Update: 2014-04-30 10:12 PM +0630

TIL

Dictionary of Noble Words of Lord Buddha

ka2.htm

by U Myat Kyaw & U San Lwin, MLC (Myanmar Language Commission), 2002

Set in HTML, and edited, with additions from other sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA), Daw Thuzar Myint, and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , http://www.softguide.net.mm , www.romabama.blogspot.com

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{ka}
{ka-ma.}
{ka-mu.}
{ka-mé}
{ka-maw:}
{ka-mic~}

UKT 140430: Most of the entries involves the term {ka-ma.} 'sexual desire'. See my note on Sexual Motivation - the modern view. Are we the prisoners of our body functions?

UKT notes :
Sexual Motivation

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{ka}

{ka-ma.}

UKT 140422: In many entries {ka-ma.} is used as a prefix, and the pronunciation should be continuous with the following word. Yet, you need a slight pause after {ka-ma.} otherwise there is a change in pronunciation leading to mistranslation and misunderstanding. Pal-Myan words are pronounced as precisely as possible and therefore "sing-song" type of pronunciation, as is usually done by women, should be discouraged.

{ka-ma.}
«kāma»


«kāma»
- n. 1. pleasure. 2. desire; want. 3. the five senses. 4. the four miserable states, world of human beings and the six celestial abodes making up the 11 planes given to sensual pleasure.
- MK-PED005-4

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{ka-ma.gu.Na.}
«kāmaguṇa»


«kāmaguṇa»
- n. the five sensual pleasures.
- MK-PED005-5

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{ka-ma.sait~ta.}
«kāmacitta»


«kāmacitta»
- n. sensuality. (54 categories of consciousness are discerned in the realms of sensual pleasure; 12 types leading to unwholesome deeds, 18 types which cause harm and 24 types which are agreeable)
- MK-PED006-1

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{ka-ma.za.wa.na.}
«kāmajavana»


«kāmajavana»
- n. 29 out of the 54 catagories of sensual consciousness which arise with impulsive passion.
These consist of :
• 12 types leading to unwholesome deeds:
• 1 type of pleasurable consciousness,
• 8 types leading to wholesome deeds, and
• 8 types related to the functional aspects 
- MK-PED006-2

UKT140422: Because many of these definitions are committed to memory, we use terms such as: {ka-ma.zau: tic-hku.yoat þoän:hsèý} 'one less thirty types of sexual-consciousness', where the numeral 29 is memorized as "30 minus 1".

 

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{ka-ma.ta.Nha}
«kāmataṇhā»


«kāmataṇhā»
- n. craving for sensual pleasures; lust. - MK-PED006-3

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{ka-ma.Da-tu.}
«kāmadhātu»


«kāmadhātu»
- n. planes of existence where craving for sensual pleasures is intrinsic. Same as kāmabhūmi.
- MK-PED006-4

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{ka-ma.Bu-mi.}
«kāmabhūmi»


«kāmabhūmi»  
- n. the 11 realms given to sensual pleasures. Also kāmāvacara bhūmi; kāmadhātu
- MK-PED006-5

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{ka-ma.yau:ga.}
«kāmayoga»


«kāmayoga»
- n. craving and greed that binds a being to suffering in the round of rebirths. See also yoga.
- MK-PED007-1

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{ka-ma.ra-ga.}
«kāmarāga»


«kāmarāga» 
- n. craving for the five sensual pleasures; lust.
- MK-PED007-2

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{ka-ma.ra-ga. þän-yau:za.na.}
«kāmarāgasaṁyojana»


«kāmarāgasaṁyojana»
- n. craving and greed inherent in a sentient being which fetters one to the sensual pleasures of animate existence and circumvents emancipation. See also saṁyojana.
- MK-PED007-3

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{ka-ma.ra-ga-nu.þa.ya.}
«kāmarāganusaya»


«kāmarāganusaya»
- n. latent forces of craving and greed ever present in the consciousness of an animate being. See also anusaya.
- MK-PED007-4

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{ka-ma. wi.tak~ka.}
«kāmavitakka»


«kāmavitakka»  
- n. proclivity of the mind to dwell on the five sensual pleasures. See also vyāpādavitakka, vihiṁsa vitakka.
- MK-PED007-5

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{ka-ma.þu.ga.ti. pa.Ti.þûn~Di.}
«kāmasugatipaṭisandhi»


«kāmasugatipaṭisandhi»
- n. rebirth consciousness leading to blissful states of sensual existence.
- MK-PED007-6

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{ka-ma.þu.ga.ti.Bu-mi.}
«kāmasugatibhūmi»


«kāmasugatibhūmi»
- n. the seven blissful states of sensual existence; namely, the realm of human beings and the six realms of celestial gods beings.
- MK-PED007-7

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{ka-ma-wa.sa.ra.}
«kāmāvacara»

UKT 140424: When we were young we were encouraged to use {mauk-hkya.} for single-circles such as {ma.} which is more striking than {weik-hkya.}. However, my friend U Tun Tint of MLC told me that what were taught is wrong: there is simply no rule. Decide for yourself whether what we were taught is logical or not. I am still stuck with what we had been taught as youngsters. See MLC MED2006-478


«kāmāvacara»
- n. Same as kāmabhūmi
- 007-8

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{ka-ma-wa.sa.ra. ku.þa.la.}
«kāmāvacarakusala»


«kāmāvacarakusala»
- n. moral consciousness leading to morally wholesome deeds
- 008-1

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{ka-ma-wa.sa.ra. kûm~ma.}
«kāmāvacarakamma»


«kāmāvacarakamma»
- n. 20 categories of karma inducing consciousness consisting of 12 types of immoral consciousness and 8 types of moral consciousness.
- MK-PED008-2

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{ka-ma-þa.wa.}
«kāmāsava»


«kāmāsava»
- n. craving and greediness for sensual pleasures
- MK-PED008-3

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{ka-mu.}

{ka-mu.pa-da-na.} «kāmupādāna»


«kāmupādāna»
- n. obsession for the sensual pleasures engendered by craving and greed. See also upādāna.
- MK-PED008-4

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{ka-mé}

{ka-mé-þu.maic~hsa-sa-ra.} «kāmesumicchācāra»


«kāmesumicchācāra»
- n. sexual misconduct; (of a man ) having sexual intercourse with a married woman or a girl who is still a ward of her parents, brother, sister etc; ( of a married woman ) having sexual intercourse with a man who is not her husband.
- MK-PED008-5

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{ka-maw:}

{ka-mau:Ga.}
«kāmogha»

UKT 140424: Because this word is derived from the vowel {AW} (mid-vowel), and not {au} (cardinal vowel at the most open and most back position in Vowel Quadrilateral), we should differentiate in Romabama spelling even when there is a mix up in Pal-Myan: {ka-maw:Ga.}


«kāmogha»
- n. maelstrom of lust and greed which can drag down a person and consign him to the four woeful states.
- MK-PED009-1

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{ka-mic~}

{ka-mic~hsûn~da.ni.wa.ra.Na.}
«kāmicchandanīvarana»


«kāmicchandanīvarana»
- n. craving and greed which circumvent and hinder the commission of morally wholesome deeds and attainment of the right path to nirvana. See also nivarana.
- MK-PED009-2

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UKT notes 

Sexual Motivation 

-- UKT 140430

As we advance in years from that of a baby, a teenager, a sexually active adult, through to an aged physically handicapped person, many of our mental activities change. Of course, we do not know anything of the sexual behavior of dévas and dévis (if there are any), but we know something of our selves - the humans. We can also observe in our pets - cats and dogs. We can go down further to that of the insects, and still further down to simple single-cell animals. But to be realistic lets stop only for the humans and our pet animals. Do we have control over the hormonal changes or hormone production in our bodies? And what about other changes. Simply put my question is: Are we prisoners of our own bodies?

Excerpts from: Human Sexual Motivation, by Kelly M. Johnson, California State University, Northridge, Spring 1997, http://www.csun.edu/~vcpsy00h/students/sexmotiv.htm 140430

Human sexual motivation is an unusual motivation. In lower animals we speak about sexual motivation as a "drive." That is, we state that some internal, innate force pushes the animal to engage in reproductive behavior. Humans don't simply give in to an internal push towards sexual behavior. Instead, human motivation to engage in sexual behavior is due to a complex relationship among several factors.

Most theorists refer to motivation as an inferred need, desire or impulse which initiates, directs and sustains behavior (e.g., Coon, 1997; Wood & Wood, 1996). One group of psychologists calls motivation a factor which explains the relations between stimuli and behavior (Bernstein, Clarke-Stewart, Roy, & Wickens, 1997). By combining these two definitions and applying them to human sexual behavior we could say that sexual motivation is an inferred, internal state influenced by several factors which determines engagement in sexual activity.

Pleasure - As mentioned earlier, pursuit of erotic pleasure is a primary reason to engage in sexual behavior (Abramson et al., 1995; Hatfield et al., 1993). Kinsey and colleagues (1948; 1953) found that children between the ages of 2 and 5 years of age spontaneously touch their genitals. At this age, one could not argue that this sexual behavior is learned or designed to contribute to reproduction. Abramson and Pinkerton (1995) point out that the pleasure of sexual behavior is physiologically and psychologically-based and that the sex organs do not exist merely to guarantee reproductive behavior. As an example, they cite the female orgasm, uncommon during vaginal penetration, but very common by more direct means of clitoral stimulation. In other words, sexual pleasure does not occur merely to ensure procreation. We engage in sexual behavior because it is enjoyable. However, as will be reviewed later, what is considered pleasurable, may well be influenced by one's interpretation of the stimuli. ... ... ...

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sexual_motivation_and_hormones 140430

Sexual motivation is influenced by hormones such as testosterone, estrogen, progesterone, oxytocin, and vasopressin. [UKT: these hormones are produced within our bodies over which we have no control.] In most mammalian species, sex hormones control the ability to engage in sexual behaviours. However, sex hormones do not directly regulate the ability to copulate in primates (including humans). Rather, sex hormones in primates are only one influence on the motivation to engage in sexual behaviours.

UKT: One source to answer my question probably is in a book:
Drive: Neurobiological and Molecular Mechanisms of Sexual Motivation, by Donald W. Pfaff, 1999, -- http://books.google.ca/books 140430

Excerpts from: Buddhism and Sex, by M. O'C. Walshe http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/authors/walshe/wheel225.html 140430

This is an age in which sexual matters are discussed with great openness. There are many who are puzzled to know what the Buddhist attitude towards sex is, and it is therefore to be hoped that the following guidelines may be found helpful towards an understanding. It is, of course, true to say that Buddhism, in keeping with the principle of the Middle Way, would advocate neither extreme puritanism nor extreme permissiveness, but this, as a guiding principle without further specification, may not seem sufficiently helpful for most people.

In the first place, we must distinguish between the rules undertaken by Buddhist monks for their own conduct, and any guiding principles for lay people.

Before turning to our main theme, it is as well to have some idea of the sexual mores of ancient India in the Buddha's time. Gotama himself, as a prince, was brought up surrounded by concubines and dancing-girls as a matter of course. Polygamy was common. Ambapali, the courtesan from whom the Buddha accepted gifts, was a person of some consequence. It was not expected that young men would lead a life of much restraint, and the Buddha with his profound understanding of human nature knew well what demands to make of people in this respect. Thus we find the following formulation of what a man should avoid:

He avoids unlawful sexual intercourse, abstains from it. He has no intercourse with girls who are still under the protection of father or mother, brother, sister, or relative; nor with married women, nor female convicts; nor lastly with betrothed girls.

If a man could observe greater restraint than this, so much the better. The Buddha's outlook on this question was, then, realistic for his age, and we should endeavor to view the subject as realistically as possible in the light of modern conditions.

The third of the Five Precepts undertaken by lay Buddhists runs: Kamesu micchacara veramani sikkhapadam samadiyami, "I undertake the course of training in refraining from wrong-doing in respect of sensuality." Some lay people who, usually for a specified period, undertake more than the usual five precepts, take this one in the stricter form: Abrahmacariya veramani..., which commits them, for the duration of the undertaking, to observe the same restraint as the monks. With these, too, we are not further concerned, as their position is now obvious.

For the average lay person, the Third Precept is on exactly the same footing as the other four. There is, in the Buddhist view, nothing uniquely wicked about sexual offenses or failings. Those inclined to develop a guilt-complex about their sex-life should realize that failure in this respect is neither more, nor, on the other hand, less serious than failure to live up to any other precept. In point of fact, the most difficult precept of all for nearly everybody to live up to is the fourth — to refrain from all forms of wrong speech (which often includes uncharitable comments on other people's real or alleged sexual failings!).

What precisely, then, does the Third Precept imply for the ordinary lay Buddhist? Firstly, in common with all the other precepts, it is a rule of training. It is not a "commandment" from God, the Buddha, or anyone else saying: "Thou shalt not..." There are no such commandments in Buddhism. It is an undertaking by you to yourself, to do your best to observe a certain type of restraint, because you understand that it is a good thing to do. This must be clearly understood. If you don't think it is a good thing to do, you should not undertake it. If you do think it is a good thing to do, but doubt your ability to keep it, you should do your best, and probably, you can get some help and instruction to make it easier. If you feel it is a good thing to attempt to tread the Buddhist path, you may undertake this and the other precepts, with sincerity, in this spirit.

Secondly, what is the scope and purpose of this precept? The word kama means in Pali "sensual desire," which is not exclusively sexual. It is here used in a plural form which comes close to what is meant by the Biblical expression "the lusts of the flesh." Greed for food and other sensual pleasure is also included. Most people who are strongly addicted to sexual indulgence are also much drawn to other sense-pleasures. Though we are here only concerned with the sexual aspect, this point should be noted. For those with any grasp at all of Buddhist principles, the basic reason for such an injunction should be immediately obvious. Our dukkha — our feeling, of frustration and dissatisfaction with life — is rooted in our desires and cravings. The more these can be brought under control, the less dukkha we shall experience. It is as simple as that. But of course, that which is simple is not necessarily easy.

Thus while there is, so to speak, a considerable overlap in the content of the Third Precept with the Jewish and Christian commandment, "Thou shalt not commit adultery," there is a big difference in the spirit and approach. Since most people in the West have some Christian conditioning — even if only indirectly — it is as well to be clear about this. The traditional Christian view is that sexual intercourse is permissible solely within the marriage-bond. Even then the implication is that, except as a necessary means for the procreation of children, it is really rather a bad thing, and should be restricted as far as possible — hence the debate about "the pill" and the like. Certain things such as contraception, homosexual activity, and so on are often looked on with horror and declared "unnatural" (which cannot be entirely correct since, after all, they happen!). Some of these prohibitions may today be more honored in the breach than the observance, but there is no doubt that rigid views of this sort are still widely held and officially propagated. The inevitable reaction, encouraged by some real or alleged psychological experts, is towards an attitude of total permissiveness, in which "anything goes." As was said earlier, rigid puritanism and total permissiveness are extreme views, to neither of which the Buddhist teaching subscribes. The one is merely an inadequate reaction against the other. What we have to do — what Buddhism in fact teaches us to do — is to map out a sane course between the two.

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