Update: 2016-08-19 04:21 AM -0400


Mon-Myan Language: Grammar & vocabulary 


-- by U Kyaw Tun (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA), Daw Khin Wutyi,  and staff of TIL (Tun Institute of Learning, Yangon, MYANMAR. Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

Based on:
1.  Grammatical notes and Vocabulary of the Peguan Language, to which are added a few pages of phrases, etc., by Haswell, J.M., ABM Press (American Baptist Mission Press), Rangoon, 1874
- Haswell-PeguanGramm-notes-vocab<> / bkp<> (link chk 160816)

UKT151020: When referring to "Dr. Haswell" take care of the initials in the name. There are several persons with the name of "Dr. Haswell". See: The Baptist Missionary Magazine, vol.LV, July 1875, no.7
  - http://imageserver.library.yale.edu/digcoll:437713/500.pdf 151020
See download in TIL SD-Library
- Haswell-AmBaptist1875<> / bkp<> (link chk 160816)
On p222, read about the mission to Burma, and the name J. R. Haswell. And on p229 read about the mission in Taungoo.
  Personal note: With this note I pay my tribute to my Baptist friends from Moulmein (see p232) : my close friend Karel Kyaw Ohn of Moulmein, Daw San Yi (Mrs. U Kyaw Nyein) Principal, St. Augustine Hi-Sch, and Daw Aye (Mrs. Dr Hla Thwin) Director, Social Welfare Dept., and other Baptist friends who are now dead and gone, but never will be forgotten.

2. A vocabulary of English and Peguan, to which are added a few pages of geographical names , by Stevens, E.O., ABM Press, Rangoon, 1896
- Stevens-a-vocab-Peguan<> / bkp<> (link chk 160816)

3. Notes on the transliteration of Burmese alphabet into Roman characters, and vocal and consonantal sounds of the Peguan or Talaing language, by R. C. Temple, Rangoon 1876,
- RCTemple-translit-Bur<> / bkp<> (link chk 160816). 

4. Fundamentals of Mon Speech & Script (in Bur-Myan), by Naing Maung Toe, www.monlibrary.com, Yangon, 2007
- NMgToe-Mon-Bur<> / bkp<> (link chk 160816)

4. and others - Sources for this compilation below
  UKT 151016: Haswell does not include {a.} and its killed form under a virama among the consonants listing only 34 consonants. This has prompted me to look into Monic languages
- Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monic_languages 151016
 and Austroasiatic languages
- Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Austroasiatic_languages 151016

index.htm | Top

Contents of this page

Bur-Myan and Mon-Myan are different languages.
Though the same akshara is used, the pronunciations are radically different.

Introduction by Haswell -- has-intro.htm (link chk 160501)
  See also in TIL SD-Library on Burma p162/pdf177
An elementary geography of India, Burma, and Ceylon, by Henry F. Blandford, 1890
- Blanford-Geo-Indi-Burm-Ceyl-1890<> / bkp<> (link chk 160816)

Preface by Stevens -- ste-pref.htm (link chk 160501)
  See also in TIL SD-Library Fundamentals of Mon Speech-Script (in Bur-Myan) by Naing Maung Toe, Rangoon, 2007
  - NMgToe-Mon-Bur<> / bkp<> (link chk 160816)

Grammatical notes & Vocabulary
  (Entries from Haswell in group folders HAS & HAS-VOCAB. It has been proposed that a
  pronunciation guide in Bur-Myan from NMT should be added. See an example in con-ga1.htm ,
  with width 300 pix. )
- Vowels p001/pdf026 -- has-vow.htm (link chk 160501)
- Consonants -- has-conso.htm (link chk 160501)

Parts of Speech 
  (from Haswell in group folder HAS)
  Nouns -- Has-pt-spch.htm (link chk 151015)
  Adjectives -- Has-adj.htm
  Verbs -- Has-verb.htm
  Adverbs -- Has-adv.htm
  Prepositions -- Has-prepo.htm
  Conjunctions, interjections, etc. -- Has-conj.htm

Vocabulary - Has-vocab-indx.htm
- in order of vowel-akshara : Haswell
- in order of consonant-akshara : Haswell
- English to Peguan-Mon in alphabetical order : Stevens

Vocabulary in akshara order (group folder HAS-VOCAB)
 vowels - {a.} vow-a1.htm  {I.} vow-II1.htm  {U.} vow-UU1.htm {.} vow-EE2.htm : contains some {AW} entries
 velar - con-ka1.htm  con-hka1.htm  con-ga1.htm  con-nga1.htm
 palatal-affricate - con-sa1.htm  con-hsa.htm  con-za1.htm  con-NNYYa1.htm
  {kya.}, {hkya.}, {gy}, {}/ {} - Listen: - bk-cndl-Mon-row2<))
 retroflex - con-TTa1.htm  con-NNa1.htm 
 dental - con-ta1.htm  con-hta1.htm  con-da1.htm  con-DDa1.htm  con-na1.htm
 labial - con-pa1.htm  con-hpa1.htm  con-ba1.htm  con-BBa1.htm  con-ma1.htm
 fricative-approximant row-6 - con-ya1.htm  con-ra1.htm  con-la1.htm  con-wa1.htm  con-tha1.htm
 fricative-approximant row-7 - con-ha.htm  {a.} con-b7a1.htm  {e} con-b7e1.htm
 Names of months & numerals - name-dd-mm-no.htm

Vocabulary: English to Mon (group folder STE)
 Ste-A.htm Ste-B.htm Ste-C.htm Ste-D.htm Ste-E.htm  Ste-F.htm Ste-G.htm
 Ste-H.htm Ste-I.htm Ste-J.htm Ste-K.htm Ste-L.htm
 Ste-M.htm Ste-N.htm Ste-O.htm Ste-P.htm Ste-Q.htm Ste-R.htm Ste-S.htm
 Ste-T.htm Ste-U.htm Ste-V.htm Ste-W.htm Ste-XYZ.htm
 Geographical names - Ste-Zgeo

Sources for this compilation

UKT notes
Austroasiatic languages
Doggie's Tale
Francis Mason (1799 - 1874)
Godavari river (Marathi: गोदावरी)

Contents of this page

UKT 151013:

Vocabulary - vowels followed by consonants p025-130, pdf 50-155/185, in akshara order. Should be compared to A. A. Macdonell A Practical Sanskrit dictionary, 1893. MC-indx.htm (link chk 150922)

I will be using the abbreviation ipa  - "is pronounced as" - to show the pronunciation whenever necessary. Take note that Haswell's transcription reflects the Mon-Myan pronunciation of consonants, e.g.

Remember Mon-Myan pronunciation of KTP consonants:
column-wise classified as: tenuis, voiceless, voiced, deep-H, nasal

row#1 ipa {ka.} {hka.} {k}/{g} {hk} {gn} - Listen: bk-cndl-Mon1<))
row#4 ipa {ta.}  {hta.} {t}/{d}  {ht}  {n} - - Listen: bk-cndl-Mon4<))
row#5 ipa {pa.} {hpa.} {p}/{b} {hp} {m} - Listen: bk-cndl-Mon5<))

As in Eng-Lat, & are pronounced indistinctly in Mon-Myan.
In Bur-Myan the two are differentiated as & - by addition of {}.

Pronunciation of consonants is not the same as in Bur-Myan. Since Romabama is based on Bur-Myan phonology, TOC is given in Bur-Myan. Haswell on p004/pdf029, writes "There is no g in the language save [r1c5 in consonant matrix] which as an initial [onset] has the sound gn (the g being fully sounded). As a final [coda] it has the sound of ng . There is no z or th ."

Both NMT and Dr.M.TinMon (in {mwun-mrun-ma-sa-p-paung:ku:} "Mon-Myanar Letter Bridge", Yangon, 2006, p042) agree that the consonants of row#7 have the sounds /ba/ and /be/. I also concur with them after listening repeatedly to Mon-Myan speech. In the above links, I have indicated them as {a.}/{b7a.} and {e}/{b7e.}, but in the bookmarks the superscript-7 becomes ordinary-7. Although is the Latin small letter 'sharp S', because it looks like an English b , I have used it in place of b7  .

Stevens has included an appendix giving Geographical names. They are important because we know their pronunciations in English, from which we can guess how these names are sounded in Mon dialect of Pegu which has totally disappeared. What is left is the dialect of Martaban. I expect the Peguan dialect to have a closer phonology to Burmese, whereas the Martaban dialect is expected to be closer to Thai. Please remember, I don't speak any Mon dialect and Thai, and so what I have just said may be ignored.

Contents of this page

Sources for this compilation:

UKT 140513: I wonder whether the reverend fathers got the real meanings (surface as well as the deeper meanings)   of the Mon-Myan language, or only what their sources, who might not even be well versed in the language at all,  could provide. To get a fair view of the early Baptist missionaries in Burma, we should also look into the work of Rev. F. Mason (1799 - 1874) (in my notes below),  who preceded Rev. Haswell and Rev. Stevens.

1. A Pali grammar on the basis of Kaccayano, by Rev. F. Mason, 1868 - PEG-indx.htm (link chk 151013)
2. Mon Myanmar Letter Bridge (refer to as MTM), by Dr. Min Tin Mon,  Yangon, 2006, pp. 117.

A note of apology: UKT130425 , 140417, 140509, 140617, 150921
As an old man now in his 80s, I could not get anyone to teach me the Mon-Myan language. This is my attempt since 2013 to learn on my own without the help of a living human instructor. Only now I am getting some help in my transcriptions from two Mon-Myan speakers: U Nai San Thein and Daw Mi Htay Kyi - both of Yangon.

Contents of this page

UKT notes

Austroasiatic languages

- UKT 151016

Rev. Haswell does not include {a.} and its killed form under a virama among the consonants listing only 34 consonants. This has prompted me to look into Austroasiatic and Monic languages

From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Austroasiatic_languages 151016

The Austroasiatic languages, [2] in recent classifications synonymous with MonKhmer, [3] are a large language family of continental Southeast Asia, also scattered throughout India, Bangladesh, Nepal and the southern border of China. The name Austroasiatic comes from the Latin words for "south" and "Asia", hence "South Asia". [UKT ]

UKT 151016: In the above list, India, Bangladesh and Nepal are present. Why not southern Myanmarpr? In reading encyclopedias like Wikipedia you should be careful to take them only as sources for research which are bound to change with further research.

Of these languages, only Khmer, Vietnamese, and Mon have a long-established recorded history, and only Vietnamese and Khmer have official status (in Vietnam and Cambodia, respectively). The rest of the languages are spoken by minority groups. [UKT ]

Ethnologue identifies 168 Austroasiatic languages. These form thirteen established families (plus perhaps Shompen, which is poorly attested, as a fourteenth), which have traditionally been grouped into two, as MonKhmer and Munda. However, one recent classification posits three groups (Munda, Nuclear Mon-Khmer and Khasi-Khmuic) [4] while another has abandoned MonKhmer as a taxon altogether, making it synonymous with the larger family. [5]

Austroasiatic languages have a disjunct distribution across India, Bangladesh, Nepal and Southeast Asia, separated by regions where other languages are spoken. They appear to be the autochthonous languages [aka indigenous languages] of Southeast Asia, with the neighboring Indo-Aryan, TaiKadai, Dravidian, Austronesian, and Sino-Tibetan Tibeto-Burman languages being the result of later migrations. [6]

UKT 151016: Including Tibeto-Burman as a sub-group under Sino-Tibetan makes my study of BEPS languages. Linguists are still not taking note of the script. My recent observation of Myanmar {ta.} being the same as Georgian consonant "Tan" თ (U10D7),  and vowel "In" ი (U10D8) related to vowel-sign {lon: kri: tn}, shows the importance of shape of glyphs in the study of languages. Myanmar is based on circles and circularly rounded scripts seem to be spread out over a large area of Asia at one time.


From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monic_languages 151016

The Monic languages are a branch of the Austroasiatic language family descended from the Old Monic language of the kingdom of Dvaravati in what is now central Thailand. The Nyahkur people continue directly from that kingdom, whereas the Mon are descendants of those who migrated to Pegu after the 11th century Khmer conquest of Dvaravati.

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Doggie's Tale

Mnemonic The Doggie Tale: 
Little doggie cringe in fear -- ŋ (velar),
  Seeing Ella's flapping ears -- ɲ (palatal)
  And, the Shepard's hanging rear -- ɳ (retroflex).
Doggie so sad he can't get it out
  What's that Kasha क्ष when there's a Kha ख ?
  And when there's Jana ज्ञ what I am to do with Jha झ?

Note to digitizer: you can copy and paste the following,
or you can use the old ASCII letters which you can type from the keyboard:
Ā ā Ē ē Ī ī Ō ō Ū ū
Ḍ ḍ Ḥ ḥ Ḷ ḷ Ḹ ḹ Ṁ ṁ Ṃ ṃ Ṅ ṅ Ṇ ṇ Ṛ ṛ Ṝ ṝ Ś ś Ṣ ṣ Ṭ ṭ ɕ ʂ
Instead of Skt-Dev ः {wic~sa.} use "colon" :
Avagraha ऽ use apostrophe
Root sign √  [keyboard Alt507 √ ]
Fricatives : श ś [ɕ] /ʃ/ ; ष ṣ [ʂ] /s/; स s [s] /θ/ ;
Skt-Deva : श ś [ɕ] /ʃ/; ष ṣ [ʂ] /s/; स s [s] /θ/;
Undertie in Dev transcription: ‿ U203F
Infamous trio: <boy> /bɔɪ/, <oil> /ɔɪl/ & <cow> /kaʊ/
   Bur-Myan mispronunciation: {Bweing}, {weing}, {kaung:}
IPA symbols: ɑ ɒ ɔ ə ɚ ɛ ɪ ʌ ʊ ʧ ʤ θ ʃ ŋ ɲ ɳ ɹ /kʰ/ /ː/ /əʳ/
  circumflex-acute :
  ấ U+1EA5 , ế U+1EBF
  upsilon-vrachy  ῠ 
  small-u-breve  ῠ ŭ
  small cap ɶ (ligature OE -- the ordinary letters are ASCII  (Alt0140) & (Alt0156)
⒈⒉⒊⒋⒌ ⒍⒎⒏⒐⒑⒒⒓⒔⒕⒖⒗⒘⒙

Do not forget the older ASCII from which
would have to pick out suitable glyphs:

Alt500 series: ⌠ ⌡ ≈ ∙ √  
Alt510 series: ■ - - ☺ ☻ ♥ ♦ ♣ ♠
Alt520 series: ◘ ○ ◙ ♂ ♀ ♪ ♫ ☼ ► ◄
Alt530 series: ↕ ‼ ▬ ↨ ↑ ↓ → ←
Alt540 series: ∟ ↔ ▲ ▼  - ! " # $ %
Alt550 series: & ' ( * + , - . /
Alt560 series: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Alt570 series: : ; < = > ? @ A B C
Alt580 series: D E F G H I J K L M
Alt590 series: O P Q R S T U V

Alt600 series: X Y Z [ \ ] ^ _ ` a   
Alt610 series: b c d e f g h i j k 
Alt620 series: l m n o p q r s t u
Alt630 series: v w x y z { | } ~ ⌂
Alt640 series:  

Alt700 series: ╝ ╜ ╛ ┐ └ ┴ ┬ ├  ┼
Alt710 series: ╞ ╟ ╚ ╔ ╩ ╦ ╠ ═ ╬ ╧
Alt720 series: ╨ ╤ ╥ ╙ ╘ ╒ ╓ ╫ ╪ ┘
Alt730 series: ┌ █ ▄ ▌▐ ▀ α Γ  π 

Alt800 series:  - ! " # $ % & ' ( )
Alt810 series: ! + , - . % 0 1 2 3
Alt820 series: 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ; < =
Alt830 series: > ?  @ A B 9 : ; < =
Alt840 series: H I J K L M N O P Q

Alt900 series:
Alt910 series:
Alt920 series: ₧  
Alt930 series: ⌐
Alt940 series: ░ ▒ ▓ │┤╡

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Rev. Francis Mason

-- UKT 140515

Among the early Baptist missionaries, the man I admired the most is Rev. Francis Mason, who was not only a missionary, but a shoe-maker by trade. He seemed to be very agile with his hands for he taught two Karen nationals to run a printing-press in Taungoo

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francis_Mason 140515

Francis Mason (April 2, 1799 3 March 1874), American missionary and a naturalist, [1] was born in York, England. His grandfather, also Francis Mason, was the founder of the Baptist Society in York, and his father, a shoemaker by trade, was a Baptist lay preacher there.

UKT 140515: Being a naturalist, he would have a keen observer of things around him. He would also be very analytical in thinking -- something like that of the ancient Rishis aka {ra..} of the foothills of the Himalayas extending from northern India extending into the mountain ranges of the Western and Eastern Yomas of Burma. I am reminded of the {ra..} of Kyaikhtiyo {kyaik-hti:ro:} and Klatha {k-la-a.} - who had lived in the very area of the Karens amongst who Rev. Mason had worked. He might even be a re-incarnate of one of them !

After working with his father as a shoemaker for several years, he emigrated in 1818 to the United States, and in Massachusetts was licensed to preach as a Baptist in 1827. In 1830 he was sent by the American Baptist Missionary Union to labor among the Karens in Burma.

In Burma, besides conducting a training college for native preachers and teachers at Tavoy, he translated the Bible into the two principal dialects of the Karens, the Sgaw and the Pwo (his translation being published in 1853), and Matthew, Genesis, and the Psalms into the Bghai dialect. He also published A Pali Grammar on the Basis of Kachchayano, with Chrestomathy and Vocabulary (1868). In 1849, he described a new species of pine, Tenasserim Pine in the journal of the Asiatic Society. [2] In 1850 he published a book of great value on the fauna and flora of British Burma titled The natural products of Burmah, or notes on the fauna, flora and minerals of the Tenasserim provinces, and the Burman empire. It was published by the American Mission Press at Moulmein. An improved edition appeared in 1860 under the title Burmah, its People and Natural Productions, and a third edition (2 vols.) revised and enlarged by William Theobald in 1882-1883.

He was a Freemason and briefly faced exclusion from his missionary work due to certain views held by his wife, one of them being that God's way of speaking to Adam was revealed in the designs of the Burmese women's dresses. [1] He died at Rangoon. See his autobiography, The Story of a Working Man's Life, with Sketches of Travel in Europe, Asia, Africa and America (New York, 1870).

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Godavari (Marathi: गोदावरी )

- UKT 130512, 150921

In trying to relate Mon-Myan to Pal-Latin and Skt-Dev, I have to look into the Marathi language. Transliteration of Marathi-Dev Mararathi-Myan: {gau:da-wa.ti} basin culture in southern India should be compared to that of {-ra-wa.ti} basin culture in southern Myanmarpr. The word {ta.leing:} probably has connections to {gau:da-wa.ti}.

I had never expected to see Mon language spoken in Bhutan. Yet:
   "The other languages include Sharchopkha, or Tsangla, a Mon language spoken in eastern districts; Bumthangkha, an aboriginal Khen language spoken in central Bhutan; and Nepali, or Lhotsam, predominantly spoken in the south. Seven other Khen and Mon languages also are spoken in Bhutan. Hindi is understood among Bhutanese educated in India and was the language of instruction in the schools at Ha and Bumthang in the early 1930s as well as in the first schools in the "formal" education system from the beginning of the 1960s. " -- http://countrystudies.us/bhutan/20.htm 130512

From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marathi_language 150921

Marathi मराठी marāṭhī (rendered into Bur-Myan: {ma.ra-HTi}) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken predominantly by Marathi people of Maharashtra. It is the official language and co-official language in Maharashtra and Goa states of Western India respectively, and is one of the 23 official languages of India. There were 73 million speakers in 2001; Marathi ranks 19th in the list of most spoken languages in the world. Marathi has the fourth largest number of native speakers in India. [12] Marathi has some of the oldest literature of all modern Indo-Aryan languages, dating from about 900 AD. [13] The major dialects of Marathi are Standard Marathi and the Varhadi dialect. [14] There are other related languages such as Khandeshi, Dangi, Vadvali and Samavedi. Malvani Konkani has been heavily influenced by Marathi varieties.

UKT 150922: Though not connected to the Godavari River, there is a geological wonder in the area. It is the Lonar Crater lake https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lonar_crater_lake 150922

Lonar Lake is a saline soda lake located at Lonar in Buldhana district, Maharashtra, India, which was created by a meteor impact during the Pleistocene Epoch [1] and it is the largest and only hyper velocity impact crater in ballistic rock, anywhere found on earth. [2] This lake, which lies in a basalt impact structure, is both saline and alkaline in nature. Geologists, ecologists, archaeologists, naturalists and astronomers have reported several studies on the various aspects of this crater lake ecosystem. [3] Lonar Lake has a mean diameter of 1.2 kilometres (3,900 ft) and is about 137 metres (449 ft) below the crater rim. The meteor crater rim is about 1.8 kilometres (5,900 ft) in diameter. The circular depression bears a saline water lake in its central portion. [4] The crater's age is usually estimated to be 52,000 6,000 years (Pleistocene), [5] although a study published in 2010 gives an age of 570,000 47,000 years. [6] [7]

The Smithsonian Institution, the United States Geological Survey, Geological Society of India, and University of Sagar and the Physical Research Laboratory have conducted extensive studies about the site. [8] [9]

Biological nitrogen fixation was discovered in this lake in 2007. [10]

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.


Edited excerpt from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Godavari_River 110802

The Godavari (Marathi: गोदावरी, Telugu: గోదావరి) is a river that runs from western to southern India and is considered to be one of the big river basins in India. With a length of 1465 km, it is the second longest river in India (only after the Ganges), that runs within the country. It originates ... Maharashtra state and flows east across the Deccan Plateau into the Bay of Bengal ... in ... Andhra Pradesh. [2]

UKT: The reader should note that the names of the rivers in a country are rarely changed throughout history. You should compare Godavari {gau:da-wa.ti} to Irrawaddy {-ra-wa.ti} in Myanmar. The word {ta.leing:} obviously came from {gau:da-wa.ti} basin: Telangana region of Andhra Pradesh.

There had probably been a very close connection between the peoples of Godavari basin and the peoples of southern Rakhine. In the approach to Rakhine lies the Myanmar island of Man-aung {maan-aung} aka Cheduba. It is situated in Kyaukpru district and is about 60 miles from the Rakhine coast. The following is my edited stub from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cheduba_Island 110802
   " Cheduba Island ... is an island in the Bay of Bengal close to Ramree Island belonging to Burma. It has an area of approximately 523 km and a population 63,761 as of 1983 which is composed chiefly of Burmans and Arakanese peoples."

UKT: According to one Arakanese connected to Man-aung no Indian is allowed to settle on the island by the local population. Maurice Collis, the British writer, wrote about a legend connected to a hill by the name Taung-ni 'the Red Hill' on the island. The very soil of the hill is supposed to be scented with a sweet smell. (I'm writing this note from memory and the reader is urged to read 'Trials in Burma' by Maurice Collis who had been a District Commissioner of Arakan before the Second World War.) - UKT110802

From {gau:da-wa.ti} basin, immigrants into Myanmarpr could bypass the probably hostile  Rakhine area, and took refuge in the many islands of the Irrawaddy delta which were thickly wooded with mangroves till the time of the Western incursion. It was probably this route that a people who came to be called {ta.leing:} from Telangana region came to settle in the Irrawaddy delta eventually mixing with the Mons in southern Myanmarpr. Please remember I am not a historian. I wait for input from my historian friends. -- 120112 UKT

The Godavari River is a major waterway in central India, originating in the Western Ghats ... flowing eastwardly across the Deccan Plateau through the state of Maharashtra. It is known as dakshin ganga (Southern Ganges). ... . While passing through Telangana region of Andhra Pradesh it touches a small village called Dharmapuri which is a pilgrimage village with many ancient Hindu temples and river Godavari serving as spiritual place in true sense for bathing in Godavari river spread over rocks and sand. While crossing the Deccan Plateau and then turns to flow in a southeast direction until it empties into the Bay of Bengal through two mouths. [3] Basara, on the banks of Godavari in Adilabad District, is home to a famous temple for Goddess Saraswati and is the second temple for the Goddess in India.

... ... ...

Although the river arises only 80 kilometres from the Arabian Sea, it flows 1,465 km to empty into the Bay of Bengal. Just above Rajamundry, there is a dam that provides water for irrigation. Below Rajahmundry, the river divides into two streams that widen into a large river delta which has an extensive navigable irrigation-canal system, Dowleswaram Barrage that links the region to the Krishna River delta to the southwest. [4]

The Godavari River has a drainage area of 342,812 km that includes more than one state which is nearly one-tenth of India and is greater than the areas of England and Ireland put together. The Pravara, Indravati, Wainganga [UKT: the river mentioned in the Mowgli stories in the "Jungle Book" by Rudyard Kipling.], Wardha, Pench, Kanhan and Penuganga rivers, discharge an enormous volume of water into the Godavari system. Its tributaries include Indravati, Manjira River, Bindusara River and Sabari River. [5]

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

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End of TIL file