Update: 2014-05-22 02:29 AM +0630

TIL

Dictionary of Noble Words of Lord Buddha

ga1.htm

by U Myat Kyaw & U San Lwin, MLC (Myanmar Language Commission), 2002

Set in HTML, and edited, with additions from other sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA), Daw Thuzar Myint, and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL  Computing and Language Center, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , http://www.softguide.net.mm , www.romabama.blogspot.com

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{ga.}
{ga}
{gi.}
{gi}
{gau:}
{gļn~} : in the place of {a.žūt}, you will see only conjuncts in Pal-Myan
{gaiz~}
{gaut~}
{gūn~}

 

UKT notes :
• {ga.ru.kūm~ma.} « garukamma»
• Gandharva - the celestial musicians and dancers
• Weather forecasting - {gaw:pa-la.ka. ni.mait~ta.}

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{ga.}

{ga.ti.}
«gati»


«gati»
- n. destination after death of a being; next existence in afterlife which may either be-
1. devagati - realm of the celestial gods and supreme beings,
2. manussagati - realm of humanity,
3. nirayagati - purgatory,
4. petagati - realm of the unhappy and hungry dispossessed beings
5. tiricchānagati - the animal world. 032-2

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{ga.ti. ni.mait~ta.}
«gatinimitta»


«gatinimitta»
- n. premonition of destined afterlife; rebirth omen; sign of destiny which may be in the form of -
1. upalabhitabba gatinimitta
  - direct indication of predestined afterlife; or
2. upabhoga gatinimitta
  - indication by alluding to he amenities (or horrors) associated with the predestined afterlife. 033-1

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{ga.mi.ka. wut~ta.}
«gamikavatta»


«gamikavatta» 
- n. duties required of a monk before embarking on a journey. 033-2

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{ga.ru.kūm~ma.}
«garukamma»


«garukamma»
- n. very grave karma that cannot be obviated by any other karma; (ānantariya kamma, the commission of any of the five heinous deeds which will destine one to hell and
niyatamicchādiṭṭhi, the ingrained entertaining of wrong concepts constitute immoral garukamma,
while mahaggata kamma or supremely developed karma leading one to the fine material and the formless spheres of existences make up moral garukamma) 033-3

UKT 140507: To get more on this entry see my note on garukamma

 

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{ga.ru. Dūm~ma.}
«garudhmma»


«garudhmma»
- n.
1. the five precepts consisting of:-
   1. pānātipātāvirāmani - abstaining from killing;
   2. adinnadānāvirāmaṇi - abstaining from taking that which has not been given;
   3. kāmesumicchācārvirāmaṇi - abstaining from sexual misconduct;
   4. musāvādāvirāmaṇi - abstaining from falsehood;
   5. surāmeraya majjapamā daṭṭhānāvirmaṇi - abstaining from imbibing alcoholic drinks
2. the eight precepts prescribed for ordained nuns bhikkhuni are :-
   1. even a nun bhikkhuni who had spent a hundred years in the Order must give respect
   to a freshly ordained monk;
   2. a nun bhikkhuni must observe the rains retreat only in a monastery complex which has
   its own complement of monks;
   3. a nun bhikkhuni has to request admonition from monks on the full moon day and
   the new moon day of each month;
   4. perform the end of rains retreat ceremony before an audience of monks and nuns bhikkhuni
   5. be ordained by a complement of monks and nuns bhikkhuni only after observing
   required precepts for a probationary period of two years;
   6. a nun bhikkhuni who has committed an infraction of these solemn precepts must strive
   towards regaining acceptance and confidence of both orders;
  7. a nun bhikkhuni refrains from making insinuating remarks aimed at monks;
  8. a nun bhikkhuni obeys every admonition made by monks. 034-1

UKT 140509: There is a world of unconcileable difference between the two words "nun" and "bhikkuni". First and foremost is the word "nun" is pure English with Christian connotation with its root in the Atta doctrine. The word "bhikkuni" is Pali with Theravada Buddhist connotation with its root in the Anatta doctrine. Secondly, the  word "bhikkuni" means a "female monk", whereas the "nun" is the "bride of Christ".

What we have in present-day Myanmarpré are not bhikkunis. Neither are they "brides" of anybody. They are lay-women who have taken upon themselves of their own free will to keep the Nine precepts or even Ten precepts and are not bounded the the rules of the Bhikku & Bhikkuni. They are termed "Sila-keepers" or "Silashin". What some of the women, particularly those from the West are striving is to equate our Silashin with Bhikkuni. See: http://www.enabling.org/ia/vipassana/Archive/L/Lottermoser/burmeseNunsLottermoser.html 140509

 

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{ga.ru.BūN~ša.}
«garubhaṇṭa»


«garubhaṇṭa»
- n. [V] things which belong to the monastic order as a whole and cannot be apportioned to individual monks for personal use. 035-1

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{ga.ru.ru-pa.}
«garurūpa»


«garurūpa»
- n. heaviness of material qualities; the elements of extension and cohesion. 035-2

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{ga.ha.pa.ti. ku.Ti.}
«gahapatikuṭi»


«gahapatikuṭi»
- n. [V] former lay dwelling donated to monks and converted to monastic use by the former owner's intonation of appropriate words. 035-3

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{ga.ha.pa.ti. ma.ha-ža-la.}
«gahapatimahāsla»


«gahapatimahāsla»
- n. one designated as a man of wealth; plutocrat with the qualification of having liquid assets of 400 million and being able to spend 5 amnaṇa (30 bushels) of silver while earning a kumbha (60 bushels) of silver daily. 035-4

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{ga}

{ga-ma. hkķt~ta.}
«gāmakhitta»


«gāmakhitta»
- n. area falling within a village headman's jurisdiction. 035-5

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{ga-ma.ži-ma.}
«gāmasīma»


«gāmasīma»
- n. boundary demarcating the extent of a village headman's jurisdiction. 036-1

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{ga-ra.wa.}
«gārava»


«gārava»
- n. respect; veneration. 036-2

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{ga-wu.ta.}
«gāvuta»


«gāvuta»
- n. unit of measure of distance equal to one-fourth of a yojanā. 036-3

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{ga-ha.}
«gāha»


«gāha»
- n. wrong concept. "Book learning without brains results in being bitten by wrong concepts" 036-4

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{gi.}

{gi.mha-na. U.tu.}
«gimhāna utu»


«gimhāna utu»
- n. summer. See also hemanta utu, vassāna utu. 036-5

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{gi.la-na.}
«gilāna»


«gilāna»
- n. the ill; the sick; the infirm. 036-6

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{gi}

{gi-ta.}
«gīta»


«gīta»
- n. 1.singing. 2. song. 036-7

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{gaw-sa.ra.}
«gocara»


«gocara» 
- n. circuit; circuit made by monks on their rounds of accepting food offertories. 036-8

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{gaw-sa.ra.ga-ma.}
«gocaragāma»


«gocaragāma»
- n. village where monks make their circuit for accepting food offertories. 036-9

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{gau:}

{gau.ta.ma.}
«Gotama»


«Gotama»
- n.
¹. the historical Buddha revered by Buddhists.
². a descendant of the clan of Gotama. 036-10

UKT 14051: The present Eng-Lat spelling is "Gautama". The change in spelling meant that the vowel is the most open represented by /ɑ/ and not /ɔ/ 'Open O' as was formerly thought.

 

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{gau:ta.ma. boad~Da.}
«Gotama Buddha»


«Gotama Buddha»
- n. the historical Buddha who attained enlightenment while seated under the Bo (pipal) tree after practising austerities for six years and lived up to the age of eighty. 036-11

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{gaw.ni.ža-di.ka ku.Ti.}
«gonisādikāku


«gonisādikāku
- n. [V] monastery without enclosure, See also kappiya kui. 037-1

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{gaw-pa.ka.}
«gopaka»


«gopaka»
- n. one who looks after; one who cares for. 037-2

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{gaw:pa-la.ka. ni.mait~ta.}
«gopālakanimitta»


«gopālakanimitta»
- n. tell-tale signs observed by a cowherd (For example a cowherd might see land crabs closing their burrow openings near the waterline and making new burrow openings high and dry which he will read as a sign of plentiful rains in the future) 037-3

UKT: See my note on weather forecasting

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{gaw:pa-la.ka. U.paw:ža.hta.}
«gopālakauposatha»


«gopālakauposatha»
- n. observing the eight precepts in the manner of a cowherd. 037-4

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{gļn~}

{gļn~gé-yya.}
«gageyya»


«gageyya»
- n. name of a class of leaf-coloured elephants that had inhabited the Gangetic region. 037-5

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{gaiz~}

{gaiz~Za.ku-Ta.}
«gijjhakūṭ


«gijjhakūṭ
- n. mountain with a peak shaped like a vulture; name of one of the five mountain peaks ringing Rājagaha city. 037-6

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{gaut~}

{gaut~ra.bu. sait~ta.}
«gotrabhūcitta»


«gotrabhūcitta»
- n. last thought-moment as a worldling on severing the lineage of the sensual world and entering the communion of saints (ariyāpuggala); '' maturity-moment" 037-7

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{gaut~ra.Bu. poag~ga.la.}
«gotrabhupuggala»


«gotrabhupuggala»
- n. person who has gained the knowledge of severing worldly ties; "matured one". 038-1

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{gūn~}

{gūn~hta.}
«gantha»


«gantha»

- n. ties which bind one to relentless rounds of rebirth and suffering; these consist of the following four attitudes:-
1. abhijjhākāyagantha
  - the fetter of covetuousness;
2. byāpādakāyagantha
  - the fetter of malfeasance;
3. sīlabbataparāmāsakāyagantha
  - binding oneself by obsession with mere rites and rituals;
4. idasaccābhinivesakāyagantha
  - clinging stubbornly to one's own opinions. 038-2

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{gūn~hta. Du.ra.}
«ganthadhura»


«ganthadhura»
- n. duty of a monk to learn the Tipitaka scriptures (It constitutes one of his two main duties.) See also vipassanādhura. 038-3

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{gūn~Da. Da-tu.}
«ghandhadhātu»


«gandhadhātu»
- n. [A] particles which give off aroma and reveal their presence. See also dhātu. 038-4

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{gūn~Da ya.ta.na.}
«gandāyatana»


«gandyatana» 
- n. [A] basis for olfactory sensation; that is to say aromatic particles which stimulate the olfactory organ, the medium of air through which these are transmitted and mental concomitants in the cognitive process which render this sensation to be consciousness. 038-5

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{gūn~Da rūm~ma.Na.}
«gandhāramana»


«gandhāramana»
- n. aroma; sensation of smell. 038-6

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{gūn~Dūb~ba.}
«gandhabbha»


«gandhabbha»
- n. class of minstrel gods [celestials - not Déva or Dévi] inhabiting the topmost reaches of the mountain Meru, at the centre of the Buddhist cosmos. 038-7

UKT 140513: See my note on Gandharva

 

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UKT notes

{ga.ru.kūm~ma.}
«garukamma»

-- UKT 140507 The idea of Action (kamma) in this life-time acting in future lives, is intricately related to life-after-death idea which is not scientifically verifiable at the present. As such I cannot place this idea on an equal footing with the Four Principles (beginning with Dukkha-principle), Anatta-principle, and the Twenty-four foundations of human thoughts and actions.

From Kamma in Theravada Buddhism, by Dr. Phramaha Thotsaporn Iddhivaro, Visiting Lecturer, Faculty of Buddhism University, MCU, Thailand.
-- http://www.undv.org/vesak2012/research/004_thotsaporn.pdf
Downloaded pdf is in TIL library.

The third four kamma is Garu-Kamma: weighty kamma. Bahula-kamma or
Acinna-kamma: habitual kamma. Asanna-kamma: death threshold kamma; proximate kamma. Katatta-kamma or Katattavapana-kamma: reverse kamma; casual act (fn. 3).

1. Garu-kamma: weighty kamma.
  This kamma is Niyatamicchadhitthi: permanent wrong view, Anantariya-kamma: weighty kamma, and Mahaggata-kusalakamma: great gone to. Niyatamicchadhitti originates in Lobhamula-citta. Anantariya-Kamma originates in Dosamula-citta. Mahaggata-kamma originates in Rupavacarakusalacitta: form-sphere moral consciousness and Arupavacara-kusalacittacitta: formless-sphere moral consciousness.

2. Bahula-kamma or acinna-kamma: habitual kamma.
  This kamma means something which doing repeatedly. This kamma makes human to recall again. For human who do good thing they are happy. For human who do bad thing they are unhappy.
  This kamma originates in Akusala-citta, and Mahakusala-citta.

3. Asanna-kamma: death-threshold-kamma.
  This kamma means something which human think or do when they are going to die. If they are thinking good thing, they are going to Sugati: happy state. If they are thinking bad thing, they are going to Dugati: state of unhappiness.
  This kamma originates in Akusala-citta, and Mahakusala-citta.

4. Katatta-kamma or katattavapana-kamma: reverse kamma; casual act.
  This kamma means something which human act with no proper volition. No need to mention about that.

All twelve kamma I mentioned above is conventional explanation. Most of them appear in Suttantapitaka. They are called kamma in Suttantanaya or conventional truth.

UKT: The author gives his sources as:
Primary source:
1. Anguttara -Nikaya Tika-Nipata. 20/445/131,551/338.
2. Khuddhaka-Nikaya Iti-Vuttaka. 25/208,248,242/272.
3. Digha-nikaya-Patika-Vagga. 11/379/290.
4. Anguttara-Nikaya-Duka-Nipata. 20/275/77.

Secondary source:
Phrasaddhammajotika Dhammacariy. Paramatthajotika, Volumes 5, 9. Bangkok.
Saddhammajotika Foundation, 2550/2007.
Phra Brahmagunabhorn (P.A. Payutto). Dictionary of Buddhism, Bangkok.
Dictionary of Buddhism Foundation, 2551/2008.

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Gandharva - Pali: Gandhabba

-- UKT 140513

Male Gandhabba are employed by Indra - the king of the Déva - as musicians, and the females as celestial dancers known in Skt-Dev as Apsara. Gandhabba are supposed to be of lower rank than the Déva.
-- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apsara 140513

A notable feature of the Gandhabba is free sex.
"Gandharva marriage The voluntary union of a maiden and her lover which springs from sexual desire is called Gandharva marriage."
-- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marriage_in_Hinduism 140513
"... based on mutual attraction between a man and a woman, with no rituals, witnesses or family participation"
-- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gandharva_marriage 140513

In a way the customary Bur-Myan marriage known as {pu.hso: tūn:ting ling-ma.ya:} "male dress on a clothe line in a female residence" is Gandhava marriage. However, once united the couple stays faithful - no more free sex - for the rest of their lives unless annulled by public notice the minimum of which is "the knowledge of the seven households of the front neighbours and seven of the back.

This customary marriage is now done in front of a judicial and two witnesses. It may be followed by a public reception. What is noteworthy is the absence of any Buddhistic rituals in the whole process. However, as entering a new house, five Buddhist monks would be "fed" the following day.

At the present, those who consider themselves to be high society would employ a Brahmin or a highly literate Burmese as a master of ceremony at the public reception. This is just to imitate the royals of Mandalay of bygone days who would like to give the marriage a Hindu flavour and get blessings from Hindu gods and goddesses.

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Weather Forecasting

-- UKT 140512 • Weather forecasting

A cowherd is not necessarily an peasant, e.g. a rice-growing farmer. In Hanthawaddy district in the Irrawaddy River Delta of Myanmarpré, where I was born, it is the rice-growing farmer who is more interested in forecasting the seasonal weather. Wet-rice cultivation needs monsoon rains, but too much rain would drown his crops, and too little would sun-burn them.

There are several signs dependent on birds and animals that tells him about the weather for the upcoming rice-growing season. One was by looking at tree-sparrows {sa-bu:taung:} and crows building their nests. When they build their nests high in the trees it shows fair weather. When they build their nests on lower branches, it means heavy rains and strong winds.

In the pix you can see a male {sa-bu:taung:} building his nest. Their favorite tree is the toddy palm. Once the nest is completed, entrance tunnel and all, the male bird would invite his intended female to show her how good her home would be. If she did not like it, he would cast it off by cutting off the straws with which he had anchored his nest. And he would then build another one, but by then the fair damsel would have mated with another male who could build a better nest to her taste. See Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baya_Weaver 140512

Another is by looking at land-crabs. When they burrow near to the water-edge of the delta-creeks which are tidal, it shows fair weather. When they burrow farther inland or higher up, it means heavy rains and floods.

I had read somewhere, that it was the Chinese leader, Mao Zedong, who told his Western-oriented intellectuals that the farmers know about the coming of storms by looking at aquatic worms. If they stay near the surface of the pond, it means fair weather, but once they stay at the bottom it means a storm is imminent. See
Weather - Nature's Forecasters - Animals and Birds ,
http://treechange.hubpages.com/hub/WEATHER-Natures-Forecasters-Animals-and-Birds 140512

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End of TIL file.