack, befall D i.70; A iii.99; Pug 20, 58.


-- [pp. of anu + ā + han] struck, beaten; per- plexed Dh 39 (˚cetasa).


-- [anu + ā + hiṇḍati] to wander to (acc.) A iv.374, 376 [BSk. same, e. g. Divy 68 etc.].


-- [cp. anu + eti, from i] to follow, approach, go with Sn 1103 (= anugacchati anvāyiko hoti Nd2 59); Dh 1 (= kāyikaŋ . . . dukkhaŋ anugacchati DhA i.24), 2, 71, 124; perhaps at Pv ii.620 (with v. l. BB at PvA 99) for anvesi (see anvesati; expld. by anudesi = was anxious for, helped, instructed).


-- [from next] seeking, searching, investigation, M i.140 (˚ŋ nɔ Ôdhigacchanti do not find).


-- [anu + esati] to look, for search, seek S i.112 (ppr. anvesaŋ = pariyesamāna C.); Cp iii.117 (ppr. anvesanto). -- aor. anvesi [Sk. anveṣi fr. icchati] Pv ii.620 (? perhaps better with v. l. PvA 99 as anventi of anveti).


-- [anu -- esin] (adj.) striving after, seeking, wishing for Sn 965 (kusala˚).


-- [Vedic ahan] see pubbanha, majjhanha, sāyanha. Cp. aha.

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-- [Vedic apa; Idg. *apo = Gr. a)po/, Av. apa, Lat. ab from *ap (cp. aperio); Goth. af, Ger. ab, Ags. E. of. <-> A compar. form fr. apa is apara "further away"] Well-defined directional prefix, meaning "away from, off". Usually as base -- prefix (except with ā), & very seldom in compn. with other modifying prefixes (like sam, abhi etc.). <-> 1. apa = Vedic apa (Idg. *apo): apeti to go away = Gr. a)/peimi, Lat. abeo, Goth. afiddja; apeta gone away, rid; ˚kaḍḍhati to draw away, remove; ˚kamati walk away; ˚gacchati go away; ˚nidhāti put away (= a)potiqhmi, abdo); ˚nudati push away; ˚neti lead away; ˚vattati turn away (= āverto); ˚sakkati step aside; ˚harati take away. <-> 2. apa = Vedic ava (Idg. *aue; see ava for details). There exists a widespread confusion between the two preps. apa & ava, favoured both by semantic (apa = away, ava = down, cp. E. off) & phonetic affinity (p softened to b, esp. in BB Mss., & then to v, as b > v is frequent, e. g. bya˚ > vya˚ etc.). Thus we find in Pāli apa where Vedic and later literary Sk. have ava in the foll. instances: apakanti, ˚kassati, ˚kirati, ˚gata, ˚cāra, ˚jhāyati, ˚thaṭa, ˚dāna, ˚dhāreti, ˚nata, ˚nāmeti, ˚nīta, ˚lekhana, ˚loketi, ˚vadati.


-- [apa + kaḍḍhati, cp. Sk. apa -- karṣati] to draw away, take off, remove D i.180; iii.127; DhA ii.86. <-> Caus. apakaḍḍhāpeti J i.342; iv.415; Miln 34. -- Cp. apakassati; & see pakattheti.


-- [pp. of apakaroti] put off, done away, in ājīvik Ôpakata being without a living M i.463 (the usual phrase being ˚apagata); Miln 279 (id.). At It 89 the reading of same phrase is ājīvikā pakatā (v. l. ā˚ vakatā).


-- (adj.) [a + pa + kata˝˝u] ungrateful Vin ii.199.


-- [apa + kantati, Sk. ava + kṛntati] to cut off Th 2, 217 (gale = gīvaŋ chindati ThA 178; Kern, Toev. corrects to kabale a.).


-- [apa + karoti, cp. Sk. apakaroti & apakṛta in same meaning] to throw away, put off; hurt, offend, slight; possibly in reading T. apakiritūna at Th 2, 447 (q. v.). -- pp. apakata (q. v.). Cp. apakāra.


-- [Sk. apa -- & ava -- kaṛṣati, cp. apakaḍḍhati] to throw away, remove Sn 281 (v.l. BB & SnA ava˚; expld. by niddhamati & nikkaḍḍhati SnA 311). -- ger. apakassa Sn ii.198 = Miln 389. See also apakāsati.


-- & ˚ka [cf. Sk. apakāra & apakaroti] injury, mischief; one who injures or offends DhA iii.63; Sdhp 283.


-- at Vin ii.204 is to be read as apakassati and interpreted as "draw away, distract, bring about a split or dissension (of the Sangha)". The v. l. on p. 325 justifies the correction (apakassati) as well as Bdhgh's expln. "parisaŋ ākaḍḍhanti". -- Cp. A iii.145 & see avapakāsati. The reading at the id. p. at A v.74 is avakassati (combd. w. vavakassati, where Vin ii.204 has avapakāsati), which is much to be preferred (see vavakassati).


-- at Th 2, 447 T (reading of C. is abhi˚) is explained ThA 271 to mean apakiritvā chaḍḍetvā throwing away, slighting, offending. The correct etym = Sk. avakirati (ava + kṛ2 to strew, cast out) in sense "to cast off, reject", to which also belongs kirāta in meaning "cast off" i. e. man of a so -- called low tribe. See also avakirati 2.


-- [cp. Sk. apakramati, apa + kram] to go away, depart, go to one side J iii.27; Sdhp 294. -- aor. apakkami Pv iv.75; ger. apakkamitvā PvA 43, 124, & apakkamma Pv ii.928.


-- [apa + gam] to go away, turn aside DhA i.401 (˚gantvā). -- pp. apagata (q. v.).


-- [pp. of apagacchati] 1. gone, gone away from (c. abl.), removed; deceased, departed It 112; PvA 39, 63 (= peta), 64 (= gata). -- 2. (˚ -- ) freq. as prefix, meaning without, lit. having lost, removed from; free from Vin ii.129 (˚gabbhā having lost her foetus, having a miscarriage); J i.61 (˚vattha without clothes); PvA 38 (˚soka free from grief), 47 (˚lajja not shy), 219 (˚vi˝˝āṇa without feeling). -- Cp. apakata.


-- (adj.) [a + pa + gabbha] not entering another womb, i. e. not destined to another rebirth Vin iii.3.


-- [Sk. apagama] going away, disappearance Sdhp 508.


-- (apānga) [Sk. apānga] the outer corner of the eye J iii.419 (asitÔpangin black -- eyed); iv.219 (bahi˚). Spelt avanga at Vin ii.267, where the phrase avangaŋ karoti, i. e. expld. by Bdhgh. ibid p. 327 as "avangadese adhomukhaŋ lekhaŋ karonti". According to Kern, Toev. 20, Bdhgh's expln is not quite correct, since avanga stands here in the meaning of "a coloured mark upon the body" (cp. PW. apānga).


-- [fr. apa + ci] falling off, diminution (opp. ācaya gathering, heaping up), unmaking, esp. loss (of wordliness), decrease (of possibility of rebirth Vin ii.2 = iii.21 = iv.213; cp. J iii.342; S ii.95 (kāyassa ācayo pi apacayo pi); A iv.280 = Vin ii.259 (opp. ācaya); J iii.342 (sekho ˚ena na tappati); Vbh 106, 319, 326, 330. [p051] -- gāmin going towards decrease, "making for the undoing of rebirth" (Dhs trsl. 82) A v.243, 277; Dhs 277, 339, 505, 1014; Vbh 12, 16 sq.; Nett 87 (cp. Kvu 156).

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-- [fr. apa -- ci, cp. cināti & cayati, with diff. meaning in Sk.; better expld. perhaps as denom. fr. *apacāya in meaning of apacāyana, cp. apacita] to honour, respect, pay reverence D i.91 (pūjeti +); J iii.82. <-> Pot. apace (for apaceyya, may be taken to apacināti 2) A iv.245; ThA 72 (here to apacināti 1). -- pp. apacita (q. v.).


-- (nt.) [abstr. fr. apa + cāy, which is itself a der. fr. ci, cināti] honouring, honour, worship, reverence J i.220; v.326; DA i.256 (˚kamma); VvA 24 (˚ŋ karoti = a˝jalikaŋ karoti); PvA 104 (˚kara, adj.), 128 (+ paricariya).


-- (adj.) [fr. *apacāya, cp. B.Sk. apacāyaka MVastu i.198; Divy 293] honouring, respecting J iv.94 (vaddha˚, cp. vaddhÔpacāyin); Pv ii.7 8 (jeṭṭha˚); iv.324 (id.). In B.Sk. the corresp. phrase is jyeṣṭhÔpacayaka.


-- (adj.) [fr. *apacāya; cp. apacāyika] honouring, paying homage, revering Sn 325 (vaddha˚ = vaddhānaŋ apaciti karaṇena SnA 332) = Dh 109; J i.47, 132, 201; ii.299; v.325; Miln 206; Sdhp 549.


-- [fr. apa + car, cp. Sk. apa & abhi -- carati] falling off, fault, wrong doing J vi.375.


-- [pp. of apacayati or apacināti] honoured, wors- hipped, esteemed Th 1, 186; J ii.169; iv.75; Vv 510 (= pūjita VvA 39); 3511 (cp. VvA 164); Miln 21.


-- (f.) [Vedic apaciti in diff. meaning, viz. expiation] honour, respect, esteem, reverence Th 1, 589; J i.220; ii.435; iii.82; iv.308; vi.88; Miln 180, 234 (˚ŋ karoti), 377 (pūjana +); SnA 332 (˚karaṇa). Cp. apacāyana.


-- [apa + cināti] 1. [in meaning of Sk. apacīyate cp. P. upaciyyati Pass. of upacināti] to get rid of, do away with, (cp. apacaya), diminish, make less S iii.89 (opp. ācināti); Th 1, 807; J iv.172 (apacinethɔ eva kāmāni = viddhaŋseyyatha C.). Here belong prob. aor. 3rd pl. apaciyiŋsu (to be read for upacciŋsu) at J vi. 187 (akkhīni a. "the eyes gave out") and Pot. pres. apace ThA 72 (on v.40). -- 2. [= apacayati] to honour, esteem; observe, guard Vin i.264 (apacinayamāna cīvaraŋ (?) v. l apacitiyamāna; trsl. guarding his claim is, Vin Texts); M i.324 (see detail under apaviṇāti) Th 1, 186 (grd. apacineyya to be honoured); J v.339 (anapacinanto for T. anupacinanto, v. l. anapavinati). -- pp. apacita (q.v.).


-- [Vedic apatya nt.; der. fr. apa] offspring, child D i.90 (bandhupāda˚ cp. muṇḍaka), 103 (id.); S i.69 (an˚) Sn 991; DA i.254.


-- (adj.) [a + paṭi + akkha] unseen; in instr. f. apaccakkhāya as adv. without being seen, not by direct evidence Miln 46 sq.


-- (adj.) [a + paccha + purima] "neither after nor before", i. e. at the same time, simultaneous J iii.295.


-- (adj.) [a + pajaha] not giving up, greedy, miserly A iii.76 (v. l. apānuta; C. expls. (a)vaḍḍhinissita mānatthaddha).


-- (nt.) [pp. of apa + ji] defeat Dh. 105.


-- [apa + jhāyati1; cp. Sk. abhi -- dhyāyati] to muse, meditate, ponder, consider M i.334 (nijjhāyati +); iii.14 (id.).


-- (adj.) = apa˝˝a, ignorant Dpvs vi.29.


-- [Caus. fr. apa -- tiṭṭhati, cp. Sk. apa + sthā to stand aloof] to put aside, leave out, neglect J iv.308; v.236.


-- (adj.) [a + paṇṇaka; see paṇṇaka; Weber Ind. Str. iii.150 & Kuhn, Beitr. p. 53 take it as *a -- praśna -- ka] certain, true, absolute M i.401, 411; A v.85, 294, 296; J i.104 (where expld as ekaŋsika aviruddha niyyānika).


-- (f.) [abstr. of apaṇṇaka] certainty, absolu- teness S iv.351 sq.


-- only in khārāpatācch˚ (q. v.) a kind of torture.


-- ╣ (adj.) [Sk. apāsta, pp. of apa + as2] thrown away Dh 149 (= chaḍḍita DhA iii.112).


-- ▓ 2nd pl. pret. of pāpunāti (q. v.).


-- = avatthaṭa covered Th 1, 759.


-- & apatthiya see pattheti.


-- (nt.) 1. [= Sk. apadāna] removing, breaking off, D iii.88. -- 2. [= Sk. avadāna cp. ovāda] advice, admonition, instruction, morals Vin ii.4 (an˚ not taking advice), 7 (id.) M i.96; A v.337 sq. (saddhā˚) Th 1, 47. -- 3. legend, life history. In the title Mahāpadāna suttanta it refers to the 7 Buddhas. In the title Apadānaŋ, that is ʻ the stories ʼ, it refers almost exclusively to Arahants. The other, (older), connotation seems to have afterwards died out. See Dialogues ii.3. -- Cp. also pariyāpadāna.


-- [fr apa + diś] reference, testimony, witness DhA ii.39.


-- [apa + disati] to call to witness, to refer to, to quote Vin iii.159; J i.215; iii.234; iv.203; Miln 270; DhA ii.39; Nett 93.


-- [cp. Sk. apadeśa] 1. reason, cause, argument M i.287 (an˚). -- 2. statement, designation PvA 8. -- 3. pretext J iii.60; iv.13; PvA 154. Thus also apadesaka J vi.179.


-- [Caus. of apa + dhṛ, cp. Sk. ava -- dhārayati, but also BSk. apadhārayati Divy 231] to observe, request, ask ThA 16.


-- [pp. of apanamati] "bent away", drawn aside, in ster. combn. abhinata + apanata ("strained forth & strained aside" Mrs Rh. D. Kindred S. p. 39) M i.386; S i.28.


-- [semantically doubtful] to go away Sn 1102 (apanamissati, v. l. apalām˚ & apagam˚; expld at Nd2 60 by vajissati pakkhamissati etc. -- pp. apanata (q. v.) <-> Caus. apanāmeti.


-- [Caus. fr. apanamati] 1. to take away, remove M i.96 = A i.198 (kathaŋ bahiddhā a. carry outside); Kh viii.4 (= a˝˝aŋ ṭhānaŋ gameti KhA 220). -- 2. [= Sk. ava -- namati] to bend down, lower, put down Vin ii.208 (chattaŋ); S i.226 (id.); J ii.287 (id., v. l. apanetvā); D i.126 (hatthaŋ, for salute).


-- (& apanidheti) [apa + ni + dhā, cp. Vedic apadhā hiding -- place; Sk. apadadhāti = Gr. a)poti(qhmi = Lat. abdo "do away"] to hide, conceal Vin iv.123 (˚dheti, ˚dheyya, ˚dhessati); PvA 215 (˚dhāya ger.). -- pp. apanihita. -- Caus. apanidhāpeti to induce somebody to conceal Vin iv.123.


-- [pp. of apanidahati] concealed, in abstr. ˚ttaŋ (nt.) hiding, concealing, theft PvA 216.


-- [Sk. apanīta, pp. of apa + nī, see apaneti & cp. also onīta = apanīta] taken away or off. removed, dispelled PvA 39.


-- & apanudeti [apa + nud, cp. Vedic apanudati & Caus. Sk. apanodayati] to push or drive away, remove, dispel; pres. apanudeti Miln 38. aor. apānudi Pv i.86 (= apanesi PvA 41); ii.314 (= avahari aggahesi PvA 86); Dāvs i.8. ger. apanujja D ii.223. See also der. apanudana.

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-- & apanūdana (nt.) [Sk. apanodana, fr. apa- nudati] taking or driving away, removal Vin ii.148 = J i.94 (dukkha˚); Sn 252 (id.); PvA 114 (id.).


-- [n. ag. fr. apanudati, Sk. apanoditṛ] remover, dispeller D iii.148.


-- [apa + ] to lead away, take or put away, remove J i.62, 138; ii.4, 155 (aor. apānayi) iii.26; Miln 188, 259, 413; PvA 41, 74, 198 (= harati) Sdhp 63. Pass. apanīyati S i.176. -- pp. apanīta (q. v.).


-- [apa + pibati] to drink from something J ii.126 (aor. apāpāsi).


-- & apabyūhati [apa + vi + ūh] to push off, remove, scrape away A iii.187 (apaviyūhitvā, vv. ll. ˚bbūhitvā); J i.265 (paŋsuŋ). -- Caus. ˚byūhāpeti to make remove or brush J iv.349 (paŋsuŋ).


-- see apavyāma.


-- [Sk. apasmāra] epilepsy Vin i.93. Cp. apasmāra.


-- (adj.) [cp. Sk. apasmārin] epileptic Vin iv.8, 10, 11.


-- [Sk. apayāti, apa + ] to go away J vi.183 (apāyāti metri causa; expld. by C. as apagacchati palāyati). -- Caus. apayāpeti [Sk. apayāpayati] to make go, drive away, dismiss M iii.176; S ii.119.


-- (nt.) [Sk. apayāna, fr. apayāti] going away, retreat D i.9 (opp. upa˚); DA i.95.


-- (adj.) [Vedic apara, der. fr. apa with compar. suffix -- ra = Idg. *aporos "further away, second"; cp. Gr. a)pwte/rw farther, Lat. aprilis the second month (after March, i. e. April). Goth. afar = after] another, i. e. additional, following, next, second (with pron. inflexion, i. e. nom. pl. apare) D iii.190 (˚pajā another, i. e. future generation); Sn 791, 1089 (nɔ); J i.59 (aparaŋ divasaŋ on some day following); iii.51 (apare tayo sahāyā "other friends three", i. e. three friends, cp. similarly Fr. nous autres Franc˚ais); iv.3 (dīpa); PvA 81 (˚divase on another day), 226; with other part. like aparo pi D iii 128. -- nt. aparaŋ what follows i. e. future state, consequence; future Vin i.35 (nÔparaŋ nothing more); Sn 1092 (much the same as punabbhava, cp. Nd2 61). Cases adverbially; aparaŋ (acc.) further, besides, also J i.256; iii.278; often with other part. like athÔparaŋ & further, moreover Sn 974; and puna cɔ aparaŋ It 100; Miln 418 (so read for puna ca paraŋ) and passim; aparam pi Vism 9. -- aparena in future D iii.201. -- Repeated (reduplicative formation) aparÔparaŋ (local) to & fro J i.265, 278; PvA 198; (temporal) again and again, off & on J ii.377; Miln 132 VvA 271; PvA 176 (= punappunaŋ).
-- anta (aparanta) = aparaŋ, with anta in same function as in cpds. vananta (see anta1 5): (a.) further away, westward J v.471; Miln 292 (janapada). (b.) future D i.30 (˚kappika, cp. DA i.118); M ii.228 (˚Ônudiṭṭhi -- thought of the future); S iii.46 (id.). -- Ôpariya (fr. aparÔpara) ever -- following, successive, continuous, everlasting; used with ref. to kamma J v.106; Miln 108. -- bhāga the future, lit. a later part of time, only in loc. aparabhāge at a future date, later on J i.34, 262; iv.1; VvA 66.


-- (adv.) [Sk. apare -- dyus] on the foll. day Vin ii.167; S i.186; Miln 48.


-- [Sk. aparādhyate, apa + rādh] to sin or offend against (c. loc.) Vin ii.78 = iii.161; J v.68; vi.367; Miln 189; PvA 263. -- pp. aparaddha & aparādhita (q. v.).


-- (nt.) [apara + aṇṇa = anna] "the other kind of cereal", prepared or cooked cereals, pulse etc. Opp. to pubbaṇṇa the unprepared or raw corn (= āmakadha˝˝a Vin iv.265; Vin iii.151 (pubb˚ +); iv.265, 267; A iv. 108, 112 (tila -- mugga -- māsā˚; opp. sāli -- yavaka etc.); Nd2 314 (aparaṇṇaŋ nāma sūpeyyaŋ); J v.406 (˚jā = hareṇukā, pea); Miln 106 (pubbaṇṇa˚). See also dha˝˝a & harita.


-- [pp. of aparajjhati] missed (c. acc.), gone wrong, failed, sinned (against = loc.) D i.91, 103, 180; S i.103 (suddhimaggaŋ); Th 1, 78; Sn 891 (suddhiŋ = viraddha khalita Nd1 300); PvA 195.


-- (adj.) [a + para + paccaya] not dependent or relying on others Vin i.12 (vesārajja -- ppatta +); D i.110 (id.); M ii 41; M i.491; S iii.83; DA i.278 (= nÔssa paro paccayo).


-- (adj.) [Vedic aparājita; a + parājita] unconquered Sn 269; J i.71, 165.


-- [fr. apa + rādh] sin, fault, offence, guilt J i.264 (nir˚); iii.394; iv.495; VvA 69; PvA 87, 116.


-- (adj.) [fr. aparādha, cp. Sk. aparādhin] guilty, offending, criminal J ii.117 (vāja˚); Miln 149 (issara˚), 189 (aparādhikatā).


-- [pp. of aparādheti, Caus. of apa + rādh; cp. aparaddha] transgressed, sinned, failing J v.26 (so read for aparadhɔ ito).


-- (adj.) [a + parāyin, cp. parāyana] having no sup- port J iii.386 (f. ˚ī; C. appatiṭṭhā appaṭisaraṇā).


-- see apalāsin [Sk. apalāpin "denying, concealing" different].


-- [apa + lāḷeti] to draw over to Vin i.85.


-- (adj.) [a + palāyin] not running away, steadfast, brave, fearless Nd2 13 (abhīru anutrāsin apalāyin as expln. of acchambhin and vīra); J iv.296; v.4 (where C. gives variant "apalāpinī ti pi pāṭho", which latter has v. l. apalāsinī & is expld. by C. as palāpa -- rahite anavajjasarīre p. 5). See also apalāsin.


-- (adj.) [apaḷāsin; but spelling altogether uncertain. There seems to exist a confusion between the forms apalāyin, apalāpin & apalāsin, owing to freq. miswriting of s, y, p in MSS. (cp. Nd2 introd. p. xix.). We should be inclined to give apalāsin, as the lectio difficilior, the preference. The expln. at Pug 22 as "yassa puggalassa ayaŋ paḷāso pahīno ayaŋ vuccati puggalo apaḷāsī" does not help us to clear up the etym. nor the vv. ll.] either "not neglectful, pure, clean" (= apalāpin fr. palāsa chaff, cp. apalāyin at J v.4), or "not selfish, not hard, generous" (as inferred from combn. with amakkhin & amaccharin), or "brave, fearless, energetic" (= apalāyin) D iii.47, cp. Pug 22. See palāsin.


-- & apalibodha [a + palibuddha, pp. of pari + bṛh, see palibujjhati] unobstructed, unhindered, free J iii. 381 (˚bodha); Miln 388; DhA iii.198.


-- (nt.) [apa + lekhana from likh in meaning of lih, corresponding to Sk. ava -- lehana] licking off, in cpd. hatthÔpalekhana "hand -- licking" (i. e. licking one's hand after a meal, the practice of certain ascetics) M 177 (with v. l. hatthÔvalekhana M i.535; Trenckner compares BSk. hastapralehaka Lal. Vist. 312 & hastÔvalehaka ibid. 323), 412; Pug 55 (expld. at Pug A 231 as hatthe piṇḍamhe niṭṭhite jivhāya hatthaŋ apalekhati).


-- [apa + lekhati in meaning of Sk. avalihati] to lick off Pug A 231 (hatthaŋ).


-- in "so ɔpalepa patito jarāgharo" at Th 2, 270 is to be read as "so palepa˚". Morris's interpret. J.P.T.S. 1886, 126 therefore superfluous.


-- (nt.) [fr. apaloketi] permission, leave, in ˚kamma proposal of a resolution, obtaining leave (see kamma i.3) Vin ii.89; iv.152.


-- [pp. of apaloketi; Sk. avalokita] 1. asked per- mission, consulted S iii.5. -- 2. (nt.) permission, consent, M i.337 (NāgÔpalokitaŋ apalokesi). -- 3. (nt.) an Ep. of Nibbāna S iv.370.

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-- (adj.) [Sk. avalokin] "looking before oneself", looking at, cautious Miln 398.


-- [BSk. ava -- lokayati] 1. to look ahead, to look before, to be cautious, to look after M i.557 (v. l. for apaciṇāti, where J v.339 C. has avaloketi); Miln 398. <-> 2. to look up to, to obtain permission from (acc.), to get leave, to give notice of Vin iii.10, 11; iv.226 (anapaloketvā = anāpucchā), 267 (+ āpucchitvā); M i.337; S iii.95 (bhikkhusanghaŋ anapaloketvā without informing the Sangha); J vi.298 (vājānaŋ); DhA i.67. -- pp. apalokita (q. v.). See also apalokana & ˚lokin.


-- [Sk. apavarga] completion, end, final delivery, Nibbāna; in phrase saggÔpavagga Dāvs ii.62; iii.75.


-- [apa + vṛt, cp. Lat. āverto] to turn away or aside, to go away J iv.347 (v. l. apasakkati).


-- [apa + vadati] to reproach, reprove, reject, despise D i.122 (= paṭikkhipati DA i.290); S v.118 (+ paṭikkosati).


-- [apa + vahati] to carry or drive away; Caus. apavāheti to remove, give up Miln 324 (kaddamaŋ).


-- at Pv iii 82 is to be read apaviddha (q. v.).


-- is probably misreading for apaciṇāti (see apac˚ 2). As v. l. at J v.339 (anapavinanto) for T. anupacinanto (expld. by avaloketi C.). Other vv. ll. are anuvi˚ & apavī˚; meaning "not paying attention". The positive form we find as apavīṇati "to take care of, to pay attention to" (c. acc.) at M i.324, where Trenckner unwarrantedly assumes a special root veṇ (see Notes p. 781), but the vv. ll. to this passage (see M. i.557) with apavīṇāti and apacinati confirm the reading apaciṇāti, as does the gloss apaloketi.


-- [pp. of apavijjhati, Vedic apa + vyadh] thrown away, rejected, discarded, removed S i.202; iii.143; Sn 200 (susānasmiŋ = chaḍḍita SnA 250); Th 1, 635 = Dh 292 (= chaḍḍita DhA iii.452); Pv iii.82 (susānasmiŋ; so read for T. apaviṭṭha); J i.255; iii.426; yi.90 (= chaḍḍita C.). Sdhp 366.


-- see appabbūhati.


-- see apaviṇāti (= apaciṇāti).


-- [apa + vyāma] disrespect, neglect, in phrase apayvāmato (apaby˚) karoti to treat disrespectfully, to insult, defile S i.226 (v. l. abyāmato; C. expls. apabyāmato karitvā abyāmato katvā); Kvu 472 (vv. ll. asabyākato, abyāto, apabyāto; Kvu trsl. 270 n. 1 remarks: "B. trsl.: abyāsakato. The Burmese scholar U. Pandi, suggests we should read apabyākato, by which he understands blasphemously"; it is here combd. with niṭṭhubhati, as at DhA ii.36); DhA ii.36 ("want of forbearance" Ed.; doubtful reading; vv. ll. appabyāyakamma & apasāma). For further detail see apasavya.


-- [apa + sakkati] to go away, to go aside J iv.347 (v. l. for apavattati); VvA 101; PvA 265 (aor. ˚sakki = apakkami).


-- (adj.) [apa + savya] right (i. e. not left), con- trary Ud 50 (T. has niṭṭhubhitvā abyāmato karitvā; vv. ll. are apabhyāmāto, abhyāmato & C. apasabyāmato), where C. expls. apasabyāmato karitvā by apasabyaŋ katvā, "which latter corresponds in form but not in meaning to Sk. apasavyaŋ karoti to go on the right side" (Morris J P T S. 1886, 127). -- See apavyāma.


-- [fr. apa + sad] putting down, blame, dispara- gement M iii.230.


-- [pp. of apasādeti] blamed, reproached, disparaged S ii.219; SnA 541.


-- [Caus. of apa + sad] 1. to refuse, decline Vin iv.213, 263; J v.417 (= uyyojeti). -- 2. to depreciate, blame, disparage Vin iii.101; M iii.230 (opp. ussādeti); DA i.160. -- pp. apasādita (q. v.).


-- [Sk. apasmāra, lit. want of memory, apa + smṛ] epilepsy, convulsion, fit J iv.84. Cp. apamāra.


-- etc. see passati.


-- [cp. Sk. apāśraya, fr. apasseti] 1. support, rest ThA 258. -- 2. bed, bolster, mattress, in kaṇṭak˚ a mattress of thorns, a bolster filled with thorns (as cushion for asceties) M i.78; J i 493; iii.235. -- sÔppassaya with a head rest J iv.299.
-- pīṭhaka a chair with a head -- rest J iii.235.


-- (adj.) [fr. apassaya; cp. Sk. apāśrayin -- ˚] reclining on, in kaṇṭaka˚ one who lies on a bed of thorns (see kaṇṭaka) M i.78; J iv.299 (v. l, kaṇḍikesayika); Pug 55.


-- [pp. of apasseti] 1. leaning against J ii.69 (tāla- mūlaŋ = nissāya ṭhita C.). -- 2. depending on, trusting in (c. acc. or loc.) Vv 101 (parÔgāraŋ = nissita VvA 101); J iv.25 (balamhi = balanissita). See also avassita.


-- [Sk. apāśrayati, apa + ā + sri] to lean against, have a support in (acc.), to depend on. -- 1. (lit.) lean against Vin ii.175 (bhitti apassetabbo the wall to be used as a head -- rest). -- 2. (fig.) mostly in ger. apassāya dependent upon, depending on, trusting in (loc. or acc. or -- ˚) Vin iii.38; J i.214; PvA 189. -- pp. apassita (q. v.). -- See also avasseti.


-- (nt.) [fr. apasseti] a rest, support, dependence M iii.127 (˚ka); D iii.224 (cattāri apassenāni); as adj. caturÔpassena one who has the fourfold support viz. sankhāyɔ ekaŋ paṭisevati, adhivāseti, parivajjeti, vinodeti A v.30.
-- phalaka (cp. Morris J.P.T.S. 1884, 71) a bolsterslab, head -- rest Vin i.48; ii.175, 209.


-- [n. ag. to apaharati] one who takes away or removes, destroyer M i 447 = Kvu 528.


-- [Sk. apahāra, fr. apaharati] taking away, stealing, robbing J ii.34.


-- (nt.) = apahara Miln 195.


-- [apa + hṛ] to take away, remove, captivate, rob J iii.315 (aor. apahārayiŋ); Miln 413; DA i.38.


-- (f.) [a + pākaṭa + tā] unfitness Miln 232 (v. l. apākatatta perhaps better).


-- (adj.) [a + pākata + ika] not in proper or natural shape, out of order, disturbed DhA ii.7. Cp. appakāra.


-- (adj.) [Vedic apācīna; cp. apācaḥ & apāka, western; to Lat. opācus, orig. turned away (from the east or the sun) i. e. opposite, dark] westerly, backward, below S iii.84; It 120 (apācīnaŋ used as adv. and taking here the place of adho in combn. with uddhaŋ tiriyaŋ; the reading is a conjecture of Windisch's, the vv. ll. are apācinaŋ; apācini, apāci & apāminaŋ, C. expls. by heṭṭhā).


-- (adj.) [a + pātu + ka (?), acc. to Morris J.P.T.S. 1893, 7 der. fr. apaṭu not sharp, blunt, uncouth. This is hardly correct. See pātur] not open, sly, insidious Th 1, 940 (as v. l. for T. avāṭuka, trsl. by Mrs. Rh. D. as "unscrupulous", by Neumann as "ohne Redlichkeit"). Context suggests a meaning similar to the preceding nekatika, i. e. fraudulent. See also next.


-- (adj.) [a + pātu + bha (?), at the only passage changed by Morris J. P. T. S. 1893, 7 to apāṭuka but [p054] without reason] = apāṭuka, i. e. sly, fraudulent J iv.184 (in context with nekatika; C. expls. apāṭubhāva dhanuppāda -- virahita, in which latter virahita does not fit in; the pass. seems corrupt).

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apāda (?)
-- [apa + ā + ] giving away in marriage J iv. 179 (in expln. of anāpāda unmarried; reading should prob. be āpāda = pariggaha).


-- (adj.) [a + pāda + ka] not having feet, footless, creeping, Ep. of snakes & fishes Vin ii.110 = J ii.146 (where see expln.). Spelt apada(ka) at It 87 (v. l. apāda).


-- (nt.) breathing out, respiration (so Ch.; no ref. in P. Cauon?) On Prāṇa & Apāna see G. W. Brown in J. Am. Or. Soc. 39, 1919 pp. 104 -- 112. See ānāpāna.


-- (nt.) [a + pānaka + ttaŋ] "waterless state", living without drinking water J v.243.


- (adj.) [a + pāpaka] guiltless, innocent f. ˚ikā Vv 314; 326.


-- (adj.) [apa + ā + pata] falling down into (c. acc.) J iv.234 (aggiŋ).


-- (nt.) [fr. apāpurati] a key (to a door) Vin i.80; iii.119; M iii.127. See also avāpuraṇa.


apāpurati & apāpuṇati
-- [Sk. apāvṛṇoti, apa + ā + vṛ, but Vedic only apa -- vṛṇoti corresponding to Lat. aperio = *apa -- ṷerio. On form see Trenckner, Notes 63] to open (a door) Vin i.5 (apāpurɔ etaŋ Amatassa dvāraŋ: imper.; where id. p. S i.137 has avāpur˚, T., but v. l. apāpur˚); Vv 6427 (apāpuranto Amatassa dvāraŋ, expld. at VvA 284 by vivaranto); It 80 (apāvuṇanti A. dv. as T. conj., with v. l. apānuṃanti, apāpurenti & apāpuranti). -- pp. apāruta (q. v.). -- Pass. apāpurīyati [cp. BSk. apāvurīyati M Vastu ii.158] to be opened M iii.184 (v. l. avā˚); J i.63 (avā˚); Th 2, 494 (apāpuṇitvā). See also avāpurati.


-- [pp. of apa + ā + bhṛ cp. Vedic apa -- bharati, but Lat. aufero to ava˚] taken away, stolen J iii.54.


-- [Sk. apāya, fr. apa + i, cp. apeti] "going away" viz. -- 1. separation, loss Dh 211 (piya˚ = viyoga DhA iii.276). -- 2. loss (of property) D iii.181, 182; A ii. 166; iv.283; J iii.387 (atth˚). -- 3. leakage, out flow (of water) D i.74; A ii.166; iv.287. -- 4. lapse, falling away (in conduct) D i.100. -- 5. a transient state of loss and woe after death. Four such states are specified purgatory (niraya), rebirth as an animal, or as a ghost, or as a Titan (Asura). Analogous expressions are vinipāta & duggati. All combined at D i.82; iii.111; A i.55; It 12, 73; Nd2 under kāya; & freq. elsewhere. -- apāyaduggativinipāta as attr. of saŋsāra S ii.92, 232; iv.158, 313; v.342; opp. to khīṇÔpāya -- duggati -- vinipāta of an Arahant A iv.405; v.182 sq. -- See also foll. pass.: M iii.25 (anapāya); Sn 231; Th 2, 63; J iv.299; Pug 51; VvA 118 (opp. sugati); PvA 103; Sdhp 43, 75 & cp. niraya, duggati, vinipāta.
-- gāmin going to ruin or leading to a state of suffering DhA iii.175; cp. ˚gamanīya id. Ps. i.94, ˚gamanīyatā J iv.499. -- mukha "facing ruin", leading to destruction (= vināsa -- mukha DA i.268), usually as nt. "cause of ruin" D i.101 (cattāri apāya mukhāni); iii.181, 182 (cha bhogānaŋ a˚ -- mukhāni, i. e. causes of the loss of one's possessions); A ii.166; iv.283, 287. -- samudda the ocean of distress DhA iii 432. -- sahāya a spendthrift companion D iii.185.


-- (adj.) [also as āpāyika (q. v.); fr. apāya] belonging to the apāyas or states of misery D i.103; iii.6, 9, 12; It 42; PvA 60 (dukkha).


-- (adj.) [fr. apāya] going away J i.163 (aḍḍha- rattāvɔapāyin = aḍḍharatte apāyin C.). -- an˚ not going away, i. e. constantly following (chāyā anapāyinī, the shadow) Dh 2; Th 1, 1041; Miln 72.


-- (nt.) [a + pāra] 1. the near bank of a river J iii.230 (+ atiṇṇaŋ, C. paratīraŋ atiṇṇaŋ). -- 2. (fig.) not the further shore (of life), the world here, i.e. (opp. pāraŋ = Nibbāna) Sn 1129, 1130; Nd2 62; Dh 385 (expld. as bāhirāni cha āyatanāni DhA iv.141). See pāra & cp. avara.


-- (adj.) [grd. of paraneti + a˚] that which cannot be achieved, unattainable J vi.36 (= apāpetabba).


-- [Sk. apāvṛta, pp. of apāpurati] open (of a door) Vin i.7 = M i.169 (apārutā tesaŋ Amatassa dvārā); D i.136 (= vivaṭa -- dvāra DA i.297); J i.264 (˚dvāra).


-- ["a Vedic term for the hinder part of a carriage" Morris J P T S. 1886, 128; the "Vedic" unidentified] a mechanism to stop a chariot, a safe guard "to prevent warriors from falling out" (C.) S i.33 (Mrs Rh. D. trsl. "leaning board"); J vi.252 (v. l. upā˚; Kern trsl. "remhout", i. e. brake).


-- [pp. of apa + hṛ] driven off or back, refuted, refused Sn 826 (˚smiŋ = apasādite vade SnA 541).


-- (indecl.) [Sk. api & pi; Idg. *epi *pi *opi; cp. Gr. e)/pi on to, o)/pi (o)/piqen behind, o)pi/ssa back = close at one's heels); Lat. ob. in certain functions; Goth. iftuma. <-> The assimil. form before vowels is app˚ (= Sk. apy˚). See further details under pi.] both prep. & conj., orig. meaning "close by", then as prep. "towards, to, on to, on" and as adv. "later, and, moreover". -- 1 (prep. & pref.) (a) prep. c. loc.: api ratte later on in the night (q. v.) -- (b) pref.: apidhāna putting on to; apiḷahati bind on to, apihita (= Gr. e)piqeto/s, epithet) put on to, (q. v.). -- 2. (conj. & part.). (a) in affirmative sentences meaning primarily "moreover, further, and then, even": -- (a) (single) prothetic: api dibbesu kāmesu even in heavenly joys Dh 187; ko disvā na pasīdeyya api kaṇhÔbhijātiko even an unfortunate -- born Sn 563 api yojanāni gacchāma, even for leagues we go Pv iv.107 (= anekāni yojanāni pi g. PvA 270. Epithetic (more freq. in the form pi): muhuttam api even a little while Dh 106, 107; aham api daṭṭhukāmo I also wish to see Sn 685. Out of prothetic use (= even = even if) develops the conditional meaning of "if", as in api sakkuṇemu (and then we may = if we may) J v.24 (c. = api nāma sakkuṇeyyāma; see further under b appɔeva nāma). -- api -- api in correlation corresponds to Lat. et -- et Sk ca -- ca, meaning both . . . and, and . . . as well as, & is esp. freq. in combn. app' ekacce . . . app' ekacce (and) some . . . and others, i. e. some . . . others [not with Kern Toev. s. v. to appa!], e. g. at D i.118; Th 2, 216; VvA 208, etc. -- app' ekadā "morever once" = sometimes Vin iv.178; S i.162; iv.111; J i.67; DhA iii.303, etc. -- (b) (in combn with other emphatic or executive particles) api ca further, and also, moreover D i.96; Miln 25, 47. -- api ca kho moreover, and yet, still, all the same It 89 (+ pana v. l.); Miln 20, 239. -- api ca kho pana all the same, never mind, nevertheless J i.253. -- api ssu so much so Vin ii.76. -- app' eva nāma (with pot.) (either) surely, indeed, yes, I reckon, (or) I presume, it is likely that, perhaps Vin i.16 (surely); ii.85 (id.); cp. pi D i.205 (sve pi upasaŋkameyyāma tomorrow I shall surely come along), 226 (siyā thus shall it be); M i.460 = It 89 (moreover, indeed); J i.168 (surely) Vin ii.262 (perhaps) J v.421 (id., piyavācaŋ labheyyāma). -- (b) in interrog. -- dubit. sentences as part. of interrog. (w. indic. or pot.) corresponding to Lat. nonne, i e. awaiting an affirmative answer ("not, not then"): api Yasaŋ kulaputtaŋ passeyya do you not see . . . Vin i.16; api samaṇa balivadde addasā have you not then seen . . . S i.115; api ki˝ci labhāmase shall we then not get anything? J iii.26; api me pitaraŋ passatha do you then not see my father? PvA 38. -- Also combd. with other interr. part. e. g. api nu J. ii.415.


- (adj.) [a + pitika] fatherless J v.251

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-- [for apidhīyati; api + dhā] Pass. of apidahati to be obstructed, covered, barred, obscured J ii.158. See also pithīyati.


-- [api + dhā, cp. Gr. e)piti(qhmi] to put on (see api 1 b), to cover up, obstruct, J v.60 (inf. apidhetuŋ). pp. apihita, Pass. apithīyati, Der. apidhāna (q. v.).


-- (nt.) [Vedic apidhāna in same meaning] cover, lid Vin i.203, 204; ii.122. See apidahati.


-- [read api ratte, see api 1 a] later in the night J vi.560.


-- (nt.) [fr. api + lap] counting up, repetition [Kern, Toev, s.v. gives der. fr. a + plāvana] Nett 15, 28, 54; Miln 37.


-- (f.) in the pass. at Dhs 14 = Nd2 628 is evidently meant to be taken as a + pilāpana + tā (fr. pilavati, plu), but whether the der. & interpret. of Dhs A is correct, we are unable to say. On general principles it looks like popular etym. Mrs. Rh. D. translates (p. 16) "opposite of superficiality" (lit "not floating"); see her detailed note Dhs trsl. 16.


-- [api + lap] "to talk close by", i. e. to count up, recite, or: talk idly, boast of Miln 37 (sāpatheyyaŋ).


-- (adj.) at Vv 361 should be read as apiḷaddha (= Sk. apinaddha) pp. of apiḷandhati (apiḷandhati) "adorned with", or (with v. l. SS) as apiḷandhana; VvA 167 expls. by analankata, mistaking the a of api for a negation.


-- (nt.) [fr. apiḷandhati, also in shorter (& more usual) form piḷandhana, q. v.] that which is tied on, i.e. band, ornament, apparel, parure Vv 6410, 6418 (expld. inacurately at VvA 279 by; a -- kāro nipātamattaŋ, pilandhanaŋ = ābhāraṇaŋ); J vi.472 (c. pilandhituŋ pi ayuttaŋ?).


-- & apiḷandhati [Sk. apinahyati, on n: ḷ see note on gala, & cp. guṇa: guḷa, veṇu: veḷu etc. On ndh for yh see avanandhati] to tie on, fasten, bind together; to adorn oneself with (acc.) J v.400 (ger. apiḷayha = piḷandhitvā C.) -- Cp. apiḷandhana & pp apiladdha.


-- (adj.) [apihālu? a + piha, uncertain origin, see next. Morris J.P.I.S. 1886 takes it as a + spṛha] "unhankering" (Mrs Rh. D.) S i 181 (+ akankha; v. l. BB asita).


-- (adj.) [a + pihālu, analysed by Fausb÷ll Sn. Gloss. p. 229 as a -- spṛhayālu, but Bdhgh evidently different (see below)] not hankering, free from craving, not greedy S i.187 = Th 1, 1218 (akuhako nipako apihālu); Sn 852 (+ amaccharin, expld. at SnA 549 as apihana -- sīlo, patthanātanhāya rahito ti vuttaŋ hoti, thus perhaps taking it as a + pi (= api) + hana (fr. dhā, cp. pidahati & pihita); cp. also Nd2 227).


-- [pp. of apidahati] covered J iv.4.


-- (f.) [a + pūti + aṇḍa + tā] "not being a rotten egg," i. e. normal state, healthy birth, soundness M i.357.


-- (adj.) [a + pucchā] "not a question", i. e. not to be asked Miln 316.


-- (adj.) [= apekkhā] waiting for, looking for S i.122 (otāra˚).


-- 1. [Sk. apīkṣate, apa + īkṣ] to desire, long for, look for, expect Sn 435 (kāme nɔÔpekkhate cittaŋ), 773 (ppr. apekkhamāna); J iv.226 (id.); Dhs A 365. anapekkhamāna paying no attention to (acc.) Sn 59; J v.359. <-> 2. [Sk. avīkṣate, ava + īkṣ; see avekkḥati] to consider, refer to, look at, ger. apekkhitvā (cp. Sk. avīkṣya) with reference to VvA 13. -- pp. apekkhita (q. v.).


-- (adj.) [fr. apekkhā] full of longing or desire, longing, craving Vin iv.214; S iii.16; Th 1, 558; J v.453 (= sataṇha); Sn A 76.


-- & apekhā (f.) [Sk. apekṣā, fr. apa + īkṣ. The spelling is either kkh or kh, they are both used promiscuously, a tendency towards kh prevailing, as in upekhā, sekha] attention, regard, affection for (loc.); desire, longing for (c. loc.) S i.77; iii.132; v.409 (mātā -- pitusu); Vin iv.214; Sn 38 (= vuccati taṇhā etc. Nd2 65; = taṇhā sineha SnA 76); J i.9, 141; Th 1, 558; Dh 345 (puttesu dāresu ca = taṇhā DhA iv.56); Dhs 1059, 1136 (= ālayakaraṇa -- vasena apekkhatī ti apekkhā Dhs A 365, cp. Dhs trsl. 279). Freq. as adj. ( -- ˚or in combn. with sa˚ and an˚), viz. Vin iii.90 (visuddha˚); S i.122 (otara˚); sa˚ A iii.258, 433; iv.60 sq.; an˚ without consideration, regardless, indifferent S v.164; A iii.252, 347, 434; Sn 200 (anapekkhā honti ˝ātayo); J i.9. Cp. anapekkhin & apekkhavant; also B.Sk. avekṣatā.


-- [pp. of apekkhati] taken care of, looked after, considered J vi.142, 149 (= olokita C.).


-- (adj.) [Sk. apekṣin, but B.Sk. avekṣin, e.g. Jtm 215; fr. apa + īkṣ] considering, regarding, expecting, looking for; usually neg. an˚ indifferent (against) = loc.) S i.16, 77; ii.281; iii.19, 87; Sn 166 (kāmesu), 823 (id.), 857; Dh 346. Cp. apekkhavant.


-- (adj.) [pp. of apeti] gone away; (med.) freed of, rid of, deprived of (instr., abl. or ˚ -- ) Dh 9 (damasaccena); PvA 35 (dukkhato); usually ˚ -- in sense of "without, -- less", e. g. apeta -- kaddama free from mud, stainless Dh 95; ˚vattha without dress J v.16; ˚vi˝˝āṇa without feeling, senseless Dh 41; Th 2, 468; ˚vi˝˝āṇattaŋ senselessness, lack of feeling PvA 63.


-- (nt.) [abstr. to apeta] absence (of) PvA 92.


-- [apa + i, cp. Gr. a)/peimi, Lat. abeo, Goth. af -- iddja] to go away, to disappear D i.180 (upeti pi apeti pi); J i.292; Sn 1143 (= nɔ apagacchanti na vijahanti Nd2 66). -- pp. apeta (q. v.).


-- (f.) [a + petteyyatā, abstr. fr. *paitṛya fatherly] in combn. with amatteyyatā irreverence against father and mother D iii.70 (cp. Dh 332 & DhA iv.34).


-- (adj.) [a + peyya, grd. of ] not to be drunk, not drinkable J vi.205 (sāgara).


-- (nt.) [? of uncertain origin] a means of barring a door Vin ii.154 (Bdhgh. explns on p. 321: apesī ti dīghadārumhi khāṇuke pavesetvā kaṇḍaka -- sākhāhi vinandhitvā kataŋ dvāra -- tthakanakaŋ).


-- (adj.) [ppr. fr. a + peseti (q. v.)] not being in service Vin ii.177.


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-- in appɔ ekacce etc. see api.


-- (adj.) [Vedic alpa, cp. Gr. a)lapa/zw (lapa/zw) to empty (to make little), a)lapadno/s weak; Lith. alpnas weak, alpst¨ to faint] small, little, insignificant, often in the sense of "very little = (next to) nothing" (so in most cpds.); thus expld. at VvA 334 as equivalent to a negative part. (see appodaka) D i.61 (opp. mahant, DA i.170 = parittaka); Sn 713, 775, 805, 896 (= appaka, omaka, thoka, lamaka, jatukka, parittaka Nd1 306); Dh 174; J i.262; Pug 39. -- nt. appaŋ a little, a small portion, a trifle; pl. appāni small things, trifles A ii.26 = It 102; A ii.138; Dh 20 (= thokaŋ eka -- vagga -- dvi -- vagga -- mattam pi DhA i.158), 224 (˚smiŋ yācito asked for little), 259.
-- aggha of little value (opp. mahaggha priceless) J i.9; Pug 33; DhA iv.184. -- assāda [BSk. alpÔsvāda, cp. Divy 224 = Dh 186; alpa + ā + svād] of little taste or enjoyment, affording little pleasure (always used of kāmā) Vin ii.25 = M i.130 = A iii.97 = Nd2 71; Sn 61; Dh [p056] 186 (= supina -- sadisatāya paritta -- sukha DhA iii 240); Th 2, 358 (= ThA 244); J ii.313; Vism 124. -- ātanka little (or no) illness, freedom from illness, good health (= appābādha with which often combd.) [BSk. alpātanka & alpātankatā] D i.204 (+ appābādha); iii.166; A iii.65, 103; Miln 14. -- ābādha same as appātanka (q. v.) D i.204; iii.166, 237; M ii.125; A i.25; ii.88; iii.30, 65 sq., 103, 153; Pv iv.144; ˚ābādhatā id. [cp. BSk. alpābādhatā good health] A i.38. -- āyuka short lived D i.18; PvA 103, also as ˚āyukin Vv 416. -- āhāra taking little or no food, fasting M ii.5; Sn 165 (= ekāsana -- bhojitāya ca parimita -- bhojitāya ca SnA 207), also as ˚āhāratā M i.245; ii.5. -- odaka having little or no water, dry Sn 777 (macche va appodake khīṇasote = parittodake Nd1 50); Vv 843 (+ appabhakkha; expld. at VvA 334 as "appa -- saddo hɔ ettha abhāvattho appiccho appanigghoso ti ādisu viya"); J i.70; DhA iv.12. -- kasira in instr. ˚kasirena with little or no difficulty D i.251; S v.51; Th 1, 16. -- kicca having few duties, free from obligations, free from care Sn 144 (= appaŋ kiccaŋ assā ti KhA 241). -- gandha not smelling or having a bad smell Miln 252 (opp. sugandha). -- ṭṭha "standing in little"; i. e. connected with little trouble D i.143; A i.169. -- thāmaka having little or no strength, weak S iv.206. -- dassa having little knowledge or wisdom Sn 1134 (see Nd2 69; expld. by paritta -- pa˝˝a SnA 605). -- nigghosa with little sound, quiet, still, soundless (cp. VvA 334, as quoted above under ˚odaka) A v.15 (+ appasadda); Sn 338; Nd1 377; Miln 371. -- pa˝˝a, of little wisdom J ii.166; iii.223, 263. -- pu˝˝a of little merit M ii.5. -- pu˝˝atā having little merit, unworthiness Pv iv.107. -- phalatā bringing little fruit PvA 139. -- bhakkha having little or nothing to eat Vv 843. -- bhoga having little wealth, i. e. poor, indigent Sn 114 (= sannicitānaŋ ca bhogānaŋ āyamukhassa ca abhāvato SnA 173). -- ma˝˝ati to consider as small, to underrate: see separately. -- matta little, slight, mean, (usually as ˚ka; not to be confounded with appamatta2) A iii.275; J i.242; also meaning "contented with little" (of the bhikkhu) It 103 = A ii.27; f. ˚ā trifle, smallness, ţnsignificance D i.91; DA i.55. -- mattaka small, insignificant, trifling, nt. a trifle (cp. ˚matta) Vin 1, 213; ii.177 (˚vissajjaka the distributor of little things, cp. A iii.275 & Vin iv.38, 155); D i.3 (= appamattā etassā ti appamattakaŋ DA i.55); J i.167; iii.12 (= aṇu); PvA 262. -- middha "little slothful", i. e. diligent, alert Miln 412. -- rajakkha having little or no obtuseness D ii.37; M i.169; Sdhp 519. -- ssaka having little of one's own, possessing little A i.261; ii.203. -- sattha having few or no companious, lonely, alone Dh 123. -- sadda free from noise, quiet M ii.2, 23, 30; A v.15; Sn 925 (= appanigghosa Nd1 377); Pug 35; Miln 371. -- siddhika bringing little success or welfare, dangerous J iv.4 (= mandasiddhi vināsabahula C.); vi.34 (samuddo a. bahu -- antarāyiko). -- ssuta possessing small knowledge, ignorant, uneducated D i.93 (opp. bahussuta); iii.252, 282; S iv.242; It 59; Dh 152; Pug 20, 62; Dhs 1327. -- harita having little or no grass S i.169; Sn p. 15 (= paritta -- harita -- tiṇa SnA 154).

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-- (adj.) [appa + ka] little, small, trifling; pl. few. nt. ˚ŋ adv. a little D ii.4; A v.232 sq., 253 sq.; Sn 909 (opp. bahu); Dh 85 (appakā = thokā na bahū DhA ii. 160); Pv i.102 (= paritta PvA 48); ii.939; Pug 62; PvA 6, 60 (= paritta). f. appikā J i.228. -- instr. appakena by little, i. e. easily DA i.256. -- anappaka not little, i. e. much, considerable, great; pl. many S iv.46; Dh 144; Pv i.117 (= bahū PvA 58); PvA 24, 25 (read anappake pi for T. ˚appakeci; so also KhA 208).


-- (adj.) [a + pakāra] not of natural form, of bad appearance, ugly, deformed J v.69 (= sarīrappakāra -- rahita dussaṇṭhāna C.). Cp. apākatika.


-- [appa + kiṇṇa, although in formation also = a + pakiṇṇa] little or not crowded, not overheaped A v.15 (C. anākiṇṇa).


-- (adj.) [a + pagabbha] unobtrusive, free from boldness, modest S ii.198 = Miln 389, Sn 144, 852 (cp. Nd1 228 & KhA 232); Dh 245.


-- [a + paccaya] 1. (n.) discontent, dissatisfaction, dejection, sulkiness D i.3 (= appatītā honti tena atuṭṭhā asomanassitā ti appacayo; domanassɔ etaŋ adhivacanaŋ DA i.52); iii.159; M i.442; A i.79, 124, 187; ii.203; iii.181 sq.; iv.168, 193; J ii.277; Sn p. 92 (kapa + dosa + appacaya); Vv 8331 (= domanassaŋ VvA 343); SnA 423 (= appatītaŋ domanassaŋ). -- 2. (adj.) unconditioned Dhs 1084, 1437.


-- [a + paṭi˚] see in general under paṭi˚.


-- (adj.) [a + paṭikārika] "not providing against", i. e. not making good, not making amends for, destructive J v.418 (spelling here & in C. appati˚).


-- [a + paṭikopeti] not to disturb, shake or break (fig.) J v.173 (uposathaŋ).


-- (adj.) [a + paṭikkhippa, grd. of paṭikkhi- pati] not to be refused J ii.370.


-- & ˚iya (adj.) [a + paṭi + gandha + ika] not smelling disagreeable, i. e. with beautiful smell, scented, odorous J v.405 (˚ika, but C. ˚iya; expld. by sugandhena udakena samannāgata); vi.518; Pv ii.120; iii.226.


-- (adj.) [a + paṭigha] (a) not forming an obstacle, not injuring, unobstructive Sn 42 (see expld. at Nd2 239; SnA 88 expls. "katthaci satte vā sankhāre vā bhayena na paṭiha˝˝atī ti a."). -- (b) psychol. t. t. appld. to rūpa: not reacting or impinging (opp. sappaṭigha) D iii.217; Dhs 660, 756, 1090, 1443.


-- (adj.) at Pv ii.113 is faulty reading for sam- patitacchavi (v. l.).


-- (adj) [a + paṭibhāga] not having a counterpart, unequalled, incomparable DhA i.423 (= anuttara).


-- (adj.) [a + paṭibhāṇa] not answering back, bewildered, cowed down Vin iii.162; A iii.57; ˚ŋ karoti to intimidate, bewilder J v.238, 369.


-- (adj.) [a + paṭima fr. prep. paṭi but cp. Vedic apratimāna fr. prati + ] matchless, incomparable, invaluable Th 1, 614; Miln 239.


-- (adj.) [a + paṭi + vattiya = vṛtya, grd. or vṛt] (a) not to be rolled back Sn 554 (of dhammacakka, may however be taken in meaning of b.). -- (b) irresistable J ii.245 (sīhanada). Note. The spelling with ṭ is only found as v. l. at J ii.245; otherwise as t.


-- (nt.) [a + paṭivāṇa, for ˚vrāṇa, the guṇa -- form of vṛ, cp. Sk. prativāraṇa] non -- obstruction, not hindering, not opposing or contradicting A i.50; iii.41; v.93 sq.; adj. J i.326.


-- (f.) [abstr. from (ap)paṭivāṇa] not being hindered, non -- obstruction, free effort; only in phrase "asantuṭṭhitā ca kusalesu dhammesu appaṭivāṇitā ca padhānasmiŋ" (discontent with good states and the not shrinking back in the struggle Dhs trsl. 358) A i.50, 95 = D iii.214 = Dhs 1367.


-- (f.) [almost identical w. appaṭivāṇitā, only used in diff. phrase] non -- hindrance, non -- restriction, free action, impulsive effort; only in stock phrase chando vāyāmo ussāho ussoḷhī appaṭivāṇī S ii.132; v.440; A ii.93, 195; iii.307 sq.; iv.320; Nd2 under chanda C. [cp. similarly Divy 654].


-- (adj.) [grd. of a + paṭi + vṛ; cp. BSk. aprativāṇiḥ Divy 655; M Vastu iii.343] not to be obstructed, irresistible S i.212 (appld. to Nibbāna; Mrs. Rh. D. Kindred S. p. 274 trsls. "that source from whence there is no turning back"), Th 2, 55.

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-- (adj.) [a + paṭi + viddha] "not shot through" i. e. unhurt J vi.446.


-- (˚bhogin) (adj.) [a + paṭi + vibhatta] (not eating) without sharing with others (with omission of another negative: see Trenckner, Miln p. 429, where also Bdhgh's expln.) A iii289; Miln 373; cp. Miln trsl. ii.292.


-- [ger. of a + paṭi + avekkhati] not ob- serving or noticing J iv.4 (= apaccavekkhitvā anavekkhitvā C.).


-- (f.) [a + paṭisankhā] want of judgment Pug 21 = Dhs 1346.


-- (and ˚iya) (adj.) [a + paṭisandhi + ka (ya)] 1. what cannot be put together again, unmendable, irreparable (˚iya) Pv i.129 (= puna pākatiko na hoti PvA 66) = J iii.167 (= paṭipākatiko kātuŋ na sakkā C.). <-> 2. incapable of reunion, not subject to reunion, i. e. to rebirth J v.100 (˚bhāva).


-- (adj.) [a + paṭi = sama; cp. BSk. apratisama M Vastu i.104] not having it's equal, incomparable J i.94 (Baddha -- sirī).


-- (f.) [a + paṭissavatā] want of deference Pug 20 = Dhs 1325.


-- (adj.) [a + paṇihita] aimless, not bent on anything, free from desire, usually as nt. aimlessness, combd. w. animittaŋ Vin iii.92, 93 = iv.25; Dhs 351, 508, 556. See on term Cpd. 67; Dhs trsl. 93, 143 & cp. paṇihita.


-- (adj.) [a + patiṭṭha] 1. not standing still S i.1. -- 2. without a footing or ground to stand on, bottomless Sn 173.


-- (& appaṭissa) (adj.) [a + paṭi + śru] not docile, rebellious, always in combn. with agārava A ii.20; iii.7 sq., 14 sq., 247, 439. Appatissa -- vāsa an unruly state, anarchy J ii.352. See also paṭissā.


-- (adj.) [a + patīta, of prati + i, Sk. pratīta] dis- satisfied, displeased, disappointed (cp. appaccaya) J v.103 (at this passage preferably to be read with v. l. as appatika = without husband, C. expls. assāmika), 155 (cp. C. on p. 156); DA i.52; SnA 423.


-- (adj.) [a + paduṭṭha] not corrupt, faultless, of good behaviour Sn 662 (= padosÔbhāvena a. SnA 478); Dh 137 (= niraparādha DhA iii.70).


-- (adj.) [= appadhaŋsiya, Sk. apradhvaŋsya] not to be destroyed J iv.344 (v. l. duppadhaŋsa).


-- (& ˚iya) (adj.) [grd. of a + padhaŋseti] not to be violated or destroyed, inconquerable, indestructible D iii.175 (˚ika, v. l. ˚iya); J iii.159 (˚iya); VvA 208 (˚iya); PvA 117 (˚iya). Cp. appadhaŋsa.


-- (adj.) [pp. of a + padhaŋseti] not violated, unhurt, not offended Vin iv.229.


-- (f.) [cp. Sk. arpaṇa, abstr. fr. appeti = arpayati from of , to fix, turn, direct one's mind; see appeti] application (of mind), ecstasy,fixing of thought on an object, conception (as psychol. t. t.) J ii.61 (˚patta); Miln 62 (of vitakka); Dhs 7, 21, 298; Vism 144 (˚samādhi); DhsA 55, 142 (def. by Bdhg. as "ekaggaŋ cittaŋ ārammaṇe appeti"), 214 (˚jhāna). See on term Cpd. pp. 56 sq., 68, 129, 215; Dhs trsl. xxviii, 10, 53, 82, 347.


-- (Appahoti) see pahoti.


-- [appa + ma˝˝ati] to think little of, to under- rate, despise Dh 121 (= avajānāti DhA iii.16; v. l. avapama˝˝ati).


-- (f.) [a + pama˝˝ā, abstr. fr. pamāṇa = Sk. *pramānya] boundlessness, infinitude, as psych. t. t. appld. in later books to the four varieties of philanthropy, viz. mettā karuŋā muditā upekkhā i. e. love, pity, sympathy, desinterestedness, and as such enumd. at D iii.223 (q. v. for detailed ref. as to var. passages); Ps i.84; Vbh 272 sq.; DhsA 195. By itself at Sn 507 (= mettajjhānasankhātā a. SnA 417). See for further expln. Dhs trsl. p. 66 and mettā.


╣ (adj.) [appa + matta] see appa.


-- ▓ (adj.) [a + pamatta, pp. of pamadati] not negligent, i. e. diligent, careful, heedful, vigilant, alert, zealous M i.391 -- 92; S i.4; Sn 223 (cp. KhA 169), 507, 779 (cp. Nd1 59); Dh 22 (cp. DhA i.229); Th 2, 338 = upaṭṭhitasati Th A 239).


-- [a + pamāda] thoughtfulness, carefulness, con- scientiousness, watchfulness, vigilance, earnestness, zeal D i.13 (: a. vuccati satiyā avippavāso DA i.104); iii.30, 104 sq., 112, 244, 248, 272; M i.477 (˚phala); S i.25, 86, 158, 214; ii.29, 132; iv.78 (˚vihārin), 97, 125, 252 sq.; v.30 sq. (˚sampadā), 41 sq., 91, 135, 240, 250, 308, 350; A i.16, 50. (˚adhigata); iii.330, 364, 449; iv.28 (˚gāravatā) 120 (˚ŋ garu -- karoti); v.21, 126 (kusalesu dhammesu); Sn 184, 264, 334 (= sati -- avippavāsa -- sankhāta a. SnA 339); It 16 (˚ŋ pasaŋsanti pu˝˝akiriyāsu paṇḍitā), 74 (˚vihārin); Dh 57 (˚vihārin, cp. DhA i.434); 327 (˚rata = satiyā avippavāse abhirata DhA iv.26); Dāvs ii. 35; KhA 142.


-- (freq. spelled appamāna) (adj.) [a + pamāṇa] 1. "without measure", immeasurable, endless, boundless, unlimited, unrestricted all -- permeating S iv.186 (˚cetaso); A ii.73; v.63; Sn 507 (mettaŋ cittaŋ bhāvayaŋ appāmāṇaŋ = anavasesa -- pharaṇena SnA 417; cp. appama˝˝ā); It 21 (mettā), 78; J ii.61; Ps ii.126 sq.; Vbh 16, 24, 49, 62, 326 sq.; Dhs 182, 1021, 1024, 1405; DhsA 45, 196 (˚gocara, cp. anantagocara). See also on term Dhs trsl. 60. -- 2. "without difference", irrelevant, in general (in commentary style) J i.165; ii.323.


-- (adj.) [a + pameyya = Sk. aprameya, grd. of a + pra + ] immeasurable, infinite, boundless M i.386; S v.400; A i.266; Th 1, 1089 (an˚); Pug 35; Miln 331; Sdhp 338.


-- (f.) [a + pavattā] the state of not going on, the stop (to all that), the non -- continuance (of all that) Th 1, 767; Miln 326.


-- see pasāda.


-- see appa.


-- (adj.) [a + pahīna, pp. of pahāyati] not given up, not renounced M i.386; It 56, 57; Nd2 70 D1; Pug 12, 18.


-- (adj.) [a + pāṇa + ka] breathless, i. e. (1) holding one's breath in a form of ecstatic meditation (jhāna) M i.243; J i.67 [cp. BSk. āsphānaka Lal. v.314, 324; M Vastu ii.124; should the Pāli form be taken as *a + prāṇaka?]. (2) not holding anything breathing, i. e. inanimate, lifeless, not containing life Sn p. 15 (of water).


-- (f.) of appaka.


-- (adj.) [appa + iccha from iṣ, cp. icchā] desiring little or nothing, easily satisfied, unassuming, contented, unpretentious S i.63, 65; A iii.432; iv.2, 218 sq., 229; v.124 sq., 130, 154, 167; Sn 628, 707; Dh 404; Pv iv.73; Pug 70.


-- (f.) [abstr. fr. prec.] contentment, being satisfied with little, unostentatiousness Vin iii.21; D iii.115; M i.13; S ii 202, 208 sq.; A i.12, 16 sq.; iii.219 sq., 448; iv.218, 280 (opp. mahicchatā); Miln 242; SnA 494 (catubbidhā, viz. paccaya -- dhutanga -- pariyatti -- adhigama -- vasena); PvA 73. As one of the 5 dhutanga -- dhammā at Vism 81.

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-- (adj.) [pp. of appeti, cp. BSk. arpita, e. g. prītyar- pitaŋ cakṣuḥ Jtm 3169] 1. fixed, applied, concentrated (mind) Miln 415 (mānasa) Sdhp 233 (citta). -- 2. brought to, put to, fixed on J vi.78 (maraṇamukhe); visappita (an arrow to which) poison (is) applied, so read for visap(p)īta at J v.36 & Vism 303.


-- & appiyatā see piya etc.


-- (adv.) see api 2 ax.


-- [Vedic arpayati, Caus. of , ṛṇoti & ṛcchati (cp. icchati2), Idg. *ar (to insert or put together, cp. also *er under aṇṇava) to which belong Sk. ara spoke of a wheel; Gr. a)rari/skw to put together, a(/rma chariot, a)/rqron limb, a)reth/ virtue; Lat. arma = E. arms (i. e. weapon), artus fixed, tight, also limb, ars = art. For further connections see aṇṇava] 1. (*er) to move forward, rush on, run into (of river) Vin ii.238; Miln 70. -- 2. (*ar) to fit in, fix, apply, insert, put on to (lit. & fig.) Vin ii.136, 137; J iii.34 (nimba -- sūlasmiŋ to impale, C. āvuṇāti); vi.17 (T. sūlasmiŋ acceti, vv. ll. abbeti = appeti & upeti, C. āvuṇati); Miln 62 (dāruŋ sandhismiŋ); VvA 110 (sa˝˝āṇaŋ). Cp. Trenckner, Notes 64 n. 19, who defends reading abbeti at T. passages.


-- (adj.) [acc. to Childers = Sk. *alpa + īśa + ākhya, the latter fr. ā + khyā "being called lord of little"; Trenckner on Miln 65 (see p. 422) says: "appesakkha & mahesakkha are traditionally expld. appaparivāra & mahāparivāra, the former, I suppose, from appe & sakkha (Sk. sākhya), the latter an imitation of it". Thus the etym. would be "having little association or friendship" and resemble the term appasattha. The BSk. forms are alpeśākhya & maheśākhya, e. g. at Av. Ś ii. 153; Divy 243] of little power, weak, impotent S ii.229; Miln 65; Sdhp 89.


-- [the contracted form of āpnoti, usually pāpuṇāti, fr. āp] to attain, reach, get Vism 350 (in etym. of āpo).


-- see appa.


-- (adj.) [appa + ussuka, Sk. alpotsuka, e. g. Lal. V. 509; Divy 41, 57, 86, 159. It is not necessary to assume a hypothetic form of *autsukya as der. fr. ussuka] unconcerned, living at ease, careless, "not bothering", keeping still, inactive Vin ii.188; M iii.175, 176; S i 202 (in stock phrase appossukka tuṇhībhūta sankasāya "living at ease, given to silence, resigned" Mrs. Rh. D. Dhs trsl. 258, see also J.P.T.S. 1909, 22); ii. 177 (id.); iv.178 (id.); Th 2, 457 (= nirussukka ThA 282); Sn 43 (= abyāvaṭa anapekkha Nd2 72); Dh 330 (= nirālaya DhA iv.31); J i.197; iv.71; Miln 371 (a. tiṭṭhati to keep still); DA i.264.


-- (f.) [abstr. fr. prec.] inaction, reluctance, carelessness, indifference Vin i.5; D ii.36; Miln 232; DhA ii.15.


-- (& apphuṭa) [Sk. *ā -- sphṛta for a -- sphārita pp. of sphar, cp. phurati; phuṭa & also phusati] untouched, unpervaded, not penetrated. D i.74 = M i.276 (pītisukhena).


-- (f.) [fr. appoṭeti to blossom] N. of a kind of Jasmine J vi.336.


-- [pp. of apphoṭeti] having snapped one's fingers or clapped one's hands J ii.311 (˚kāle).


-- [ā + phoṭeti, sphuṭ] to snap the fingers or clap the hands (as sign of pleasure) Miln 13, 20. pp. apphoṭita.


-- [Sk. *aspṛśya, a + grd. of phusati to touch] not to be touched Miln 157 (trsl. unchangeable by other circumstances; Tr. on p. 425 remarks "aphusāni kiriyāni seems wrong, at any rate it is unintelligible to me").


-- (adj.) [a + pheggu + ka] not weak, i. e strong J iii.318.


-- [a + baddha] not tied, unbound, unfettered Sn 39 (v. l. and Nd2 abandha; expld -- by rajju -- bandhanɔ ādisu yena kenaci abaddha SnA 83).


-- (n. -- adj.) [a + bandha] not tied to, not a follower or victim of It 56 (mārassa; v. l. abaddha).


-- (adj.) [a + bandhana] without fetters or bonds, unfettered, untrammelled Sn 948, cp. Nd1 433.


-- [of uncertain origin, prob. onomatopoetic]. N. of a cert. Purgatory, enumd. with many other similar names at A v.173 = Sn p. 126 (cp. aṭaṭa, abbuda & also Av. Ś i.4, 10 & see for further expln. of term SnA 476 sq.


-- (adj.) [a + bala] not strong, weak, feeble Sn 1120 (= dubbala, appabala, appathāma Nd2 73); Dh 29 (˚assa a weak horse = dubbalassa DhA i.262; opp. sīghassa a quick horse).

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-- T. reading at A ii.39, evidently interpreted by ed. as ā + vraje, pot. of ā + vraj to go to, come to (cp. pabbajati), but is preferably with v. l. SS to be read aṇḍaje (corresponding with vihangama in prec. line).


-- (adj.) [a + vaṇa, Sk. avraṇa] without wounds Dh 124.


-- (n. -- adj.) [a + vata, Sk. avrata] (a) (nt.) that which is not "vata" i. e. moral obligation, breaking of the moral obligation Sn 839 (asīlata +); Nd1 188 (v. l. SS abhabbata; expld. again as a -- vatta). SnA 545 (= dhutangavataŋ vinā. -- (b) (adj.) one who offends against the moral obligation, lawless Dh 264 (= sīlavatena ca dhutavatena ca virahita DhA iii.391; vv. ll. k. adhūta & abhūta; B. abbhuta, C. abbuta).


-- in uday˚ at Miln 393 stands for avyaya.


-- (& abbuhati) [the first more freq. for pres., the second often in aor. forms; Sk. ābṛhati, ā + bṛh1, pp. bṛḍha (see abbūḷha)] to draw off, pull out (a sting or dart); imper. pres. abbaha Th 1, 404; J ii.95 (v. l. BB appuha = abbuha; C. expls. by uddharatha). -- aor. abbahi J v.198 (v. l. BB abbuhi), abbahī (metri causa) J iii.390 (v. l. BB dhabbuḷi = abbuḷhi) = Pv i.86 (which reads T. abbūḷha, but PvA 41 expls. nīhari) = DhA i.30 (vv. ll. sabbahi, sabbamhi; gloss K. B abbūḷhaŋ) = Vv 839 (T. abbuḷhi; v. l. BB abbuḷhaŋ, SS avyahi; VvA 327 expls. as uddhari), & abbuhi A iii.55 (v. l. abbahi, C. abbahī ti nīhari), see also vv. ll. under abbahi. -- ger. abbuyha Sn 939 (= abbuhitvā uddharitvā Nd1 419; v.l. SS abbuyhitvā; SnA 567 reads avyuyha & expls. by uddharitvā); S i.121 (taṇhaŋ); iii.26 (id.; but spelt abbhuyha). -- pp. abbuḷha (q. v.). -- Caus. abbāheti [Sk. ābarhayati] to pull out, drag out J iv.364 (satthaŋ abbāhayanti; v. l. abbhā˚); DhA ii.249 (asiŋ). ger. abbāhitvā (= ˚hetvā) Vin ii 201 (bhisa -- muḷālaŋ) with v. l. BB aggahetvā, SS abbūhitvā, cp. Vin i.214 (vv. ll. aggahitvā & abbāhitvā). pp. abbūḷhita (q. v.).


-- (nt.) [abstr. fr. abbahati] pulling out (of a sting) DhA iii.404 (sic. T.; v. l. abbūhana; Fausb÷ll aḍahana; glosses C. aṭṭhangata & aṭṭhangika, K. nibbāpana). See also abbuḷhana and abbhāhana.


-- (nt.) [etym. unknown, orig. meaning "swelling", the Sk. form arbuda seems to be a trsl. of P. abbuda] 1. the foetus in the 1st & 2nd months after conception, the 2nd of the five prenatal stages of development, viz. kalala, abbuda, pesi, ghana, pasākha Nd1 120; Miln 40; Vism 236. -- 2. a tumour, canker, sore Vin iii.294, 307 (only in Samantapāsādikā; both times as sāsanassa a). -- 3. a very high numeral, appld. exclusively to the denotation of a vast period of suffering in Purgatory; in this sense used as adj. of Niraya (abbudo nirayo the "vast -- period" [p059] hell, cp. nirabbuda). S i.149 = A ii.3 (chattiŋsati pa˝ca ca abbudāni); S i.152 = A v.173 = Sn p. 126 (cp. SnA 476: abbudo nāma koci pacceka -- nirayo nɔ atthi, Avīcimhi yeva abbuda -- gaṇanāya paccanokāso pana abbudo nirayo ti vutto; see also Kindred Sayings p. 190); J iii.360 (sataŋ ninnahuta -- sahassānaŋ ekaŋ abbudaŋ). -- 4. a term used for "hell" in the riddle S i.43 (kiŋsu lokasmiŋ abhudaŋ "who are they who make a hell on earth" Mrs. Rh. D. The answer is "thieves"; so we can scarcely take it in meaning of 2 or 3. The C. has vināsa -- karaṇaŋ.

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-- (?) & Abbuhati see abbahati.


-- (nt.) [fr. abbahati = abbuhati (abbuḷhati)] the pulling out (of a sting), in phrase taṇhā -- sallassa abbuḷhanaŋ as one of the 12 achievements of a Mahesi Nd1 343 = Nd2 503 (eds. of Nd1 have abbūhana, v. l. SS abbussāna; ed. of Nd2 abbuḷhana, v. l. SS abbahana, BB abbuhana). Cp. abbāhana.


-- (adj.) [Sk. ābṛḍha, pp. of a + bṛh1, see abbahati] drawn out, pulled (of a sting or dart), fig. removed, destroyed. Most freq. in combn. ˚salla with the sting removed, having the sting (of craving thirst, taṇhā) pulled out D ii.283 (v. l. SS asammūḷha); Sn 593, 779 (= abbūḷhita -- salla Nd1 59; rāgÔdi -- sallānaŋ abbūḷhattā a. SnA 518); J iii.390 = Vv 8310 = Pv i.87 = DhA i.30. -- In other connection: M i.139 = A iii.84 (˚esika = taṇhā pahīnā; see esikā); Th 1, 321; KhA 153 (˚soka).


-- (nt.) [abstr. of abbūḷha] pulling out, removal, destroying SnA 518.


-- (& abbūhitta at J iii.541) [pp. of abbāheti Caus. of abbāhati] pulled out, removed, destroyed Nd1 59 (abbūḷhita -- sallo + uddhaṭa˚ etc. for abbūḷha); J iii.541 (uncertain reading; v. l. BB appahita, SS abyūhita; C. expls. pupphakaŋ ṭhapitaŋ appaggharakaŋ kataŋ; should we explain as ā + vi + ūh and read abyūhita?).


-- [Trenckner, Notes 64 n. 19] at J iii.34 & vi.17 is probably a mistake in MSS for appeti.


-- [= abbhokiṇṇa, abhi + ava + kiṇṇa, cp. abhikiṇṇa] 1.filled M i.387 (paripuṇṇa +); DhA iv.182 (pa˝ca jātisatāni a.). -- 2. [seems to be misunderstood for abbocchinna, a + vi + ava + chinna] uninterrupted, constant, as ˚ŋ adv. in combn. with satataŋ samitaŋ A iv.13 = 145; Kvu 401 (v. l. abbhokiṇṇa), cp. also Kvu trsl. 231 n. 1 (abbokiṇṇa undiluted?); Vbh 320. -- 3. doubtful spelling at Vin iii.271 (Bdhgh on Pārāj. iii.1, 3).


-- see abbokiṇṇa 2 and abbhochinna.


-- (adj.) [a + vi + ava + hārika of voharati] not of legal or conventional status, i. e. -- (a) negligible, not to be decided Vin iii.91, 112 (see also Kvu trsl. 361 n. 4). -- (b) uncommon, extraordinary J iii.309 (v. l. BB abbho˚); v.271, 286 (Kern: ineffective).


-- (nt.) [Vedic abhra nt. & later Sk. abhra m. "dark cloud"; Idg. *m̊bhro, cp. Gr. a)fro\s scum, froth, Lat. imber rain; also Sk. ambha water, Gr. o)/mbros rain, Oir ambu water]. A (dense & dark) cloud, a cloudy mass A ii.53 = Vin ii.295 = Miln 273 in list of to things that obscure moon -- & sunshine, viz. abbhaŋ mahikā (mahiyā A) dhūmarajo (megho Miln), Rāhu. This list is referred to at SnA 487 & VvA 134. S i.101 (˚sama pabbata a mountain like a thunder -- cloud); J vi.581 (abbhaŋ rajo acchādesi); Pv iv.39 (nīl˚ = nīla -- megha PvA 251). As f. abbhā at Dhs 617 & DhsA 317 (used in sense of adj. "dull"; DhsA expls. by valāhaka); perhaps also in abbhāmatta.
-- kūṭa the point or summit of a storm -- cloud Th 1, 1064; J vi.249, 250; Vv 11 (= valāhaka -- sikhara VvA 12). -- ghana a mass of clouds, a thick cloud It 64; Sn 348 (cp. SnA 348). -- paṭala a mass of clouds DhsA 239. -- mutta free from clouds Sn 687 (also as abbhāmutta Dh 382). -- saŋvilāpa thundering S iv.289.


-- [abhi + ā + khyā, cp. Sk. ākhyāti] to speak against to accuse, slander D i.161 = A i.161 (an -- abbhakkhātu -- kāma); iv.182 (id.); J iv.377. Cp. Intens. abbhācikkhati.


-- (nt.) [fr. abbhakkhāti] accusation, slander, calumny D iii.248, 250; M i.130; iii.207; A iii.290 sq.; Dh 139 (cp. DhA iii.70).


-- [pp. of abhi + ā + chādeti] covered (with) Th 1, 1068.


-- [abhi + a˝j] to anoint; to oil, to lubricate M i.343 (sappi -- telena); S iv.177; Pug 56; DhA iii.311 = VvA 68 (sata -- pāka -- telena). Caus. abbha˝jeti same J i.438 (telena ˚etvā); v.376 (sata -- pāka -- telena ˚ayiŋsu); Caus. ii. abbhanjāpeti to cause to anoint J iii.372.


-- (nt.) [fr. abbha˝jati] anointing, lubricating, oiling; unction, unguent Vin i.205; iii.79; Miln 367 (akkhassa a.); Vism 264; VvA 295.


-- (adj.) [ā + bhata + ika, bhṛ] brought (to), procured, got, J vi.291.


-- [pp. of abhi + ati + kram, cp. atikkanta] one who has thoroughly, left behind J v.376.


-- [pp. of abhi + ati + i, cp. atīta & atikkanta] emphatic of atīta in all meanings, viz. 1 passed, gone by S ii.183 (+ atikkanta); nt. ˚ŋ what is gone or over, the past J iii.169. -- 2. passed away, dead M i.465; S iv.398; Th 1, 242, 1035. -- 3. transgressed, overstepped, neglected J iii.541 (saŋyama).


-- (nt.) [abhi + attha2 in acc. abhi + atthaŋ, abhi in function of "towards" = homeward, as under abhi i.1 a; cp. Vedic abhi sadhasthaŋ to the seat R. V. ix. 21. 3] = attha2, only in phrase abbhatthaŋ gacchati "to go towards home", i. e. setting; fig. to disappear, vanish, M i.115, 119; iii.25; A iv.32; Miln 305; pp. abhhattangata "set", gone, disappeared Dhs 1038 (atthangata +); Kvu 576.


-- (f.) [abstr. fr. abbhatta] "going towards setting", disappearance, death J v.469.


-- [abhi + anu + modati] to be much pleased at to show great appreciation of Vin i.196; D i.143, 190; S iv.224; Miln 29, 210; DhA iv.102 (v. l. ˚ānu˚).


-- (nt.) (& ˚ā f.) [fr. abbhanumodati] being pleased, satisfaction, thanksgiving DA i.227; VvA 52 (˚ānu˚); Sdhp 218.


-- (adj.) [abhi + antara; abhi here in directive function = towards the inside, in there, with -- in, cp. abhi i.1 a] = antara, i. e. internal, inner, being within or between; nt. ˚ŋ the inner part, interior, interval (also as ˚ -- ) Vin i.111 (satt˚ with interval of seven); A iv.16 (opp. bāhira); Dh 394 (id.); Th 1, 757 (˚Ôpassaya lying inside); J iii.395 (˚amba the inside of the Mango); Miln 30 (˚e vāyo jivo), 262, 281 (bāhir -- abbhantara dhana); DhA ii.74 (adj. c. gen. being among; v. l. abbhantare). <-> Cases used adverbially: instr. abbhantarena in the meantime, in between DhA ii.59. loc. abbhantare in the midst of, inside of, within (c. gen. or -- ˚) J i.262 (ra˝˝o), 280 (tuyhaŋ); DhA ii.64 (v. l. antare), 92 (sattavass˚); PvA 48 (= anto).


-- (adj. -- n.) [fr. abbhantara, cp. Sk. abhyantara in same meaning] intimate friend, confidant, "chum" J i.86 (+ ativissāsika), 337 ("insider", opp. bāhiraka).


-- (adj.) [superl. formation fr. abbhantara in contrasting function] internal, inner (opp. bāhirima) Vin iii.149; J v.38.

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-- (adj.) [a + bhākuṭi + ka; Sk. bhrakuṭi frown] not frowning, genial Vin iii.181 (but here spelt bhākuṭikabhākuṭika); D i.116, cp. DA i.287; DhA iv.8 (as v. l.; T. has abbhokuṭika).


-- [abhi + ā + gata] having arrived or come; (m.) a guest, stranger Vv 15 (= abhi -- āgata, āgantuka VvA 24).


-- (nt.) [abhi + ā + gamana; cp. Sk. abhyā- gama] coming arrival, approach Vin iv.221.


-- [abhi + āghāta] slaughtering -- place Vin iii.151 (+ āghāta).


-- [Intens. of abbhākkhāti] to accuse, slander, calumniate D i.161; iii.248, 250; M i.130, 368, 482; iii.207; A i.161.


-- (nt.) [abhi + āyana of ā + yā (i)] coming back, rehabilitation of a bhikkhu who has undergone a penance for an expiable offence Vin i.49 (˚Ôraha), 53 (id.), 143, 327; ii.33, 40, 162; A i.99. -- Cp. abbheti.


-- (adj.) [abbhā + matta (?) according to the Pāli Com.; but more likely = Vedic abhva huge, enormous, monstrous, with ā metri causa. On abhva (a + bhū what is contradictory to anything that is) cp. abbhuta & abbhuŋ, and see Walde, Lat. Wtb. under dubius] monstrous, dreadful, enormous, "of the size of a large cloud" (thus C. on S i.205 & J iii.309) S i.205 = Th 1, 652 (v. l. abbha˚ & abbhāmutta) = J iii.309 (v. l. ˚mutta).


-- [abhi + ā + hata, pp. of han] struck, attacked, afflicted S i.40 (maccunā); Th 1, 448; Sn 581; J vi.26, 440; Vism 31, 232; DA i.140, 147; DhA iv.25.


-- (nt.) [either = abbāhana or āvāhana] in udaka˚ the pulling up or drawing up of water Vin ii.318 (Bdhgh. on Cullavagga v.16, 2, corresponding to udaka -- vāhana on p. 122).


-- [pp. of abbheti] 1. come back, rehabilitated, rein- stated Vin iii.186 = iv.242 (an˚). -- 2. uncertain reading at Pv i.123 in sense of "called" (an˚ uncalled), where id. p. at J iii.165 reads anavhāta & at Th 2, 129 ayācita.


-- [a + bhū most likely = Vedic abhva and P. abbhuŋ, see also abbhāmatta] unprofitableness, idleness, nonsense J v.295 (= abhūti avaḍḍhi C.).


-- (interj.) [Vedic abhvaŋ, nt. of abhva, see expld. under abbhamatta. Not quite correct Morris J P T S. 1889, 201: abbhuŋ = ā + bhuk; cp also abbhuta] alas! terrible, dreadful, awful (excl. of fright & shock) Vin ii. 115 (Bdhgh. expls. as "utrāsa -- vacanam -- etaŋ"); M i.448. <-> See also abbhu & abbhuta.


-- (nt.) [abhi + ud + kṛ] drawing out, pulling, in daṇḍa -- sattha˚ drawing a stick or sword Nd2 5764 (cp. abbhokkiraṇa). Or is it abbhuttīraṇa (cp. uttiṇṇa outlet).


-- [abhi + ud + kirati] to sprinkle over, to rinse (with water) D ii.172 (cakkaratanaŋ; neither with Morris J P T S. 1886, 131 "give up", nor with trsl. of J ii.311 "roll along"); J v.390; PvA 75. Cp. abbhokkirati.


-- [abhi + ud + gacchati] to go forth, go out, rise into D i.112, 127; A iii.252 (kitti -- saddo a.); Pug 36. ger. ˚gantvā J i 88 (ākāsaŋ), 202; DhA iv.198. aor. ˚ga˝chi M i.126 (kittisaddo); J i.93. -- pp. abbhuggata.


-- [pp. of abbhuggacchati] gone forth, gone out, risen D i.88 (kitti -- saddo a., cp. DhA i.146: sadevakaŋ lokaŋ ajjhottharitvā uggato), 107 (saddo); Sn p. 103 (kittisaddo).


-- (nt. -- adj.) [fr. abbhuggacchati] going out over, rising over (c. acc.) PvA 65 (candaŋ nabhaŋ abbhuggamanaŋ; so read for T. abbhuggamānaŋ).


-- (nt.) [abhi + ud + jalana, from jval] breathing out fire, i. e. carrying fire in one's month (by means of a charm) D i.11 (= mantena mukhato aggi -- jala -- nīharaṇaŋ DA i.97).


- (˚ṭṭhahati) [abhi + ud + sthā] to get up to, proceed to, D i.105 (cankamaŋ).


-- [pp. of abbhunnamati] standing up, held up, erect J v.156 (in abbhuṇṇatatā state of being erect. stiffness), 197 (˚unnata; v. l. abbhantara, is reading correct?).


-- (adj.) [ahhi + uṇha] (a) very hot DhA ii.87 (v. l. accuṇha). (b) quite hot, still warm (of milk) DhA ii.67.


-- ╣ (adj. nt.) [*Sk. adbhuta which appears to be constructed from the Pāli & offers like its companion *āścarya (acchariya abbhuta see below) serious difficulties as to etym. The most probable solution is that P. abbhuta is a secondary adj. -- formation from abbhuŋ which in itself is nt. of abbha = Vedic abhva (see etym. under abbhāmatta and cp. abbhu, abbhuŋ & J.P.T.S. 1889, 201). In meaning abbhuta is identical with Vedic abhva contrary to what usually happens, i. e. striking, abnormal, gruesome, horrible etc.; & that its significance as a + bhū ("unreal?") is felt in the background is also evident from the traditional etym. of the Pāli Commentators (see below). See also acchariya] terrifying, astonishing; strange, exceptional, puzzling, extraordinary, marvellous, supernormal. Described as a term of surprise & consternation (vimhayɔ āvahassɔ adhivacanaŋ DA i.43 & VvA 329) & expld. as "something that is not" or "has not been before", viz. abhūtaŋ ThA 233; abhūta -- pubbatāya abbhutaŋ VvA 191, 329; abhūta -- pubbaŋ DA i.43. -- 1. (adj.) wonderful, marvellous etc. Sn 681 (kiŋ ˚ŋ, combd. with lomahaŋsana); J iv.355 (id.); Th 2, 316 (abbhutaŋ vata vācaŋ bhāsasi = acchariyaŋ ThA 233); Vv 449 (˚dassaneyya); Sdhp 345, 496. -- 2. (nt.) the wonderful, a wonder, marvel S iv.371, also in ˚dhamma (see Cpd.). Very freq. in combn. with acchariyaŋ and a part. of exclamation, viz, acchariyaŋ bho abbhutaŋ bho wonderful indeed & beyond comprehension, strange & stupefying D i.206; acch. vata bho abbh. vata bho D i.60; acch. bhante abbh. A ii.50; aho acch. aho abbh. J i.88; acch. vata abbh. vata Vv 8316. -- Thus also in phrase acchariyā abbhutā dhammā wonderful & extraordinary signs or things M iii.118, 125; A ii.130; iv.198; Miln 8; and in acchariya -- abbhutacitta -- jāta dumbfounded & surprised J i.88; DhA iv.52; PvA 6, 50.
-- dhamma mysterious phenomenon, something wonderful, supernormal; designation of one of the nine angas or divisions of the Buddhist Scriptures (see nava B 2) Vin iii.8; M i.133; A ii.103; iii.86, 177; Pug 43; Miln 344; PvA 2, etc.


-- ▓ (nt.) [= abbhuta1 in the sense of invoking strange powers in gambling, thus being under direct spell of the "unknown"] a bet, a wager, only in phrase abbhutaŋ karoti (sahassena) to make a bet or to bet (a thousand, i. e. kahāpaṇa's or pieces of money) Vin iii.138; iv.5; J i.191; v.427; vi.192; PvA 151; & in phrase pa˝cahi sahassehi abbhutaŋ hotu J vi.193.


-- [abhi + ud + ā + harati] to bring towards, to fetch, to begin or introduce (a conversation) M ii.132.


-- [abhi + ud + īreti] to raise the voice, to utter Th 2, 402; DA i.61; Sdhp 514.


-- [abhi + ud + eti] to go out over, to rise A ii.50, 51 (opp. atthaŋ eti, of the sun). -- ppr. abbhuddayaŋ Vv 6417 (= abhi -- uggacchanto VvA 280; abbhusayaŋ ti pi pāṭho).


-- [abhi + ud + dhunāti] to shake very much Vv 649 (= adhikaŋ uddhunāti VvA 278).

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-- [pp. of abhi + ud + nadati] resounding, resonant Th 1, 1065).


-- [abhi, + ud + namati] to, spring up, burst forth D ii.164. -- pp. abbhuṇṇata (& ˚unnata), q. v. <-> Caus. abbhunnāmeti to stiffen, straighten out, hold up, erect D i.120 (kāyaŋ one's body); A ii.245 (id.); D i.126 (patodalaṭṭhiŋ; opp. apanāmeti to bend down).


-- [pp. of abbhuyyāti] marched against, attacked Vin i.342; M ii.124.


-- [abhi + up + yāti of ] to go against, to go against, to march (an army) against, to attack S i.82 (aor ˚uyyāsi). -- pp. abbhuyyāta (q. v.).


-- (adj.) [abhi + usūyā + ka] zealous, showing zeal, endeavouring in ( -- ˚) Pgdp 101.


-- & ˚usukkati [abhi + ud + ṣvaṣk, see sak- kati] to go out over, rise above (acc.), ascend, freq. in phrase ādicco nabhaŋ abbhussakkamāno M i.317 = S iii.156 = It 20. -- See also S i.65; v.44; A i.242 (same simile); v.22 (id.).


-- (f.) [abstr. fr. abhi + *utsahana, cp. ussāha] instigation, incitement Vin ii.88.


-- [abhi + ud + seti of śī] to rise; v. l. at Vv 6417 according to VvA 280: abbhuddayaŋ (see abbhudeti) abbhussayan ti pi pāṭho.


-- [abhi + ā + i] to rehabilitate a bhikkhu who has been suspended for breach of rules Vin ii.7 (abbhento), 33 (abbheyya); iii.112 (abbheti), 186 = iv.242 (abbhetabba) -- pp. abbhita (q. v.). See also abbhāna.


-- [abhi + avakāsa] the open air, an open & un- sheltered space D i.63 (= alagganatthena a. viya DA i.180), 71 (=acchanna DA i.210), 89; M iii.132; A ii.210; iii.92; iv.437, v.65; Sn p. 139 (˚e nissinna sitting in the open) J i.29, 215; Pug 57.


-- (adj.) [fr. abbhokāsa] belonging to the open air, one who lives in the open, the practice of certain ascetics. D i.167; M i.282; A iii.220; Vin v.131, 193; J iv.8 (+ nesajjika); Pug 69; Miln 20, 342. (One of the 13 Dhutaŋgas). See also Nd1 188; Nd2 587.
-- anga the practice or system of the "campers -- out" Nd1 558 (so read for abbhokāsi -- kankhā, cp. Nd1 188).


-- [pp. of abbhokirati] see abbokiṇṇa.


-- [abhi + ava + kirati] to sprinkle over, to cover, bedeck Vv 59 (= abhi -- okirati abhippakirati), 3511 (v. l. abbhuk˚). Cp. abbhukkirati & abbhokkiraṇa <-> pp. abbhokiṇṇa see under abbokiṇṇa.


-- spelling at DhA iv.8 for abbhākuṭika.


-- (nt.) [fr. abbhokirati] in naṭānaŋ a. "turnings of dancers" DA i.84 in expln of sobha -- nagarakaŋ of D i.6.


-- (besides abbocch˚, q.v. under abbokiṇṇa2) [a + vi + ava + chinna] not cut off, uninterrupted, continuous J i.470 (v. l. abbo˚); vi.254, 373; Cp. i.63; Miln 72; Vism 362 (bb), 391 (bb).


-- see abbo˚.


-- see avy˚.


-- (adj.) [a + bhavya. The Sk. abhavya has a different meaning] impossible, not likely, unable D iii.13 sq., 19, 26 sq., 133; It 106, 117; Sn 231 (see KhA 189); Dh 32; J i 116; Pug 13.
-- ṭṭhāna a (moral) impossibility of which there are 9 enumd. among things that are not likely to be found in an Arahant's character: see D iii.133 & 235 (where the five first only are given as a set).


-- (f.) [abstr. fr. abhabba] an impossibility, unli- kelihood Sn 232, cp. KhA 191.


-- (adj.) [a + bhaya] free from fear or danger, fearless, safe Dh 258. -- nt. abhayaŋ confidence, safety Dh 317, cp. DhA iii.491. For further refs. see bhaya.


-- [prefix, Vedic abhi, which represents both Idg *m̊bhi, as in Gr. a)mfi/ around, Lat. ambi, amb round about, Oir. imb, Gall. ambi, Ohg. umbi, Ags. ymb, cp. also Vedic (Pāli) abhitaḥ on both sides; and Idg. *obhi, as in Lat. ob towards, against (cp. obsess, obstruct), Goth. bi, Ohg. Ags. bī = E. be -- .
I. Meaning. -- 1. The primary meaning of abhi is that of taking possession and mastering, as contained in E. coming by and over -- coming, thus literally having the function of (a) facing and aggressing = towards, against, on to, at (see II. 1, a); and (b) mastering = over, along over, out over, on top of (see II. 1, b). 2. Out of this is developed the fig. meaning of increasing, i. e., an intensifying of the action implied in the verb (see III. 1). Next to saŋ -- it is the most frequent modification preflx in the meaning of "very much, greatly" as the first part of a double -- prefix cpd. (see III. 2), and therefore often seemingly superfluous, i. e., weakened in meaning, where the second part already denotes intensity as in abhi -- vi -- ji (side by side with vi -- ji), abhi -- ā -- kkhā (side by side with ā -- kkhā), abhi -- anu -- mud (side by side with anu -- mud). In these latter cases abhi shows a purely deictic character corresponding to Ger. her -- bei -- kommen (for bei -- kommen), E. fill up (for fill); e. g., abbhatikkanta (= ati ˚ C.), abbhatīta ("vorbei gegangen"), abbhantara ("with -- in", b -- innen or "in here"), abbhudāharati, abhipūreti ("fill up"), etc. (see also II. 1, c).
II. Lit. Meaning. -- 1. As single pref.: (a) against, to, on to, at -- , viz., abbhatthangata gone towards home, abhighāta striking at, ˚jjhā think at, ˚mana thinking on, ˚mukha facing, turned towards, ˚yāti at -- tack, ˚rūhati ascend, ˚lāsa long for, ˚vadati ad -- dress, ˚sapati ac -- curse, ˚hata hit at. (b) out, over, all around: abbhudeti go out over, ˚kamati exceed, ˚jāti off -- spring, ˚jānāti know all over, ˚bhavati overcome, ˚vaḍḍhati increase, ˚vuṭṭha poured out or over, ˚sandeti make over -- flow, ˚si˝cati sprinkle over. (c) abhi has the function of transitivising intrs. verbs after the manner of E. be -- (con -- ) and Ger. er -- , thus resembling in meaning a simple Caus. formation, like the foll.: abhigajjati thunder on, ˚jānāti "er -- kennen" ˚jāyati be -- get, ˚tthaneti = ˚gajjati, ˚nadati "er t÷nen", ˚nandati approve of (cp. anerkennen), ˚passati con -- template, ˚ramati indulge in, ˚ropeti honour, ˚vuḍḍha increased, ˚saddahati believe in. -- 2. As base in compn. (2nd part of cpd.) abhi occurs only in combn. sam -- abhi (which is, however, of late occurrence and a peeuliarity of later texts, and is still more freq. in BSk.: see under sam -- ).
III. Fig. Meaning (intensifying). -- 1. A single pref.: abhikiṇṇa strewn all over, ˚jalati shine forth, ˚jighacchati be very hungry, ˚tatta much exhausted, ˚tāpa very hot, ˚toseti pleuse greatly, ˚nava quite fresh, ˚nipuṇa very clever, ˚nīla of a deep black, ˚manāpa very pleasant, ˚mangaly very lucky, ˚yobbana full youth, ˚rati great liking, ˚ratta deep red, ˚ruci intense satisfaction, ˚rūpa very handsome (= adhika -- rūpa C.), ˚sambuddha wide and fully -- awake, cp. abbhuddhunāti to shake greatly (= adhikaŋuddh˚ C.). -- As 1st part of a prep. -- cpd. (as modification -- pref.) in foll. combinations: abhi -- ud (abbhud -- ) ˚ati, ˚anu, ˚ava, ˚ā, ˚ni, ˚ppa, ˚vi, ˚saŋ. See all these s. v. and note that the contraction (assimilation before vowel) form of abhi is abbh˚. -- On its relation to pari, see pari˚, to ava see ava˚.
IV. Dialectical Variation. -- There are dial. variations in the use and meanings of abhi. Vedic abhi besides corresponding to abhi in P. is represented also by ati˚, adhi˚ and anu˚, since all are similar in meaning, and psychologically easily fused and confused (cp. meanings: abhi = on to, towards; ati = up to and beyond; adhi = up to, towards, over; anu = along towards). For all the [p062] foll. verbs we find in Pāli one or other of these three prefixes. So ati in ˚jāti, ˚pīḷita, ˚brūheti, ˚vassati, ˚vāyati, ˚veṭheti; also as vv. ll. with abhi -- kīrati, ˚pavassati, ˚roceti, cp. atikkanta -- abhi˚ (Sk. abhikrānta); adhi in ˚patthita, ˚pāteti, ˚ppāya, ˚ppeta, ˚bādheti, ˚bhū, ˚vāha (vice versa P. abhi -- ropeti compared with Sk. adhiropayati); anu in ˚gijjhati, ˚brūheti, ˚sandahati.

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-- [abhi + kankhati] to desire after, long for, wish for S i.140, 198 (Nibbānaŋ); J ii.428; iv.10, 241; VvA 38, 283; ThA 244. -- pp. abhikankhita. Cp. BSk. abhikānkṣati, e. g. Jtm. p. 221.


-- (f.) [abhi + kankhana + tā] wishing, longing, desire DA i.242.


-- [pp. of abhikankhati] desired, wished, longed for VvA 201 (= abhijjhita).


-- (adj.) cp. wishing for, desirous (of -- ˚) Th 2, 360 (sītibhāva˚).


-- [pp. of abhikirati] 1. strewn over with ( -- ˚), adorned, covered filled Pv ii.112 (puppha˚). -- 2. overwhelmed, overcome, crushed by ( -- ˚) It 89 (dukkh˚; vv. ll. dukkhÔtiṇṇa & otiṇṇa) = A i.147 (which reads dukkhotiṇṇa). See also avatiṇṇa.


-- 1. [Sk. abhikirati] to sprinkle or cover over: see abhikiṇṇa 1. -- 2. [Sk. avakirati, cp. apakiritūna] to overwhelm, destroy, put out, throw away, crush S i.54; Th 1, 598; 2, 447 (ger. ˚kiritūna, reading of C. for T. apa˚, expld. by chaḍḍetvā); Dh 25 (˚kīrati metri causa; dīpaŋ abhikīrati = viddhaŋseti vikirati DhA i.255; v. l. atikirati); J iv.121 (˚kīrati; dīpaŋ = viddhaŋseti C.); vi.541 (nandiyo m˚ abhikīrare = abhikiranti abhikkamanti C.); DhA i.255 (inf. ˚kirituŋ). -- pp. abhikiṇṇa see abhikiṇṇa 2.


-- [abhi + kýḷati] to play (a game), to sport Miln 359 (kīḷaŋ).


-- [abhi + kūjita, pp. of kūj] resounding (with the song of birds) Pv ii.123 (cakkavāka˚; so read for kujita). Cp. abhinikūjita.


-- (adj. -- n.) [pp. of abhikkamati, in sense of Sk. and also P. atikkanta] (a) (adj.) lit. gone forward, gone out, gone beyond. According to the traditional expln. preserved by Bdhgh. & Dhp (see e. g. DA i.227 = KhA 114 = VvA 52) it is used in 4 applications: abhikkantasaddo khaya (+ pabbaniya KhA) sundarɔ -- Ôbhirūpa -- abbhanumodanesu dissati. These are: 1. (lit.) gone away, passed, gone out, departed (+ nikkhanta, meaning khaya "wane"), in phrase abhikkantāya rattiyā at the waning of the night Vin i.26; D ii.220; M i.142. 2. excellent, supreme (= sundara) Sn 1118 (˚dassāvin having the most exellent knowledge = aggadassāvin etc. Nd2 76); usually in compar ˚tara (+ paṇītatara) D i.62, 74, 216; A ii.101; iii.350 sq.; v.140, 207 sq.; DA i.171 (= atimanāpatara). 3. pleasing, superb, extremely wonderful, as exclamation ˚ŋ repeated with bho (bhante), showing appreciation (= abbhÔnumodana) D i.85, 110, 234; Sn p. 15, 24, etc. freq. 4. surpassing, beautiful (always with ˚vaṇṇa = abhirūpa) Vin i.26; D ii.220; M i.142; Pv ii.110 = Vv 91 (= atimanāpa abhirūpa PvA 71); KhA 115 (= abhirūpachavin). -- (b) (nt.) abhikkantaŋ (combd. with and opp. to paṭikkantaŋ) going forward (and backward), approach (and receding) D i.70 (= gamaṇa + nivattana DA i.183); Vin iii.181; A ii.104, 106 sq.; VvA 6.


-- going forward, approach, going out Pv iv.12 (opp. paṭikkama going back); DhA iii.124 (˚paṭikkama).


-- [Vedic abhikramati, abhi + kamati] to go forward, to proceed, approach D i.50 (=abhimukho kamati, gacchati, pavisati DA i.151); ii.147, 256 (abhikkā<-> muŋ aor.); DhA iii.124 (evaŋ ˚itabbaŋ evaŋ paṭikkamitabbaŋ thus to approach & thus to withdraw). -- pp. abhikkanta (q. v.).


-- ╣ (nt.) [fr. abhikkhanati] digging up of the ground M i.143.


-- ▓ (nt.) [abhi + *ikkhaṇa from īkṣ, cp. Sk. abhīkṣṇa of which the eontracted form is P. abhiṇha] only as acc. adv. ˚ŋ constantly, repeated, often Vv 2412 (= abhiṇhaŋ VvA 116); Pv ii.84 (= abhiṇhaŋ bahuso PvA 107); Pug 31; DhA ii.91.


-- [abhi + khaṇati] to dig up M i.142.


-- [abhi + khipati] to throw Dāvs iii.60; cp. abhinikkhipati ibid. 12.


-- [abhi + gajjati from garj, sound -- root, cp. P. gaggara] (a) to roar, shout, thunder, to shout or roar at (c. acc.) Sn 831 (shouting or railing = gajjanto uggajjanto Nd1 172); ger. abhigajjiya thundering Cp. iii.108. <-> (b) hum, chatter, twitter (of birds); see abhigajjin.


-- (adj.) [fr. abhigajjati] warbling, singing, chat- tering Th 1, 1108, 1136.


-- (adj.) [grd. of abhigacchati] to be approached, accessible PvA 9.


-- [abhi + gijjhati] 1. to be greedy for, to crave for, show delight in (c. loc.) Sn 1039 (kāmesu, cp. Nd2 77). -- 2. to envy (acc.) S i.15 (a˝˝am -- a˝˝aŋ).


-- [pp. of abhigāyati, cp. gīta] 1. sung for. Only in one phrase, gāthābhigītaŋ, that which is gained by singing or chanting verses (Ger. "ersungen") S i.173 = Sn 81 = Miln 228. See SnA 151. -- 2. resounding with, filled with song (of birds) J vi.272 (= abhiruda).


-- [Sk. abhighāta, abhi + ghāta] (a) striking, slaying, killing PvA 58 (daṇḍa˚), 283 (sakkhara˚). <-> (b) impact, contact DhsA 312 (rūpa˚ etc.).


-- (adj.) [abhi + ceto + ika] dependent on the clearest consciousness. On the spelling see ābhic˚ (of jhāna) M i.33, 356; iii.11; S ii.278; A ii.23; v.132. (Spelt. ābhi˚ at M i.33; A iii.114; Vin v.136). See Dial. iii.108.


-- [abhi + ceteti] to intend, devise, have in mind J iv.310 (manasā pāpaŋ).


-- (adj.) [abhi + channa] covered with, bedecked or adorned with ( -- ˚) J ii.48 (hema -- jāla˚, v. l. abhisa˝channa), 370 (id.); Sn 772 (= ucchanna āvuṭa etc. Nd1 24, cp. Nd2 365).


-- (adj.) [abhi + icchita, cp. Sk. abhīpsita] desired J vi.445 (so read for abhijjhita).


-- (adj.) [Sk. ābhijātya; abhi + jacca] of noble birth J v.120.


-- occasional spelling for abhijāneti.


-- [abhi + jappati] to wish for, strive after, pray for S i.143 (read asmÔbhijappanti & cp. Kindred Sayings p. 180) = J iii.359 (= namati pattheti piheti C.); Ṣn 923, 1046 (+ āsiŋsati thometi; Nd2 79 = jappati & same under icchati). Cp. in meaning abhigijjhati.


-- (nt.) [doubtful whether to jappati or to japati to mumble, to which belongs jappana in kaṇŋa˚ DA i.97] in hattha˚ casting a spell to make the victim throw up or wring his hands D i.11; DA i.97.


-- (f.) [abstr. fr. abhijappati, cp. jappā] praying for, wishing, desire, longing Dhs 1059 = Nd2 taṇhā ii.; Dhs 1136.

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-- (adj.) [fr. abhijappati] praying for, desiring A III.353 (kāma -- lābha˚).


-- [abhi + jalati] to shine forth, ppr. ˚anto res- plendent PvA 189.


-- [abhi + javati] to be eager, active Sn 668.


-- (adj.) [abi + jāta] of noble birth, well -- born, S i.69; Vv 293; Miln 359 (˚kulakulīna belonging to a family of high or noble birth).


-- (f.) [abhi + jāti] 1. Species. Only as t. t. in use by certain non -- Buddhist teachers. They divided mankind into six species, each named after a colour D i.53, 54; A iii.383 ff. (quoted DA i.162) gives details of each species. Two of them, the black and the white, are interpreted in a Buddhist sense at D iii.250, M ii.222, and Netti 158. This interpretation (but not the theory of the six species) has been widely adopted by subsequent Hindu writers. -- 2. Rebirth, descent, Miln 226.


-- (adj.) [fr. abhijāti] belonging to ones birth or race, born of, being by birth; only in cpd. kaṇhÔbhijātika of dark birth, that is, low in the social scale D iii.251 = A iii.348; Sn 563 = Th 1, 833; cp. J P T S. 1893, 11; in sense of "evil disposed or of bad character" at J v.87 (= kāḷaka -- sabhāva C.).


-- (f.) [abstr. fr. abhijāti] the fact of being born, descendency VvA 216.


-- (nt. or m?) [Sk. abhij˝āna] recognition, remem- brance, recollection Miln 78. See also abhi˝˝ā.


-- [abhi + j˝ā, cp. jānāti & abhi˝˝ā] to know by experience, to know fully or thoroughly, to recognise, know of (c. acc.), to be conscious or aware of D i.143; S ii.58, 105, 219, 278; iii.59, 91; iv.50, 324, 399; v.52, 176, 282, 299; Sn 1117 (diṭṭhiŋ Gotamassa na a.); J iv.142; Pv ii.710 = ii.103 (nɔābhijānāmi bhuttaŋ vā pītaŋ); Sdhp 550; etc. -- Pot. abhijāneyya Nd2 78a, & abhija˝˝ā Sn 917, 1059 (= jāneyyāsi SnA 592); aor. abha˝˝āsi Sn p. 16. -- ppr. abhijānaŋ S iv.19, 89; Sn 788 (= ˚jānanto C.), 1114 (= ˚jānanto Nd2 78b) abhijānitva DhA iv.233; abhi˝˝āya S iv.16; v.392; Sn 534 (sabbadhammaŋ), 743 (jātikkhayaŋ), 1115, 1148; It 91 (dhammaŋ); Dh 166 (atta -- d -- atthaŋ); freq. in phrase sayaŋ abhi˝˝āya from personal knowledge or self -- experience It 97 (v.l. abhi˝˝ā); Dh 353; and abhi˝˝ā [short form, like ādā for ādāya, cp. upādā] in phrase sayaŋ abhi˝˝ā D i.31 (+ sacchikatvā); S ii.217; It 97 (v.l. for ˚abhi˝˝āya), in abhi˝˝ā -- vosita perfected by highest knowledge S i.167 = 175 = Dh 423 ("master of supernormal lore" Mrs Rh. D. in kindred S. p. 208; cp. also DhA iv.233); It 47 = 61 = 81, and perhaps also in phrase sabbaŋ abhi˝˝apari˝˝eyya S iv.29. -- grd. abhi˝˝eyya S iv.29; Sn 558 (˚ŋ abhi˝˝ātaŋ known is the knowable); Nd2 s.v.; DhA iv.233. -- pp. abhi˝˝āta (q. v.).


-- [abhi + jāyati, Pass. of jan, but in sense of a Caus. = janeti] to beget, produce, effect, attain, in phrase akaṇhaŋ asukkaŋ Nibbānaŋ a. D iii.251; A iii.384 sq. At Sn 214 abhijāyati means "to behave, to be", cp. SnA 265 (abhijāyati = bhavati).


-- [abhi + jigiŋsati] to wish to overcome, to covet J vi.193 (= jinituŋ icchati C). Burmese scribes spell ˚jigīsati; Th 1, 743 ("cheat"? Mrs Rh. D.; "vernichten" Neumann). See also abhijeti, and nijigiŋsanatā.


-- [abhi + jighacchati] to be very hungry PvA 271.


-- (adj.) [abhi + jīvana + ika] belonging to one's livehood, forming one's living Vin i.187 (sippa).


-- (f.) [abhi + jīhanā of jeh to open ones mouth] strenuousness, exertion, strong endeavour J vi.373 (viriyakaraṇa C.).


-- [abhi + jayati] to win, acquire, conquer J vi.273 (ābhi˚ metri causā).


-- [abhi + joteti] to make clear, explain, illuminate J v.339.


-- (adj.) [a + bhijjana + ka, from bhijja, grd. of bhid] not to be broken, not to be moved or changed, uninfluenced J ii.170; DhA iii.189.


-- (adj.) [ppr. passive of a + bhid, see bhindati] that which is not being broken up or divided. In the stock descrīption of the varieties of the lower Iddhi the phrase udake pi abhijjamāne gacchati is doubtful. The principal passages are D i.78, 212; iii.112, 281; M i.34, 494; ii.18; A i.170, 255; iii.17; v.199; S ii 121; v.264. In about half of these passages the reading is abhijjamāno. The various rcadings show that the MSS also are equally divided on this point. Bdgh. (Vism 396) reads ˚māne, and explains it, relying on Ps ii.208, as that sort of water in which a man does not sink. Pv iii.11 has the same idiom. Dhammapāla's note on that (PvA 169) is corrupt. At D i.78 the Colombo ed. 1904, reads abhejjamāne and tr. ʻ not dividing (the water) ʼ; at D i.212 it reads abhijjamāno and tr. ʻ not sinking (in the water) ʼ.


-- (f.) [fr. abhi + dhyā (jhāyati1), cp. Sk. abhidhyāna], covetousness, in meaning almost identical with lobha (cp. Dhs. trsl. 22) D i.70, 71 (˚āya cittaŋ parisodheti he cleanses his heart from coveting; abhijjhāya = abl.; cp. DA i.211 = abhijjhāto); M i.347 (id.); D iii.49, 71 sq., 172, 230, 269; S iv.73, 104, 188, 322 (adj. vigatɔÔbhijjha), 343 (˚āyavipāka); A i.280; iii.92; v.251 sq.; It 118; Nd1 98 (as one of the 4 kāya -- ganthā, q. v.); Nd2 taṇhā ii.1; Pug 20, 59; Dhs 1136 (˚kāyagantha); Vbh 195, 244 (vigatɔÔbhijjha), 362, 364, 391; Nett 13; DhA i.23; PvA 103, 282; Sdhp 56, 69. -- Often combd with ˚domanassa covetousness & discontent, e. g. at D iii.58, 77, 141, 221, 276; M i.340; iii.2; A i.39, 296; ii.16, 152; iv.300 sq., 457 sq.; v.348, 351; Vbh 105, 193 sq. -- anabhijjhā absence of covetousness Dhs 35, 62. -- See also anupassin, gantha, domanassa, sīla.


-- see abhijjhitar.


-- [cp. abhidyāti, abhi + jhāyati1; see also abhij- jhāyati] to wish for (acc.), long for, covet S v.74 (so read for abhijjhati); ger. abhijjhāya J vi.174 (= patthetvā C.). -- pp. abhijjhita.


-- [Sk. abhidhyāyati, abhi + jhāyati1; see also abhijjhāti] to wish for, covet (c. acc.). Sn 301 (aor. abhijjhāyiŋsu = abhipatthayamāna jhāyiŋsu Sn A 320).


-- (& ˚u) (adj.) [cp. jhāyin from jhāyati1; abhijj- hālu with ˚ālu for ˚āgu which in its turn is for āyin. The B.Sk. form is abhidyālu, e. g. Divy 301, a curious reconstruction] covetous D i.139; iii.82; Ṣ ii.168; iii.93; A i.298; ii.30, 59, 220 (an˚ + avyapannacitto sammādiṭṭhiko at conclusion of sīla); v.92 sq., 163, 286 sq.; It 90, 91; Pug 39, 40.


-- v. l. at DhA iv.101 for ajjhiṭṭha.


-- [pp. of abhijjhāti] coveted, J. vi.445; usually neg. an˚ not coveted, Vin i.287; Sn 40 (= anabhipatthita Sn A 85; cp. Nd2 38); Vv 474 (= na abhikankhita VvA 201).


-- [n. ag. fr. abhijjhita in med. function] one who covets M i.287 (T. abhijjhātar, v. l. ˚itar) = A v.265 (T. ˚itar, v. l. ˚ātar).


abhi˝˝a {a.Bai˝~˝a.} =
-- (adj.) (usually -- ˚) [Sk. abhij˝a] knowing, pos- sessed of knowledge, esp. higher or supernormal knowledge (abhi˝˝ā), intelligent; thus in chalabhi˝˝a one [p064] who possesses the 6 abhi˝˝ās Vin iii.88; dandh˚ of sluggish intellect D iii.106; A ii.149; v.63 (opp. khipp˚); mah˚ of great insight S ii.139. -- Compar. abhi˝˝atara S v.159 (read bhiyyo ˚bhi˝˝ataro).
Ą {a.Bai˝~˝a.} =
-- UHS-PMD0106

UKT from UHS: mfn. what is known by supernormal intelligence.
Note: Be careful of a possible typographical mistake: {˝a} is easily mistaken for {Đa.}.


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-- (f.) [fr. abhi˝˝ā] in cpd. mahā˚ state or condition of great intelligence or supernormal knowledge S iv.263; V.175, 298 sq.


-- ╣ (f.) [fr. abhi + j˝ā, see jānāti]. Rare in the older texts. It appears in two contexts. Firstly, certain conditions are said to conduce (inter alia) to serenity, to special knowledge (abhi˝˝ā), to special wisdom, and to Nibbāna. These conditions precedent are the Path (S v.421 = Vin i.10 = S iv.331), the Path + best knowledge and full emancipation (A v.238), the Four Applications of Mindfulness (S v.179) and the Four Steps to Iddhi (S. v.255). The contrary is three times stated; wrong -- doing, priestly superstitions, and vain speculation do not conduce to abhi˝˝ā and the rest (D iii.131; A iii.325 sq. and v.216). Secondly, we find a list of what might now be called psychic powers. It gives us 1, Iddhi (cp. levitation); 2, the Heavenly Ear (cp. clairaudience); 3, knowing others' thoughts (cp. thought -- reading); 4, recollecting one's previous births; 5, knowing other people's rebirths; 6, certainty of emancipation already attained (cp. final assurance). This list occurs only at D iii.281 as a list of abhi˝˝ās. It stands there in a sort of index of principal subjects appended at the end of the Dīgha, and belongs therefore to the very close of the Nikāya period. But it is based on older material. Descriptions of each of the six, not called abhi˝˝ā's, and interspersed by expository sentences or paragraphs, are found at D i.89 sq. (trsl. Dial. i.89 sq.); M i.34 (see Buddh. Suttas, 210 sq.); A i.255, 258 = iii.17, 280 = iv.421. At S i.191; Vin ii.16; Pug 14, we have the adj. chaḷabhi˝˝ā ("endowed with the 6 Apperceptions"). At S ii.216 we have five, and at S v.282, 290 six abhi˝˝ā's mentioned in glosses to the text. And at S ii.217, 222 a bhikkhu claims the 6 powers. See also M ii.11; iii.96. It is from these passages that the list at D iii. has been made up, and called abhi˝˝ā's.
Afterwards the use of the word becomes stereotyped. In the Old Commentaries (in the Canon), in the later ones (of the 5th cent. a.d.), and in medieval and modern Pāli, abhi˝˝ā, nine times out ten, means just the powers given in this list. Here and there we find glimpses of the older, wider meaning of special, supernormal power of apperception and knowledge to be acquired by long training in life aud thought. See Nd1 108, 328 (expln. of ˝āṇa); Nd2 s. v. and N0. 466; Ps i.35; ii.156, 189; Vbh 228, 334; Pug 14; Nett 19, 20; Miln 342; Vism 373; Mhvs xix.20; DA i.175; DhA ii.49; iv.30; Sdhp 228, 470, 482. See also the discussion in the Cpd. 60 sp., 224 sq. For the phrase sayaṃ abhi˝˝ā sacchikatvā and abhi˝˝ā -- vosita see abhijānāti. The late phrase yathɔ abhi˝˝aṃ means ʻ as you please, according to liking, as you like ʼ, J v.365 (= yathādhippāyaṃ yathāruciṃ C.). For abhi˝˝ā in the use of an adj. (˚abhi˝˝a) see abhi˝˝a.


-- ▓ ger. of abhijānāti.


-- [pp. of abhijānāti] 1. known, recognised Sn 588 (abhi˝˝eyyaŋ ˚ŋ). -- 2. (well) -- known, distinguished D i.89 (˚kola˝˝a = pākaṭa -- kulaja DA i.252), 235; Sn p. 115.


-- grd. of abhijānāti.


-- (nt.) [abhi + ṭhāna, cp. abhitiṭṭhati; lit. that which stands out above others] a great or deadly crime. Only at Sn 231 = Kh vi.10 (quoted Kvu 109). Six are there mentioned, & are explained (KhA 189) as "matricide, parricide, killing an Arahant, causing schisms, wounding a Buddha, following other teachers". For other relations & suggestions see Dhs trsl. 267. -- See also ānantarika.


-- (adv.) [contracted form of abhikkhaṇaŋ] repeat- edly, continuous, often M i.442 (˚āpattika a habitual offender), 446 (˚kāraṇa continuous practice); Sn 335 (˚saŋvāsa continuous living together); J i.190; Pug 32; DhA ii.239; VvA 116 (= abhikkhaṇa), 207, 332; PvA 107 (= abhikkhaṇaŋ). Cp. abhiṇhaso.


-- (adv.) [adv. case fr. abhiṇha; cp. bahuso = Sk. bahuśaḥ] always, ever S i.194; Th 1, 25; Sn 559, 560, 998.


-- [abhi + takketi] to search for Dāvs v.4.


-- [pp. of abhi +tapati] scorched (by heat), dried up, exhausted, in phrases uṇha˚ Vin ii.220; Miln 97, and ghamma˚ S ii.110, 118; Sn 1014; J ii.223; VvA 40; PvA 114.


-- [abhi + tāpa] extreme heat, glow; adj. very hot Vin iii.83 (sīsa˚ sunstroke); M i.507 (mahā˚ very hot); Miln 67 (mahābhitāpatara much hotter); Pv iv.18 (mahā˚, of niraya).


-- [abhi + tāḷita fr. tāḷeti] hammered to pieces, beaten, struck Vism 231 (muggara˚).


-- [abhi + tiṭṭhati] to stand out supreme, to excel, surpass D ii.261; J vi.474 (abhiṭṭhāya = abhibhavitvā C.).


-- (tuṇṇa) [not as Morris, J.P.T.S. 1886, 135, suggested fr. abhi + tud, but acc. to Kern, Toev. p. 4 fr. abhi + tūrv. (Cp. turati & tarati2 and Ved. turvati). Thus the correct spelling is ˚tuṇṇa = Sk. abhitūrṇa. The latter occurs as v. l. under the disguise of (sok -- )Ôhituṇḍa for ˚abhituṇṇa at M. Vastu iii.2]. Overwhelmed, overcome, overpowered S ii.20; Ps i.129 (dukkha˚), 164; J i.407; 509 (˚tuṇṇa); ii.399, 401; iii.23 (soka˚); iv.330; v.268; Sdhp 281.


-- (indecl.) adv. case fr. prep. abhi etym.]. -- 1. round about, on both sides J vi.535 (= ubhayapassesu C.), 539. -- 2. near, in the presence of Vv 641 (= samīpe VvA 275).


-- [abhi + toseti] to please thoroughly, to satisfy, gratify Sn 709 (= atīva toseti Sn A 496).


-- [abhi + thaneti] to roar, to thunder J i.330, 332 = Cp. iii.107.


-- [abhi + tarati2, evidently wrong for abhittarati] to make haste Dh 116 (= turitaturitaŋ sīghasīghaŋ karoti DhA iii.4).


-- [abhi + thavati] to praise J i.89; iii.531; Dāvs iii.23; DhA i.77; PvA 22; cp. abhitthunati.


-- (nt.) [fr. prec.] praise Th A 74.


-- [abhi + thunati; cp. abhitthavati] to praise J i.17 (aor abhitthuniŋsu); cp. thunati 2. -- pp. ˚tthuta DhA i.88.


-- ╣(adj.) as attr. of sun & moon at M ii.34, 35 is doubtful in reading & meaning; vv. ll. abhidosa & abhidesa, Neumann trsl. "unbeschrńnkt". The context seems to require a meaning like "full, powerful" or unbroken, unrestricted (abhijja or abhīta "fearless"?") or does abhida represent Vedic abhidyu heavenly?


-- ▓ Only in the difficult old verse D ii.107 (= S v.263 = A iv.312 = Nd 64 = Nett 60 = Divy 203). Aorist 3rd sg. fr. bhindati he broke.


-- (nt.) [abhi + dassana] sight, appearance, show J vi.193.


-- in sabba˚ at PvA 78 is with v. l. BB to be read sabbapātheyyaŋ.


-- (˚ -- ) the evening before, last night; ˚kālakata M i.170 = J i.81; ˚gata gone last night J vi.386 (= hiyyo paṭhama -- yāme C.).

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-- belonging to last night (of gruel) Vin iii.15; Miln 291. See ābhi˚.


-- [abhi + dru, cp. dava2] to rush on, to assail Mhvs 6, 5; Dāvs iii.47.


-- [abhi + dhamati, cp. Sk. abhi˚ & api -- dhamati] blow on or at A i.257.


-- [abhi + dhamma] the "special Dhamma," i. e., 1. theory of the doctrine, the doctrine classified, the doctrine pure and simple (without any admixture of literary grace or of personalities, or of anecdotes, or of arguments ad personam), Vin i.64, 68; iv.144; iv.344. Coupled with abhivinaya, D iii.267; M i.272. -- 2. (only in the Chronicles and Commentaries) name of the Third Piṭaka, the third group of the canonical books. Dpvs v.37; PvA 140. See the detailed discussion at DA i.15, 18 sq. [As the word abhidhamma standing alone is not found in Sn or S or A, and only once or twice in the Dialogues, it probably came into use only towards the end of the period in which the 4 great Nikāyas grew up.]
-- kathā discourse on philosophical or psychological matters, M i.214, 218; A iii.106, 392. See dhammakathā.


-- see ābhidhammika.


-- (adj.) [abhi + dhara] firm, bold, in ˚māna firm- minded Dh p. 81 (acc. to Morris J.P.T.S. 1886, 135; not verified).


-- (adj.) [abhi + dhāyin fr. dhā]" putting on", designing, calling, meaning Pgdp 98.


-- [abhi + dhāreti] to hold aloft J i.34 = Bu iv.1.


-- [abhi + dhāvati] to run towards, to rush about, rush on, hasten Vin ii.195; S i.209; J ii.217; iii.83; DhA iv.23.


-- (adj.) fr. abhidhāvati] "pouring in", rushing on, running J vi.559.


-- [pp. of abhi + namati] bent, (strained, fig. bent on pleasure M i.386 (+ apanata); S i.28 (id.; Mrs. Rh. D. "strained forth", cp. Kindred S i.39). See also apanata.


-- [abhi + nadati] to resound, to be full of noise J vi.531. Cp. abhinādita.


-- [abhi + nandati] to rejoice at, find pleasure in (acc.), approve of, be pleased or delighted with (acc.) D i.46 (bhāsitaŋ), 55 (id.), 158, 223; M i.109, 458; S i.32 (annaŋ), 57, 14, (cakkhuŋ, rūpe etc.); A iv.411; Th 1, 606; Dh 75, 219; Sn 1054, 1057, 1111; Nd2 82; Miln 25; DA i.160; DhA iii.194 (aor. abhinandi, opp. paṭikkosi) VvA 65 (vacanaŋ). -- pp. abhinandita (q. v.). <-> Often in combn. with abhivadati (q. v.).


-- (nt.) & ˚ā (f.) [fr. abhinandati, cp. nandanā], pleasure, delight, enjoyment D i.244; M i.498; J iv.397.


-- [pp. of abhinandati] only in an˚ not enjoyed, not (being) an object of pleasure S iv.213 = It 38; S v. 319.


-- (adj.) [fr. abhinandati, cp. nandin] rejoicing at, finding pleasure in (loc. or -- ˚), enjoying A ii.54 (piyarūpa); esp. freq. in phrase (taṇhā) tatratatrɔÔbhinandinī finding its pleasure in this or that [cp. B.Sk. tṛṣṇā tatra -- tatrɔÔbhinandinī M Vastu iii.332] Vin i.10; S v.421; Ps ii.147; Nett 72, etc.


-- [abhi + namati] to bend. -- pp. abhinata (q.v.).


-- [abhi + naya] a dramatic representation VvA 209 (sākhā˚).


-- (adj.) [abhi + nava] quite young, new or fresh Vin iii.337; J ii.143 (devaputta), 435 (so read for accuṇha in expln of paccaggha; v.v. ll. abbhuṇha & abhiṇha); ThA 201 (˚yobbana = abhiyobbana); PvA 40 (˚saṇṭhāna), 87 (= paccaggha) 155.


-- [pp. of abhinādeti, Caus. of abhi + nad; see nadati] resounding with ( -- ˚), filled with the noise (or song) of (birds) J vi.530 (= abhinadanto C.); PvA 157 (= abhiruda).


-- (adj.) [abhi + nikūjita] resounding with, full of the noise of (birds) J v.232 (of the barking of a dog), 304 (of the cuckoo); so read for ˚ku˝jita T.). Cp. abhikūjita.


-- [abhi + nikkhamati] to go forth from (abl.), go out, issue Dhs A 91; esp. fig. to leave the household life, to retire from the world Sn 64 (= gehā abhinikkhamitvā kāsāya -- vattho hutvā Sn A 117).


- (nt.) [abhi + nikkhamana] departure, going away, esp. the going out into monastic life, retirement, renunciation. Usually as mahā˚ the great renunciation J i.61; PvA 19.


-- [abhi + nikkhipati] to lay down, put down Davs iii.12, 60.


-- (f.) [abstr. fr. abhiniggaṇhāti] holding back Vin iii.121 (+ abhinippīḷanā).


-- [abhi + niggaṇhāti] to hold back, restrain, prevent, prohibit; always in combn. with abhinippīḷeti M i.120; A v.230. -- Cp. abhiniggaṇhanā.


-- [vv. ll. at all passages for ahīnindriya] doubtful meaning. The other is expld by Bdhgh at DA i.120 as paripuṇṇ˚; and at 222 as avikal -- indriya not defective, perfect sense -- organ. He must have read ahīn˚. Abhi -- n -- indriya could only be expld as "with supersenseorgans", i. e. with organs of supernormal thought or perception, thus coming near in meaning to *abhi˝˝indriya; We should read ahīn˚ throughout D i.34, 77, 186, 195. ii.13; M ii.18; iii.121; Nd2 under pucchā6 (only ahīn˚).


-- [abhi + ninnāmeti cp. BSk. abhinirṇāmayati Lal. V. 439] to bend towards, to turn or direct to D i.76 (cittaŋ ˝āṇa -- dassanāya); M i.234; S i.123; iv.178; Pug 60.


-- [abhi + nipajjati] to lie down on Vin iv.273 (+ abhinisīdati); A iv.188 (in = acc. + abhinisīdati); Pug 67 (id.).


-- [abhi + nipatati] to rush on (to) J ii.8.


-- ( -- matta) destroying, hurting (?) at Vbh 321 is expld. by āpātha -- matta [cp. Divy 125 śastrÔbhinipāta splitting open or cutting with a knife].


-- (nt.) [fr. abhi -- ni -- pāteti in daṇḍa -- sattha˚ attacking with stick or knife Nd2 5764.


-- (adj.) [abhi + nipātin] falling on io ( -- ˚) J ii.7.


-- (adj.) [abhi + nipuṇa] very thorough, very clever D iii.167.


-- [abhi + nippajjati] to be produced, accrue, get, come (to) M i.86 (bhogā abhinipphajjanti: sic) = Nd2 99 (has n'Ôbhinippajjanti). -- Cp. abhinipphādeti.


-- at J vi.36 is to be read abhinippanna (so v. l. BB.).


-- at Dhs 1035, 1036 is to be read abhinibbatta.


-- (& ˚nipphanna) [abhi + nippanna, pp. of ˚nippajjati] produced, effected, accomplished D ii.223 (siloka); J vi.36 (so read for abhinippata); Miln 8 (pph.).

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-- (f.) [abstr. to abhinippīḷeti, cp. nippīḷana] pressing, squeezing, taking hold of Vin iii.121 (+ abhiniggaṇhanā).


-- [abhi + nippīḷeti] to squeeze, crush, subdue Vism 399; often in combn. with abhiniggaṇhāti M i. 120; A v.230.


-- (f.) [abhi + nipphatti] production, effecting D ii.283 (v. l. ˚nibbatti).


-- [abhi + nipphādeti] to bring into existence, produce, effect, work, perform D i.78 (bhājana -- vikatiŋ); Vin ii.183 (iddhiŋ); S v.156, 255; Miln 39.


-- [abhi + nibbatta, pp. of abhinibbattati] repro- duced, reborn A iv.40, 401; Nd2 256 (nibbatta abhi˚ pātubhūta); Dhs 1035, 1036 (so read for˚ nippatta); VvA 9 (pu˝˝ɔÔnubhāva˚ by the power of merit).


-- [abhi + nibbattati] to become, to be repro- duced, to result Pug 51. -- pp. abhinibbatta. -- Cp. B.Sk. wrongly abhinivartate].


-- (f.) [abhi + nibbatti] becoming, birth, rebirth, D i.229; ii.283 (v. l. for abhinipphatti) S ii.65 (punabbhava˚), 101 (id.); iv.14, 215; A v.121; PvA 35.


-- [abhi + nibbatteti, caus. of ˚nibbattati] to produce, cause, cause to become S iii.152; A v.47; Nd2 under jāneti.


-- [either Med. fr. nibbindati of vid for *nir- vidyate (see nibbindati B), or secondary formation fr. ger. nibbijja. Reading however not beyond all doubt] to be disgusted with, to avoid, shun, turn away from Sn 281 (T. abhinibbijjayātha, v. l. BB˚ nibbijjiyātha & ˚nibbajjiyātha, SnA expls. by vivajjeyyātha mā bhajeyyātha; v. l. BB. abhinippajjiyā) = A iv.172 (T. abhinibbajjayātha, vv. ll. ˚nibbajjeyyātha & ˚nibbijjayātha); ger. abhinibbijja Th 2, 84.


-- [abhi + nibbijjhati] to break quite through (of the chick coming through the shell of the egg) Vin iii.3; M i.104 = S iii.153 (read˚ nibbijjheyyun for nibbijjeyyun -- Cp. Buddh. Suttas 233, 234.


-- (f.) [abhi + nibbidā; confused with abhinibb- hidā] disgust with the world, taedium Nett 61 (taken as abhinibbhidā, according to expln. as "padālanā -- pa˝˝atti avijj˚aṇḍa -- kosānaŋ"), 98 (so MSS, but C. abhinibbidhā).


-- (adj.) [abhi + nibbuta] perfectly cooled, calmed, serene, esp. in two phrases, viz. diṭṭha dhamm' Ôbhinibbuta A i.142 = M iii.187; Sn 1087; Nd2 83, and abhinibbutatta of cooled mind Sn 343 (= apariḍayhamāna -- citta SnA 347), 456, 469, 783. Also at Sdhp. 35.


-- (f.) [this the better, although not correct spelling; there exists a confusion with abhinibbidā, therefore spelling also abhinibbidhā (Vin iii.4, C. on Nett 98). To abhinibbijjhati, cp. B.Sk. abhinirbheda M Vastu i.272, which is wrongly referred to bhid instead of vyadh.] the successful breaking through (like the chick through the shell of the egg), coming into (proper) life Vin iii.4; M i.104; 357; Nett 98 (C. reading). See also abhinibbidā.


-- (f.) [abstr. to abhinimanteti] speaking to, adressing, invitation M i.331.


-- [abhi + nimanteti] to invite to (c. instr.), to offer to D i.61 (āsanena).


-- (nt.) [abhi + nimmadana] crushing, sub- duing, levelling out M iii.132; A iv.189 sq.


-- [abhi + nimmita, pp. of abhinimmināti] created (by magic) Vv 161 (pa˝ca rathā satā; cp. VvA 79).


-- [abhi + nimmināti, cp. BSk. abhinirmāti Jtm 32; abhinirminoti Divy 251; abhinirmimīte Divy 166] to create (by magic), produce, shape, make S iii.152 (rūpaŋ); A i.279 (oḷārikaŋ attabhāvaŋ); Nd2 under pucchā6 (rūpaŋ manomayaŋ); VvA 16 (mahantaŋ hatthi -- rāja -- vaṇṇaŋ). -- pp. abhinimmita (q. v.).


-- (nt.) & ā (f.) [fr. abhiniropeti] fixing one's mind upon, application of the mind Ps i.16, 21, 30, 69, 75, 90; Vbh 87; Dhs 7, 21, 298 (cp. Dhs trsl. ii.19). See also abhiropana.


-- [abhi + niropeti] to implant, fix into (one's mind), inculcate Nett 33.


-- [abhi + nivajjeti] to avoid, get rid of D iii. 113; M i.119, 364, 402; S v.119, 295, 318; A iii.169 sq.; It 81.


-- [abhi + ni + vassati fr. vṛṣ] lit. to pour out in abundance, fig. to produce in plenty. Cp i.103 (kalyāṇe good deeds).


-- (adj.) [abhi + niviṭṭha, pp. of abhi -- nivisati] "settled in", attached to, clinging on Nd2 152 (gahita parāmaṭṭha a.); PvA 267 (= ajjhāsita Pv iv.84).


-- [abhi + nivisati] to cling to, adhere to, be attached to Nd1 308, 309 (parāmasati +). -- pp. abhiniviṭṭha; cp. also abhinivesa.


-- [abhi + nivesa, see nivesa2 & cp. nivesana] "settling in", i. e. wishing for, tendency towards ( -- ˚), inclination, adherence; as adj. liking, loving, being given or inclined to D iii.230; M i.136, 251; S ii.17; iii.10, 13, 135, 161, 186 (saŋyojana˚ iv.50; A iii.363 (paṭhavī˚, adj.); Nd2 227 (gāha parāmasa +); Pug 22; Vbh 145; Dhs 381, 1003, 1099; Nett 28; PvA 252 (micchā˚), 267 (taṇhā˚); Sdhp 71. -- Often combd. with adhiṭṭhāna e. g. S ii.17; Nd2 176, and in phrase idaŋ -- saccɔ Ôbhinivesa adherence to one's dogmas, as one of the 4 Ties: see kāyagantha and cp. Cpd. 171 n. 5.


-- [abhi + nisīdati] to sit down by or on (acc.), always combd. with abhinipajjati Vin iii.29; iv.273; A v.188; Pug 67.


-- (pp.) [abhi + nissaṭa] escaped Th 1, 1089.


-- (pp.) [abhi + nihata] oppressed. crushed, slain J iv.4.


-- (pp.) [pp. of abhi -- neti] led to, brought to, obliged by ( -- ˚) M i.463 = Miln 32 (rājā & cora˚); M i.282; S iii.93; Th 1, 350 = 435 (vātaroga˚ "foredone with cramping pains" Mrs. Rk. D.); Pug 29; Miln 362.


-- (adj.) [abhi + nīla] very black, deep black, only with ref. to the eyes, in phrase ˚netta with deep -- black eyes D ii.18; iii.144, 167 sq. [cp. Sp. Av. Ś i.367 & 370 abhinīla -- padma -- netra]; Th 2, 257 (nettā ahesuŋ abbinīla -- m -- āyatā).


-- [abhi + nis + han, cp. Sk. nirhanti] to drive away, put away, destroy, remove, avoid M i.119 (in phrase āṇiŋ a. abhinīharati abhinivajjeti).


-- [abhi + nīharati] 1. to take out, throw out M i.119 (see abhinīhanati). -- 2. to direct to, to apply to (orig. to isolate? Is reading correct?) in phrase ˝āṇadassanāya cittaŋ abhinīharati abhininnāmeti D i.76 (= tanninnaŋ tappoṇaŋ karoti DA i.220, 224; v. l. abhini˚) Cp. the latter phrase also in BSk. as abhij˝Ôbhinirhāra Av. Ś ii.3 (see ref. & note Index p. 221); and the pp. abhinirhṛta (ṛddhiḥ) in Divy 48, 49 to obtain? Ind.), 264 (take to burial), 542.

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-- [abhi + nīhāra, to abhinīharati; cp. BSk. sarīrɔ Ôbhinirhāra taking (the body) out to burial, lit. meaning, see note on abhinīharati] being bent on ("downward force" Dhs trsl. 242), i. e. taking oneself out to, way of acting, (proper) behaviour, endeavour, resolve, aspiration S iii.267 sq. (˚kusala); A ii.189; iii.311; iv.34 (˚kusala); J i.14 (Buddhabhāvāya a. resolve to become a Buddha), 15 (Buddhattāya); Ps i.61 sq.; ii.121; Nett 26; Miln 216; DhA i.392; ii.82 (kata˚).


-- (adj.) [fr. abhipatti] one who has attained, attaining ( -- ˚), getting possession of S i.200 (devaka˝˝a˚).


-- (pp.) [fr. abhipattheti] hoped, wished, longed for Miln 383; SnA 85.


-- [abhi + pattheti] to hope for, long for, wish for Kh viii.10; SnA 320; DhA i.30. -- pp. abhipatthita (q. v.).


-- [abhi + passati] to have regard for, look for, strive after A i.147 (Nibbānaŋ); iii.75; Sn 896 (khema˚), 1070 (rattamahā˚) Nd1 308; Nd2 428; J vi.370.


-- [abhi + pāteti] to make fall, to bring to fall, to throw J ii.91 (kaṇḍaŋ).


-- (adj.) [abhi + pāruta, pp. of abhipārupati] dressed Miln 222.


-- [abhi + pāleti] to protect Vv 8421, cp. VvA 341.


-- (pp.) [fr. abhipiḷeti] crushed, squeezed Sdhp 278, 279.


-- [abhi + pīḷeti] to crush, squeeze Miln 166. - pp. abhipīḷita (q. v.).


-- [abhi + pucchati] Sk. abhipṛcchati] to ask J iv.18.


-- [abhi + pūreti] to fill (up) Miln 238; Dāvs iii. 60 (paŋsūhi).


-- [pp. of abhippakirati] completely strewn (with) J i.62.


-- [abhi + pakirati] to strew over, to cover (completely) D ii.137 (pupphāni Tathāgatassa sarīraŋ okiranti ajjhokiranti a.); VvA 38 (for abbhokirati Vv 59). <-> pp. abhippakiṇṇa (q. v.).


-- [abhi + pamodati] to rejoice (intrs.); to please, satisfy (trs, c. acc.) M i.425; S v.312, 330; A v.112; J iii 530; Ps i.95, 176, 190.


-- [abhi + palambati] to hang down M iii. 164 (olambati ajjholambati a.).


-- [abhi + pavassati] to shed rain upon, to pour down; intrs. to rain, to pour, fall. Usually in phrase mahāmegho abhippavassati a great cloud bursts Miln 8, 13, 36, 304; PvA 132 (v. l. ati˚); intrs. Miln 18 (pupphāni ˚iŋsu poured down). -- pp. abhippavuṭṭha.


-- (pp.) [fr. abhippavassati] having rained, poured, fallen; trs. S v.51 (bandhanāni meghena ˚āni) = A v.127; intrs. M ii.117 (mahāmegho ˚o there has been a cloudburst).


-- (adj.) [pp. of abhippasīdati, cp. BSk. abhi- prasanna] finding one's peace in (c. loc.), trusting in, having faith in, believing in, devoted to (loc.) Vin iii.43; D i.211 (Bhagavati) S i.134; iv.319; v.225, 378; A iii. 237, 270, 326 sq.; Sn p. 104 (brāhmaṇesu); PvA 54 (sāsand), 142 (id.). Cp. vippasanna in same meaning.


-- [abhi + pasāda, cp. BSk. abhiprasāda Av. Ś 12 (cittasyu˚) & vippasāda] faith, belief, reliance, trust Dhs 12 ("sense of assurance" trsl., + saddhā), 25, 96, 288; PvA 223.


-- [Caus. of abhippasīdati, cp. BSk. abhipra- sādayati Divy 68, 85, pp. abhiprasādita -- manāḥ Jtm 213, 220] to establish one's faith in (loc.), to be reconciled with, to propitiate Th 1, 1173 = Vv 212 (manaŋ arahantamhi = cittaŋ pasādeti VvA 105).


-- [abhi + pasāreti, cp. BSk. abhiprasārayati Divy 389] to stretch out Vin i.179 (pāde).


-- [abhi + pasīdati] to have faith in D i.211 (fut. ˚issati). -- pp. abhippasanna; Caus. abhippasādeti.


-- (nt.) [abhi + paharaṇa] attacking, fighting, as adj. f. ˚aṇī fighting, Ep. of Mārassa senā, the army of M. Sn 439 (kaṇhassa˚ the fighting army of k. = samaṇabrāhmaṇānaŋ nippothanī antarāyakārī SnA 390).


-- [abhi + vyāpeti, cp. Sk. vyāpnoti, vi + āp] to pervade Miln 251.


-- [abhi + bhakkhayati] to eat (of animals) Vin ii.201 (bhinko pankaŋ a.).


-- [fr. abhibhavati] defeat, humiliation SnA 436.


-- [abhi + bhavati] to overcome, master, be lord over, vanquish, conquer S i.18, 32, 121 (maraṇaŋ); iv. 71 (rāgadose), 117 (kodhaŋ), 246, 249 (sāmikaŋ); J i.56, 280; PvA 94 (= balīyati, vaḍḍhati). -- fut. abhihessati see abhihāreti 4. -- ger. abhibhuyya Vin i.294; Dh 328; It 41 (māraŋ sasenaŋ); Sn 45, 72 (˚cārin), 1097, Nd2 85 (= abhibhavitvā ajjhottharitvā, pariyādiyitvā); and abhibhavitvā PvA 113 (= pasayha), 136. -- grd. abhibhavanīya to be overcome PvA 57. -- Pass. ppr. abhibhūyamāna being overcome (by) PvA 80, 103. -- pp. abhibhūta (q. v.).


-- (nt.) [fr. abhibhavati] overcoming, vanquishing, mastering S ii.210 (v. l. BB abhipatthana).


-- (f.) [abstr. fr. abhibhavanīya, grd. of abhi- bhavati] as an˚ invincibility PvA 117.


-- (nt.) [abhibhū + āyatana] position of a master or lord, station of mastery. The traditional account of these gives 8 stations or stages of mastery over the senses (see Dial. ii.118; Exp. i.252), detailed identically at all the foll. passages, viz. D ii.110; iii.260 (& 287); M ii.13; A i.40; iv.305, 348; v.61. Mentioned only at S iv.77 (6 stations); Ps i.5; Nd2 466 (as an accomplishment of the Bhagavant); Dhs 247.


-- (nt.) [abhi + bhāsana fr. bhās] enlightenment or delight ("light & delight" trsl.) Th 1, 613 (= tosana C.).


-- (n. -- adj.) [Vedic abhibhū, fr. abhi + bhū, cp. abhi- bhavati] overcoming, conquering, vanquishing, having power over, a Lord or Master of ( -- ˚) D iii.29; S ii. 284; Sn 211 (sabba˚), 545 (Māra˚, cp. Mārasena -- pamaddana 561), 642. -- Often in phrase abhibhū anabhibhūta a˝˝adatthudasa vasavattin, i. e. unvanquished Lord of all D i 18; iii.135 = Nd2 276; A ii.24; iv.94; It 122; cp. DA i.111 (= abhibhavitvā ṭhito jeṭṭhakoɔ ham asmīti).


-- [pp. of abhibhavati] overpowered, overwhelmed, vanquished D i.121; S i.137 (jāti -- jarā˚); ii.228 (lābhasakkāra -- silokena); A i.202 (pāpakehi dhammehi); J i.189; PvA 14, 41 (= pareta), 60 (= upagata), 68, 77, 80 (= pareta). Often neg. an˚ unconquered, e. g. Sn 934; Nd1 400; & see phrase under abhibhū.


-- (adj.) [abhi + mangala] (very) fortunate, lucky, anspicious, in ˚sammatā (of Visākhā) "benedicted", blessed Vin iii.187 = DhA i.409. Opp. avamangala.


-- (pp. -- ˚) [abhi + maṇḍita] adorned, embel- lished, beautified Miln 361; Sdhp 17.


-- (adj.) [BSk. abhimata, e. g. Jtm 211; pp. of abhimanyate] desired, wished for; agreeable, pleasant C. on Th 1, 91.

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-- (˚eti) & ˚mantheti [abhi + math or manth, cp. nimmatheti] 1. to cleave, cut; to crush, destroy M i.243 (sikharena muddhānaŋ ˚mantheti); S i.127; Dh 161 (v. l. ˚nth˚); J iv.457 (matthako sikharena ˚matthiyamāno); DhA iii.152 (= kantati viddhaŋseti). -- 2. to rub, to produce by friction (esp. fire, aggiŋ; cp. Vedic agniŋ nirmanthati) M i.240.


-- [Sk. abhimardati & ˚mṛdnāti; abhi + mṛd] to crush S i.102; A i.198; Sdhp 288.


-- (adj.) [abhi + mano, BSk. abhimana, e. g. M Vastu iii.259] having one's mind turned on, thinking of or on (c. acc.) Th 1, 1122; J vi.451.


-- (adj.) [abhi + manāpa] very pleasing VvA 53 (where id. p. at PvA 71 has atimanāpa).


-- see abhimatthati.


-- [cp. Sk. abhimara slaughter] a bandit, bravo, robber J ii.199; DA i.152.


-- (adj.) [abhi + mukha] facing, turned towards, approaching J ii.3 (˚ā ahesuŋ met each other). Usually -- ˚ turned to, going to, inclined towards D i.50 (purattha˚); J i.203 (devaloka˚), 223 (varaṇa -- rukkha˚); ii.3 (nagara˚), 416 (Jetavana˚); DhA i.170 (tad˚); ii.89 (nagara˚); PvA 3 (kāma˚, opp. vimukha), 74 (uyyāna˚). -- nt. ˚ŋ adv. to, towards J i.263 (matta -- vāraṇe); PvA 4 (āghātana˚, may here be taken as pred. adj.); DhA iii.310 (uttara˚).


-- [abhi + yācati] to ask, beg, entreat Sn 1101, cp. Nd2 86.


-- [Vedic abhiyāti in same meaning; abhi _ ] to go against (in a hostile manner, to attack (c. acc.) S i.216 (aor. abhiyaŋsu, v. l. SS abhijiyiŋsu); DhA iii.310 (aor. abhiyāsi as v. l. for T. reading pāyāsi; the id. p. VvA 68 reads pāyāsi with v. l. upāyāsi).


-- [abhi + yujjhati from yudh] to contend, quarrel with J i.342.


-- [abhi + yuj] to accuse, charge; intrs. fall to one's share Vin iii.50; iv.304.


-- [cp. abhiyu˝jati] practice, observance Dāvs iv.7.


-- (adj.) [fr. abhiyoga] applying oneself to, prac- tised, skilled (an augur, sooth sayer) D iii.168.


-- (nt.) [abhi + yobbana] much youthfulness, early or tender youth Th 2, 258 (= abhinavayobbanakāla ThA 211).


-- [abhi + rakkhati] to guard, protect J vi.589 (= pāleti C.). Cp. parirakkhati.


-- (f.) [fr. abhirakkhati] protection, guard J i.204 (= ārakkhā 203).


-- (adj.) ( -- ˚) [pp. of abhiramati] found of, indulging in, finding delight in A iv.224 (nekkhamma˚); v.175 (id.), Sn 86 (nibbāna˚), 275 (vihesa˚), 276 (kalaha˚); J v.382 (dāna˚); PvA 54 (pu˝˝akamma˚), 61 (satibhavana˚), 105 (dānÔdipu˝˝a˚).


-- (nt.) [abstr. fr. abhirata] the fact of being fond of, delighting in ( -- ˚) J v.254 (kāma˚).


-- (f.) [fr. abhi + ram] delight or pleasure in (loc. or -- ˚) S i.185; iv.260; A v.122; Dh 88. -- an˚ displeasure, discontent, distaste Vin ii.110; D i.17 (+ paritassanā); S i.185; v.132; A iii.259; iv.50; v.72 sq., 122; J iii.395; DA i.111; PvA 187.


-- (adj.) [abhi + ratta] very red J v.156; fig. very much excited or affected with ( -- ˚) Sn 891 (sandiṭṭhirāgena a.).


-- (adj.) [pp. of abhi + rādh] propitiated, satis- fied A iv.185 (+ attamana).


-- (f.) [fr. abhiraddha] only in neg. an˚ displeasure, dislike, discontent A i.79; DA i.52 (= kopassɔ etaŋ adhivacanaŋ).


-- [abhi + ram] to sport, enjoy oneself, find pleasure in or with (c. loc.), to indulge in love Sn 718, 1085; J i.192; iii.189, 393; DhA i.119; PvA 3, 61, 145. -- ppr. act. abhiranto only as nt. ˚ŋ in adv. phrase yathÔbhirantaŋ after one's liking, as much as he pleases, after one's heart's content Vin i.34; M i.170; Sn 53. <-> ppr. med. abhiramamāna J iii.188, PvA 162. -- pp. abhirata (q. v.). -- 2nd Caus. abhiramāpeti (q. v.).


-- (nt.) [fr. abhiramati] sporting, dallying, amusing oneself PvA 16.


-- (nt.) [fr. abhiramāpeti, Caus2 of abhiramati] causing pleasure to (acc.), being a source of pleasure, making happy M iii.132 (gāmante).


-- [Caus. II. fr. abhiramati] 1. to induce to sport, to cause one to take pleasure J iii.393. -- 2. to delight, amuse, divert J i.61. -- Cp. abhiramāpana.


-- [abhi + ravati] to shout ont Bu ii.90 = J i.18 (v.99)


-- [pp. of abhirādheti] having succeeded in, fallen to one's share, attained Th 1, 259.


-- (adj.) ( -- ˚) [fr. abhirādheti] pleasing, giving plea- sure, satisfaction J iv.274 (mitta˚ = ārādhento tosento C.).


-- [abhi + rādheti] to please, satisfy, make happy J i.421; DA i.52. -- aor. (pret.) abhirādhayi Vv 315 (= abhirādhesi VvA 130); Vv 6423 (gloss for abhirocayi VvA 282); J i.421; iii.386 (= paritosesi C.). -- pp. abhirādhita.


-- (f.) [Sk. abhiruci, fr. abhi + ruc] delight, longing, pleasure, satisfaction PvA 168 (= ajjhāsaya).


-- (adj.) [pp. fr. abhi + ruc] pleasing, agreeable, liked J i.402; DhA i.45.


-- (adj. -- ˚) [Sk. abhiruta] resounding with (the cries of animals, esp. the song of birds), full of the sound of (birds) Th 1, 1062 (ku˝jara˚), 1113 (mayūra -- ko˝ca˚); J iv.466 (adāsakunta˚); v.304 (mayūra -- ko˝ca˚); vi.172 (id., = upagīta C.), 272 (sakunta˚; = abhigīta C.), 483 (mayūra -- ko˝ca˚), 539; Pv ii.123 (haŋsa -- ko˝ca˚; = abhinādita PvA 157). -- The form abhiruta occurs at Th 1, 49.


-- (adj.) [abhi + rūpa] of perfect form, (very), handsome, beautiful, lovely Sn 410 (= dassaniyaɔ angapaccanga SnA 383); J i.207; Pug 52; DA i.281 (= a˝˝ehi manussehi adhikarūpa); VvA 53; PvA 61 (= abhikkanta). Occurs in the idiomatic phrase denoting the characteristics of true beauty abhirūpa dassanīya pāsādika (+ paramāya vaṇṇa -- pokkharatāya samannāgata), e. g. Vin i.268; D i.47, 114, 120; S ii.279; A ii.86, 203; Nd2 659; Pug 66; DhA i.281 (compar.); PvA 46.


-- [pp. of abhirūhati] mounted, gone up to, ascended J v.217; DhA i.103.


-- (abhiruhati) [abhi + ruh] to ascend, mount, climb; to go on or in to (c. acc.) Dh 321; Th 1, 271; J i.259; ii.388; iii.220; iv.138 (navaŋ); vi.272 (peculiar aor. ˚rucchi with ābhi metri causa; = abhirūhi C.); DA i.253. -- ger. abhiruyha J iii.189; PvA 75, 152 (as v. l.; T. has ˚ruyhitva), 271 (nāvaŋ), & abhirūhitvā J i.50 (pabbataŋ) ii.128.


-- (nt.) [BSk. ˚rūhana, e. g. M Vastu ii.289] climbing, ascending, climb Miln 356.

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-- [abhi + roceti, Caus. of ruc] 1. to like, to find delight in (acc.), to desire, long for J iii.192; v.222 (= roceti); Vv 6423 (vataŋ abhirocayi = abhirocesi ruccitvā pūresi ti attho; abhirādhayi ti pi pāṭho; sādhesi nipphādesī ti attho VvA 282). -- 2. to please, satisfy, entertain, gladden Vv 6424 (but VvA 292: abhibhavitvā vijjotati, thus to no. 3). -- 3. v. l. for atiroceti (to surpass in splendour) at Vv 8112, cp. also no. 2.


-- (nt.) [fr. abhiropeti] concentration of mind, attention (seems restricted to Ps ii. only) Ps ii.82 (v. l. abhiniropana), 84, 93, 115 (buddhi˚), 142 (˚virāga), 145 (˚vimutti), 216 (˚abhisamaya). See also abhiniropana.


-- [abhi + ropeti, cp. Sk. adhiropayati, Caus. of ruh] to fix one's mind on, to pay attention, to show reverence, to honour Vv 377 (aor. ˚ropayi = ropesi VvA 169), 3710 (id.; = pūjaŋ kāresi VvA 172), 604 (= pūjesi VvA 253); Dāvs v.19.


-- (adj.) [Sk. abhilakṣita in diff. meaning; pp. of abhi + lakṣ] fixed, designed, inaugurated, marked by auspices J iv.1; DA i.18.


-- (nt.) [abstr. fr. abhilakkhita] having signs or marks, being characterised, characteristics DhsA 62.


-- [abhi + langhati] to ascend, rise, travel or pass over (of the moon traversing the sky) J iii.364; vi.221.


-- [abhi + lambati] to hang down over (c. acc.) M iii.164 = Nett 179 (+ ajjholambati); J v.70 (papātaŋ), 269 (Vetaraṇiŋ). -- pp. abhilambita (q. v.).


-- (adj.) [pp. of abhilambati] hanging down J v.407 (nīladuma˚).


-- [fr. abhi + lap] talk, phrasing, expression Sn 49 (vācÔbhilāpa making phrases, talking, idle or objectionable speech = tiracchanakathā Nd2 561); It 89 (? reading abhilāpāyaŋ uncertain, vv. ll. abhipāyaŋ abhipāpāyaŋ, abhisāpāyaŋ, abhisapāyaŋ, atisappāyaŋ. The corresp. passage S iii.93 reads abhisapayaŋ: curse, and C. on It 89 expls. abhilāpo ti akkoso, see Brethren 376 n. 1); Dhs 1306 = Nd2 34 (as exegesis or paraphrase of adhivacana, combd. with vya˝jana & trsl. by Mrs. Rh. D. as "a distinctive mark of discourse"); DA i.20, 23, 281; DhsA 51.


-- [Sk. abhilāṣa, abhi + laṣ] desire, wish, longing PvA 154.


-- [Caus. of abhi + likh] to cause to be inscribed Dāvs v.67 (cāritta -- lekhaŋ ˚lekhayi).


-- (nt.) [abhi + lepana] "smearing over", stain, pollution Sn 1032, 1033 = Nett 10, 11 (see Nd2 88 = laggana "sticking to", bandhana, upakkilesa).


-- [abhi + vagga] great mass (?), superior force (?), only in phrase ˚ena omaddati to crush with sup. force or overpower M i.87 = Nd2 1996.


-- (nt.) [abhi + va˝c] deceit, fraud Dāvs iii.64.


-- [pp. of abhivassati, see also abhivuṭṭha] rained upon Dh 335 (gloss ˚vuṭṭha; cp. DhA iv.45); Miln 176, 197, 286. -- Note. Andersen P. R. prefers reading abhivaḍḍha at Dh 335 "the abounding Bīraṇa grass").


-- [Vedic abhivardhati, abhi + vṛdh] 1. to increase (intrs.) D i.113, 195 (opp. hāyati); M ii.225; A iii.46 (bhogā a.); Dh 24; Miln 374; PvA 8, 133; Sdhp 288, 523. -- 2. to grow over or beyond, to outg ow J iii.399 (vanaspatiŋ). -- pp. abhivuḍḍha & ˚vuddha (q.v.).


-- (adj. -- nt.) [fr. abhivaḍḍhati] increasing (trs.), augmenting; f. ˚ī Sdhp 68.


-- (f.) [cp. Sk. abhivṛddhi, fr. abhi + vṛdh] in- crease, growth Miln 94. -- See also abhivuddhi.


-- [pp. of abhivanneti] praised Dpvs i.4.


-- [abhi + vanneti] to praise Sdhp 588 (˚ayi). - pp. abhivaṇṇita.


-- [abhi + vadati] 1. to speak out, declare, pro- mise J i.83 = Vin i.36; J vi.220. -- 2. to speak (kindly) to, to welcome, salute, greet. In this sense always combd. with abhinandati, e. g. at M i.109, 266, 458; S iii.14; iv.36 sq.; Miln 69. -- Caus. abhivādeti.


-- [abhi + vandati] to salute respectfully, to honour, greet; grd. ˚vandanīya Miln 227.


-- (adj.) [fr. abhivassati] raining, fig. shedding, pouring ont, yielding VvA 38 (puppha˚).


-- [abhi + vassati from vṛṣ] to rain, shed rain, pour; fig. rain down, pour out, shed D iii.160 (ābhivassaŋ metri causa); A iii.34; Th 1, 985; J i.18 (v.100; pupphā a. stream down); cp. iii.106; Miln 132, 411. <-> pp. abhivaṭṭa & abhivuṭṭha (q. v.). -- Caus. II. abhivassāpeti to cause (the sky to) rain Miln 132.


-- (adj.) = abhivassaka It 64, 65 (sabbattha˚).


-- (nt.) [fr. abhivādeti] respectful greeting, salu- tation, giving welcome, showing respect or devotion A ii.180; iv.130, 276; J i.81, 82, 218; Dh 109 (˚sīlin of devout character, cp. DhA ii.239); VvA 24; Sdhp 549 (˚sīla).


-- [Caus. of abhivadati] to salute, greet, welcome, honour Vin ii.208 sq.; D i.61; A iii.223; iv.173; Vv 15 (abhivādayiŋ aor. = abhivādanaŋ kāresiŋ vandiŋ VvA 24); Miln 162. Often in combn with padakkhiṇaŋ karoti in sense of to bid goodbye, to say adieu, farewell, e. g. D i.89, 125, 225; Sn 1010. -- Caus. II. abhivādāpeti to cause some one to salute, to make welcome Vin ii.208 (˚etabba).


-- [abhi + vāyati; cp. Sk. abhivāti] to blow through, to pervade Miln 385.


-- [abhi + vāreti, Caus. of vṛ] to hold back, refuse, deny J v.325 (= nivāreti C.).


-- [abhi + vāheti, Caus. of vah] to remove, to put away Bu x.5.


-- (& vijināti) [abhi + vijayati] to overpower, to conquer. Of ˚jayati the ger. ˚jiya at D i.89, 134; ii.16. Of ˚jināti the pres. 3rd pl. ˚jinanti at Miln 39; the ger. ˚jinitvā at M i.253; Pug 66.


-- [abhi + vi˝˝āpeti] to turn somebody's mind on (c. acc.), to induce somebody (dat.) to (acc.) Vin iii.18 (purāṇadutiyikāya methunaŋ dhammaŋ abhivi˝˝āpesi).


-- [abhi + vitarati] "to go down to", i. e. give in, to pay heed, observe Vin i.134 and in ster. expln. of sa˝cicca at Vin ii.91; iii.73, 112; iv.290.


-- [abhi + vinaya] higher discipline, the refinements of discipline or Vinaya; combd. with abhidhamma, e. g. D iii.267; M i.472; also with vinaya Vin v.1 sg.


-- [abhi + vindati] to find, get, obtain Sn 460 (= labhati adhigacchati SnA 405).


-- (adj.) [abhi + visiṭṭha] most excellent, very distinguished DA i.99, 313.


-- [abhi + vissajjati] to send out, send forth, deal out, give D iii.160.


-- [abhi + vissattha, pp. of abhivissasati, Sk. abhiviśvasta] confided in, taken into confidence M ii.52 (v. l. ˚visaṭṭha).

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-- [pp. of abhivassati, see also abhivaṭṭa] poured out or over, shed out (of water or rain) Th 1, 1065; Dh 335 (gloss); PvA 29.


-- [pp. of abhivaḍḍhati, see also ˚vuddha] in- creased, enriched PvA 150.


-- [pp. of abhivaḍḍhati, see also ˚vuḍḍha] grown up Miln 361.


-- (f.) [Sk. abhivṛddhi, see also abhivaḍḍhi] in- crease, growth, prosperity Miln 34.


--  Kern's (Toev. s. v.) proposed reading at J v.452 for ati˚, which however does not agree with C. expln. on p. 454.


-- [abhi + Caus. of vid] 1. to make known, to communicate Dāvs v.2, 11. -- 2. to know J vi.175 (= jānāti C.).


-- [ger. of abhi + vihanati] having destroyed, removed or expelled; only in one simile of the sun driving darkness away at M i.317 = S iii.156; v.44 = It 20.


-- see abhibyāpeti.


-- [abhi + saŋvisati]. Only in abhisaŋvisseyya- gattaŋ (or -- bhastaŋ or -- santuŋ) Th 2, 466 a compound of doubtful derivation and meaning. Mrs. Rh. D., following Dhammapāla (p. 283) ʻ a bag of skin with carrion filled ʼ.


-- [Vedic abhiśaŋsati, abhi + śaŋs] to execrate, revile, lay a curse on J v.174 (˚saŋsittha 3rd sg. pret. med. = paribhāsi C.) -- aor. abhisasi J vi.187, 505, 522 (= akkosi C.), 563 (id.). -- pp. abhisattha. Cp. also abhisiŋsati.


-- (f.) [? abhisaŋsati] is doubtful reading at Vv 6410; meaning "neighing" (of horses) VvA 272, 279.


-- (adj.) [abhi + sankhata, pp. of abhisan- kharoti] prepared, fixed, made up, arranged, done M i.350; A ii.43; v.343; J i.50; Nd1 186 (kappita +); PvA 7, 8.


-- (& ˚khāreti in Pot.) [abhi + sankharoti] to prepare, do, perform, work, get up Vin i.16 (iddhɔ Ôbhisankhāraŋ ˚khāreyya); D i.184 (id.); S ii.40; iii.87, 92; iv.132, 290; v.449; A i.201; Sn 984 (ger. ˚itvā: having got up this curse, cp. SnA 582); PvA 56 (iddhɔ Ôbhisaŋkhāraŋ), 172 (id.), 212 (id.). -- pp. abhisankhata (q. v.).


-- [abhi + sankhāra] 1. putting forth, perform- ance, doing, working, practice: only in two combns., viz. (a) gamiya˚ (or gamika˚) a heathenish practice Vin i.233; A iv.180, & (b) iddha˚ (= iddḥi˚) working of supernormal powers Vin i.16; D i.106; S iii.92; iv.289; v.270; Sn p. 107; PvA 56, 172, 212. -- 2. preparation, store, accumulation (of kamma, merit or demerit), substratum, state (see for detail sankhāra) S iii.58 (an˚); Nd1 334, 442; Nd2 s. v.; Vbh 135 (pu˝˝a˚ etc.), 340; DhsA 357 (˚vi˝˝āna "storing intellect" Dhs trsl. 262).


-- (adj.) [fr. abhisankhāra] what belongs to or is done by the sankhāras; accumulated by or accumulating merit, having special (meritorious) effect (or specially prepared?) Vin ii.77 = iii.160; Sdhp 309 (sa ˚paccaya).


-- [abhi + sankhipati] to throw together, heap together, concentrate Vbh 1 sq., 82 sq., 216 sq., 400; Miln 46.


-- [fr. abhi + sa˝j, cp. abhisajjati & Sk. abhisanga] I. sticking to, cleaving to, adherence to J v.6; Nett 110, 112; DhsA 129 (˚hetukaŋ dukkhaŋ) 249 (˚rasa).


-- (adj.) [fr. abhisanga] cleaving to ( -- ˚) Sdhp 566.


-- [abhi + sa˝j; cp. abhisanga] to be in ill temper, to be angry, to curse, imprecate (in meaning of abhisanga 2) D i.91 (= kodha -- vasena laggati DA i.257); iii.159; J iii.120 (+ kuppati); iv.22 (abhisajji kuppi vyāpajji, cp. BSk. abhiṣajyate kupyati vyāpadyate. Av. Ś i.286); v.175 (= kopeti C.); Dh 408 (abhisaje Pot. = kujjhāpana -- vasena laggapeyya DhA iv.182); Pug 30, 36. <-> See also abhisajjana & abhisajjanā.


-- (nt. -- adj.) [abstr. fr. abhisajjati in meaning of abhisanga 2] only as adv. f. ˚nī Ep. of vācā scolding, abusing, cursing A v.265 (para˚). Cp. next.


-- (f.) [abstr. fr. abhisajjati, cp. abhisajjana] at Sn 49 evidently means "scolding, cursing, being in bad temper" (cp. abhisajjati), as its combn. with vācɔ Ôbhilāpa indicates, but is expld. both by Nd2 & Bdhgh. as "sticking to, cleaving, craving, desire" (= taṇhā), after the meaning of abhisanga. See Nd2 89 & 107; SnA 98 (sineha -- vasena), cp. also the compromise -- expln by Bdhgh. of abhisajjati as kodha -- vasena laggati (DA i.257).


-- (& ˚cayati) [abhi + sa˝cināti] to accumulate, collect (merit) Vv 476 (Pot. ˚sa˝ceyyaŋ = ˚sa˝cineyyaŋ VvA 202).


-- [pp. of abhisa˝ceteti] raised into consci- ousness, thought out, intended, planned M i.350; S ii. 65; iv.132; A v.343.


-- [abhi + sa˝ceteti or ˚cinteti] to bring to consciousness, think out, devise, plan S ii.82. -- pp. abhisa˝cetayita (q. v.).


-- (f.). Only in the compound abhi -- sa˝˝ā -- nirodha D i.179, 184. The prefix abhi qualifies, not sa˝˝ā, but the whole compound, which means ʻ trance ʼ. It is an expression used, not by Buddhists, but by certain wanderers. See sa˝˝ā -- vedayita -- nirodha.


-- [abhi + sa˝˝ūhati, i. e. saŋ -- ni -- ūhati] to heap up, concentrate Vbh 1, 2, 82 sq.; 216 sq., 400; Miln 46. Cp. abhisankhipati.


- [pp. of abhisarati, abhi + sṛ to flow] 1. (med.) streamed forth, come together J vi.56 (= sannipatita C.). <-> 2. (pass.) approached, visited Vin i.268.


-- [pp. of abhisapati, cp. Sk. abhiśapta, fr. abhi + śap] cursed, accursed, railed at, reviled J iii.460; v.71; SnA 364 (= akkuṭṭha); VvA 335.


-- [pp. of abhisaŋsati] cursed, accursed Th 1, 118 "old age falls on her as if it had been cursed upon her" (that is, laid upon her by a curse). Morris J P T S. 1886, 145 gives the commentator's equivalents, "commanded, worked by a charm". This is a curious idiom. Any European would say that the woman herself, not the old age, was accursed. But the whole verse is a riddle and Kern's translation (Toev. s. v.) ʻ hurried up ʼ seems to us impossible.


-- [abhi + saddahati, cp. Sk. abhiśraddadhāti, e. g. Divy 17, 337] to have faith in, believe in (c. acc.), believe S v.226; Th 1, 785; Pv iv.113, 125 (˚saddaheyya = paṭi˝eyya PvA 226); Nett 11; Miln 258; PvA 26; Dāvs iii.58.


-- [ahhi + santāpeti, Caus. of santapati] to burn out, scorch, destroy M i.121.


-- [abhi + sanda of syad, cp. BSk. abhisyanda, e. g. M Vastu ii.276] outflow, overflow, yield, issue, result; only in foll. phrases: cattāro pu˝˝ɔ Ôbhisandā kusalɔ Ôbhisandā (yields in merit) S v.391 sq.; A ii.54 sq.; iii.51, 337; vi.245, & kammɔ Ôbhisanda result of kamma Miln 276. -- Cp. abhisandana.


-- (nt.) [= abhisanda] result, outcome, con- sequence Ps i.17 (sukhassa).

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-- [abhi + sandahati of saŋ + dhā] to put together, to make ready Th 1, 151; ger. abhisandhāya in sense of a prep. = on account of, because of J ii.386 (= paṭicca C.).


-- [abhi + sandeti, Caus. of syad] to make over- flow, to make full, fill, pervade D i.73, 74.


-- (adj.) [pp. of abhisandati = abhi + syand, cp. Sk. abhisanna] overflowing, filled with ( -- ˚), full Vin i. 279 (˚kāya a body full of humours, cp. ii.119 & Miln 134); J i.17 (v.88; pītiyā); Miln 112 (duggandha˚).


-- [abhi + sapati, of śap] to execrate, curse, ac- curse Vin iv.276; J iv.389; v.87; DhA i.42. -- pp. abhisatta.


-- (nt.) [fr. abhisapati] cursing, curse PvA 144 (so read for abhisampanna).


-- [abhi + samaya, from sam + i, cp. abhisameti & sameti; BSk. abhisamaya, e. g. Divy 200, 654] "coming by completely", insight into, comprehension, realization, clear understanding, grasp, penetration. See on term Kvu trsl. 381 sq. -- Esp. in full phrases: attha˚ grasp of what is proficient S i.87 = A iii.49 = It 17, cp. A ii.46; ariyasaccānaŋ a. full understanding of the 4 noble truths S v.415, 440, 441 [cp. Divy 654: anabhisamitānāŋ caturnāŋ āryasatyānāŋ a.]; Sn 758 (sacca˚ = saccɔ Ôvabodha SnA 509); Miln 214 (catusacc˚); Sdhp 467 (catusacc˚), 525 (saccānaŋ); dhammɔ Ôbhisamaya full grasp of the Dhamma, quasi conversion [cp. dharmɔ Ôbhisamaya Divy 200] S ii.134; Miln 20, 350; VvA 219; PvA 9 etc. frequent; sammā -- mānɔ Ôbhisamaya full understanding of false pride in ster. phrase" acchecchi (for acchejji) taṇhaŋ, vivattayi sa˝˝ojanaŋ sammāmānÔbhisamayā antam akāsi dukkhassa" at S iv.205, 207, 399; A iii.246, 444; It 47; cp. māna˚ S i.188 = Th 2, 20 (tato mānÔbhisamayā upasanto carissasi, trsl. by Mrs. Rh. D. in K. S. 239 "hath the mind mastered vain imaginings, then mayst thou go thy ways calm and serene"); Sn 342 (expld. by mānassa abhisamayo khayo vayo pahānaŋ SnA 344). Also in foll. passages: S ii.5 (pa˝˝āya), 104 (id.), 133 sq. (Abhisamaya Saŋyutta); Sn 737 (phassa˚, expld. ad sensum but not at verbum by phassa -- nirodha SnA 509); Ps ii.215; Pug 41; Vv 1610 (= saccapaṭivedha VvA 85); DA i.32; DhA i.109; VvA 73 (bhāvana˚), 84 (sacchikiriya˚); Dpvs i.31. -- anabhisamaya not grasping correctly, insufficient understanding, taken up wrongly S iii.260; Pug 21; Dhs 390, 1061, 1162 (Mrs. Rh. D. trsls. "lack of coordination").


-- [abhi + sam + āgacchati, cp. in meaning adhigacchati] to come to (understand) completely, to grasp fully, to master KhA 236 (for abhisamecca Sn 143).


-- (adj.) [abhi + samācārika, to samācāra] belonging to the practice of the lesser ethics; to be practiced; belonging to or what is the least to be expected of good conduct, proper. Of sikkhā Vin v.181; A ii.243 sq.; of dhamma M i.469; A iii.14 sq.; 422.


-- (& ˚ekkhati), [abhi + sam + īks, cp. sa- mikkhati] to behold, see, regard, notice J. iv.19 (2nd sg. med. ˚samekkhase = olokesi C.). -- ger. ˚samikkha & ˚samekkha [B.Sk. ˚samīkṣya, e.g. Jtm. p. 28, 30 etc.] J v.340 (˚samikkha, v. l. sa˝cikkha = passitvā C.); 393, 394 (= disvā C.).


-- [pp. of abhisameti, fr. abhi + sam + i, taken as caus. formation, against the regular form Sk.P. samita & B.Sk. abhisamita] completely grasped or realised, understood, mastered S v.128 (dhamma a.), 440 (anabhisametāni cattāri ariyasaccāni, cp. Divy 654 anabhisamitāni c.a.); A iv.384 (appattaŋ asacchikataŋ +).


-- (adj.) [possess. adj. -- formation, equalling a n. ag. form., pp. abhisameta] commanding full understanding or penetration, possessing complete insight (of the truth) Vin iii.189; S ii.133; v.458 sq.


-- [abhi + sameti, sam + i; in inflexion base is taken partly as ordinary & partly as causative, e. g. aor. ˚samiŋsu & ˚samesuŋ, pp. sameta: Sk. samita. Cp. B.Sk. abhisamayati, either caus. or denom. formation, Divy 617: caturāryasatyāni a.] to come by, to attain, to realise, grasp, understand (cp. adhigacchati) Miln 214 (catusaccÔbhisamayaŋ abhisameti). Freg. in combn. abhisambujjhati, abhisameti; abhisambujjhitvā abhisametvā, e. g. S ii.25; iii.139; Kvu 321. -- fut. ˚samessati S v.441. -- aor. ˚samiŋsu Miln 350; ˚samesuŋ S v.415. -- ger. ˚samecca (for ˚icca under influence of ˚sametvā as caus. form.; Trenckner's expln. Notes 564 is unnecessary & hardly justifiable) S v.438 (an˚ by not thoroughly understanding); A v.50 (sammɔattha˚ through complete realisation of what is proficient); Sn 143 (= abhisamāgantvā KhA 236); and ˚sametvā S ii.25; iii.139. -- pp. abhisameta (q.v.).


-- at PvA 144 is wrong reading for v. l. abhisapana (curse).


-- [abhi + samparāya] future lot, fate, state after death, future condition of rebirth; usually in foll. phrases: kā gati ko abhisamparāyo (as hendiadys) ʻ what fate in the world -- to -- come ʼ, D ii.91; Vin i.293; S iv.59, 63; v.346, 356, 369; DhA i.221. -- evaŋ -- gatika evanabhisamparāya (adj.) "leading to such & such a revirn, such & such a future state" D i.16, 24, 32, 33 etc. (= evaŋ -- vidhā paralokā ti DA i.108). -- abhisamparāyaŋ (acc. as adv.) in future, after death A i.48; ii.197; iii.347; iv.104; Pv iii.510 (= punabbhave PvA 200). -- diṭṭhe cɔeva dhamme abhisamparāya˝ ca "in this world and in the world to come" A ii.61; Pug 38; Miln 162; PvA 195 etc. (see also diṭṭha). -- Used absolutely at PvA 122 (= fate).


-- [abhi + sambujjhati] to become wide- awake, to awake to the highest knowledge, to gain the highest wisdom (sammāsambodhiŋ) D iii.135; It 121. aor. ˚sambujjhi S v.433; PvA 19. In combn. abhisambujjhati abhisameti, e. g. S. ii.25; iii.139. -- ppr. med. ˚sambudhāna; pp. ˚sambuddha -- Caus. ˚sambodheti to make awake, to awaken, to enlighten; pp. ˚bodhita.


-- (nt.) = abhisambodhi J i.59.


-- [pp. of abhisambujjhati] (a) (pass.) rea- lised, perfectly understood D iii.273; S iv.331; It 121. an˚ not understood M i.71, 92, 114, 163, 240. -- (b) (med.) one who has come to the realisation of the highest wisdom, fully -- awakened, attained Buddhahood, realising, enlightened (in or as to = acc.) Vin i.1; D ii.4; M i.6 (sammāsambodhiŋ); S i.68, 138, 139 & passim PvA 94, 99.


-- (nt.) [abstr. fr. abhisambuddha] thorough realisation, perfect understanding S v.433.


-- (adj.) [formation of a ppr. med. fr. pp. abhsam + budh instead of abhisam + bujjh˚] awaking, realising, knowing, understanding Dh 46 (= bujjhanto jānanto ti attho DhA i.337).


-- (f.) [abhi + sambodhi] the highest enlight- enment J i.14 (parama˚). Cp. abhisambujjhana and (sammā -- ) sambodhi.


-- (adj.) [pp. of abhisambodheti, Caus. of abhi + sambujjhati] awakened to the highest wisdom PvA 137 (Bhagavā).


-- [fr. abhisambhavati] only in dur˚ hard to overcome or get over, hard to obtain or reach, troublesome S v.454; A v.202; Sn 429, 701; J v.269, vi.139, 439.

Abhisambhavati (˚bhoti)

abhisambhavati (˚bhoti)
-- [abhi + sambhavati] "to come up to", i. e. to be able to (get or stand or overcome); to attain, reach, to bear A iv.241; Th 1, 436; Nd1 471, [p072] 485; J iii.140; v.150, 417; vi.292, 293, 507 (fut. med. ˚sambhossaŋ = sahissāmi adhivāsessāmi C.); Ps ii.193. <-> ger. ˚bhutvā Th 1, 1057 & ˚bhavitvā Sn 52 (cp. Nd2 85). -- aor. ˚bhosi D ii.232. -- grd. ˚bhavanīya D ii.210; Ps ii.193. -- See also abhisambhuṇāti.

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-- [considered to be a bastard form of abhi- sambhavati, but probably of diff. origin & etym.; also in Bh. Sk. freq.] to be able (to get or reach); only in neg. ppr. anabhisambhuṇanto unable D i.101 (= asampāpuṇanto avisahamāno vā DA i.268); Nd1 77, 312.


-- (adj.) [fr. abhi + sam + bhū] getting, attaining (?) D ii.255 (lomahaŋsa˚).


-- [pp. of abhisambhavati] attained, got Sdhp 556.


-- [abhi + śam, Sk. abhiśamyati] to cease, stop; trs. (Caus.) to allay, pacify, still J vi.420 (pp. abhisammanto for ˚śammento? Reading uncertain).


-- [fr. abhi + sarati, of sṛ to go] retinue J v.373.


-- (adj) [abhi + sallekha + ika] austere, stern, only in f. ˚ā (scil. kathā) A iii.117 sq.; iv.352, 357; v.67.


-- (better ˚ssavati?) [abhi + savati, of sru] to flow towards or into J vi.359 (najjo Gangaŋ a.).


-- aor. of abhisaŋsati (q. v.).


-- [abhi + sādheti] to carry out, arrange; to get; procure, attain J vi.180; Miln 264.


-- [abhisapati] a curse, anathema S iii.93 = It 89 (which latter reads abhilāpa and It A expls. by akkosa: see vv. ll. under abhilāpa & cp. Brethren 376 n. 1.); Th 1,1118.


-- (f.) [Sk. abhisārikā, fr. abhi + sṛ] a woman who goes to meet her lover J iii.139.


-- [abhi + sāreti, Caus. of abhisarati] to approach, to persecute J vi.377.


-- [= abhisaŋsati, abhi + śaŋs. As to Sk. śaŋs > P. siŋs cp. āsiŋsati, as to meaning cp. nature of prayer as a solemn rite to the "infernals", cp. im -- precare], to utter a solemn wish, Vv 8118 (aor. ˚sīsi. v. l. ˚sisi. VvA 316 expls. by icchi sampaṭicchi).


-- [abhi + si˝ncati fr. sic to sprinkle; see also āsi˝cati & ava˚, Vedic only ā˚] to sprinkle over, fig. to anoint (King), to consecrate A i.107 (Khattiyɔ Ôbhisekena) J i.399 (fig. ˚itvā ger. ii.409 (id.); vi.161 (id.); Nd1 298; Miln 336 (amatena lokaŋ abhisi˝ci Bhagavā); PvA 144 (read abhisi˝ci cimillika˝ ca . . .) -- Pass. abhisi˝cati Miln 359. -- pp. abhisitta. -- Caus. abhiseceti.


-- [pp. of abhisi˝cati, Sk. ˚sikta] 1. sprinkled over, anointed Sn 889 (manasā, cp. N1 298); Miln 336 (amatena loka a.). -- 2. consecrated (King), inaugurated (more freq. in this conn. is avasitta), Vin iii.44; A i.107 (Khattiyo Khattiyehi Khattiyɔ Ôbhisekena a.); ii.87 (v.l. for avasitta, also an˚).


-- [fr. abhi + sic, cp. Sk. abhiṣeka] anointing, consecration, inauguration (as king) A i.107 (cp. abhisitta); ii.87 read abhisekɔ -- anabhisitto; J ii.104, 352; DhA i.350; PvA 74. Cp. ābhisekika.


-- (nt.) = abhiseka, viz. (a) ablution, washing off Th 2, 239 & 245 (udaka˚). -- (b) consecration J ii.353.


-- [caus. of abhisi˝cati] to cause to be sprinkled or inaugurated J v.26. (imper. abhisecayassu).


-- (f.) [abhi + sevana fr. sev] pursuit, indulgence in ( -- ˚) Sdhp 210 (pāpakamma˚).


-- (adj.) [abhi + issara] only neg. an˚ in formula atāṇo loko anabhissaro "without a Lord or protector" M ii.68 (v.l. ˚abhisaro); Ps i.126 (v.l. id.).


-- [abhi + haŋsati fr. hṛṣ] 1. (trs.) to gladden, please, satisfy S iv.190 (abhihaṭṭhuŋ); A v.350 (id.). <-> 2. (intr.) to find delight in (c. acc.), to enjoy S v.74 (rūpaŋ manāpaŋ); A iv.419 sq. (T. reads ˚hiŋsamāna jhānaŋ v.l. ˚hisamāna).


-- [pp. of abhiharati] brought, offered, presented, fetched D i.166 = Pug 55 (= puretaraŋ gahetvā āhaṭaŋ bhikkhaŋ Pug A 231); DhA ii.79.


-- [ger. of abhiharati]. Only in praise abhihaṭṭhuŋ pavāreti, to offer having fetched up. M. i.224; A v.350, 352; S iv.190, v.53, 300. See note in Vinaya Texts ii.440.


-- [pp. of abhihanati] hit, struck PvA 55.


-- (& ˚hanti) [abhi + han] 1. to strike, hit PvA 258. -- 2. to overpower, kill, destroy J v.174 (inf. ˚hantu for T. hantuŋ). -- pp. abhihata (q. v.).


-- [abhi + harati, cp. Sk. abhyāharati & Vedic āharati & ābharati] -- 1. to bring (to), to offer, fetch D iii.170; J i.54, 157; iii.537; iv.421; DA i.272. -- 2. to curse, revile, abuse [cp. Sk. anuvyāharati & abhivyā˚] A i.198. -- Pass. abhihariyati VvA 172 (for abhiharati of Vv 3710; corresp. with ābhata VvA 172). -- pp. abhihaṭa (q.v.). -- Caus. abhihāreti 1. to cause to be brought, to gain, to acquire D ii.188 = 192 = 195 Th 1, 637; J iv.421 (abhihārayaŋ with gloss abhibhārayiŋ). -- 2. to betake oneself to, to visit, take to, go to Sn 414 (Paṇḍavaŋ ˚hāresi = āruhi Sn A 383), 708 (vanantaŋ abhihāraye = vanaŋ gaccheyya SnA 495); Th 2, 146 (aor. ˚hārayiŋ; uyyānaŋ = upanesi ThA 138). -- 3. to put on (mail), only in fut. abhihessati J iv.92 (kavacaŋ; C. expls. wrongly by ˚hanissati bhindissati so evidently taking it as abhibhavissati). -- 4. At J vi.27 kiŋ yobbanena ciṇṇena yaŋ jarā abhihessati the latter is fut. of abhibhavati (for ˚bhavissati) as indicated by gloss abhibhuyyati.


-- [fr. abhiharati] bringing, offering, gift S i.82; Sn 710; J i.81 (āsanÔ).


-- spurious reading at A iv.419 for ˚haŋsati (q.v.).


-- (& ˚ŋ) [for abhihesanā cp. P. hesā = Sk. hreṣā, & hesitaŋ] neighing Vv 6410 = VvA 279 (gloss abhihesana). See in detail under abhisaŋsanā.


-- S i.50. Read abhigīta with SS. So also for abhihita on p. 51. ʻ So enchanted was I by the Buddha's rune ʼ. The godlet ascribes a magic potency to the couplet.


-- see abhihiŋsanā.


-- see abhihāreti 3 & 4.


-- (adj.) [a + bhīta] fearless J vi.193. See also abhida 1.


-- (adj.) [a + bhīru + ka] fearless DA i.250.


-- (adj.) [a + bhumma] groundless, unfounded, un- substantial, J v.178; vi.495.


-- (adj.) [a + bhūta] not real, false, not true, usually as nt. ˚ŋ falsehood, lie, deceit Sn 387; It 37; instr. abhūtena falsely D i.161.
-- vādin one who speaks falsely or tells lies Sn 661 = Dh 306 = It 42; expld. as "ariyɔ űpavāda -- vasena alika -- vādin" SnA 478; as "tucchena paraŋ abhācikkhanto" DhA iii.477.


-- (adj.) [grd. of a + bhid, cp. Sk. abhedya] not to be split or divided, not to be drawn away or caused to be dissented, inalienable Sn 255 (mitto abhejjo parehi); J i.263 (varasūra . . .) iii.318 (˚rūpa of strong character = [p073] abhijja -- hadaya); Pug 30 (= acchejja Pug A 212); Miln 160 (˚parisā); Sdhp 312 (+ appadusiya); Pgdp 97 (˚parivāra).

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-- [Vedic amātya (only in meaning "companion"), adj. formation fr. amā an adverbial loc. -- gen. of pron. 1st person, Sk. ahaŋ = Idg. *emo (cp. Sk. m -- ama), meaning "(those) of me or with me", i. e. those who are in my house] 1. friend, companion, fellow -- worker, helper, esp. one who gives his advice, a bosom -- friend It 73; J vi. 512 (sahajātā amaccā); Pv ii.620 (a ˚ -- paricārikā well-advising friends as company or around him). Freq. in combn. with mitta as mittɔ Ômaccā, friends & colleagues D iii.189 -- 90; S 190 = A ii.67; PvA 29; or with ˝ātī (˝āti -- sālohitā intimate friends & near -- relations), mittÔmaccā ˝ātisālohitā Vin ii.126; Sn p. 104 (= mittā ca kammakarā ca SnA 447); mittā vā amaccā vā ˝ātī vā sālohitā vā A i.222; PvA 28; amaccā ˝āti -- sanghā ca A i.152. <-> 2. Especially a king's intimate friend, king's favourite, confidant J i.262; PvA 73 (˚kula), 74 (amaccā ca purohito ca), 81 (sabba -- kammika amacca), 93; and his special adviser or privy councillor, as such distinguished from the official ministers (purohita, mahāmatta, pārisajja); usually combd. with pārisajjā (pl.) viz. D i.136 (= piya -- sahāyaka DA i.297, but cp. the foll. expln. of pārisajjā as "sesā āṇatti -- karā"); Vin i.348; D iii.64 (amaccā pārisajjā gaṇakamahāmattā); A i.142 (catunnaŋ mahārājānaŋ a. pārisajjā). See on the question of ministers in general Fick, Sociale Gliederung p. 93, 164 & Banerjea, Public Administration in Ancient India pp. 106 -- 120.


-- [etym.?] a bud J v.416 (= makula C.).


-- [a + majja + pāyaka, cp. Sk. amadyapa] one who abstains from intoxicants, a teetotaler J ii.192.


-- ╣ (nt.) [a + mata = mṛta pp. of mṛ, Vedic amṛta = Gr. a) -- m(b)rot -- o & a)mbrosi/a = Lat. im -- mort -- a(lis] 1. The drink of the gods, ambrosia, water of immortality, (cp. BSk. amṛta -- varṣa "rain of Ambrosia" Jtm 221). -- 2. A general conception of a state of durability & non -- change, a state of security i. e. where there is not any more rebirth or re -- death. So Bdhgh at KhA 180 (on Sn 225) "na jāyati na jīyati na mīyati ti amatan ti vuccati", or at DhA i.228 "ajātattā na jiyyati na miyyati tasmā amatan ti vuccati". -- Vin i.7 = M i.169 (apārutā tesaŋ amatassa dvārā); Vin i.39; D ii.39, 217, 241; S i.32 (= rāgadosamoha -- khayo), 193; iii.2 (˚ena abhisitta "sprinkled with A."); iv.94 (˚assa dātā), 370; v.402 (˚assa patti); A i.45 sq.; iii.451; iv.455; v.226 sq., 256 sq. (˚assa dātā); J i.4 (v.25); iv.378, 386; v.456 (˚mahā -- nibbāna); Sn 204, 225, 228 (= nibbāna KhA 185); Th 1, 310 (= agada antidote); It 46 = 62 (as dhātu), 80 (˚assa dvāra); Dh 114, 374 (= amata -- mahā -- nibbāna DhA iv.110); Miln 258 (˚dhura savanűpaga), 319 (agado amataŋ & nibbānaŋ amataŋ), 336 (amatena lokaŋ abhisi˝ci Bhagavā), 346 (dhammɔ Ômataŋ); DA i.217 (˚nibbāna); DhA i.87 (˚ŋ pāyeti); Dāvs ii.34; v.31; Sdhp 1, 209, 530, 571.
-- ogadha diving into the ambrosia (of Nibbāna) S v. 41, 54, 181, 220, 232; A iii.79, 304; iv.46 sq., 317, 387; v.105 sq.; Sn 635; Th 1, 179, 748; Dh 411 (= amataŋ nibbānaŋ ogahetvā DhA iv.186); Vv 5020. -- osadha the medicine of Ambrosia, ambrosial medicine Miln 247. -- gāmin going or leading to the ambrosia (of Nibbāna) S i.123; iv.370; v.8; A iii.329; Th 2, 222. -- dasa one who sees Amata or Nibbāna Th 1, 336. -- dundubhi the drum of the Immortal (Nibbāna) M i.171 = Vin i.8 (has ˚dudrabhi). -- dvāra the door to Nibbāna M i.353; S i. 137 = Vin i.5; S ii.43, 45, 58, 80; A v.346. -- dhātu the element of Ambrosia or Nibbāna A iii.356. -- patta having attained to Ambrosia A iv.455. -- pada the region or place of Ambrosia S i.212 ("Bourne Ambrosial" trsln. p. 274); ii.280; Dh 21 (= amatassa adhigama -- vupāyo vuttaŋ hoti DhA i.228). -- phala ambrosial fruit S i.173 = Sn 80. -- magga the path to Ambrosia DhA i.94.


-- ▓ (adj.) [see amata1] belonging to Amṛta = ambrosial Sn 452 = S i.189 (amatā vācā = amata -- sadisā sādubhāvena SnA 399: "ambrosial"), 960 (gacchato amataŋ disaŋ = nibbānaŋ, taŋ hi amatan ti tathā niddisitabbato disā cā ti SnA 572). Perhaps also at It 46 = 62 (amataŋ dhātuŋ = ambrosial state or Amṛta as dhātu).


-- (?) at VvA 111, acc. to Hardy (Index) "a precious stone of dark blue colour".


-- (adj.) [a + matta + ˚˝u = Sk. amātraj˝a] not knowing any bounds (in the taking of food), intemperate, immoderate It 23 (bhojanamhi); Dh 7 (id.); Pug 21.


-- (f.) [abstr. to prec.] immoderation (in food) D iii.213; It 23 (bhojane); Pug 21; Dhs 1346 (bhojane); DhsA 402.


-- (f.) [from matteyyatā] irreverence towards one's mother D iii.70, 71.


-- [a + manussa] a being which is not human, a fairy demon, ghost, god, spirit, yakkha Vin i.277; D i. 116; S i.91, J i.99; Dhs 617; Miln 207; DhsA 319; DhA i.13 (˚pariggahīta haunted); PvA 216. -- Cp. amānusa.


-- (adj.) [fr. amanussa] belonging to or caused by a spirit Vin i.202, 203 (˚Ôbādha being possessed by a demon).


-- (adj.) [a + mama, gen. of ahaŋ, pron. 1st person, lit. "not (saying: this is) of me"] not egotistical, unselfish Sn 220 (+ subbata), 777; J iv.372 (+ nirāsaya); vi.259 (= mamāyana -- taṇhā -- rahita C.); Pv iv.134 (= mamaŋkāravirahita PvA 230); Mhvs 1, 66, combd. with nirāsa (free from longing), at Sn 469 = 494; Ud 32; J iv.303; vi.259.


-- (adj.) [a + mara from mṛ] not mortal, not subject to death Th 1, 276; Sn 249 (= amara -- bhāva -- patthanatāya pavatta -- kāya -- kilesa SnA 291); J v.80 (= amaraṇa -- sabhāva), 218; Dāvs v.62.


-- (nt.) [abstr. fr. amara] immortality J v.223 (= devatta C.).


-- (?) a kind of slippery fish, an eel (?) Only in expres- sion amarā -- vikkhepika eel -- wobbler, one who practices eel -- wriggling, fr. ˚vikkhepa "oscillation like the a. fish". In English idiom "a man who sits on the fence" D i.24; M i.521; Ps i.155. The expln. given by Bdhgh at DA i.115 is "amarā nāma maccha -- jāti, sā ummujjana -- nimmujjan -- ādi vasena . . gahetuŋ na sakkoti" etc. This meaning is not beyond doubt, but Kern's expln. Toev. 71 does not help to clear it up.


-- (adj.) [a + mala] without stain or fault J v.4; Sdhp 246, 591, 596.


-- (adj.) [a + massu + ka] beardless J ii.185.


-- (adj.) [amā + jāta; amā adv. "at home", Vedic amā, see under amacca] born in the house, of a slave J i.226 (dāsa, so read for āmajāta, an old mistake, expld. by C. forcibly as "āma ahaŋ vo dāsī ti"!). See also āmāya.


-- (adj.) [a + mātika from mātā] without a mother, motherless J v.251.


-- (adj.) [Vedic amānuṣa, usually of demons, but also of gods; a + mānusa, cp. amanussa] non -- or superhuman, unhuman, demonic, peculiar to a non -- human (Peta or Yakkha) Pv ii.1220 (kāma); iv.157 (as n.); iv.36 (gandha, of Petas). -- f. ˚ī Dh 373 (rati = dibbā rati DhA iv.110); Pv iii.79 (ratti, love).


-- (adj.) [a + mama + ka, cp. amama] "not of me" i. e. not belonging to my party, not siding with me DhA i.66.


-- (adj.) [a + māyā] not deceiving, open, honest Sn 941 (see Nd1 422: māyā vuccati va˝canikā cariyā). Cp. next.

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-- (adj.) [a + māyāvin, cp. amāya] without guile, not deceiving, honest D iii.47 (asaṭha +), 55 (id.), 237; DhA i.69 (asaṭhena a.).


-- (adj.) [a + mita (pp. of ) + ā + bhā] of boundless or immeasurable splendour Sdhp 255.


-- [Vedic amitra; a + mitta] one who is not friend, an enemy D iii.185; It 83; Sn 561 (= paccatthika SnA 455); Dh 66, 207; J vi.274 (˚tāpana harassing the enemies).


-- (f.) [a + milāta + tā] the condition of not being withered J v.156.


-- base of demonstr. pron. "that", see asu.


-- (adj.) [a + mucchita] not infatuated (lit. not stupified or bewildered), not greedy; only in phrase agathita amucchita anajjhāpanna (or anajjhopanna) D iii.46; M i.369; S ii.194. See ajjhopanna.


-- (adj.) [a + mutta] not released, not free from (c. abl.) It 93 (mārabandhanā).


-- (adv.) [pron. base amu + tra] in that place, there; in another state of existence D i.4, 14, 184; It 99.


amūḷha -- vinaya
-- "acquittal on the ground of restored sanity" (Childers) Vin i.325 (ix.6, 2); ii.81 (iv.5), 99 (iv.14, 27); iv.207, 351; M ii.248.


-- (adj.) [a + moha, cp. Sk. amogha] not dull. As n. absence of stupidity or delusion D iii.214; Pug 25. <-> The form amogha occurs at J vi.26 in the meaning of "efficacious, auspicious" (said of ratyā nights).

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{űm} /ʌm/

This vowel is realized in <umbrella> /ʌm'brel.ə/ (DJPD16-557).

-- [Derivation unknown. Not found in pre -- Buddhist literature. The Sk. is āmra. Probably non -- Aryan], the Mango tree, Mangifera Indica D i.46, 53, 235; J ii.105, 160; Vv 7910; Pug 45; Miln 46; PvA 153, 187.
-- aṭṭhi the kernel or stone of the m. fruit DhA iii.207, 208. -- ārāma a garden of mangoes, mango grove Vv 795; VvA 305. -- ka˝jika mango gruel Vv 3337 (= ambilaka˝jika VvA 147). -- pakka a (ripe) mango fruit J ii.104, 394; DhA iii.207. -- panta a border of mango trees VvA 198. -- pānaka a drink made from mangoes DhA iii.207. -- piṇḍi a bunch of mangoes J iii.53; DhA iii.207. -- pesikā the peel, rind, of the m. fruit Vin ii.109. -- potaka a mango sprout DhA iii.206 sq. -- phala a m. fruit PvA 273, 274. -- rukkha a m. tree DhA iii.207; VvA 198. -- vana a m. grove or wood D ii.126; J i.139; VvA 305. -- si˝caka one who waters the mangoes, a tender or keeper of mangoes Vv 797.


-- ╣ (adj.) [= ambakā?] "womanish" (?), inferior, silly, stupid, of narrow intellect. Occurs only with reference to a woman, in combn. with bālā A iii.349 (v. l. amma˚) = v.139 (where spelt ambhaka with v. l. appaka˚ and gloss andhaka); v.150 (spelt ambhaka perhaps in diff. meaning).
-- maddarī see next.


-- ▓ [demin. of amba] a little mango, only in ˚mad- darī a kiṇd of bird [etym. uncertain] A i.188.


-- (f.) [Sk. ambikā demin. of ambī mother, wife, see P. amma & cp. also Sk. ambālikā f.] mother, good wife, used as a general endearing term for a woman Vin i.232 = D ii.97 (here in play of words with Ambapālī expld. by Bdhgh at Vin i.385 as ambakā ti itthiyikā).


-- ╣ (nt.) [Vedic ambara circumference, horizon] the sky, Dāvs i.38; iv.51; v.32. -- Note. At J v.390 we have to read muraja -- ālambara, and not mura -- jāla -- ambara.


-- ▓ (m. -- nt.) [etym. = ambara1 (?) or more likely a distortion of kambala; for the latter speaks the combn. rattambara = ratta -- kambala. -- The word would thus be due to an erroneous syllable division rattak -- ambala (= ambara) instead of ratta -- kambala] some sort of cloth and an (upper) garment made of it (cp. kambala) Vv 537 (ratt˚ = uttariya VvA 236).


-- at J ii.246 (˚koṭṭhaka -- āsana -- sālā) for ambara1 (?) or for ambaka2 (?), or should we read kambala˚?.


-- the hog -- plum, Spondias Mangifera (a kind of mango) Vin ii.17 (˚vana); DA i.271 (˚rukkha).


-- (adj.) [Sk. amla = Lat. amarus] sour, acid; one of the 6 rasas or tastes, viz. a., lavaṇa, tittaka, kaṭuka, kasāya, madhura (see under rasa): thus at Miln 56. Another enumeration at Nd2 540 & Dhs 629. -- J i.242 (˚anambila), 505 (loṇ˚); ii.394 (loṇ˚); DA i.270 (˚yāgu sour gruel); DhA ii.85 (ati -- ambila, with accuṇha & atisīta).


-- (nt.) [Vedic ambu & ambhas = Gr. o)/mbros, Lat. imber rain; cp. also Sk. abhra rain -- cloud & Gr. a)fro/s scum: see P. abbha] water J v.6; Nd1 202 (a. vuccati udakaŋ); Dāvs ii.16. -- Cp. ambha.
-- cārin "living in the water", a fish Sn 62 (= maccha Nd2 91). -- sevāla a water -- plant Th 1, 113.


-- (m. & nt.) [ambu + ja of jan] "water -- born", i. e. 1. (m.) a fish S i.52. -- 2. (nt.) a lotus Sn 845 (= paduma Nd1 202); Dāvs v.46; Sdhp 360.


-- [ambu + da fr. ] "water -- giver", a cloud Dāvs v.32; Sdhp 270, 275.


ambha & ambho
-- (nt.) [see ambu] water, sea Dāvs iv.54.


-- see ambaka.


-- (indecl.) [fr. haŋ + bho, see bho, orig. "hallo you there"] part. of exclamation, employed: 1. to draw attention = look here, hey! hallo! Vin iii.73 (= ālapanɔ Ôdhivacana); J ii.3; PvA 62. -- 2. to mark reproach & anger = you silly, you rascal D i.194; It 114; J i.174 (v. l. amho), 254; Miln 48.


-- (indecl.) [voc. of ammā] endearing term, used (1) by children in addressing their mother = mammy, mother dear D i.93; J ii.133; iv.1, 281 (amma tāta uṭṭhetha daddy, mammy, get up!); DhA ii.87; PvA 73, 74. <-> (2) in general when addressing a woman familiarly = good woman, my (good) lady, dear, thus to a woman J i.292; PvA 63; DhA ii.44; to a girl PvA 6; to a daughter DhA ii.48; iii.172. -- Cp. ambakā.


-- (nt.) [of uncertain etym.; Sk. armaṇa is Sans- kritised Pāli. See on form & meaning Childers s. v. and Kern, Toev. p. 72] 1. a trough J v.297; vi.381 (bhatt˚). <-> 2. a certain measure of capacity J i.62; ii.436 (taṇḍul˚). <-> As ˚ka at J ii.117 (v. l. ampaṇaka); DA i.84.


-- (f.) [onomat. from child language; Sk. ambā, cp. Gr. a)mma/s mother, Oisl. amma "granny", Ohg. amma "mammy", nurse; also Lat. amita father's sister & amāre to love] mother J iii.392 (gen. ammāya). -- Voc. amma (see sep.).


amha & amhan
-- (nt.) [Sk. aśman, see also asama2] a stone Sn 443 (instr. amhanā, but SnA 392 reads asmanā = pāsāṇena).
-- maya made of stone, hard Dh 161 (= pāsāṇa˚ DhA iii.151).

Amha, Amhi

amha, amhi
-- see atthi.


-- (f.) [etym. uncertain; Morris J.P.T.S. 1889, 201 too vague] a cow (?) A i.229. The C. says nothing.

Amhākaŋ, Amhe

amhākaŋ, amhe
-- see ahaŋ.


-- = ambho J i.174 (v. l.).

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-- ╣ see ayo.

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-- ▓ (fr. i, go) 1. income, in aya -- potthaka receipt book J i.2. -- 2. inlet (for water, aya -- mukha) D i.74; A ii. 166, iv.287.


-- (pron.) [Sk. ayaŋ etc., pron. base Idg. *i (cp. Sk. iha), f. *ī. Cp. Gr. i)n, min; Lat. is (f. ea, nt. id); Goth is, nt. ita; Ohg. er (= he), nt. ez (= it); Lith. jýs (he), f. jý (she).] demonstr. pron. "this, he"; f. ayaŋ; nt. idaŋ & imaŋ "this, it" etc. This pron. combines in its inflection two stems, viz. as˚ (ayaŋ in nom. m. & f.) & im˚ (id˚ in nom. nt.).
I. Forms. A. (sg.) nom. m. ayaŋ Sn 235; J i.168, 279; f. ayaŋ [Sk. iyaŋ] Kh vii.12; J ii.128, 133; nt. idaŋ Sn 224; J iii.53; & imaŋ Miln 46. acc. m. imaŋ J ii.160; f. imaŋ [Sk. īmāŋ] Sn 545, 1002; J i.280. gen. dat. m. imassa J i.222, 279 & assa Sn 234, 1100; Kh vii.12 (dat.); J ii.158; f. imissā J i.179 & assā [Sk. asyāḥ] J i.290; DhA iii.172. instr. m. nt. iminā J i.279; PvA 80 & (peculiarly or perhaps for amunā) aminā Sn 137; f. imāya [Sk. anayā] J i.267. The instr. anena [Sk. anena] is not proved in Pāli. abl. asmā Sn 185; Dh 220; & imasmā (not proved). loc. m. nt. imasmiŋ Kh iii.; J ii. 159 & asmiŋ Sn 634; Dh 242; f. imissā PvA 79 (or imissaŋ?) & imāyaŋ (no ref.). -- B. (pl.) nom. m. ime J i.221; Pv i.83; f. imā [Sk. imāḥ] Sn 897 & imāyo Sn 1122; nt. imāni [= Sk.] Vin i.84. acc. m. ime [Sk. imān] J i.266; ii.416; f. imā [Sk. imāḥ] Sn 429; J ii.160. gen. imesaŋ J ii.160 & esaŋ [Sk. eṣāŋ] M ii.86, & esānaŋ M ii.154; iii.259; f. also āsaŋ J i.302 (= etāsaŋ C.) & imāsaŋ. instr. m. nt imehi J vi.364; f. imāhi. loc. m. nt. imesu [Sk. eṣu] J i.307.
II. Meanings (1) ayaŋ refers to what is immediately in front of the speaker (the subject in question) or before his eyes or in his present time & situation, thus often to be trsld. by "before our eyes", "the present", "this here", "just this" (& not the other) (opp. para), viz. atthi imasmiŋ kāye "in this our visible body" Kh iii.; yathɔ Ôyaŋ padīpo "like this lamp here" Sn 235; ayaŋ dakkhiṇā dinnā "the gift which is just given before our eyes" Kh vii.12; ime pādā imaŋ sīsaŋ ayaŋ kāyo Pv i.83; asmiŋ loke paramhi ca "in this world & the other" Sn 634, asmā lokā paraŋ lokaŋ kathaŋ pecca na socati Sn 185; cp. also Dh 220, 410; J i.168; iii.53. -- (2) It refers to what immediately precedes the present of the speaker, or to what has just been mentioned in the sentence; viz. yaŋ ki˝ci vittaŋ . . . idam pi Buddhe ratanaŋ "whatever . . . that" Sn 224; ime divase these days (just gone) J ii.416; cp. also Vin i.84; Sn 429; J ii.128, 160. -- (3) It refers to what immediately follows either in time or in thought or in connection: dve ime antā "these are the two extremes, viz." Vin i.10; ayaŋ eva ariyo maggo "this then is the way" ibid.; cp. J i.280. <-> (4) With a touch of (often sarcastic) characterisation it establishes a closer personal relation between the speaker & the object in question & is to be trsld. by "like that, such (like), that there, yonder, yon", e. g. imassa vānarindassa "of that fellow, the monkey" J i.279; cp. J i. 222, 307; ii 160 (imesaŋ sattānaŋ "creatures like us"). So also repeated as aya˝ ca aya˝ ca "this and this", "so and so" J ii.3; ida˝ cɔ ida˝ ca "such & such a thing" J ii.5. -- (5) In combn with a pron. rel. it expresses either a generalisation (whoever, whatever) or a specialisation (= that is to say, what there is of, i. e. Ger. und zwar), e. g. yÔyaŋ taṇhā Vin i.10; yo ca ayaŋ . . . yo ca ayaŋ "I mean this . . . and I mean" ibid.; ye kecɔ ime Sn 381; yadidaŋ "i. e." Miln 25; yatha -- y -- idaŋ "in order that" (w. pot.) Sn 1092. See also seyyathīdaŋ. -- (6) The gen. of all genders functions in general as a possessive pron. of the 3rd = his, her, its (lit. of him etc.) and thus resembles the use of tassa, e. g. āsavaɔ ssa na vijjanti "his are no intoxications" Sn 1100; sīlaŋ assā bhindāpessāmi "I shall cause her character to be defamed" J i.290; assa bhariyā "his wife" J ii.158 etc. freq.


-- (nt.) [Vedic ayana, fr. i] (a) "going", road. -- (b) going to, goal S v.167 (ekāyano maggo leading to one goal, a direct way), 185 (id.); DA i.313; Dāvs iv.40. <-> See also eka˚.


-- (nt.) [a + yasa, cp. Sk. ayaśaḥ] ill repute, disgrace Miln 139, 272; Dāvs i.8.


-- (& Ayyira) (n. -- adj.) [Vedic ārya, Metathesis for ariya as diaeretic form of ārya, of which the contracted (assimilation) form is ayya. See also ariya] (n.) ariyan, nobleman, gentleman (opp. servant); (adj.) arīyan, well-born, belonging to the ruling race, noble, aristocratic, gentlemanly J v.257; Vv 396. -- f. ayirā lady, mistress (of a servant) J ii.349 (v. l. oyyakā); voc. ayire my lady J v.138 (= ayye C.).


-- = ayira; cp. ariyaka & ayyaka; D iii.190 (v. l. BB yy); J ii.313.


-- & aya (nt.) [Sk. ayaḥ nt. iron & ore, Idg. *ajes -- , cp. Av. ayah, Lat. aes, Goth. aiz, Ohg. ēr (= Ger. Erz.), Ags. ār (= E. ore).] iron. The nom. ayo found only in set of 5 metals forming an alloy of gold (jātarūpa), viz. ayo, loha (copper), tipu (tin), sīsa (lead), sajjha (silver) A iii.16 = S v.92; of obl. cases only the instr. ayasā occurs Dh 240 (= ayato DhA iii.344); Pv i.1013 (paṭikujjita, of Niraya). -- Iron is the material used kat)e)coxh/n in the outfit & construction of Purgatory or Niraya (see niraya & Avīci & cp. Vism 56 sq.). -- In compn. both ayo˚ & aya˚ occur as bases.
I. ayo˚: -- kapāla an iron pot A iv.70 (v. l. ˚guhala); Nd2 304 iii. d 2 (of Niraya). -- kūṭa an iron hammer PvA 284. -- khīla an iron stake S v.444; M iii.183 = Nd2 304 iii. c; SnA 479. -- guḷa an iron ball S v.283; Dh 308; It 43 = 90; Th 2, 489; DA i.84. -- ghana an iron club Ud 93; VvA 20. -- ghara an iron house J iv.492. -- paṭala an iron roof or ceiling (of Niraya) PvA 52. -- pākāra an iron fence Pv i.1013 = Nd2 304 iii. d 1. -- maya made of iron Sn 669 (kūṭa); J iv.492 (nāvā); Pv i.1014 (bhūmi of N.); PvA 43, 52. -- muggara an iron club PvA 55. -- sanku an iron spike S iv.168; Sn 667.
II. aya˚: -- kapāla = ayo˚ DhA i.148 (v. l. ayo˚). -kāra a worker in iron Miln 331. -- kūṭa = ayo˚ J i.108; DhA ii.69 (v. l.). -- nangala an iron plough DhA i.223; iii.67. -- paṭṭaka an iron plate or sheet (cp. loha˚) J v.359. -- paṭhavi an iron floor (of Avīci) DhA i.148. -- sanghāṭaka an iron (door) post DhA iv.104. -- sūla an iron stake Sn 667; DhA i.148.


-- (adj.) [Sk. ayodhya] not to be conquered or sub- dued M ii.24.

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Bur-Myan {ya.} has the IPA pronunciation /j/ and is a semivowel to the Westerners. But since we count it as a consonant of the {a.wag}-group, I prefer to call it a 'semi-consonant'. The killed aksharas of the {a.wag} should be expected to change the nuclear vowel {a.}, but so far I haven't fully evaluated their influence and tentatively I would leave {a.} as it is. Luckily, the killed-{ya.} {ř} can be represented with an ASCII character <ř>, which allows me to represent as {ař}.
   {ař} may also be counted as the modal of the front-mid vowels, {Ŕ.} {ař} {Ŕ:}. If we are to go along this line of argument, Romabama spelling should be changed to, creak {Ŕ.}, modal {eř}, emphatic {Ŕ:}. The corresponding Skt-Dev aksharas are: short {Ŕ.} = अे  and long {Ŕ:} = अै . Pal-Myan and Eng-Lat do not have these vowels.

-- (n. -- adj.) [contracted form for the diaeretic ariya (q. v. for etym.). See also ayira] (a) (n.) gentleman, sire, lord, master J iii.167 = PvA 65; DhA i.8 (ayyā pl. the worthy gentlemen, the worthies), 13 (amhākaŋ ayyo our worthy Sir); ii.95. -- (b) (adj.) worthy, gentlemanly, honourable Vin ii.191; DhA ii.94 sq. -- The voc. is used as a polite form of address (cp. Ger. "Sie" and E. address "Esq.") like E. Sir, milord or simply "you" with the implication of a pluralis majestatis; thus voc. proper ayya J i.221, 279, 308; pl. nom. as voc. ayyā in addressing several J ii.128, 415; nom. sg. as voc. (for all genders & numbers) ayyo Vin ii.215; J iii.126, 127. -- f. ayyā lady, mistress M ii.96 (= mother of a prince); DhA i.398; voc. ayye my lady J v.138.
-- putta lit. son of an Ariyan, i. e. an aristocratic (young) man gentleman (cp. in meaning kulaputta); thus (a) son of my master (lit.) said by a servant J iii.167; (b) lord, master, "governor" J i.62 (by a servant); DA i.257 (= sāmi, opp. dāsi -- putta); PvA 145 (by a wife to her husband); DhA ii.110; (c) prince (see W.Z.K.M. xii., 1898, 75 sq. & Epigraphia Indica iii.137 sq.) J vi.146.


-- [demin. of ayya] grandfather, (so also BSk., e. g. M Vastu ii.426; iii.264) J iii.155; iv.146; vi.196; Pv i.84; Miln 284. ayyaka -- payyakā grandfather & great grandfather, [p076] forefathers, ancestors J i.2; PvA 107 (= pitāmahā). -- f. ayyakā grandmother, granny Vin ii.169; S i.97; J ii.349 (here used for "lady", as v. l. BB); & ayyikā Th 2, 159; Vism 379.

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-- [Vedic ara fr. , ṛṇoti; see etym. under appeti & cp. more esp. Lat. artus limb, Gr. a(/rma chariot, also P. aṇṇava] the spoke of a wheel D ii.17 (sahassɔ Ôra adj. with thousand spokes), cp. Miln 285; J iv.209; vi.261; Miln 238; DhA ii.142; VvA 106 (in allegorical etym. of arahant = saŋsāra -- cakkassa arānaŋ hatattā "breaker of the spokes of the wheel of transmigration") = PvA 7 (has saŋsāra -- vaṭṭassa); VvA 277.


-- (adj.) [a + rakkhiya, grd. of rakkhati] not to be guarded, viz. (1) impossible to watch (said of women folk) J ii.326 (a. nāma itthiyo); iii.90 (mātugāmo nāma a.). -- (2) unnecessary to be guarded Vin ii.194 (Tathāgatā).


-- (adj.) [in form = arakkhiya] only in nt. "that which does not need to be guarded against", what one does not need to heed, superfluous to beware of A iv.82 (cattāri Tathāgatassa a˚ āni). -- 3 arakkheyyāni are enumd. at D iii.217 (but as ārakkh˚, which is also given by Childers).


-- [Sk. araghaṭṭaka (so Halāyudha, see Aufrecht p. 138), dialect.] a wheel for raising water from a well Bdgh. on cakkavaṭṭaka at cv v.16, 2 (Vin ii.318). So read for T. arahatta -- ghaṭi -- yanta acc to Morris, J.P.T.S. 1885, 30; cp. also Vin. Texts iii.112. -- The 2rd part of the cpd. is doubtful; Morris & Aufrecht compare the modern Hindī form arhaṭ or rahaṭ "a well -- wheel".


-- (adj.) [a + raja] free from dust or impurity S iv.218 (of the wind); Vv 536 (= apagata -- raja VvA 236).


-- (nt.) [Vedic araṇya; from araṇa, remote, + ya. In the Rig V. araṇya still means remoteness (opp. to amā, at home). In the Ath V. it has come to mean wilderness or forest. Connected with ārād and āre, remote, far from]. forest D i.71; M i.16; iii.104; S i.4, 7, 29, 181, 203 (mahā); A i.60 (˚vanapatthāni); ii.252; iii.135, 138; Sn 39, 53, 119; Dh 99, 329, 330; It 90; Vv 567; Ps i.176. [The commentators, give a wider meaning to the word. Thus the O. C. (Vin iii.46, quoted Vism 72 & SnA 83) says every place, except a village and the approach thereto, is ara˝˝a. See also Vin iii.51; DA i.209; PvA 73; VvA 249; J i.149, 215; ii.138; v.70].
-- āyatana a forest haunt Vin ii.201; S ii.269; J i.173; VvA 301; PvA 54, 78, 141. -- kuṭikā a hut in the forest, a forest lodge S i.61; iii.116; iv.116, 380; DhA iv.31 (as v. l.; T. has ˚kuṭi). -- gata gone into the forest (as loneliness) M i.323; A iii.353; v.109 sq., 207, 323 sq. -- ṭhāna a place in the forest J i.253. -- vāsa a dwelling in the forest, a hermitage J i.90. -- vihāra living in (the) loneliness (of the forest) A iii.343 sq.


-- (& Āra˝˝āka) (adj.) [ara˝˝a + ka] belonging to solitude or to the forest, living in the forest, fond of solitude, living as hermits (bhikkhū) M i.214 (ā˚), 469; iii.89; S ii.187, 202 (v. l. ā˚), 208 sq.; 281; A iii.343, 391; iv.291, 344, 435; v.10. See also āra˝˝aka.


-- (nt.) [abstr. fr. ara˝˝aka] the habit of one who lives in the forest, indulgence in solitude & sequestration, a hermit's practice, seclusion S ii.202, 208 sq. See also āra˝˝akatta.


-- ╣ (adj. -- n.) [Vedic araṇa fr. *ara √, which as abl. ārā is used as adv. far from, cp. P. ārakā. Orig. meaning "removed from, remote, far". See also ara˝˝a]. (adj.) living in solitude, far from the madding crowd M iii.237 (˚vibhanga -- sutta); S i.44, 45; J i.340 (tittha˚?).


-- ▓ (nt.) [a + raṇa] quietude, peace Nett 55 (+ tāṇa), 176 (or as adj. = peaceful) ThA 134 (+ saraṇa); Vbh 19 sq. (opp. saraṇa). See saraṇa2.
-- vihārin (or araṇā -- vihārin) [to be most likely taken as araṇā˚, abl. of araṇa in function of ārakā, i. e. adv. far from, away; the spelling araṇa would refer it to araṇa2. As regards meaning the P. Commentators expln. it as opp. of raṇa fight, battle, i. e. peacefullness, friendliness & see in it a syn. of metta. Thus Dhammapāla at PvA 230 expls. it as "mettā -- vihārin", & in this meaning it is found freq. in BSk. e. g. Divy 401; Av. Ś ii.131 (q. v. for further ref. under note 3); M Vastu i.165; ii.292. Cp. also the epithet of the Buddhas raṇa˝jaha] one who lives in seclusion, an anchoret, hermit; hence a harmless, peaceful person A i.24; Th 2, 358, 360; Pv iv.133 (= PvA 230); ThA 244. Cp. Dhs trsl. 336.

Araṇi & ˚ī

-- & ˚ī (f.) [Vedic araṇī & araṇi fr. ] wood for kind- ling fire by attrition, only in foll. cpds.: ˚potaka small firewood, all that is needed for producing fire, chiefly drill sticks Miln 53; ˚sahita (nt.) same Vin ii.217; J i. 212 (ī); v.46 (ī); DhA ii.246; ˚mathana rubbing of firewood J vi.209. -- Note. The reading at PvA 211 araṇiyehi devehi sadisa -- vaṇṇa is surely a misreading (v. l. BB ariyehi).


-- (f.) [a + rati] dislike, discontent, aversion Sn 270, 436, 642, 938; Dh 418 (= ukkaṇṭhitattaŋ DhA iv.225); Th 2, 339 (= ukkaṇṭhi ThA 239); Sdhp 476.


-- [ara + vinda (?) Halāyudha gives as Sk. aravinda nt.] a lotus, Nymphaea Nelumbo Dāvs v.62.


-- (adj.) ( -- ˚) [Vedic arha of arh] 1. worthy of, de- serving, entitled to, worth Dh 195 (pūjā˚); Pv ii.86 (dakkhiṇā˚); VvA 23 (daṇḍa˚ deserving punishment). Freq. in cpd. mahÔraha [Sk. mahÔrgha] worth much, of great value, costly, dear J i.50, 58; iii.83, etc. (see mahant). -- 2. fit for, apt for, suitable PvA 26 (paribhoga˚ fit for eating).


-- [Vedic arhati, etym. uncertain but cp. agghati] to be worthy of, to deserve, to merit (= Lat. debeo) Sn 431, 552 (rājā arahasi bhavituŋ); J i.262; Dh 9, 10, 230; Pv iii.66. -- ppr. arahant (q. v.). Cp. also adj. araha.


-- ╣ (nt.) [abstr. formation fr. arahat˚, 2nd base of arahant in compn.: see arahant iv.2] the state or condition of an Arahant, i. e. perfection in the Buddhist sense = Nibbāna (S iv.151) final & absolute emancipation, Arahantship, the attainment of the last & highest stage of the Path (see magga & anāgāmin). This is not restricted by age or sex or calling. There is one instance in the Canon of a child having attained Arahantship at the age of 7. One or two others occur in the Comy ThA 64 (Selā); PvA 53 (Sankicca). Many women Arahants are mentioned by name in the oldest texts. About 400 men Arahants are known. Most of them were bhikkhus, but A iii.451 gives the names of more than a score [UKT: 20] lay Arahants (cp. D ii.93 = S v.360, and the references in Dial. iii.5 n4). <-> Arahattaŋ is defined at S iv.252 as rāga -- kkhaya, dosa˚, moha˚. Descriptions of this state are to be found in the formulae expressing the feelings of an Arahant (see arahant ii.). Vin ii.254; D iii.10, 11, 255; A iii.34, 421, 430; v.209; Pug 73; Nett 15, 82; DA i.180, 188, 191; DhA ii 95; iv.193; PvA 14. -- Phrases: arahattaŋ sacchikaroti to experience Arahantship Vin ii.74; D i.229; arahattaŋ pāpuṇāti to attain or reach Arahantship (usually in aor. pāpuṇi) J ii.229 ThA 64; DhA ii.49 (saha paṭisambhidāhi) 93 (id.); PvA 53, 54, 61, 233 & freq. elsewhere; cp. arahattāya paṭipanna D iii.255; A i.120; iv.292 sq., 372 sq.
-- gahaṇa attainment of Arahantship DhA i.8. -- patta (& patti) one who has attained Ar. S i.196; v.273; A ii.157; iii.376; iv.235. -- phala the fruit of Ar. Vin i.39, 41, 293; iii.93; D iii.227, 277; S iii.168; v.44; A i.23, 45; iii.272; iv.276; Dhs 1017; Vbh 326. -- magga the Path of Ar. S i.78; A iii.391; DA i.224. -- vimokkha the emancipation of Ar. Nd2 19.


-- ▓ in ˚ghaṭi see araghaṭṭa.

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-- (adj. -- n.) [Vedic arhant, ppr. of arhati (see arahati), meaning deserving, worthy]. Before Buddhism used as honorific title of high officials like the English ʻ His Worship ʼ; at the rise of Buddhism applied popularly to all ascetics (Dial. iii.3 -- 6). Adopted by the Buddhisṭs as t. t. for one who has attained the Summum Bonum of religious aspiration (Nibbāna).
I. Cases nom. sg. arahaŋ Vin i.9; D i.49; M i.245, 280; S i.169; see also formula C. under ii., & arahā Vin i.8, 25, 26; ii.110, 161; D iii.255; It 95; Kh iv.; gen. arahato S iv.175; Sn 590; instr. arahatā S iii.168; DA i.43; acc. arahantaŋ D iii.10; Dh 420; Sn 644; Loc. arahantamhi Vv 212. -- nom. pl. arahanto Vin i.19; iv.112; S i.78, 235; ii.220; iv.123; gen. arahataŋ Vin iii.1; S i.214; Sn 186; It 112; Pv i.1112. Other cases are of rare occurrence.
II. Formulae. Arahantship finds its expression in freq. occurring formulae, of which the standard ones are the foll.: A. khīṇā jāti vusitaŋ brahmacariyaŋ kataŋ karaṇīyaŋ nÔparaŋ itthattāya "destroyed is (re -- ) birth, lived is a chaste life, (of a student) done is what had to be done, after this present life there is no beyond". Vin i.14, 35, 183; D i.84, 177, 203; M i.139; ii.39; S i. 140; ii.51, 82, 95, 120, 245; iii.21, 45, 55, 68, 71, 90, 94, 195, 223; iv.2, 20, 35, 45, 86, 107, 151, 383; v.72, 90, 144, 222; A i.165; ii.211; iii.93; iv.88, 179, 302; v.155, 162; Sn p. 16; Pug 61, etc. -- B. eko vūpakaṭṭho appamatto ātāpī pahitatto ʻ alone, secluded, earnest, zealous, master of himself ʼ D i.177; ii.153 & continued with A: S i.140, 161; ii.21; iii.36, 74; iv.64; v.144, 166; A i.282; ii.249; iii.70, 217, 301, 376; iv. 235. -- C. arahaŋ khīṇāsavo vusitavā katakaraṇīyo ohitabhāro anupatta -- sadattho parikkhīṇa -- bhava -- sa˝˝ojano sammad -- a˝˝ā vimutto: D iii.83, 97; M i.4, 235; S i.71; iii.161, 193; iv.125; v.145, 205, 273, 302; A i.144; iii.359, 376; iv.362, 369, 371 sq., It 38. <-> D. ˝āṇa˝ ca pana me dassanaŋ udapādi akuppā me ceto -- vimutti ayaŋ antimā jāti natthi dāni punabbhavo "there arose in me insight, the emancipation of my heart became unshake able, this is my last birth, there is now no rebirth for me: S ii.171; iii.28; iv.8; v.204; A i.259; iv.56, 305, 448.
III. Other passages (selected) Vin i.8 (arahā sītibhūto nibbuto), 9 (arahaŋ Tathāgato Sammāsambuddho), 19 (ekādasa loke arahanto), 20 (ekasaṭṭhi id.). 25 sq.; ii. 110, 161; iii.1; iv.112 (te arahanto udake kīḷanti); D i.49 (Bhagavā arahaŋ), 144; iii.10, 255: M i.245 (Gotamo na pi kālaŋ karoti: arahaŋ samaṇo Gotamo), 280; S i.9, 26, 50 (Tathāgato), 78, 140, 161, 169, 175, 178 (+ sītibhūta), 208, 214, 235 (khīnāsavā arahanto); iii. 160 (arahā tissa?), 168; iv.123, 175, 260, 393; v.159 sq., 164, 200 sq.; A i.22 (Sammāsambuddho), 27, 109, 266; iī.134; iii.376, 391, 439; iv.364, 394; v.120; Sn 186, 590, 644, 1003; It 95 (+ khīṇāsava), 112; Kh iv. (dasahi angehi samannāgato arahā ti vuccati: see KhA 88); Vv 212; i.217; Dh 164, 420 (khīṇāsava +); Ps ii.3, 19, 194, 203 sq.; Pug 37, 73; Vbh 324, 336, 422; Pv i.11 (khettűpamā arahanto), 1112; iv.132.
IV. In compn. & der. we find two bases, viz. (1) arahanta˚ in ˚ghāta the killing or murder of an Arahant (considered as one of the six deadly crimes): see abhiṭhāna; ˚ghātaka the murderer of the A.: Vin i.89, 136, 168, 320; ˚magga (arahatta˚?) the path of an A.: D ii 144. -- (2) arahat˚ in (arahad -- )dhaja the flag or banner of an A.: J i.65.
V. See further details & passages under anāgāmin, khīṇa, buddha. On the relationship of Buddha and Arahant see Dial. ii.1 -- 3; iii.6. For riddles or word -- play on the form arahant see M i.280; A iv.145; DA i.146 = VvA 105, 6 = PvA 7; DhA iv.228; DhsA 349.


-- [a + rāti, cp. Sk. arāti] an enemy Dāvs iv.1.


-- [Ved. ari; fr. ] an enemy. -- The word is used in exegesis & word expln, thus in etym. of arahant (see ref. under arahant v.); of bhūri Ps ii.197. -- Otherwise in late language only, e. g. Sdhp 493 (˚bhūta). See also arindama & aribhāseti.


-- [ppr. med. of P. ri˝cati for ricyati] not leaving behind, not giving up, i. e. pursuing earnestly Sn 69 (jhānaŋ = ajȧhamana SnA 123, cp. Nd2 94).


-- ╣ (adj.) [a + riṭṭha = Vedic ariṣṭa, pp of a + riṣ to hurt or be hurt] unhurt Sdhp 279.


-- ▓ [Sk. ariṣṭa, N. of a tree] a kind of spirituous liquor Vin iv.110.


-- (adj.) [fr. ariṭṭha] (a) unhurt; perfect DA 1,94 (˚ŋ ˝āṇaŋ). -- (b) [fr. ariṭṭha in meaning of "soap -- berry plant"?] in phrase mahā ariṭṭhako maṇi S i.104 "a great mass of soap stone" (cp. Rh. D. in J. R. A. S. 1895, 893 sq.), "a shaped block of steatite" (Mrs. Rh. D. in K. S 130).


-- (nt.) [Vedic aritra, Idg. *ere to row (Sk. to move); cf. Gr. e)re/ssw to row, e)retmo/s rudder, Lat. remus, Ohg. ruodar = rudder; Ags. rōwan = E. row] a rudder. Usually in combn. with piya (phiya) oar, as piyÔrittaŋ (phiy˚) oar & rudder, thus at S i.103 (T. piya˚, v. l. phiya˚); A ii.201 (piya˚); J iv.164 (T. piya˚, v.l. phiya˚); Sn 321 (piya +; SnA 330 phiya = dabbi -- padara, aritta = veḷudaṇḍa). DhsA 149.


-- [Sk. arindama, ariŋ + dama of dam] a tamer of enemies, victor, conqueror Pv iv.315 (= arīnaŋ damanasīla PvA 251); Sdhp 276.


-- [= ariŋ bhāseti] to denounce, lit. to call an enemy J iv.285. Correct to Pari˚ according to Fausb÷ll (J v. corr.)


-- (adj. -- n.) [Vedic ārya, of uncertain etym. The other Pāli forms are ayira & ayya] 1. (racial) Aryan D ii.87. <-> 2. (social) noble, distinguished, of high birth. -- 3. (ethical) in accord with the customs and ideals of the Aryan clans, held in esteem by Aryans, generally approved. Hence: right, good, ideal. [The early Buddhists had no such ideas as we cover with the words Buddhist and Indian. Ariya does not exactly mean either. But it often comes very near to what they would have considered the best in each]. -- (adj.): D i.70 = (˚ena sīlakkhandhena samannāgata fitted out with our standard morality); iii.64 (cakkavatti -- vatta), 246 (diṭṭhi); M i.139 (pannaddhaja); ii.103 (ariyāya jātiyā jāto, become of the Aryan lineage); S ii.273 (tuṇhībhāva); iv.250 (vaddhi), 287 (dhamma); v.82 (bojjhangā), 166 (satipaṭṭhānā), 222 (vimutti), 228 (˝āṇa), 255 (iddhipādā), 421 (maggo), 435 (saccāni), 467 (pa˝˝ā -- cakkhu); A i.71 (parisā); ii.36 (˝āya); iii.451 (˝āṇa); iv.153 (tuṇhībhāva); v.206 (sīlakkhandha); It 35 (pa˝˝ā), 47 (bhikkhu sammaddaso); Sn 177 (patha = aṭṭhangiko maggo SnA 216); Dh 236 (bhūmi), 270; Ps ii.212 (iddhi). -- alamariya fully or thoroughly good D i.163 = iii.82 = A iv.363; nÔlamariya not at all good, object, ignoble ibid. -- (m.) Vin i.197 (na ramati pāpe); D i.37 = (yaŋ taŋ ariyā ācikkhanti upekkhako satimā etc.: see 3rd. jhāna), 245; iii.111 (˚ānaŋ anupavādaka one who defames the noble); M i.17, 280 (sottiyo ariyo arahaŋ); S i.225 (˚ānaŋ upavādaka); ii.123 (id.); iv.53 (˚assa vinayo), 95 (id.); A i.256 (˚ānaŋ upavādaka); iii.19, 252 (id.); iv.145 (dele! see arīhatatta); v.68, 145 sq., 200, 317; It 21, 108; Dh 22, 164, 207; J iii.354 = Miln 230; M i.7, i35 (ariyānaŋ adassāvin: "not recognising the Noble Ones") PvA 26, 146; DhA ii.99; Sdhp 444 (˚ānaŋ vaŋsa). <-> anariya (adj. & n.) not Ariyan, ignoble, undignified, low, common, uncultured A i.81; Sn 664 (= asappurisa SnA 479; DhsA 353); J ii.281 (= dussīla pāpadhamma C.); v.48 (˚rūpa shameless), 87; DhA iv.3. -- See also ˝āṇa, magga, sacca, sāvaka.
-- Ôvakāsa appearing noble J v.87. -- uposatha the ideal feast day (as one of 3) A i.205 sq., 212. -- kanta loved by the Best D iii.227. -- gaṇā (pl.) troops of worthies [p078] J vi.50 (= brāhmaṇa -- gaṇā, te kira tāda ariyÔcārā ahesuŋ, tena te evam āha C.). -- garahin casting blame on the righteous Sn 660. -- citta a noble heart. -- traja a true descendant of the Noble ones Dpvs v.92. -- dasa having the ideal (or best) belief It 93 = 94. -- dhana sublime treasure; always as sattavidha˚ sevenfold, viz. saddhā˚, sīla˚, hiri˚, ottappa˚, suta˚, cāga˚, pa˝˝ā˚ "faith, a moral life, modesty, fear of evil, learning, self -- denial, wisdom" ThA 240; VvA 113; DA ii.34. -- dhamma the national customs of the Aryans (= ariyānaŋ eso dhammo Nd1 71, 72) M i.1, 7, 135; A ii.69; v.145 sq., 241, 274; Sn 783; Dhs 1003. -- puggala an (ethically) model person, Ps i.167; Vin v.117; ThA 206. -- magga the Aryan Path. -- vaŋsa the (fourfold) noble family, i. e. of recluses content with the 4 requisites D iii.224 = A ii.27 = Ps i.84 = Nd2 141; cp. A iii.146. -- vattin leading a noble life, of good conduct J iii.443. -- vatā at Th 1, 334 should be read ˚vattā (nom. sg. of vattar, vac) "speaking noble words": -- vāsa the most excellent state of mind, habitual disposition, constant practice. Ten such at D iii.269, 291 = A v.29 (Passage recommended to all Buddhists by Asoka in the Bhabra Edict). -- vihāra the best practice S v.326. -- vohāra noble or honorable practice. There are four, abstinence from lying, from slander, from harsh language, from frivolous talk. They are otherwise known as the 4 vacī -- kammantā & represent sīla nos. 4 -- 7. See D iii.232; A ii.246; Vin v.125. -- sangha the communion of the Nobles ones PvA 1. -- sacca, a standard truth, an established fact, D i.189, ii.90, 304 sq.; iii 277; M i.62, 184; iii.248; S v.415 sq. = Vin i.10, 230. It 17; Sn 229, 230, 267; Dh 190; DhA iii.246; KhA 81, 151, 185, 187; ThA 178, 282, 291; VvA 73. -- sāvaka a disciple of the noble ones (= ariyānaŋ santike sutattā a. SnA 166). M i.8, 46, 91, 181, 323; ii.262; iii.134, 228, 272; It 75; Sn 90; Miln 339; DhA i.5, (opp. putthujjana). -- sīlin of unblemished conduct, practising virtue D i.115 (= sīlaŋ ariyaŋ uttamaŋ parisuddhaŋ DA i.286); M ii.167.
When the commentators, many centuries afterwards, began to write Pali in S. India & Ceylon, far from the ancient seat of the Aryan clans, the racial sense of the word ariya was scarcely, if at all, present to their minds. Dhammapāla especially was probably a non -- Aryan, and certainly lived in a Dravidian environment. The then current similar popular etmologies of ariya and arahant (cp. next article) also assisted the confusion in their minds. They sometimes therefore erroneously identify the two words and explain Aryans as meaning Arahants (DhA i.230; SnA 537; PvA 60). In other ways also they misrepresented the old texts by ignoring the racial force of the word. Thus at J v.48 the text, speaking of a hunter belonging to one of the aboriginal tribes, calls him anariya -- rūpa. The C. explains this as "shameless", but what the text has, is simply that he looked like a non -- Aryan. (cp ʻ frank ʼ in English).

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-- in phrase "arīhatta ariyo hoti" at A iv.145 is wrong reading for arīnaŋ hatattā. The whole phrase is inserted by mistake from a gloss explaining arahā in the foll. sentence "ārakattā kilesānaŋ arīnaŋ hatattā . . . arahā hoti", and is to be deleted (omitted also by SS).


-- (nt.) [Vedic aruḥ, unknown etym.] a wound, a sore, only in cpds.: ˚kāya a heap of sores M ii.64 = Dh 147 = Th 1, 769 (= navannaŋ vaṇamukhānaŋ vasena arubhūta kāya DhA iii.109 = VvA 77); ˚gatta (adj.) with wounds in the body M i.506 (+ pakka -- gatta); Miln 357 (id); ˚pakka decaying with sores S iv.198 (˚āni gattāni); ˚bhūta consisting of wounds, a mass of wounds VvA 77 = DhA iii.109.


-- = aru; only in cpd. ˚űpamacitto (adj.) having a heart like a sore (of a man in anger) A i.124 = Pug 30 (expld at Pug A 212 as purāṇa -- vaṇa -- sadisa -- citto "an old wound" i. e. continually breaking open).


-- [Vedic aruṇa (adj.) of the colour of fire, i. e. ruddy, nt. the dawn; of Idg. *ereu as in Sk. aruṣa reddish, Av. auruÜa white, also Sk ravi sun; an enlarged from of Idg. *reu as in Sk. rudhira, rohita red (bloody; see etym. under rohita), Gr. e)rudro/s, Lat. ruber.] the sun Vin ii.68; iv.245; J ii.154; v.403; vi.330; Dpvs i.56; DA i.30. <-> a. uggacchati the sun rises J i.108; VvA 75, & see cpds.
-- ugga sunrise Vin iv.272; S v.29, 78, 101, 442 (at all Saŋyutta pass. the v.l. SS is aruṇagga); Vism 49. -- uggamana sunrise (opp. oggamanna). Vin iii.196, 204, 264; iv.86, 166, 230, 244; DhA i.165; ii.6; PvA 109. -- utu the occasion of the sun ( -- rise) DhA i.165. -- vaṇṇa of the colour of the sun, reddish, yellowish, golden Vism 123; DhA i 1.3 = PvA 216. -- sadisa (vaṇṇa) like the sun (in colour) PvA 211 (gloss for suriyavaṇṇa).


-- the Rigveda ThA 206.


-- (adj.) [a + rūpa] without form or body, incorporeal, D i.195 sq.; iii.240; Sn 755; It 62; Sdhp 228, 463, 480. See details under rūpa.
-- Ôvacara the realm or world of Formlessness, Dhs 1281 -- 1285; Ps i.83 sq., 101. -- kāyika belonging to the group of formless beings Miln 317 (devā). -- ṭhāyin standing in or being founded on the Formless It 62. -- taṇhā "thirst" for the Formless D iii.216. -- dhātu the element or sphere of the Incoporeal (as one of the 3 dhātus rūpa˚, arūpa˚, nirodha˚; see dhātu) D iii.215, 275; It 45. -- bhava formless existence D iii.216. -- loka the world of the Formless, Sdhp 494. -- sa˝˝in not having the idea of form D ii.110; iii.260; Exp. i.252.


-- (adj.) [a + rūpin] = arūpa; D i.31 (arūpī attā hoti: see DA i.119), 195; iii.111, 139; It 87 (rūpino va arūpino va sattā).


-- (indecl.) [onomat. Cp. Sk. lalallā, Gr. lale/w, Lat. lallo = E. lull, Ger. lallen & without redupl. Ags. holā, Ger. halloh, E. lo. An abbrev. form of are is re. Cf. also alālā] exclam. of astonishment & excitement: he! hallo! I say!, implying an imprecation: Away with you (with voc.) J i.225 (dāsiputta -- ceṭaka); iv.391 (duṭṭha -- caṇḍāla); DA i.265 (= re); VvA 68 (dubbinī), 217 ("how in the world").


-- ╣ freq. spelling for aḷa.


-- ▓ (adj.) [alaŋ adv. as adj.] enough, only in neg. anala insufficient, impossible M i.455; J ii.326 = iv.471.


-- (indecl.) [Vedic araŋ. In meaning 1. alaŋ is the ex- panded continuation of Vedic araŋ, an adv. acc. of ara (adj.) suitable; fitly, aptly rightly fr. Cp. aṇṇava, appeti, ara. In meaning 2. alaŋ is the same as are] emphatic particle 1. in affirmative sentences: part. of assurance & emphasis = for sure, very much (so), indeed, truly. Note. In connection with a dat. or an infin. the latter only apparently depend upon alaŋ, in reality they belong to the syntax of the whole sentence (as dat. or inf. absolute). It is customary however (since the practice of the Pāli grammarians) to regard them as interdependent and interpret the construction as "fit for, proper" (= yuttaŋ Pāli Com.), which meaning easily arises out of the connotation of alaŋ, e.g. alam eva kātuŋ to be sure, this is to be done = this is proper to be done. In this sense (c. dat.) it may also be compd. with Vedic araŋ c. dat. -- (a) (abs.) only in combn. with dat. or inf. (see c. & Note above). -- (b.) (˚ -- ) see cpds. -- (c.) with dat. or infin.: alaŋ antarāyāya for certain an obstacle M i.130 (opp. nÔlaŋ not at all); alaŋ te vippaṭisārāya you ought to feel sorry for it Vin ii.250; alaŋ vacanāya one says rightly S ii.18; alaŋ hitāya untold happiness DhA ii.41. -- ito ce pi so bhavaŋ Gotamo yojana sate viharati alam eva . . . . . upasankamituŋ even if he were 100 miles from here, (surely) even so (i. e. it is fit or proper even then) one must go to him D i.117 (expld. at DA i.288 by yuttam eva = it is proper); alam eva kātuŋ kalyāṇaŋ indeed one [p079] must do good = it is appropriate to do good Pv ii.923 (= yuttaŋ PvA 122); alaŋ pu˝˝āni kātave "come, let us do meritorious works" Vv 4415 (= yuttaŋ VvA 191). <-> 2. in negative or prohibitive sentences: part. of disapprobation reproach & warning; enough! have done with! fie! stop! alas! (etc. see are). -- (a) (abs.) enough: nÔlaŋ thutuŋ it is not enough to praise Sn 217; te pi na honti me alaŋ they are not enough for me Pv i.63. -- (b) with voc.: alaŋ Devadatta mā te rucci sanghabhedo "look out D. or take care D. that you do not split up the community" Vin ii.198; alaŋ Vakkali kin te iminā pūtikāyena diṭṭhena . . . S iii.120. -- (c) enough of (with instr.): alaŋ ettakena enough of this, so much of that Miln 18; alam me Buddhena enough for me of the Buddha = I am tired of the B. DhA ii.34.
-- attha (adj.) "quite the thing", truly good, very profitable, useful D ii.231; M ii.69 (so read for alamatta); A ii.180; Th 1, 252; J i.401 (so read for ˚atta). -- ariya truly genuine, right noble, honourable indeed, only in ˚˝āṇa -- dassana [cp. BSk. alamārya -- j˝āna -- darśana Lal v.309, 509] Vin i.9; A iii.64, 430; v.88; J i.389 (cp. ariya). -- kammaniya (quite or thoroughly) suitable Vin iii.187. -- pateyya: see the latter. -- vacanīyā (f.) a woman who has to be addressed with "alaŋ" (i. e. "fie"), which means that she ceases to be the wife of a man & returus into her parental home Vin iii.144, cp. 274 (Bdhgh's. expln.). -- samakkhātar one who makes sufficiently clear It 107. -- sājīva one who is thoroughly fit to associate with his fellow A iii.81. -- sāṭaka "curse -- coat", one who curses his waist -- coat (alaŋ sāṭaka!) because of his having eaten too much it will not fit; an over -- eater; one of the 5 kinds of gluttons or improper eaters as enumd. at DhA iv.16 = DhsA 404.

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-- (& īka) (adj.) [a + lakkhika] unfortunate un- happy, of bad luck Vin iii.23; J iii.259.


-- (f.) [a + lakkhi] bad luck, misfortune Th 1, 1123.


-- [Der. unknown. In late Sk. alagarda is a water- snake] a kind of snake M i.133 = DA i.21; DhA iv. 132 (˚camma, so read for T. alla -- camma, vv. ll. alanda˚ & alandu˚).


-- (adj.) [pp. of laggati] not stuck or attached Nd2 107 (also alaggita); alaggamāna (ppr.) id. DhA iii.298.


-- (nt.) [a + laggana] not hanging on anything, not being suspended DA i.180.


-- [pp. of alankaroti] 1. "made too much", made much of, done up, adorned, fitted out Dh 142 (= vatthÔbharaṇa -- paṭimaṇḍita DhA iii.83); Pv ii.36; Vv 11; J iii.392; iv.60. -- 2. "done enough" (see alaŋ, use with instr.), only neg. analankata in meaning "insatiate" S i.15 (kāmesu).


-- (nt.) [alaŋ + karaṇa, fr. alankaroti] doing up, fitting out, ornamentation J i.60.


-- (adj.) [fr. alankaraṇa] adorning, embellishing, decorating DhA i.410.


-- [alaŋ + karoti, Vedic araṅkaroti] to make much of i. e. to adorn, embellish, decorate J i.60; iii.189; vi. 368. ger. ˚karitvā DhA i.410; PvA 74. -- pp. alankata. -- Caus. alankārāpeti to cause to be adorned J i.52.


-- [fr. alankaroti, cp. Vedic araṅkṛti] "getting up" i. e. fitting out, ornament, decoration; esp. trinkets, ornaments D iii.190; A iii.239; 263 sq.; J vi.368; PvA 23, 46, 70 ( -- ˚ adj. adorned with), 74; Sdhp 249.


-- [Sk. alaktaka] lac, a red animal dye J iv.114 (˚pāṭala); DhA ii.174; iv.197.


-- & alandu see alagadda.


-- (adj.) [a + lamba] not hanging down, not drooping, short J v.302; vi.3 (˚tthaniyo not flabby: of a woman's breasts cp. alambɔ ordhva -- stanī Suśruta i.371).


-- (adj.) [a + lasa] idle, lazy, slack, slothful, languid S i.44, 217; Sn 96 (= jāti -- alaso SnA 170); J iv.30; Dh 280 (= mahā -- alaso DhA iii.410). Opp. analasa vigorous, energetic S i.44; D iii.190 (dakkha +); Vin iv.211; Nd2 141 (id.).


-- (f.) [abstr. fr. alasa] sloth, laziness; only in neg. analasatā zeal, industry VvA 229.


-- (nt.) at S i.43 is spurious spelling for ālassa idleness, sloth; v. l. BB ālasya.


-- (nt.) [Sk. alāta, related to Lat. altāre altar, adoleo to burn] a firebrand A ii.95 (chava˚ a burning corpse, see chava); J i.68; Pug 36; DhA iii.442.


-- (nt.) [= alābu, with p for b: so Trenckner Notes 6216] a gourd, pumpkin Dh 149 (= DhA iii.112; vv. ll. alābu & alābbu).


-- [Sk. alābū f.] a long white gourd, Cucurbita Lage- naris M i.80 (tittaka˚), 315 (id.); PvA 47 (id.); DhsA 405. -- See also alāpu.


-- [a + labhaka] not getting, loss, detriment Vin iii.77.


-- (indecl.) [a + lālā interjection fr. sound root *lal, see etym. under are] "not saying lā lā" i. e. not babbling, not dumb, in ˚mukha not (deaf &) dumb SnA 124 (= aneḷamūga of Sn 70).


-- (adj.) [Sk. alīka] contrary, false, untrue S i.189; J iii.198; vi.361; Miln 26, 99. -- nt. ˚ŋ a lie, falsehood Dh 264.
-- vādin one who tells a lie, a liar Dh 223 = VvA 69 (has alīka˚); J ii.4; SnA 478 (for abhūta -- vādin Sn 661).


-- (f.) [abstr. of alīna] open mindedness, prudence, sincerity J i.366.


-- (adj.) [a + luḷita, pp. of lul] umoved, undisturbed Miln 383.


-- (adj.) [a + loṇika] not salted J iii.409; VvA 184.


-- (adj.) [a + loma] not hairy (upon the body) J vi.457.


-- (adj.) [a + lola] undisturbed, not distracted (by desires), not wavering: of firm resolution, concentrated Sn 65 (= nillolupa Nd2 98; = rasavisesesu anākula SnA 118).

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-- (adj.) (only ˚ -- ) [Vedic ārdra, to Gr. a)/rdw moisten, a)/rda dirt] -- 1. moist, wet M iii.94 (˚mattikā -- pu˝ja a heap of moist clay; may be taken in meaning 2). -- 2. fresh (opp. stale), new; freshly plucked, gathered or caught, viz.˚Ôvalepana see adda3; ˚kusamuṭṭhi freshly plucked grass A v.234 = 249; ˚gomaya fresh dung A v.234; DhA i.377; ˚camma living skin Vism 195; ˚tiṇa fresh grass DA i.77; PvA 40; ˚dārūni green sticks J i.318; ˚madhu fresh honey DhA ii.197; ˚maŋsa -- sarīra a body of living flesh DhA ii.51 = iv.166; ˚rasa fresh -- tasting DhA ii.155; ˚rohita -- maccha fresh fish J iii.333. <-> 3. wet = with connotation of clean (through being washed), freshly washed, ˚kesa with clean hair PvA 82 (sīsaŋ nahātvā allakesa); usually combd. with allavattha with clean clothes (in an ablution; often as a sign of mourning) Ud 14, 91; DhA iv.220; or with odāta vattha (id.) J iii.425. ˚pāṇi with clean hand Pv ii.99 (= dhotapāṇi PvA 116). [For analla -- gatta at S i.183 better read, with ibid 169, an -- allīna -- gatta. For allacamma at DhA iv.132 alagadda -- camma, with the v.l., is preferable].


-- [Sk. ālāpa; ā + lāpa] conversation, talk; only in cpd. ˚sallāpa conversation (lit. talking to & fro or together) J i.189; Miln 15; VvA 96; PvA 86.

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-- (?) [either from alla = allikaŋ nt. in meaning defi- lement, getting soiled by ( -- ˚), or from allīyati = alliyakaŋ, a der. fr. ger. alliya clinging to, sticking to. The whole word is doubtful.] only in cpd. (kāma -- ) sukhɔ allikɔÔnuyoga given to the attachment to sensual joys Vin i.10; D iii.113, 130; S iv.330; v.421; Nett 110.


-- [pp. of allīyati; Sk. ālīna] (a) sticking to, adhering or adhered to, clinging M i.80; A v.187; Nd2 under nissita (in form asita allīna upagata). -- (b.) soiled by ( -- ˚), dirtied A ii.201. -- anallīna "to which nothing sticks", i. e. pure, undefiled, clean S i.169 (id. p. on p. 183 reads analla: see alla). Cp. ālaya.


-- [ā + līyati, , līyate, layate] to cling to, stick to, adhere to (in both senses, good or bad); to covet. -- (a) lit. kesā sīsaŋ allīyiŋsu the hair stuck to the head J i.64; khaggo lomesu allīyi the sword stuck in the hair J i.273. -- (b) fig. to covet, desire etc.: in idiomatic phrase allīyati (S iii.190 v. l.; T. ālayati) kelāyati vanāyati (S iii.190 v.l.; T. manāyati; M i.260 T. dhanāyati, but v.l. p. 552 vanāyati) mamāyati "to caress dearly & be extremely jealous of" (c. acc.) at M i.260 & S iii.190. <-> J iv.5; v.154 (allīyituŋ, v.l. illīyituŋ); DhsA 364 (vanati bhajati a); pp. allīna -- Caus. alliyāpeti [cp. Sk. ālāpayati, but B.Sk. allīpeti M Vastu iii.144; pp. allīpita ibid. i.311; iii.408; pass. allīpīyate iii.127.] to make stick, to to bring near to (c. acc. or loc.) J ii.325 (hatthiŋ mahābhittiyan alliyāpetvā); iv.392 (sīsena sīsaŋ alliyāpetvā).


-- [etym. unknown] 1. the claw of a crab M i.234; S i.123; J i.223, 505 (˚chinno kakkaṭako; T. spells ala˚); ii.342; iii.295; -- 2. the nails (of finger or toe) (?) in ˚chinna one whose nails are cut off Vin i.91.


-- (adj.) [Is it the same as uḷāra?] only used with ref. to the eyelashes, & usually expld. by visāla, i.e. extended, wide, but also by bahala, i.e. thick. The meaning & etym. is as yet uncertain. Kern, (Toev. s.v.) transls. by "bent, crooked, arched". ˚akkhin with wide eyes (eyelashes?) J i.306 (= visāla -- netta C.); ˚pamha with thick eye -- lashes Vv 357 (= bahala -- saŋyata -- pakhuma C.; v.l. ˚pamukha); ˚bhamuka having thick eyebrows or ˚lashes J vi.503 (so read for ˚pamukha; C. expls by visāl -- akkhigaṇḍa). Cp. āḷāra.


-- in udakɔ aḷhaka VvA 155 read āḷhaka.


-- (prefix) I. Relation between ava & o. Phonetically the difference between ava & o is this, that ava is the older form, whereas o represents a later development. Historically the case is often reversed -- that is, the form in o was in use first & the form in ava was built up, sometimes quite independently, long afterwards. Okaḍḍhati, okappati, okappanā, okassati, okāra, okantati, okkamati, ogacchati, odāta and others may be used as examples. The difference in many cases has given rise to a differentiation of meaning, like E. ripe: rife, quash: squash; Ger. Knabe: Knappe etc. (see below B 2). -- A. The old Pāli form of the prefix is o. In same cases however a Vedic form in ava has been preserved by virtue of its archaic character. In words forming the 2nd part of a cpd. we have ava, while the absolute form of the same word has o. See e.g. avakāsa ( -- ˚) > okāsa (˚ -- ); avacara > ocaraka; avatata; avadāta; avabhāsa; avasāna. -- B. 1. the proportion in the words before us (early and later) is that o alone is found in 65% of all cases, ava alone in 24%, and ava as well as o in 11%. The proportion of forms in ava increases as the books or passages become later. Restricted to the older literature (the 4 Nikāyas) are the foll. forms with o: okiri, okkanti, okkamati, okkhipati, ogacchati, ossajati. -- (1) The Pāli form (o˚) shows a differentiation in meaning against the later Sanskrit forms (ava˚). See the foll.:
avakappanā harnessing: okappanā confidence;
avakkanti (not Sk.): okkanti appearance;
avakkhitta thrown down: okkhitta subdued;
avacara sphere of motion: ocaraka spy;
avatiṇṇa descended: otiṇṇa affected with love;
avaharati to move down, put off: oharati to steal.
(2) In certain secondary verb -- formations, arisen on Pāli grounds, the form o˚ is used almost exclusively pointing thus to a clearly marked dialectical development of Pali. Among these formations are Deminutives in ˚ka usually; the Gerund & the Infinitive usually; the Causatives throughout.
II. Ava as prefix. [P. ava = Vedic ava & occasionally o; Av. ava; Lat. au -- (aufero = avabharati, aufugio etc.); Obg. u -- ; Oir. ō, ua. See further relations in Walde, Lat. Wtb. under au]. -- Meaning. (Rest:) lower, low (opp. ut˚, see e. g. uccÔvaca high & low, and below iii. c), expld. as heṭṭhā (DhA iv.54 under avaŋ) or adho (ibid. 153; SnA 290). -- (Motion:) down, downward, away (down), off; e. g. avasūra sun -- down; adv. avaŋ (q. v., opp. uddhaŋ). -- (a) lit. away from, off: ava -- kantati to cut off; ˚gaṇa away from the crowd; ˚chindati cut off; ˚yīyati fall off; ˚bhāsati shine out, effulge; ˚mu˝cati take off; ˚siṭṭha left over. -- down, out, over: ˚kirati pour down or out over; ˚khitta thrown down; ˚gacchati go down; ˚gāheti dip down; ˚tarati descend; ˚patita fallen down; ˚sajjati emit; ˚si˝cati pour out over; ˚sīdati sink down. -- (b) fig. down in connection with verbs of emotion (cp. Lat. de -- in despico to despise, lit. look down on), see ava -- jānāti, ˚bhūta, ˚mānita, ˚vajja, ˚hasati. away from, i. e. the opposite of, as equivalent to a negation and often taking the place of the neg. prefix a˚ (an˚), e. g. in avajaya (= ajaya), ˚jāta, ˚mangala (= a˚), ˚pakkhin, ˚patta.
Affinities of ava. -- (a) apa. There exists an exceedingly frequent interchange of forms with apa˚ and ava˚, the historical relation of which has not yet been thoroughly investigated. For a comparison of the two the BSk. forms are indispensable, and often afford a clue as to the nature of the word in question. See on this apa 2 and cp. the foll. words under ava: avakata, ˚karoti, ˚khalita, ˚anga, ottappa, avattha, ˚nīta, ˚dāna, ˚pivati, ˚rundhati, ˚lekhati, ˚vadati, ˚varaka, ˚sakkati, avassaya, avasseti, ˚hita, avāpurīyati, avekkhati. -- (b) abhi. The similarity between abhi & ava is seen from a comparison of meaning abhi ii. b and ava ii. a. The two prefixes are practically synonymous in the foll. words: ˚kankhati, ˚kamati, ˚kiṇṇa, ˚khipati, ˚maddati, ˚rata, ˚lambati, ˚lekheti, ˚lepana, ˚si˝cati. -- (c) The contrary of ava is ut (cp. above ii.2). Among the freq. contrast -- pairs showing the two, like E. up & down, are the foll. ukkaŋsÔvakaŋsa, uggaman -- oggamana, uccÔvaca, ullangheti -- olangheti, ullittÔvalitta; ogilituŋuggilituŋ, onaman -- unnamana. Two other combns. founded on the same principle (of intensifying contrast) are chiddÔvacchidda and ava˚ in contrast with vi˚ in olambavilamba, olugga -- vilugga.


-- (adv.) [Vedic avāk & avāŋ] the prep. ava in adv. use, down, downward; in C. often expld. by adho. Rarely absolute, the only passage found so far being Sn 685 (avaŋ sari he went down, v. l. avasari, expld. by otari SnA 486). Opp. uddhaŋ (above, up high). Freq. in cpd. avaŋsira (adj.) head downward (+ uddhaŋpāda feet up), a position characteristic of beings in Niraya (Purgatory), e. g. S i.48; Sn 248 (patanti sattā nirayaŋ avaŋsirā = adhogata -- sīsā SnA 290); Vv 5225 (of Revatī, + uddhaŋpāda); Pv iv.146; J i.233 (+ uddhapāda); iv.103 (nirayaŋ vajanti yathā adhammo patito avaŋsiro); Nd1 404 (uddhaŋpāda +); DhA iv.153 (gloss adhosira). -- On avaŋ˚ cp. further avakkāra, avākaroti, avekkhipati.


-- [fr. ava -- karṣati; on ŋs: *rṣ cp. haŋsati: harṣati] dragging down, detraction, abasement, in cpd. ukkaŋsÔvak˚ lifting up & pulling down, raising and lowering, rise & fall D i.54.


-- ( -- ˚) [ava + kankhati; cp. Sk. anu -- kānkṣati] to wish for, strive after S iv.57 (n'); J iv.371 (n'); V 340 (n'), 348 (n' = na pattheti C).

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-- [ava + kaḍḍhati, cp. avakassati & apakassati] Nett 4 (avakaḍḍhayitvā). Pass. avakaḍḍhati J iv.415 (hadayaŋ me a. my hcart is weighed down = sokena avakaḍḍhīyati C; v.l. avakassati). -- pp. avakaḍḍhita.


-- [pp. of avakaḍḍhati] pulled down, dragged away DhA iii.195.


-- = apakata, v.l. at It 89.


-- [for *avakatta, Sk. avakṛtta; pp. of avakantati, see kanta2] cut, cut open, cut off J iv.251 (galakɔ Ôvakantaŋ).


-- & okantati (okk˚) [cp. Sk. avakṛntati, ava + kantati, cp. also apakantati] to cut off, cut out, cut away, carve -- (ava:) J iv.155. -- pp. avakanta & avakantita.


-- [pp. of avakantati] cut out PvA 213.


-- & okappanā (f.) [ava + kappanā] prepara- tion, fixing up, esp. harnessing J vi.408.


-- [Sk. apakaroti, cp. P. apa˚] "to put down", to despise, throw away; only in der, avakāra & avakārin. <-> pp. avakata (q. v.). -- See also avākaroti & cp. avakirati 2.


-- & okassati [cp. Sk. avakarṣati, ava + kṛṣ; see also apakassati & avakaḍḍhati] to drag down, to draw or pull away, distract, remove. -- A v.74 = Vin ii.204 (+ vavakassati).


-- (adv.) [fr. avakāra] throwing away, scattering about Vin ii.214.


-- (adj.) ( -- ˚) [fr. avakāra] despising, degrading, neglecting Vbh 393 sq. (an˚).


-- & okāsa [ava + kāś to shine, cp. Sk. avakāśa] 1. "appearance": akkhuddÔvakāso dassanāya not little (or inferior) to behold (of appearance) D i.114; ariyāvakāsa appearing noble or having the app. of an Aryan J v.87; katÔvakāsa put into appearance Vv 229. -- 2. "opportunity": kata˚ given leave D i.276 Sn 1030; anavakāsakārin not giving occasion Miln 383. -- anavakāsa not having a chance or opportunity (to happen), impossible; always in ster. phrase aṭṭhānaŋ etaŋ anavakāso Vin ii.199; A i.26; v.169; Pug 11, 12; PvA 28.