Update: 2014-05-03 04:27 AM +0630

TIL

Dictionary of Noble Words of Lord Buddha

kaut.htm

by U Myat Kyaw & U San Lwin, MLC (Myanmar Language Commission), 2002

Set in HTML, and edited, with additions from other sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA), Daw Thuzar Myint, and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , http://www.softguide.net.mm , www.romabama.blogspot.com

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Remember {a.žūt} is not allowed in Pal-Myan.
We find only conjuncts in which the upper member is equivalent to the vowel in association
with {ka.} being checked by the IPA plosive-stops /k/ /t/ /p/ & nasals /n/ /m/

{kauT} : vowel checked by {T} or IPA /t/
  {kauN} : vowel checked by {N) or IPA /n/
  {kūn} : vowel checked by {n} or IPA /n/

 

UKT notes :
• Repulsiveness of the Human Body
• Stream-winner : a metaphor
• Twenty-eight Buddhas

 

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{kauT}

UKT 140503: In the following 2 entries of {kauT~}, you'll see a /w/ in the Bur-Myan pronunciation. It shows that the vowel in association with {ka.} <au> is the rounded back vowel /ɒ/. It is not Open-O /ɔ/. If it had been /ɔ/, Romabama spelling would be {kawT}.

{kauT~HTa-ža.}
«koṭṭhāsa»


«koṭṭhāsa»
- n. the 32 constituent parts of the body consisting of :
01. {ké-ža} «kesa» - hair, 02. {law-ma} «loma» - body hair,
03. {na.hka} «nakha» - fingernail or toenail, 04. {dūn~ta} «danta» - teeth,
05. {ta-sau:} «taca» - skin, 06. {män-žän} «maṁsa» - flesh,
07. {nha-ru.} «nhāru» - sinew, nerve, 08. {ūT~HTi.} «aṭṭhi» - bone,
09. {ūT~HTi. maiń~zän} «aṭṭhimińja» - bone marrow, 10. {wak~kän} «vakka» - kidney,
      11. {ha.da.yän} «hadaya» - heart, 12. {ya.ka.nän} «yakana» - liver,
13. {ki.law:ma.ka.} «kilomaka» - the pleura, 14. {pi.ha-ka.} «pihaka» - spleen,
15. «papphāsāṁanta» - lungs, 16. «antaguṇa» - mesentery,
17. «udariya» - stomach, 18. «karīsa» - faeces,
19. «matthaluṅga» - brain, 20. «pitta» - gall bladder,
21. «semha» - phlegm, 22. «pubba» - pus,
23. «lohita» - blood, 24. «seda» - sweat,
25. «meda» - fat, 26. «assu» - tears,
27. «vasa» - oily fluid, 28. «khelo» - saliva,
29. «siṅghāṇika» - nasal mucus, 30. «lasika» - synovial fluid,
31. «muttaṁ» - urine
- MK-PED022-3

See my note on the Repulsiveness of the Human Body

 

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{kauN}

{kauN~šiń~ńa.}
«Koṇdańńa»


«Koṇdańńa»
- n.
¹. name of one of the 28 Buddhas who after practising austerities for 10months, attained enlightenment under the Indian trumpet tree of knowledge
². name of the first disciple to become a stream winner (i.e. one who enters the stream leading to nirvana) after hearing Lord Gautama Buddha's discourse on the Wheel of Law.
- MK-PED022-4

UKT 140501: Though I claim to be a Theravada Buddhist, as a skeptical chemist and engineer, there are many things I cannot accept. The only Buddha that I can accept is the historical Buddha, the enlightened Prince Siddhartha. The others, I would not reject: as a scientist I wait for further proof. See my note on the Twenty-eight Buddhas.

A stream-winner is a metaphor describing a person who has "entered the stream leading to enlightenment'. Note: I avoid the use of the Skt-Dev word «nirvana» or Pal-Lat «nibbana». The two words are not exactly the same or even of opposite meanings depending on interpretation of deeper meanings primarily because of differing fundamental concepts. Coming back to the word "stream" it means the path or road to enlightenment. See my note on the Stream-Winner

 

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{kūn}

{kūn~ta-ra.}
«kantāra»


«kantāra»
- n. difficult journey through a wilderness : there are 5 kinds of such journeys:
1. corakantāra - journey through a wilderness infested by thieves and robbers,
2. vāḷakantāra - journey through a wilderness infested by beasts of prey,
3. nirudakakantāra - journey through a waterless land,
4. amanussakantāra - journey through a wilderness infested by ogres and
5. appabhakkhakantāra - journey through a land where there is nothing to eat
- MK-PED023-1

 

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UKT notes 

Repulsiveness of the Human Body

-- UKT 140501

The 31 or 32 constituents of the human body are the objects for contemplation of the repulsiveness of the body. They are not meant for the medical student. The internal organs of the fairest of women, when viewed one by one, can be viewed as an object not fit for attachment. From my very early childhood, I have heard the nuns reciting in their dismal highly nasal voices as if they were so melancholy to be on the point of suicide. I always feel that it is going too far to include feces inside the human body to be a part of it. Of course, feces of one and all is nothing but loathsome or «asubha». Buddhism to me is not a melancholy religion, and we must be able to view many physical objects including the body of the opposite sex in a balanced way. I feel that Buddha would prefer us to have a balanced mind rather than be sad and melancholy.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patikulamanasikara 140501

Paṭikkūlamanasikāra (variant: paṭikūlamanasikāra) [1] is a Pāli term that is generally translated as "reflections on repulsiveness". It refers to a traditional Buddhist meditation whereby thirty-one parts of the body are contemplated in a variety of ways. In addition to developing mindfulness and concentration, this form of meditation is considered conducive to overcoming lust. Along with cemetery contemplations, this type of meditation is one of the two Buddhist meditations on "the foul" (Pāli: «asubha»). [2]

UKT 140501: One organ that I can feel doing its work inside my body is my heart. It has been with me months before I was born. It is not a loathsome object, yet it's throbbing, and its pulse (at the wrist which I can feel) have been the objects of my mental concentration: just like that of the feel of air at the tip of my nose during breathing.

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The Stream-winner

-- UKT 140502

I try to avoid the use of metaphors in giving the definitions of a word. A mental state one can achieve after practicing Buddhism, is known as the Sotāpanna state. Based on that state if one continues the Buddhist practices, one can ultimately achieve Supreme Intelligence or Enlightenment.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sot%C4%81panna 140502

In Buddhism, a Sotāpanna (Pali), Srotāpanna (Sanskrit; ch: rłliś 入流, Tib. རྒྱན་ཞུགས rgyun zhugs [1]), or "stream-winner" [2] is a person who has eradicated the first three fetters (sanyojanas) of the mind, namely self-view (or identity), skeptical doubt (in Buddhadharma or the teachings of the Buddha), and clinging to rites and rituals.

UKT 140502: What are the teachings of the Buddha, or Buddhadhamma, when there are various authorities of various schools maintaining that theirs is the only correct teachings? I am reduced to doubting everything unless that is verifiable scientifically. So far, with my limited understanding and knowledge, there are only three, viz. #1. The Four Principles, #2. The Nature of Anatta, and, #3. The Twenty-Four Process of Thought and Action. The rest I hold with an open mind. I have been asked this question and related issues in the U.S., Australia and Canada, by Christians of various schools, Agnostics & Atheists, and even by those who claim to be the followers of Wicca (or in Christian parlance "Witches").

Sota-apanna literally means "one who entered (āpanna) the stream (sota)", after a metaphor which calls the Noble Eightfold Path, 'a stream' which leads to Nirvaana (SN 55.5). Stream-entry (Sota-apatti) is the first of the four stages of enlightenment.

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The Twenty-eight Buddhas

-- UKT 140501:

Though I claim to be a Theravada Buddhist, as a skeptical chemist and engineer, there are many things I cannot accept. The only Buddha that I can accept is the historical Buddha, the enlightened human Prince Siddhartha. The others, I would not reject: as a scientist I wait for further proof. There are two lists of Buddhas: 28, and 5.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_the_twenty-eight_Buddhas 140501

In countries where Theravāda Buddhism is practiced by the majority of people (Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Laos, Burma, Thailand), it is customary for Buddhists to hold elaborate festivals, especially during the fair weather season, paying homage to the 28 Buddhas described in Chapter 27 of the Buddhavamsa. [UKT 140501]

UKT 140501: "This canonical text, along with the Apadana and Cariyāpiṭaka, has been described as hagiographical [2] as well as a "latecomer" to the Canon. [3]"
-- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buddhavamsa 140501

The Buddhavamsa is a text which describes the life of Gautama Buddha and the 27 Buddhas who preceded him. [1] The Buddhavamsa is part of the Khuddaka Nikāya, which in turn is part of the Sutta Piṭaka. The Sutta Piṭaka is one of three main sections of the Pāli Canon of Theravāda Buddhism.

The first three of these Buddhas — Taṇhaṅkara, Medhaṅkara, and Saraṇaṅkara — lived before the time of Dīpankara Buddha. The fourth Buddha, Dīpankara, is especially important, as he was the Buddha who gave niyatha vivarana (prediction of future Buddhahood) to the Brahmin youth who would in the distant future become the bodhisattva Gautama Buddha. [2] After Dīpankara, 23 more noble people ( ariya-puggala) would attain enlightenment before Gautama, the historical Buddha.

The 28 Buddhas described in the Buddhavamsa are not the only Buddhas believed to have existed. Indeed, Gautama Buddha taught that innumerable Buddhas have lived in past kalpas.

UKT 140501: Kalpa is a Sanskrit word, Hindi: कल्प «kalpa», meaning an aeon, or a relatively long period of time (by human calculation) in Hindu [religion] and Buddhist cosmology. The concept is first mentioned in the Mahabharata. The definition of a kalpa equalling 4.32 billion years is found in the Puranas (specifically Vishnu Purana [Vishnu-Déva was an Indo-European import into India as evidenced from the number of hymns directed to him in Rig Veda] and Bhagavata Purana).
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kalpa_aeon 140501

This word in Bur-Myan is {kūp} and is a measure of time-duration. See UTM-PDMD-020
A commonly confusing word in Bur-Myan is {kūm~Ba} which is a place. UTM-PDMD-023  Since, {kūm~Ba} undergoes cycles, similar to our modern view of the various Ice Ages when some life-forms are destroyed and other life-forms coming into dominance, the age of a {kūm~Ba} becomes a measure of time-duration. My understanding at present is that, we are in a specific {kūp} 'aeon', during which there would be many changes {kūm~Ba} cycles. The present {kūm~Ba} is {Būd~da. kūm~Ba}.

The total of Buddhas for the present {kūp} is 28 (or 29), out of which during the present {Būd~da. kūm~Ba} there would be 5.

Many Buddhists also pay homage to the future (and 29th) Buddha, Maitreya. According to Buddhist scripture, Maitreya will be a successor of Gautama who will appear on Earth [ {kūm~Ba}], achieve complete enlightenment, and teach the pure Dharma [UKT ¶]

UKT 140501: The word in Sanskrit «dharma» or Pali «dhamma» is usually described as "Law". However, the Hindu-religionists' notion of «dharma» and the Theravada-religionists' notion of «dhamma» is exactly the opposite of each other. This is due to the Hindus being believers in Atta 'Permance' and Theravada-Buddhists believing in Anatta. As a scientist I would say the Hindu's view is Axiomatic, but the Buddhist view as acceptable to Science because it is based on a  Natural Law "that every sentient being is not free from mental suffering".

The prophecy of the arrival of Maitreya is found in the canonical literature of all Buddhist sects (Theravāda, Mahāyāna, and Vajrayāna), [UKT: Why not include the Second Coming of Christ"?] and is accepted by most Buddhists as a statement about an event that will take place when the Dharma will have been forgotten on Jambudvipa (the terrestrial realm, where ordinary human beings live).

The following list of 28 Buddhas is from the table given in the same Wikipedia article. 7 columns: 1. serial number, 2.  Pāli name [3] [4], 3. Caste [4], 4. Birthplace [4], 5. Parents [4], 6. Bodhirukka (tree of enlightenment) [4] [5], 7. (column with no caption) . In my list below I have given only the name, caste, and parents. Because of the inclusion of "caste", and Brahmin-poanna at that, the list was just an invention in SriLanka. You will see only 2 castes which could give rise to Buddhas. How preposterous!

01. Taṇhaṅkara , Caste: not given, Parents: King Sunandha, and Queen Sunandhaa
02. Medhaṅkara, Caste: not given, Parents: Sudheva, and Yasodhara
03. Saraṇaṅkara, Caste: not given, Parents: Sumangala, and Yasawathi
04. Dīpankara, Caste: Brahmin [6], Parents: Sudheva, and Sumedhaya
05. Koṇḍańńa, Caste: Kshatriya [6], Parents: Sunanda, and Sujata
06. Maṅgala, Caste: Brahmin [6], Parents: Uttara, and Uttara
07. Sumana, Caste: Kshatriya [6], Parents: Sudassana and Sirima

 

8 Revata[8] Brahmin[6] Sudhannawatinagara Vipala and Vipula a naga A Veda-versed Brahman
9 Sobhita Kshatriya[6] Sudhammanagara Sudhammanagara (father) and Sudhammanagara (mother) a naga Sujata, a Brahman (in Rammavati)
10 Anomadassi Brahmin[6] Chandawatinagara Yasava and Yasodara ajjuna A Yaksha king
11 Paduma[9] Kshatriya[6] Champayanagara Asama, and Asama salala A lion
12 Nārada   Dhammawatinagara King Sudheva and Anopama sonaka a tapaso in Himalayas
13 Padumuttara[10] Kshatriya Hansawatinagara Anurula, and Sujata salala Jatilo an ascetic
14 Sumedha Kshatriya Sudasananagara Sumedha (father), and Sumedha (mother) nipa Native of Uttaro
15 Sujāta   Sumangalanagara Uggata, and Pabbavati welu a chakravarti
16 Piyadassi[11]   Sudannanagara Sudata, and Subaddha kakudha Kassapa, a Brahmin (at Siriwattanagara)
17 Atthadassi Kshatriya Sonanagara Sagara and Sudassana champa Susino, a Brahman
18 Dhammadassī Kshatriya Surananagara Suranamaha, and Sunanada bimbajala Indra, the leader of the gods (devas)
19 Siddharttha   Vibharanagara Udeni, and Suphasa kanihani Mangal, a Brahman
20 Tissa   Khemanagara Janasando, and Paduma assana King Sujata of Yasawatinagara
21 Phussa[12] Kshatriya Kasi Jayasena, and Siremaya amalaka Vijitavi
22 Vipassī Kshatriya Bandhuvatinagara Vipassi (father), and Vipassi (mother) patali King Atula
23 Sikhī Kshatriya Arunavattinagara Arunavatti, and Paphavatti pundariko Arindamo (at Paribhuttanagara)
24 Vessabhū Kshatriya Anupamanagara Suppalittha, and Yashavati sala Sadassana (in Sarabhavatinagara)
25 Kakusandha Brahmin Khemavatinagara Agidatta the purohitta Brahman of King Khema, and Visakha airisa King Khema[13]
26 Koṇāgamana Brahmin[14] Sobhavatinagara Yannadatta the Brahman, and Uttara udumbara King Pabbata of a mountainous area in Mithila
27 Kassapa[15] Brahmin Baranasinagara Brahmadatta a Brahman, and Dhanavati nigroda Jotipala (at Vappulla)
28 Gautama Kshatriya Siddartha King Suddhodana, and Maya peepal a.k.a. fig (Ficus religiosa)  

 

 

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