Update: 2012-11-04 09:00 PM +0630

TIL

Pali-English Dictionary

a1-indx.htm

by The Pali Text Society, T. W. Rhys Davids, William Stede, editors, 1921-5.8 [738pp in two columns], reprint 1966 
California Digital Library, reprint 1952 :  http://archive.org/details/palitextsocietys00pali 121015
   Downloaded and edited by by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Downloaded: palitextsocietys00pali.pdf 

Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , http://www.softguide.net.mm , www.romabama.blogspot.com 

indx-E4MS | Top
PTS-indx.htm

Contents of this page 
in Phonemic (abugida) order

See my note on the problem of TOC (Table of Content)
Doggie's Tale - copy-paste

Introduction to this index
{a.} & {n}
  - p001-1.htm

[Note to TIL editor: p001-1-special.htm is a special file to take one page at a time to form others. Don't use it as a template. As a second phase, if necessary for clarity, move the last portions from a previous file to the next file.]

{a.ka.} : note {ka.} is a tenuis - unknown in Eng-Lat, and possibly in other European languages
  - p001-2.htm , p002-1.htm
{a.hka.} : {ak~kha.} compared to Skt-Dev 'pseudo-hka' {kSa.} क्ष ks
  - p002-2.htm , p003-1.htm
{a.ga.}
  - p003-2.htm , p004.htm , p005-1.htm
{a.Ga.} 
  - p005-2.htm 
{a.nga.}
  - p006.htm , p007-1.htm

{a.sa.} , {a.hsa.}, {a.za.}, {a.Za.}, {a.a.}
  - p007-2.htm , p008.htm , p009.htm , p010.htm
  - p011.htm , p012.htm , p013.htm , p014-1.htm
{a.Ta.}, {a.HTa.}, {a.a.}, {a.a.}, {a.Na.}
  - p014-2.htm , p015.htm , p016.htm , p017-1.htm
{a.ta.}, {a.hta.}, {a.da.}, {a.Da.}, {a.na.}  
  - p017-2.htm , p018.htm ,

UKT notes
Introduction to this index : a similar intro is given on p001-1.htm
Kinsi-representation {king:si:}
Nasal sounds in Bur-Myan
Retroflex tenuis plosive-stop
Voiced retroflex plosive-stop

 

Note to TIL editor: You will see two kinds of pagination: those with c1 or c2 attached are from archive.com. Those without c1 or c2 are from Univ. of Chicago.
   I would like to cut a1.htm into various files such as p001.htm, p002.htm, p003.htm, etc.
   Instead of cutting a1.htm, I first copied it into p001.htm. It is only from this p001.htm that I have taken out p002.htm, p003.htm, p004.htm, and then p005.htm -- one file at a time. I begin this process on 121009.

[UKT: 120109 the following to be put into above format. ]
p018 p019
p020 p021 p022 p023 p024 p025 p026 p027 p028 p029
p030 p031 p032 p033 p034 p035 p036 p037 p038 p039
p040 p041 p042 p043 p044 p045 p046 p047 p048 p049
p050 p000 p000 p000 p000 p000 p000 p000 p000 p000
{a.pa.} & bilabial coda: {p} {b} {m}
p000 p051 p052 p053 p054 p055 p056 p057 p058 p059
p060 p061 p062 p063 p064 p065 p066 p067 p068 p069
p070 p071 p072 p073 p074 p000 p000 p000 p000 p000
{a.ya.} & semiconsonant coda: {} {al} {aw}
p000 p000 p000 p000 p000 p075 p076 p077 p078 p079
p080 p081 p082 p083 p084 p085 p086 p000 p000 p000
{a.a.} & fricative coda: {a}
p000 p000 p000 p000 p000 p000 p000 p087 p088 p089
p090 p091 p092 p000 p000 p000 p000 p000 p000 p000

 

Contents of this page

UKT notes

Doggie's Tale

Mnemonic The Doggie Tale: 
Little doggie cringe in fear -- ŋ (velar),
  Seeing Ella's flapping ears -- ɲ (palatal)
  And, the Shepard's hanging rear -- ɳ (retroflex).
Doggie so sad he can't get it out
  What's that Kasha क्ष when there's a Kha ?
  And when there's Jana ज्ञ what I am to do with Jha ?

Note to digitizer: you can copy and paste the following:
Ā ā Ē ē Ī ī Ō ō Ū ū
Ḍ ḍ Ḥ ḥ Ḷ ḷ Ḹ ḹ Ṁ ṁ Ṃ ṃ Ṅ ṅ Ṇ ṇ Ṛ ṛ Ṝ ṝ Ś ś Ṣ ṣ Ṭ ṭ ɕ ʂ
Instead of Skt-Dev ः {wic~sa.} use "colon" :
Root sign √
Skt-Deva : श ś [ɕ] /ʃ/; ष ṣ [ʂ] /s/; स s [s] /θ/;
Undertie in Dev transcription: ‿ U203F
IPA symbols: ə ɪ ʌ ʊ ʧ ʤ θ ŋ ɲ ɳ

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Introduction to this index

-- by UKT: 111209, 121018

My interest in this file is to see how PTS differentiates the 'dot-above' aka {::ting} from the 'centipede-ridden' aka {king:si:}  (derived from {ing} /ɪŋ/).

In Skt-Dev, there are two processes similar to Bur-Myan {::ting}:
ँ Chandrabindu , and ं Anusvara. Both these vowel-signs imparts a nasal character to the sound of the akshara underneath it. The word Chandrabindu , ँ , literally means 'moon-dot' sign with a religious flavour. The sign Anusvara, ं , is more commonly used. According to Wikipedia, in Vedic-Sanskrit,  anusvāra  (lit. "after-sound") is a sound that occurs as an allophone of /m/ or /n/ depending on environment. See Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anusvara 121019

Secondly, I would like to see how the English short <a> {a.} -- the 'inherent vowel' of the Bur-Myan and the Skt-Dev akshara -- is checked by the 'killed' nasals:

{ing} /ɪŋ/ ,  {i} /ɪɲ/ ,  {N} /ʌɳ/ ,  {n} /ʌn/ ,  {m} /ʌm/

This is important because, in place of five Burmese nasals, English has only two, /n/ and /m/ -- or three, if you were to include /ŋ/. The paucity of nasals in English is perhaps the biggest obstacle in my transcription work - how to change Romabama from a transliteration to a transcription.

Thirdly, what about the 'killed' non-nasals of the {wag}-group? Bur-Myan only allows the 'killed' tenuis (voiceless) consonants, the c1-consonants, to check the short vowels:

{ak} /k/ , {ic} /ɪc/ , {T} /ʌʈ/ ,   {t} /ʌt/ , {p} /ʌp/ .
See my note on retroflex .

The problem of the third question is compounded because English does not have the IPA [p] sounds: it has only IPA [pʰ]. The [p] and [pʰ] are lumped together as allophones of /p/. Note: I avoid using the narrow-phonetic square-brackets [...] unless it is absolutely necessary as in this case. I usually write /p/ and /pʰ/. The [p] is realized only after <s> as in <spin>. Otherwise it is only the [pʰ] as in <pin>. On the other hand, the Bur-Myan speakers, unless trained, cannot pronounce the English <sp>: they usually put in a schwa after <s>. The Bur-Myan speaker would pronounce <spin> as /sə.pɪn/ - a disyllable. When the native-English speaker pronounces <pin>, the Burmese hears it as {hpin} 'anus'.

We have mentioned the {wag}-group above, which leads us to the question of the 'killed' non-nasals of the {a.wag}-group. Perhaps it would be useful to remind the reader that the {a.wag}-group of oral consonants is made up of: four semi-consonants sic semi-vowels {ya.}, {ra.}, {la.} {wa.}, a lone dental-fricative thibilant {a.} in Bur-Myan and three dental-fricative sibilants श = {sha.}, ष= {sa.},  स = {a.} in Skt-Dev, and a lone deep-h {ha.} = ह .

{a} /?/ , {ar} , {al} , {aw} 
{a}  
{ah} 

UKT personal note: The more I learn about Life - my Life at the age 77 - the more I need a personal attitude towards others. I want to live a blameless life, and I no longer have any intension to grumble and find fault in others: Can I say that my attitude is thus? -- UKT111209
   anupavāda
-- [an + upavāda] not blaming or finding fault, abstaining from grumbling or abuse Dh 185 (anūpa˚ in metre; expld at DhA iii.238 as anupavādana c'eva anupavādāpana ca "not scolding as well as not inciting others to grumbling"); adj. ˚vādaka Pug 60, & ˚vādin M i.360. --
p038
   It is the opposite of:
   anuvāda
-- [fr. anuvadatī, cp. Sk. anuvāda in meaning of "repetition"] 1. blaming, censure, admonition Vin ii.5, 32; A ii.121 (atta˚, para˚); Vbh 376. -- 2. in combn. vādnuvāda: talk and lesser or additional talk, i. e. "small talk" (see anu B iv.) D i.161; M i.368.
-- adhikaraṇa a question or case of censure Vin ii.88 sq.; iii.164 (one of the 4 adhikaraṇāni, q. v.). --
p042 -- UKT111213

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Kinsi-representation {king:si:}

by UKT: 111226

The Kinsi or {king:si:} is a unique way of representing a killed consonant - in this case {nga.}-thut - in Bur-Myan and Pal-Myan. The killed consonantal-grapheme is place on a level above the main level of writing. This kind of representation can also be found with other killed consonant, e.g. {na.}-thut. We find an example in UHS-PMD0220:

{U.pa.gn~twa}
-- UHS-PMD0220

UKT from UHS: approaches and then -
Note on Bur-Myan fossilized akshara {rw} :
   {rw} derived from {ru} pronounced as // /{rw.}/
I have translated this word as <then> to signify that what preceded is a subordinate clause to be followed by the main clause.

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Nasal sounds in Bur-Myan

by UKT : 111213

When the English short <a> {a.} -- the inherent vowel in the Bur-Myan akshara -- is checked by the nasal consonants -- there are five nasal consonants -- the peak-vowel also changes. This fact is not recognized by most phoneticians resulting in confusing transcriptions of Bur-Myan words to Eng-Latin. Below, I have also given the approximate IPA transcriptions. :

{ing} /ɪŋ/ p006,  {i} /ɪɲ/ p013,  {N} /ʌɳ/ p017, 
{n} /ʌn/ p030,  /ʌm/ {m} p074
Note: I expect many Bur-Myan phoneticians to dispute my IPA representations.
To them, I have only this to say: "this is how I pronounce".

In Bur-Myan, the peak-vowel changes in the above way. However this change is not shown in the English transliterations of Pali by PTS. In addition to these five, there is one nasal {n} - the {a.} with a {::ting} 'dot-above',  that has been mistaken for {king:si:} (derived from {ing} /ɪŋ/). I emphasize that {n} has the approximate IPA /ʌn/ . Because of these deficiencies, Pal-Lat should not be used as a model for transliteration of Burmese into English. To remedy these defects I have to change the peak vowel in Romabama to suit the phonology of Bur-Myan.

Secondly, it is important to remember that killed consonants are not allowed in Pal-Myan. Their places are taken up by {paaHT-hsing.} 'Pali conjuncts', and, {::ting}, and {king:si:}.

{paaHT-hsing.} - n. subscripted letters in Pali -- MED2006-272

I contend that the PTS representation aŋ of {::ting} is untenable to Pal-Myan. If the PTS aŋ had meant a {nga.t}, we would get {n~a.}. UHS spells it with {::ting}: {n-a}. However, it appears that by aŋ, PTS means a {::ting}. Then our problem is to find how to represent a {nga.t} {king:si:}. In this file, we find anka. Since its equivalent is   {n~ka.}, PTS is representing {nga.t} {king:si:} with an. This leads us to the question of representation of {na.t}. See {n~ta.}. PTS has spelled this word as anta, placing it in the same class as {king:si:}. That brings us back to aŋ. The problem is IPA has used /ŋ/ to represent the velar nasal and I hold that {::ting} is not velar: it has no definite POA (Place of Articulation)! Its pronunciation is /ʌn/ and not /ɪn/. I am waiting for input from my peers.

Thirdly, how to resolve the Two-three tone problem between Pal-Myan and Bur-Myan, present in the nasals. This problem is also present between Bur-Myan and Eng-Lat. Perhaps we may get some help from Skt-Dev.

{ing.}, {ing}, {ing:}
{n.}, {n}, {n:}

To resolve this third issue we would have to get into Bur-Myan way of spelling and pronunciation, which I am unable to do so in the immediate future. -- UKT111205, 111213.

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Contents of this page

The Problem of TOC (Table of Content)

-- UKT 121019

The very first problem in presenting the TOC is to how to present words such as {ak~kha.}. Shall I present it as {a.ka.}, or ignoring the {ka.t}, to present it as {a.hka.}? Formerly, I chose to present it as {a.hka.}, until I started on Skt-Dev. when I found out that I would be missing a very important section -- important when I would be dealing with Bur-Myan -- the {a.nga.}, because Sanskrit does not have the sound of /ŋ/.

Even the Devanagari -- the script used to write Sanskrit -- did not seem to have it. What the present Devanagari has seems to be a borrowed one formed out of {a.} ड with a 'dot' added: ड + dot --> ङ .

The fact is Asoka script (dubbed Brahmi) clearly has this glyph, and it can be easily identified as Myanmar {nga.}. Because of this I maintain that Devanagari, and by implication Sanskrit, is not directly derived from Asoka script and, by implication that, Sanskrit and Pali as spoken in present day India are not the original language of Asoka and Gautama Buddha.

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Retroflex tenuis plosive-stop

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiceless_retroflex_plosive 111214

The voiceless retroflex plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) that represents this sound is ʈ , and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is t`. Like all the retroflex consonants, the IPA symbol is formed by adding a rightward-pointing hook extending from the bottom of the symbol used for the equivalent alveolar consonant, in this case the voiceless alveolar plosive which has the symbol t. If lowercase letter t in the font used already has a rightward-pointing hook, then ʈ is distinguished from t by extending the rightward-pointing hook below the baseline as a descender. Compare t and ʈ .

Features of the voiceless retroflex plosive:

Its manner of articulation is stop, or plosive [UKT: I use the term "plosive-stop"], which means it is produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract. (The term plosive contrasts with nasal stops, where the blocked airflow is redirected through the nose.)

Its POA (place of articulation) is retroflex, which prototypically means it is articulated sub-apical - with the tip of the tongue curled up. But more generally it means that it is postalveolar without being palatalized. That is, besides the prototypical sub-apical articulation, the tongue contact can be apical (pointed) or laminal (flat).

Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.

UKT: In both Bur-Myan and Skt-Dev, there are two voiceless oral consonants. To differentiate the two I use the terms 'tenuis' and 'voiceless'. In addition to these we have the 'voiced' consonant. Please note I avoid using the term 'aspirate' because to me  we do not have aspiration as is known in the West.

Phonation: tenuis,  voiceless, voiced,  mute conjunct
Bur-Myan:  {Ta.}  {HTa.}   {a.}   {T~HTa.}
Skt-Dev:     ट  ṭa  ठ ṭha    ड ḍa   ट्ठ ṭṭha

I have given an example of what happens when {Ta.}  and {HTa.} form a horizontal conjunct. The result is {T~HTa.}. The Skt-Dev ट्ठ ṭṭha  is derived by following the Bur-Myan method of conjunct formation using an {a.t} aka viram (or virama) on the first member {Ta.} .

It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.

Because the sound is not produced with airflow over the tongue, the central lateral dichotomy does not apply.

The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence

UKT: End of Wikipedia article.

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Voiced retroflex plosive-stop

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiced_retroflex_plosive 111227

The voiced retroflex plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ɖ, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is d`. [UKT ]

The IPA symbol is a lowercase letter d with a rightward-pointing tail protruding from the lower right of the letter. Like all the retroflex consonants, the IPA symbol is formed by adding a rightward pointing hook extending from the bottom of the symbol used for the equivalent alveolar consonant, in this case the voiced alveolar plosive which has the symbol d. Compare d and ɖ . Many Indian languages, such as Hindi, have a two-way contrast between plain and murmured, also known as breathy voice [ɖ].

Features of the voiced retroflex plosive:

Its manner of articulation is stop, or plosive, which means it is produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract. (The term plosive contrasts with nasal stops, where the blocked airflow is redirected through the nose.)

UKT: The above term "nasal stops" is a self-contradictory term. Nasals are not stops because the airflow is redirected through the nose. Because nasals are not stops, the Two-three tone problem found between English and Burmese applies. Remember, the IPA descriptions holds true only for the Western phoneticians and are lacking in lucidity in describing the Indic languages which includes Pal-Myan and Bur-Myan.

Its place of articulation is retroflex, which prototypically means it is articulated sub-apical - with the tip of the tongue curled up. [UKT ]

UKT: Because the tip of the tongue is curled back, it is the underside of the tip that is touching the hard palate. Bur-Myan does not really have retroflex in ordinary speech, but those who speak Pal-Myan, particularly the older Buddhist-monks, can easily articulate the retroflex sounds. I wait for input from my peers. -- UKT111227

But more generally it means that it is postalveolar without being palatalized. That is, besides the prototypical sub-apical articulation, the tongue contact can be apical (pointed) or laminal (flat).

Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.

It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.

It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.

The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence:

UKT: End of Wikipedia article.

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End of TIL file