Update: 2012-11-24 04:05 AM +0630




by Maung Tin, M.A., Professor of Pali, Rangoon College, BRITISH BURMA PRESS, RANGOON. 1920. 
Available on line with serious mistakes in spelling: http://www.archive.org/.../studentspaliengl00tinmiala_djvu.txt 110811

With reference to words listed in U Hoke Sein, Pali-Myanmar Dictionary, {pa.dût~hta.miñ-zu-þa}, in 4 volumes, vol.1 1st. printing ca. 1954, vol.4 1st printing ca. 1959, Ministry of Religious Affairs publication, Rangoon , p1180.

Edited by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA), Daw Khin Wutyi and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL). Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , http://www.softguide.net.mm , www.romabama.blogspot.com

CAUTION: U Pe Maung Tin's Pali is NOT the Pali spoken in Myanmar.

Burmese people, and the people just south of the Himalayas where Lord Buddha was born, speak with Tibeto-Burman accents. Pali spoken in Myanmar to this day is Tibeto-Burman. Our languages are non-rhotic, non-hissing and thibilant, whereas the SriLankans speak with rhotic, hissing and sibilant sounds. U Pe Maung Tin's Pali is International Pali.

International Pali is Pal-Lat (Pali speech written in Latin script) and follows the English way of writing: capital letters are used at the the beginning of sentences, and, for proper names. This is not the case in Pal-Myan (Pali speech in Myanmar script), and in Skt-Dev (Sanskrit speech in Devanagari script).

One of the pitfalls in BEPS inter-language study is the various ways the sounds are transcribed. The transcription followed in UPMT is the same as that followed by PTS (Pali Text Society), but slightly different from IAST (International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration). Both these transcription-transliterations are non-ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) and are not suitable for the Internet and email. To overcome this drawback ASCII-transcriptions have been devised. The result is more confusion. In all my work, I use the Romabama transcriptions which is ASCII, and which is based on Burmese and English phonologies. Romabama transcriptions are shown in {...}, whereas IAST transliterations are in «...».

To show pronunciations, I will give IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet) phonemic transcription -- within /.../ -- whenever possible.


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Contents of this page 
Note to TIL editor: I am using Romabama consonants and vowels: 
   {hka.} instead of «kha», {sa.} instead of «ca», {za.} instead of «ja», etc.
Remember, I am using this dictionary as a source for my study of BEPS (Burmese-English-Pali-Sanskrit speeches in Myanmar-IPA-Latin-Devanagari scripts), and some files would have only a few entries for ease of comparing the various languages.

U Pe Maung Tin has not sectionalized in terms of Vowels, Consonants, and Approximants, which would have been easier to follow phonemically. He like most of the authors of his generation and before did not recognized that our system of writing derived from the script used by Emperor Asoka thousands of years ago on his inscriptions, is based on the science of phonetics.
   U Pe Maung Tin, like the others did not realized the difference in Alphabet and Abugida, and has given only the page headings.
   TIL dictionaries are based on Abugida order, and eventually U Pe Maung Tin's dictionary will be put in TIL format. But for this edition, we have followed U Pe Maung Tin. Unfortunately because of the unavailability of a suitable font for our purpose, we have to rely solely on Romabama instead of on Burmese-speech written in Myanmar-script.

The instrument for comparison of BEPS languages is Romabama (Burmese-Myanmar transcribed into extended-Latin script) . The following is the table of base consonants.

UKT notes :
• Doggie's Tale - copy-paste

• Acknowledgment, Preface & Abbreviation -- p000.htm 
Note to TIL editor: no need to create a folder for above]

• Vol01: vowels {a.}
  -- PMT-v01-indx.htm
• Vol02: vowels {a}
  -- PMT-v02-indx.htm

The following to be put into respective folders:
• {a.sa.} -- p005.htm
• {a.hsa.} -- p006.htm
• {a.Za.} -- p007.htm 
• {a.Ta.} -- p008.htm 
• {a.ða.} -- p009.htm 

• {a.ta.} -- p010.htm
• {a.ta.} -- p011.htm 
• {a.hta.} -- p012.htm 
• {a.Da.} -- p013.htm 
• {a.na.} -- p014.htm 

• {a.na.} -- p015.htm
• {a.na.} -- p016.htm
• {a.ta.} -- p017.htm 
• {a.Da.} -- p018.htm 
• {a.pa.} -- p019.htm 

• {a.pa.} -- p020.htm  p021.htm p022.htm p023.htm  p024.htm 
• p025.htm p026.htm p027.htm  p028.htm  p029.htm 

• {a.þa.} -- p030.htm p031.htm p032.htm  p033.htm  p034.htm 
• p035.htm p036.htm p037.htm  p038.htm  p039.htm 

• {a.wi.} -- p040.htm p041.htm p042.htm  p043.htm  p044.htm 
• p045.htm p046.htm p047.htm  p048.htm  p049.htm 

• {U.pa.} -- p050.htm p051.htm  p052.htm  p053.htm  p054.htm
• p055.htm p056.htm  p057.htm  p058.htm  p059.htm

• p060.htm  p061.htm  p062.htm  p063.htm  p064.htm
• p065.htm  p066.htm  p067.htm  p068.htm  p069.htm

• p070.htm  p071.htm  p072.htm  p073.htm  p074.htm
• p075.htm  p076.htm  p077.htm  p078.htm  p079.htm

• p080.htm  p081.htm  p082.htm  p083.htm  p084.htm
• p085.htm p086.htm  p087.htm  p088.htm  p089.htm

• p090.htm p091.htm  p092.htm  p093.htm  p094.htm
• p095.htm p096.htm  p097.htm  p098.htm  p099.htm

• p100.htm  p101.htm  p102.htm  p103.htm  p104.htm
• p105.htm  p106.htm  p107.htm  p108.htm  p109.htm

• p110.htm  p111.htm  p112.htm  p113.htm  p114.htm
• p115.htm  p116.htm  p117.htm  p118.htm  p119.htm

• p120.htm  p121.htm  p122.htm  p123.htm  p124.htm
• p125.htm  p126.htm  p127.htm  p128.htm  p129.htm

• p130.htm  p131.htm  p132.htm  p133.htm  p134.htm
• p135.htm  p136.htm  p137.htm  p138.htm  p139.htm

• p140.htm  p141.htm  p142.htm  p143.htm  p144.htm
• p145.htm  p146.htm  p147.htm  p148.htm  p149.htm

• p150.htm  p151.htm  p152.htm  p153.htm  p154.htm
• p155.htm  p156.htm  p157.htm  p158.htm  p159.htm

• p160.htm  p161.htm  p162.htm  p163.htm  p164.htm
• p165.htm p166.htm  p167.htm  p168.htm  p169.htm

• p170.htm  p171.htm  p172.htm  p173.htm  p174.htm
• p175.htm  p176.htm  p177.htm  p178.htm  p179.htm

• p180.htm  p181.htm  p182.htm  p183.htm  p184.htm
• p185.htm p186.htm  p187.htm  p188.htm  p189.htm

• p190.htm  p191.htm  p192.htm  p193.htm  p194.htm
• p195.htm p196.htm  p197.htm  p198.htm  p199.htm

• p200.htm  p201.htm  p202.htm  p203.htm  p204.htm
• p205.htm  p206.htm  p207.htm  p208.htm  p209.htm

• p210.htm  p211.htm  p212.htm  p213.htm  p214.htm
• p215.htm  p216.htm  p217.htm  p218.htm  p219.htm

• p220.htm  p221.htm  p222.htm  p223.htm  p224.htm
• p225.htm  p226.htm  p227.htm  p228.htm  p229.htm

• p230.htm  p231.htm  p232.htm  p233.htm  p234.htm
• p235.htm  p236.htm  p237.htm  p238.htm  p239.htm

• p240.htm  p241.htm  p242.htm  p243.htm  p244.htm
• p245.htm  p246.htm  p247.htm  p248.htm  p249.htm

• p250.htm p251.htm  p252.htm  p253.htm  p254.htm
• p255.htm p256.htm  p257.htm  (the last page)

Contents of this page

UKT notes


From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ASCII 121007

The American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) is a character-encoding scheme originally based on the English alphabet. ASCII codes represent text in computers, communications equipment, and other devices that use text. Most modern character-encoding schemes are based on ASCII, though they support many additional characters.

ASCII developed from telegraphic codes. Its first commercial use was as a seven-bit teleprinter code promoted by Bell data services. Work on the ASCII standard began on October 6, 1960, with the first meeting of the American Standards Association's (ASA) X3.2 subcommittee. The first edition of the standard was published during 1963,[4][5] a major revision during 1967,[6] and the most recent update during 1986.[7] Compared to earlier telegraph codes, the proposed Bell code and ASCII were both ordered for more convenient sorting (i.e., alphabetization) of lists and added features for devices other than teleprinters.

ASCII includes definitions for 128 characters: 33 are non-printing control characters (many now obsolete)[8] that affect how text and space is processed[9] and 95 printable characters, including the space (which is considered an invisible graphic[1][2]).

The IANA prefers the name US-ASCII[10] to avoid ambiguity. ASCII was the most commonly used character encoding on the World Wide Web until December 2007, when it was surpassed by UTF-8.[11][12][13]

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

Go back ASCII-note-b

Contents of this page

Doggie's Tale

Mnemonic The Doggie Tale: 
Little doggie cringe in fear -- ŋ (velar),
  Seeing Ella's flapping ears -- ɲ (palatal)
  And, the Shepard's hanging rear -- ɳ (retroflex).
Doggie so sad he can't get it out
  What's that Kasha क्ष when there's a Kha ?
  And when there's Jana ज्ञ what I am to do with Jha ?

Note to digitizer: you can copy and paste the following:
Ā ā Ē ē Ī ī Ō ō Ū ū
Ḍ ḍ Ḥ ḥ Ḷ ḷ Ḹ ḹ Ṁ ṁ Ṃ ṃ Ṅ ṅ Ñ ñ Ṇ ṇ Ṛ ṛ Ṝ ṝ Ś ś Ṣ ṣ Ṭ ṭ ɕ ʂ
• Instead of Skt-Dev ः {wic~sa.} use "colon" :
• Root sign √
• Skt-Deva : श ś [ɕ] /ʃ/; ष ṣ [ʂ] /s/; स s [s] /θ/;
• Undertie in Dev transcription: ‿ U203F
• IPA symbols: ə ɪ ʌ ʊ ʧ ʤ θ ŋ ɲ ɳ

Go back Dog-tale-note-b

Contents of this page


From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Alphabet_of_Sanskrit_Transliteration 121007
UKT: Note the word 'Transliteration' - meaning as it is spelled, NOT as it is pronounced.

The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows a lossless romanization of Indic scripts as employed by the Sanskrit language.

IAST is the most popular transliteration scheme for romanization of Sanskrit and Pāḷi. It is often used in printed publications, especially for books dealing with ancient Sanskrit and Pāḷi topics related to Indian religions. With the wider availability of Unicode fonts, it is also increasingly used for electronic texts.

The script is, however, insufficient to represent both Sanskrit and Pāḷi on the same page properly, owing to confusion of the vowel l sign in Sanskrit (here ḷ) and the need for the same sign for the retroflexive consonant ḷ, which is found in Pāḷi. Here it is better to follow Unicode and ISO 15919, which is in any case a more comprehensive scheme.

IAST is based on a standard established by the International Congress of Orientalists at Geneva in 1894.[1] It allows a lossless transliteration of Devanāgarī (and other Indic scripts, such as Śāradā script), and as such represents not only the phonemes of Sanskrit, but allows essentially phonetic transcription (e.g. Visarga is an allophone of word-final r and s).

The National Library at Kolkata romanization, intended for the romanization of all Indic scripts, is an extension of IAST.

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article

Go back IAST-note-b

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From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pali_Text_Society 121007

The Pāli Text Society was founded in 1881 by Thomas William Rhys Davids "to foster and promote the study of Pāli texts".

Pāli is the language in which the texts of the Theravada school of Buddhism is preserved. The Pāli texts are the oldest collection of Buddhist scriptures preserved in the language in which they were written down.

The society first compiled, edited, and published Latin-script versions of a large corpus of Pāli literature, including the Pāli Canon, as well as commentarial, exegetical texts, and histories. It publishes translations of many Pāli texts. It also publishes ancillary works including dictionaries, concordances, books for students of Pāli and a journal.

UKT: More in Wikipedia article

Go back PTS-note-b

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End of TIL file