Update: 2013-02-11 10:38 AM +0630


The founding villages and early palaces of Pagan: Part 2

- an exploration of some chronicle and parabaik sources via computer mapping, field survey and archaeological excavation.


by Bob Hudson, Archaeology Department, University of Sydney, Sydney 2006, Australia, Texts and Contexts Conference, Yangon, 2001 December. 29 pdf pages.
- http://acl.arts.usyd.edu.au/~hudson/villages_parabaik.pdf 130119
- http://acl.arts.usyd.edu.au/~hudson/villages_parabaik.pdf 080918
- http://acl.arts.usyd.edu.au/~hudson/villages_parabaik.pdf 071124

Downloaded and edited by U Kyaw Tun, M.S. (I.P.S.T., U.S.A.) and staff of TIL Computing and Language Centre, Yangon, MYANMAR. Prepared for staff and students of TIL. Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone http://www.tuninst.net , http://www.softguide.net.mm , www.romabama.blogspot.com

index.htm | |Top

Contents of this page

UKT 130121:
I have split up this paper into two parts for ease of editing. Secondly, the newer English spellings for place names (such as Bagan & Ayeyawaddy) used by Bob Hudson, have been changed back into the  older and more familiar ones.

The nineteen villages
The dimensions of Pagan
A Brief History of Pagan : from parabaik
  The twelve gates and their guardians (my caption)
  The City  of Paukkan built by King Pyinbya (my caption)
  The City of Thar-hkittara of King Duttabaung (my caption)
  King Anawrahta : {a.nau-ra.hta} - religious reformation
  King Kyansittha : {kyn-sic-a:} - soldier-hero
  King Alaungsithu : {a.laung:s-u} - the sailor
Discussion and future prospects

fn29 to fn45

UKT notes
King Alaungsithu : from Glass Palace Chronicle
Prince of Pataikkara : {pa.Taik~ka.ra:}
Royal line of Yonlwutkywun : {pyu-sau:hti:} dynasty

Contents of this page

A Brief History of Pagan

UKT 130119:
The following "A Brief History of Pagan" was given as <blockquote> in Bob Hudson's pdf paper. However, since I consider this to be unnecessary paragraph formatting, I am presenting this portion without <blockquote>.

Some of the paragraphs given in the pdf are unnecessarily long which made reading difficult. To remedy this defect, I have split them up and indicated the places by my usual mark " [UKT ] ".

I have given the Bur-Myan names as glyphs and Romabama transcriptions for some, but there are others, those which have r2 consonants that I could not make out. The reason being the original English transcriber had based his transcription on English phonology (or even Mon phonology) which is quite different from that of Burmese. I wish Bob Hudson could have used Romabama, but then it was not ready even in 2008 when I set to work on this paper.

- The Eastern gate.

The capsule summary regarding the glorious golden city of Pagan which is graceful, significant and auspicious as well as a symbol of good fortune, has been compiled and presented, Venerable Sir, Guatama Buddha, The Most Enlightened One, who had attained four different kinds of incomprehensibility, six different sorts of power and prowess, four different states of endlessness and infinity, eightfold holy (or) noble path, the ten powers, the ten enlightenment factors, the six different kinds of hues of the rays, who was also the Incomparable Lord of the human beings, terrestrial and celestial beings and the Brahmas (or) Gods, paid a visit to Tantkyi golden hill-range, across the Irrawaddy River, on the right and western side of the river, accompanied by his 500 Buddhist disciples (or) Buddhist holy saints, and set foot on top of the hill. Gautama, The Most Awakened and Exalted One, made a prophecy (or) boon as regards the bright prospects of the future for the holy city of Pagan (fn29).

According to the Myanmar traditional typical abbreviation pronounced as kyar-oh-ann, Pagan {pu.gn}, formerly known as Arimaddhana- Paukkan, holy city of Paukkan {pauk~kn}, royal capital endowed with conquest over the five reigning fierce animals and fast-growing gourd (or) squash climbing plants, was established by King Pyinbya on the sixth waxing moon (day) of Pyartho, tenth month of Myanmar traditional lunar calendar, corresponding with January of Gregorian calendar, in the year 211 Myanmar Chronological Era (849 AD) on Thursday approximately at 3 am, that is to say, past two strikes (or) chimes, 7 phawars and 1 philar, according to the Myanmar ancient unit of telling the time. [UKT ]

The citys circumference in Myanmar measurement units was 1142 tar which is equal to 23,982 feet (fn30) as regards the length and width of the town, with [{p10end}] pyitsin, tuyindaing, pyahoh, pavilion, the Myanmar traditional typical parts of a city, with three-moated canals and the passage-ways for the royal forces in time of danger and strife. (The city was founded) following discussions and consultations with four wise monks and the well educated ministers. The surface of the golden, glorious royal city of Pagan was like that of the royal drum made of cow hide. A grand gala, graceful, magnificent ceremony was celebrated in a majestic, grand scale, successfully with good, rich, and rewarding omens of value, treasure, and precious gems.

The four wise monks were:

Ta-ma-lein-dah Thera,
Ananda Thera,
Uttara-ziwa Thera and
Sabada Thera . [UKT ]

UKT: The year 849 AD indicates that the monks mentioned above must be Ari. It is an indication that not all Ari were decadent and some were learned. I wonder if they had any connection to Nalanda University in India which was after all a "short" trekking distance away across the mountains of Manipur. Please remember that ancient monks Chinese and Indians alike were quite used to walking -- not riding any animal. If they could walk surely the Ari could walk and they might even be teaching in Nalanda. -- UKT 130119.

The four wise ministers were:

Prince Seint,
Hoora-phyu (a court-astrologer wearing white clothing),
Hoora-nyo (a court-astrologer wearing brown clothing) and
Yarzathingyan, who was a native of the village of Inbyin,
   a name which was later changed to Linnbin village. [UKT ]

UKT 130119:

The title "Prince" does not mean that the bearer is of royal blood. Anybody can be made a "prince" by royal decree. The title is not hereditary. Of course there are hereditary princes. Even the kingship is supposed to be approved by the population and the kings tried to emulate the legendary {ma.ha m~ta. ming:} who was the first elected king. They tried to portray themselves as those who love both their ventral (bosom) children (of his blood}, and dorsal (back) children (his subjects). Every king in Myanmarpr had tried, but a lot had failed.

Hoora {hu-ra:} should not be lightly dismissed as "astrologers". They were Puroheit or professors learned in astronomy-astrology which involves many mathematical methods not well known to us. They were court-mathematicians and might well be engineers and scientists. MLC MED2006-529 does a great injustice to them by listing them as "soothsayers". 

The golden glorious ancient city of Pagan was laid out with 1142 Myanmar ancient linear measurement of tar which equals 23,982 feet (in circumference). There were 12 doorways. [UKT ]

Contents of this page

The twelve gates

UKT 130206:
It is always instructive to compare the layout of a city, a town, right down to a village, to layout of a pagoda, a monastery, to a house. On the right is the layout of a pagoda. See the layout of the altar in the Nine-god Puja: see FLK-ELE/ch02/ ch02.htm (link chk 130206).

The four main city gates are at East (tiger), South (elephant), West (mouse), and North (guinea-pig) directions. Remember to rotate the pix given on the right by 90 clock-wise to correspond to the city layout.

The cemetery is usually on the West (mouse), or North (guinea-pig).

The Tharawut gate was two tar (7.33 metres) deep and one tar (3.67 metres) wide (fn31). It was guarded and protected by the Betthadin nat (spirit). [UKT ]

The Thatpa-yan-gar gate (fn32) was well guarded by two nats, Master Handsome, the Black-smith {pn:p: maung-ting.t}, and his beloved younger sister, the Golden Face {rhw-myak-nha} [UKT: see insert "Brother and Sister as City guardian nats.]. [UKT ]

UKT: Figure 3 above shows Tharabha gate as the main eastern gate.

The Thara-pay gateway was protected by the Shwepathin nat. There were 253 tar (927 metres) from the north-east corner through to the south-east corner, and 149 tar (546 metres) from the Thatpa-yan-gar gate-way up to the royal palace site and this portion (or) face was taken care of by Prince Yaegathu, Pyi-soe-zeiya-pinn, Tsa-chi-nanda-thu and Tsoe-kae-theinkha-yarzar, and these four persons were given assignments. [UKT ]

UKT 130122:
Directions are counted for astrological purposes starting from North-east, or the Sunday-planet corner. Though there are no gates at the corners always keep in mind where the corners are. Another point to remember is the importance of the main gates on each side. Between the main gate and the corner is a smaller gate which is of lesser importance. In Mandalay palace layout, the southern-gate, {mn~ga.la} gate is the most important and was used by the king. What we now regard as the Mandalya palace is the city proper: within it was the palace. The eastern main is not much of importance, and the northern main gate is the least important. The western-main gate is inauspicious and is used to carry the dead bodies and condemned criminals for execution. Facts need to be checked by my peers. 

The eastern face of the royal city site was 50 tar (183 metres). The eastern face Phaya Thartann doorway was guarded by the Zabu-tanhsaung nat.

The Nga-myee-khatt gate was protected by the Kara-wei nat. [UKT ]

The Nyaung-byu gate was guarded by the Zambu-thabyay nat. From the northwest corner to the northeast corner was 318 tar (1166 metres). It [{p11end}] was 101.5 tar (372 metres) from the Nga-myee-khatt gate to the royal city site and this part (or) face was assigned to four persons, namely Prince Si-thu, Tharay-nanthu, Tsa-chi-napataw-thiha-pakyan, and Tsoekae-theinkha-pyitsie. The northern face of the royal palace site was 20 tar (73.4 metres). [UKT ]

The northern face Tharzi gateway was guarded by the Zambu-tamut nat. [UKT ]

The Wi-rula nat guarded the Mingala-dazeik gateway.

The Myin-byu-shin {mring:hpru-rhing} nat took care of the Ma-kyithar gateway.


{mring:hpru-rhing} is one of the favorite nats. As children we used to play with horse-puppets which are made in his honour. The white-horse puppet (with 4-strings or more strings attached to a handle to animate the puppet) was a favorite toy we bought at Thadinggyut and pagoda festival bazaars.

There were supposedly three {mring:hpru-rhing} nats, and from the date of building the city, it was probably the {pa.hkn:}-entity. In Nat festivals, he was celebrated with music that mimics a sounds of a galloping horse. He was not regarded as a drunkard.

One among them, a local chieftain, lost his life crossing the dry-bed of a wide dry-zone river just before the waters rushed down. He had thought highly of himself as a horse-man and his horse to be fast enough to outpace the rushing waters. It was said, the rushing waters just caught the hind legs of his horse and both and rider and the horse were swept away to their deaths. Such oral-history is preserved among the nat-worshippers. Scholars should take an academic interest in what they have to say.

Incidentally, the two patron {ro:ra} nats of the family of my great-grandfather U Yan Shin, a good horseman himself and belonging to the line of chieftains, were Minmahagiri and the Myinphyshin nats.

{ro:ra} - n. 1. hereditary rites, customs. 2. nats traditionally worshipped. -- MLC MED2006-401

UKT 130207:
Almost all Bur-Myan ethnics living outside the motherland are getting lost culturally. The first to go are the traditions {ro:ra} which can be traced to the Theravada Buddhist attitude. The second to go is the Myanmar akshara, and the third is the spoken language itself.

My grandmother, Daw Choak, told me of an incident in her family when she was young, that she could hear the Minphyushin nat galloping around their house in the dead of night whenever something extraordinary was about to happen. He was protecting the family.

Eventually, even my mother a native of Moulmein and not connected in anyway to Upper Burma, came to believe in Minmahagiri during the Japanese times, when she was forewarned in her dreams of the impending dangers.

I, a material scientist and a skeptic just like my father U Tun Pe, is not given to fantasies. Even though we do not believe in such oral histories, we still keep a nat-shrine to Minmahagiri in memory of my grandmother Daw Choak and her father U Yan Shin who was very fond of his grandson - my father U Tun Pe. U Yan Shin, supposedly endowed with esoteric knowledge had tattooed a charm into the wrists of my father. The charm is known as {sa.hkwak-nheik} and would give a signal if he using his hand were to take up something to eat that would harm him.  -- UKT130119

From the southwest to the northwest was 253 tar (927 metres) and 149 tar (546 metres) from the Mingalar-dazeik gateway to royal palace site. This face (or) side was given to 4 caretakers, namely Prince Pyan-chi, Pyi-zoe-nayin-sinnthu, Tsachi-maha-thamann and Tsoe-kae-manawyarzar. The western face of royal palace site was 50 tar (183 metres) and the western face phaya and Win-manar doorway was guarded by the Nga-nwae-thin nat.

The Ma-taunt-tah doorway was protected by the Wi-nila nat, and the Nga-zwae-thin nat guarded Kula-lei-nu gateway. From the southeast to the southwest was 318 tar (1166 metres) and it was 101.5 tar (372 metres from the southern city wall to the southern wall of the palace enclosure). This part had four caretakers, namely Prince Htauk-shoo-kar, Pyi-soe-minnyin, Tsachi-narga-wuttana and Tsoe-kae-mah thein-zee. It was 20 tar wide at the southern face of the royal palace site and the southern side phaya.

UKT: From the names of the nats, we can see that there might be Hindu-devas as well as local-nats. For example Wi-rula nat could very well be Virupaksha. -- UKT130119 


Contents of this page

City of Paukkan built by King Pyin-bya

After King Pyin-bya had unified these twelve places of the city of Paukkan, called as Ari-maddhana, conquest over huge, fierce, reigning animals including fast-growing gourd, (or) squash climbing plants to become one seat in the year of 211 Myanmar Chronological Era (849 AD), the 14th monarch of the Pagan Dynasty, King Popa-tsaw-rahan-gyi {poap~pa:sau:ra.hn} lessened the Chronological Era according to the ancient traditional numerological belief, known as kha-hsah-pyinsah.

UKT: There were two kings with similar names:
#1. {poap~pa:sau:ra.hn:}
#2. {aung-U:sau:ra.hn:}

In the Myanmar Chronological Era of 53, at the time of King Narapatisithu (fn33), in the aforesaid four sides of the city, the edge of the eastern Nyaung-mya-ywa-gyi was identified as being at the level of a town, and presented to Prince Yae-ga-thu. [UKT ]

The edge of Taung-ba-luywa-gyi {taung-Bi-lu: ywa-kri:} was graded as a town and offered to Prince Tse-thu and it was in the southern side. [UKT ]

UKT: The Bur-Myan word {taung} can mean 'mountain or hill', and also 'southern direction'. Here it probably means 'south'.

The second word {Bi-lu:} can mean 'ogre' or 'giant - something big in stature'. On the right is shown the head of an Ogre king, usually drawn to depict someone very ugly, huge, and strong. It is probable that the inhabitants of this village were of large structure, and possibly immigrants from the West. This name is important, because one of the heroes of Pagan, Byat-ta, himself a ship-wrecked foreigner, did not arrive back at the palace at the appointed time because his wife a {Bi-lu:ma.} 'ogress' was giving birth to twins.

Byat-ta was summarily executed, and when King Anawratha came to know of the incident, he adopted Byatta's twin-sons who became the heroes Shw Hpyi-gyi and Shw Hpyi-l who in their turn were executed supposedly by Kyansittha. This story is sung as a folk-song by the nat-worshippers as a protest against the ruling powers to this very day in Myanmar. -- UKT 130119

On the northern side, the edge of Chauk-taung was rated as a town and given to Prince Pyan-chi. To the northeastern side, [{p12end}] the edge of Let-htoke {lak-htoat} was classified as a big village and presented to Prince Htawk-shoo-gar.

UKT 130207: The word Let-htoke {lak-htoat} is probably the names of trees, one medium sized and one very large. See MMDict1999-295 (in Bur-Myan), MED2006-448 (in English). The large variety is Holarrhena antidysenterica the bark of which is used for treatment of dysentery.

King Narapatisithu brought the Shin-byu {rhing-hpru} and Shin-jla {rhing-hla.} Phaya (images of the Lord Buddha) although in some chronologies it was King Alaungsithu who carried the Phaya. [UKT ]

UKT: knowing the story well I have rewritten the following para to make reading easy. I have kept close to the original style of the translator. The tale is simple, but it has become complex due to poor translation and poor transliteration.

On the way back to the golden glorious city of Pagan, at the port city of Man-aung, the ruler under the influence of conceit not not wishing to pay obeisance to the powerful king of Paukkan, hung a pot filled with rocks [the original translator has written "water"] around his neck and descended to the river water and committed suicide. [UKT ]

Afterwards, the King of Paukkan struck the water with his powerful wand from the front of the Karaweik barge, and the corpse of the ruler of Man-aung floated to the surface (fn34). Two beloved daughters of King Man-aung were presented to the Paukkan King [to be his concubines wives not necessarily "queens"] and the King made a fantastic return riverine journey, upstream. These two cherished daughters of King Manaung were promoted to medium-ranked ones and they were presented with a line of nine villages in the upper part to the elder sister and a lower line of nine villages to the younger sister. [UKT ]

UKT: The above journey describes a sea-voyage, not an inland river one. The port-city of "Man-aung" {maan-aung} is an island in Bay of Bengal. It is also known as Chiduba Island and is included in the Rakhine State. See Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manaung_Township 130119
   In the paragraph below is mentioned "King Man-aung ... ancestors known as Malla" can very well mean the Malla kingdom in the days of Mahajanapada. See Malla: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malla_India  130119

Up until now, the descendants of King Man-aung, who came from ancestors known as Malla, and the chieftains, are still existing. Nga-kyaw-tarn was offered to Tsit-chi-yoe Nanda-thu-ta-yoe. Up till now, there exists a line of tradition well kept generation after generation. The southern side was presented to Tsit-chiyoe Nara-patei-thiha-pakyan. The good traditional line still exists. Mahatha-man was added with Man-minn-thar-lei-yoe who was well looked after and supported separately by townspeople as well as village folk. Therefore Maha-tha-man was known as Minn-thar-paung, which implies prince who was added in unison with another prince and there still survives regarding this line of generation. The five exterior localities which surround the city are named Tsi-gu, Ywa-tha, Taung-zinn, Taywin-daing and Nga-tha-yauk. UKT

UKT: According to my family tradition, {tu:rwing:teing} and {nga.tha.yauk} were my paternal ancestral villages. My paternal great grandfather U Yan Shin, son of either Hpo Mintha or Hpo Tagaung (my father could not recall which) was from those two villages. However, according to another account, our ancestral village was {pan:B:}. U Yan Shin being from the line of chieftains was buried with ceremony such as gold leaf applied to his forehead, and his hearse covered by four golden umbrellas. My father though still a child was at his grandfather's funeral. Such custom, according to Hanthawaddy U Ba Yin, a well known local historian, showed that my ancestor U Yan Shin had belonged to the line of Burmese chieftains or {ka.ln} (just as Kyansitha was) - ever ready with their swords and horses. -- UKT130119

These are existing up to the present, generation after generation. The religious edifice linked to four princes Yae-ga-thu, Tsi-thu, Pya-chi and Htauk-shu-gar is Pyi-soe, which signifies chieftain of a city and they built the Pyi-soe pagoda and the names of these four chieftains are Zei-ya-pin, Na-rin-thinn-htu, Tha-raynan-thu, and Taung-minn-yi, the sacrosanct monument erected by four Tsit-chis who were solider heroes, namely, Nan-da-thu, Na-ra-pa-teithiha-pa-kyan, Ma-ha-tha-man, and Na-ga-wut-ta-na, the sacred pagoda concerned with four authorities, namely Thin-kha-ra-za, Thin-kha-pyittsee, Ma-nao-ra-za, Ma-nao-thein-zee, Tsit-pin, Tsi-bin, Hton-tha-myar, [p13end] Na-ti-ra-za at Tsit-pin, Pauk-kha-ra-ni-ra-za at Tsi-bin, U-da-ka-ra-za at Hton, Nan-da-wa-ra-za at Tha-myar and these four pagodas relating to the demarcation of the Irrawaddy River, Ah-yway-ma-ti at Aung-tha, Khint-ga, Htan-po, Nga-kyaw-ga-doh at Aung, Hmon-bo-ga-doh at Ahyway-ma-ti, La-bin-ga-doh at Khint-ga, Taung-pon-ga-doh at Htan-po, Nga-thet-bin, Nga-thet-ya, Nga-kaung-mae, Nga-kaung-phyu and these four village head-men built their respective pagodas, Hseit-ta-yoe, Ti-tayoe, Hmaw-kunn-tain-ta-yoe, Khun-nit-kyo-myae-taing-tayoe, That-bahra-za pagoda at Hseit-ta-yoe, Wa-neiz-za-ra-za pagoda at Ti-ta-yoe, Otta-na-ra-za pagoda at Hmaw-kunn-tain-ta-yoe, Bon-mah-ra-za pagoda at Khun-nit-kyo-myae-taing, and there exist 99 villages in total number, apart from four localities at the four edges and four parts in a row and five surrounding towns.

There is an ancient prophecy which reads the great, magnificent Irrawaddy River is making her flowing at the foot of the Si-khon-daw Pagoda, which means the Great Pagoda situated at the sandy side of the river. The Golden Stupa is held in great veneration, for sacred relics of the Enlightened One were enshrined inside it, and also at the place where the golden, glorious city of Pauk-kan is located, where a long line of fifty five monarchs ruled over the city, the seat of the dynasty, and golden glorious royal capital which has inhabitants living in 99 villages in total number. [UKT ]

The prophecy says that the monarch will rigidly follow the rules that a king of justice should possess on account of the flowing of the Irrawaddy River close to the Golden Pagoda Shwe-tsee-gon {rhw-s:hkon}. There will be a white acacia tree growing on the northern side of the Great Pagoda. There surely will appear a king of justice like Maho-sa-dha, who was a previous existence of Gautama Buddha noted for great wisdom, at the time when the tree will be grown to the size at which the mighty elephant known as Ga-za-gi-ri can catch hold of it with its strong trunk. That ruler of justice will appear at the place located to the eastern cardinal direction of that tree and that very king will rule over the golden, glorious city of Pauk-kan and people from all walks of life will be prosperous and the people of Pauk-kan surely will have peace and development, and paddy rice and other staple food will be plentiful. [UKT ]

It will be in () of the Myanmar Chronological Era that the Great King will be chosen as king among men and the royal throne will be ascended by him, according to the authentic chronologies, ancient legendary accounts and as far as I know, as much as I can, to the best of my ability making logical conclusion by judging from the most reliable sources and I have made my presentation under the golden feet of the royal monarch. May [{p14end}] the genuine, real, authentic dispensation, teachings of the Most Enlightened One last and prevail for always.

UKT: The personal pronoun, I, in the above passage was presumably that of the author of the Parabaik.

In the year after 236 years after entering Nirvana of Gautama Buddha, a group of Buddhist missionary monks headed by Venerable Ot-ta-ra-thera introduced and established the purest form of the Buddhas Teachings by way of the elder Buddhist monks at the golden glorious city of Thaton known as Thu-dhamma-na-ga-ra in the region of Ra-myin-nyah, Thuwun-na-bhum-mi. [UKT ]

Also at the same year of 236 years after the final passing away of Gautama Buddha, in the island of Ceylon a group of five Buddhist arahats, holy saints, led by the Venerable Ma-hein-dah introduced and established the Teachings of Buddha for purification, perpetuation, and propagation of Buddhas dispensation. [UKT ]

Contents of this page

City of Thar-hkittara of King Duttabaung

Over fifty years after Gautama Buddhas maha-peri-nirvana, in the royal glorious city of Tha-yay-khit-ta-ya, two brothers, Su-la Tham-ba-wa and Ma-ha Thamba-wa unified and formed a city state. Their son, known as Dut-ta-baung became king in the year of 121 Buddhist Dispensation Era (423 BC). He united and founded Thi-ri-khit-ta-ra-ra-ma city in collaboration, in cooperation and coordination with the holy hermit, Indra Lord of thunder, the naga (dragon or serpent), and garuda (mythical bird) and he became the great king after having a coronation ceremony. [UKT ]

Starting from Sula-Tham-ba-wa and Ma-ha-Tham-ba-wa and second consecutive reign, there was a king known as Thu-pyin-nya-na-ga-ra-hsein-na in the year of 624 Myanmar Chronological Era. This became the year which was appropriate to subtract from the Myanmar Chronological Era (fn35) by the number of 622 and only the remaining number of 2 was reckoned. That king expired in that very year. [UKT ]

The number of the years which had been subtracted was 622 and in the year of 2 (the remaining year after subtraction) Myanmar Chronological Era, Tha-yay-khit-ta-ya city ceased to be the royal capital. [UKT ]

Afterwards, there became three different ethnic groups, namely, Thet, Pa-deik-kha-ya , and Pyu. [UKT ]

UKT 130209:
As school children we learned that there were three groups: Pyu {pyu} who eventually became Myanmar, Kan'yan {km:yn} (sp?) who were identified with Rakhine, and Thet {ak} (sp?) who were identified with Chins. From the above, the author of the Parabaik seemed to refer to the Kan'yan as Pa-deik-kha-ya {pa.Taik~ka.ra:}.

Or, it may be that the author has mixed up the Kan'yan-Rakhine, and their neighbours the Padeik'khaya-Indians. It is implied in Glass Palace Chronicles in the story of Prince of Padeik'khaya {pa.Taik~ka.ra:} and Shw Ainthi {rhw-aim-} that the Padeik'khaya were Indians. See my note on Prince Pataikkara .

The Thet returned to the city of Thet-minn-ka-ton. [UKT ]

Members of the Pa-deik-kha-ya race went back to their homeland () [UKT ]

The prince who was known as Tha-mot-darit {a.moad-da.raiz}, nephew of Thu-pyin-nya-ga-ra-hsein-na, the king, () became the ruler of this region in the place which was called Yon-hlut-kyun. [UKT ]

The cluster of 19 Pyu villages were:

01. Yon-hlut-kyun, 02. Nyaung-U, 03. Na-gae-hso,
04. Na-ga-kyi, 05. Ma-gyee, 06. Anu-ra-hta,
07. (), 08. Ywa-hsaik, 09. Kyinn-pi,
10. Kyauk-tok, [{p15end}] 11. Tse-ku, 12. Nyaung-wun,
13. Athet-yah, 14. Ta-tauang-kyun, 15. Kok-ko,
16. Taung-ba, 17. Myei-gae-dwinn, 18. Ya-da-thein and
19. Sha-bok. [UKT ]

These 19 villages were founded by King Tha-mok-darit. [UKT ]

The royal line of Yon-hlut-kyun was:

Tha-mok-da-rit, {a.moad-da.raiz}
Pyu-saw-di {pyu-sau:hti:} aka. {pyu-ming:hti:},
Hti-Minn-yin {hti:ming:yi},
Yin-minnpaik {yi-ming:peik},
Paik-thin-li {peik-th-l},
Thin-li-gyuang {th-l-kraung}. [UKT ]

Out of the 7 ruling kings, Pyu-saw-di in the year 121 Sakka Era (199 AD) (fn36) ascended the throne and named the royal city asAri-madd-da-na, the city of conquest over five fierce enemies. [UKT ]

The 7th ruler of Pagan Dynasty Thin-li-gyaung {th-l-kraung} transferred the seat to Kyauk-za-gar {kyauk-sa.ka:} village and called it Thi-ri-pyit-sa-ya. During his reign, the rains of treasures poured down. The patron of the guardian spirits Master Handsome and his younger sister were placed in Mount Popa. They came from Thinn-dwae, Tagaung, in Upper Myanmar. His son, known as Thin-li-poe, and the son of Thin-li-poe, called as Kyaungtu-rit, then Thi-htan, Tu-tha-ra-mon, and Thaik-taing ruled over the city and they were six in number. [UKT ]

During the reign of the sixth king, King Thaik-taing, the royal site was shifted to Tanpa-di-pa, the third royal city from Thi-ri-pyit-sa-ya. Originally it was known as Ywa-saik. A line of 21 kings ruled over the royal capital city from King Thaik-taing to King (), and the seat was in Tan-pa-wa-dy. At the time of the monk, teacher of Thin-ga-ra-zas wife (several lines undecipherable).

The calendar was corrected during the reign of King Thin-ga-ra-za, a former monk. In the year of 211 Myanmar Chronological Era (849 AD), representing the Myanmar term kya-oh-aing after relacing each word with numbers, King Pyin-bya moved the royal site to Ma-gyee village from Tan-pa-wa-dy and named the glorious royal capital Pu-ga-ra-ma. Twenty-three kings from King Pyin-bya ruled over the city of Pu-ga-rama. [UKT ]

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King Anawrahta {a.nau-ra.hta}

UKT: For comparison of the text below to what is now accepted, see: 
- King Anawrahta, 10151078 : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anawrahta 130119
- King Anawrahta, as historical novel in English: Heroes of Burma by Khin Myo Chit, based on what has been passed on to her by her maternal grandfather - a local historian.
   Personal note: I owe a lot to Daw Khin Myo Chit and her husband U Khin Maung Lat for the beginnings of my writing career.
- Heroes of Pagan {pu.gn-u-r:kaung:mya:} by Thawdasw, as a historical novel in Burmese.
   Personal note: When Thawdasw asked Daw Khin Myo Chit her permission to translate her book, she refused, but allowed him to take all materials from her book and write them out in his own words. She recognized in the younger author the ability as a writer and she would not like to lessen that ability by doing a mere translation. -- UKT130119

The eighth ruler from King Pyin-bya was King Anaw-ra-hta {a.nau-ra.hta} and in the year of 419 Myanmar Chronological Era (1057 AD), in the month of Ka-son, Ve-sak, this great king among men introduced and established the purest form of Buddhism, known as Theravada Buddhism, the ways of the elder Buddhist monks, which he brought from Thaton. He later renamed the royal city Pon-na-ga-ma. [UKT ]

He was also known as Anaw-rahta-minn-saw , and was regarded as the great able guardian king or lawka-nat {lau:ka.nat} in Myanmar language. He brought the whole canonical sacred scriptures of Buddhist doctrine and the order of the Buddhist monks from [{p16end}] the city of Thu-dhamma-na-ga-ra, that is to say, the holy city where real, authentic, genuine Buddhism flourished, and the city was popularly known as Thaton. [UKT ]

UKT 130207:
The words "was regarded as ... lawkanat {lau:ka.nat} is a simile". Such phrases makes reading pleasant but is bad for passing info.  
   {lau:ka.nat} - n. 1. a deity revered by the world. 2. celestial being noted for peacemaking, usually depicted in dancing posture with the feet holding timing cymbals. -- MLC MED2006-437
   It is to be noted that King Anawrahta did make peace after military conquest.

The powerful founder-king Anaw-ra-hta {a.nau-ra.hta} introduced and established Theravada Buddhism for purification, perpetuation, and propagation of the realistic teachings of the Buddha in the golden glorious city of Ari-madd-da-na. In the year of 163 Buddhist Dispensation Era, corresponding with Myanmar Chronological Era of 419 (1057 AD), on the 10th waxing moon of Da-boh-dwae {ta.po.tw:}, corresponding with February, on Thursday and when the moon was shining along with Kyatt-bi-ka constellation, at the times when the crab zodiac sign is at its lag, from the astrological point of view, King Anaw-ra-hta built the great golden pagoda of Shwe-zi-gon after enshrining the frontal bone, the left collarbone and a duplicated form of the sacred tooth-replica of Gautama Buddha. [UKT ]

UKT 130207:
The lunar month {ta.po.tw:} is the beginning of spring celebrated in China by Lunar New Year, in Hindu-India by the Spring Festival dedicated to Saraswati - the Goddess of Learning. The day of the week chosen, Thursday, is the day dedicated to the teacher of Devas.
   The Spring Festival or "Vasant Panchami (Hindi: वसन्त पञ्चमी), sometimes referred to as Saraswati Puja or Shree Panchami, is a Hindu festival. On this day Hindus worship Saraswati, the goddess of knowledge, music, art and culture." -- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vasant_Panchami 130207
   Personal info: I was born as the Moon was getting full. The astrological implication is that I could not get away from the pursuit of knowledge and teaching. I became a full-time Assistant Lecturer in Chemistry in Rangoon University teaching a large student body of over 150 first year students. I had just turned 20. The following year saw me teaching not only the first year students, but the second year students as well. When an American professor left suddenly, I had to take the third years teaching Inorganic Chemistry - my specialty at that time. I have been in the field of education -- changing disciplines all along -- to this very day when I am already 78 years old.

The sacrosanct relics are imperishable, kept in a gem-studded casket. Afterwards, the great king Anaw-ra-hta erected pagodas on top of Tant-kyi-taung, Tuyin-taung, Tha-lyaung and Pyet-kyei-taung (fn37). He enshrined four duplicated forms of the sacred tooth of Gautama Buddha in the stupas. The king also built the Shwe-hsan-daw pagoda (fn38), housing the sacred hair relic of Gautama Buddha, to the southern side of the royal holy city. King Anaw-ra-hta erected another pagoda, the Lokananda, on the southern side of the royal capital, Thi-ri-pyit-sa-ya. Nineteen years after the building of the Shwe-zi-gon pagoda, the great founder king Anaw-ra-hta ascended to the upper realm of the celestial beings at the age of 74.

UKT: The above para states that when Anawrahta died he was 74. The popular story of the death of was attributed to being killed by a wild water-buffalo which was in fact a nat in disguise who took revenge on the king for whipping him at one time. The incident took place when the king heard that a wild buffalo was terrorizing his subjects, and the king undertook to hunt it down single-handed. It would be very fool hardly for a man of 74. What ever the case may be, the king's body was never recovered. Some local scholars opined that the king was lured away and murdered by the many enemies he had made when he disrobed the Ari and by going after the nat-worshippers. I do not remember my sources. -- UKT 130119

The four holy Buddhist monks who came and visited the golden glorious city of Pagan during the reign of King Anaw-ra-hta were:

Shin-ma-ha-kittsee, {rhin ma.ha kic~s:}
   who resided to the north of Lei-gaing-kyaung monastery,
   who lived to the eastern side of the Minn-ta-yar-shwe-kyaung monastery,
   who resided to the north-western side of the Ma-myaw-ra-za Temple and
   who resided to the western side of the U-pali Ordination Hall. [UKT]

UKT, 130120: The name Kicsee {kic~s:} is important for a Pali scholar. Even at the time of the Buddha there was a monk by that name who was quoted by the Buddha himself as a great scholar.
   At the present time, those -- monks and nuns in particular -- learning Pal-Myan are taught the grammar authored by {kic~s:}. Now that we know, as par parabaik, that there was a {kic~s:} in Pagan, we can attribute the grammar text I have referred to as that authored by this Pagan monk.
   Now the question is: from where did this monk came. Was he from Thaton or Ceylon. In both cases Bur-Myan would be a foreign language to him. How did he came to write a Pali grammar in Myanmar script.
   If he was the one who wrote the Pal-Myan text, then the Myanmar script was already a matured script even in the time of Anawratha, and it preceded the time when Myazedi inscription (inscribed in 1113 AD) was written.
See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Myazedi_inscription 130120

The Myanmar term leigaing-kyaung which became the word lei-gaing refers to the four venerated Buddhist monks. [UKT]

During the reign of King Kyan-sit-tha, the Upa-li monastic centre was renamed Tha-man-ta-rit, and the Pa-thein- [{p17end}] kyaung was built by the governor of Pa-thein [Bassein ?] and named after him during Na-ra-pa-ti-zei-ya-thu-ras reign. [UKT]

After King Anaw-ra-hta had passed away his elder son, crown prince Saw-lu, ascended the throne of Pagan. He was crowned in the year 440 Myanmar Chronological Era (1078 AD). During his reign, the Mons under Ngaman-kan revolted. [UKT]

UKT 130207:
Raman (called Ngaman-kan) was the son of the wet-nurse of Sawlu. They were playmates as children. When Raman revolted he was referred to by the prefix {nga.}, and after he was blinded another affix was added -- a derisive one {km:} 'blind'.

After fighting against Nga-man-kans forces, King Saw-lu built a pagoda at the top of the hill which is situated at the right side of Pinn-chaung creek at the mouth of Aye-yar-wa-dy River. The pagoda was in the shape of Kya-thut-oh, the part of the pagoda resembling the lotus petal, with four entrances. The king enshrined a number of Buddhas sacred relics, and after completion of the pagoda, he paid reverence after he had hoisted the sacred umbrella. He had a coronation ceremony and became king of Pagan only after placing the sacred crowning part of the pagoda. [UKT]

After six years, King Saw-lu was executed by Nga-man-kan. [UKT 

UKT 130107:
It was probable King Sawlu was too weak to uproot the Mon-rebels who was headed by Raman. During the last battle, the king was lured late at night by the Mon-forces into a marsh where his elephant got stuck. He was captured and executed.


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King Kyansittha {kyn-sic-a:} (1030 1112)

-- UKT 130209:
The following is Bur-Myan excerpt from the Glass-Palace Chronicles.
I have yet to translate the above. It tells the site of the Kyansittha's palace.

UKT: Be careful with the Romabama spelling: {kyn-sic-a:}. The glyph {} stands for IPA /ʌ/ as in <but> /bʌt/. It is not {u} which in Romabama follows {w} as {wu}. The word {kyn} is 'survive': it is not {kyun} which can imply 'slave'. To avoid such catastrophes Romabama uses {kywun} for 'slave'.
   For comparison of the text below to what is now accepted, see: 
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kyansittha 130119

In the year of 446 Myanmar Chronological Era (1084 AD), Klan-pok-ta, also known as Min-kyan-yit-thar, ascended the throne of Pagan. He spent most of his time on serious domestic affairs for four years. [UKT ]

UKT: The year of ascension was given in Glass Palace Chronicle as 426 BE. His first born with the First queen was a beloved daughter. His second queen was the Princess of Pegu with whom he had an affair as he was escorting her from Pegu to Pagan to be presented to Anawratha. The third queen was the daughter of the headman of his native village, Hti-lhaing. His fourth wife - the niece of the Ari, who had given birth to a son after Kyansittha had left her, did not arrive in Pagan for sometime. Because Kyansittha deeply loved his daughter she was presented with a palace of her own. When she fell in love with a prince from an Indian state, and Kyansittha was in a fix as to what to do, because he had wanted his grandson from this daughter to succeed him. He was advised to give this daughter in marriage to Saw Ywun a grandson of Anawratha, and the son of Saw Lu. Saw Ywun was named the Crown Prince even though he was lame in a foot. This was prevent Indians coming into the line of succession.


In the fifth year, he rebuilt the great pagoda known as Ze-ya-hkon (Shwe-zi-gon {rhw-s:hkon}). In the year of 421 Myanmar Chronological Era (1059 AD) and thirty years after that, the pagoda had been small. [UKT ]

In the year of 451 (1089 AD), known in the Myanmar language as Tha-rawun year, on the 13th waxing moon of Da-zaung-mon, the eighth month of the Myanmar traditional lunar calendar, corresponding with November, on Wednesday, he enlarged the Pagoda, which was built of blocks of sandstone rather than bricks. [UKT ]

In the year of 452 Myanmar Chronological Era (1090 AD) which was Ba-ra-paik year, on the full-moon day of the 15th waxing moon of Kason, the second Myanmar month, the King finished the building of the Grand Shwe-zi-gon Pagoda. He erected four standing Buddha images facing the cardinal directions. The images were made from an amalgam of five different metals. He also constructed four pavilions, made from blocks of sandstone and bricks, beautifully and well done. He also made an ordination hall, a reclining Buddha statue, parts of four different kinds of zedi, and different statues of Thi-kyar-minn, Indra, Lord of thunder and chief of the celestial beings, and statues of other nat spirits. He erected the great precinct, (or) enclosure wall, guarded by chinthe (figures of heraldic lions). The interior great enclosure wall was made for the purpose of offering oil-lamps by the Rakhine (Arakan) Buddhist monk. [UKT ]


This monk was the preceptor of King Minn-gyi-tswasaw-kae {ming:kri: swa-sau-k:}, who was the descendant of the royal line of the Pagan Dynasty and the second ruler of Ra-ta-na-pura Inwa (Ava) city. The golden [{p18end}] glorious city of Inwa (Ava) was established and founded by this king, who was a very great, powerful, and mighty ruler of prowess and who also was well-known as Tha-doe-minn-phya. [UKT ]

UKT 130207
Mingyi-Swasawke {ming:kri: swa-sau-k:} (1367-1400) of Ava was elected by the ministers to succeed King Thadominbya who died without leaving an heir. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swasawke 130207

Thus, it was mentioned by the old well-learned and well-versed experts that the interior enclosure wall was constructed for the purpose that oil-lamps would be lighted. The year of 452 Myanmar Chronological Era was the same year, expressed in a parabaik, or ancient traditional folded document, in which the gold umbrella became the crowning part of the great Zei-yah-khon Pagoda, and Kalan-pok-taw, also known as King Kyan-tsit-tha, built the significant Ananda Temple. This great king of justice also erected the Na-ga-yon Temple, Pae-ya-da-na Temple, Minn-oh-chann-tha Pagoda and other religious edifices as a token of performing meritorious deeds. [UKT ]

In the year of 473 Myanmar Chronological Era (1111 AD) the great benevolent king of justice entered the age of 81. He was called Rin-nya Kalan-pok-taw, also known as King Kyan-tsit-tha. He passed away, or as the Myanmar language puts it, ascended to the upper realm of celestial beings. [UKT ]

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King Alaungsithu {a.laung:s-u}

-- UKT 130209 . See my note on Alaungsithu - the third most important king of Pagan

UKT: The port-city of Myanmarpr was Bassein {pu.thaim} -- a city with {pu.} as the first part of the name similar to that of Pagan {pu.gn}. Since the aksharas are supposed to retain their individual meaning, the two places are expected to share many things, depending on the meaning of {pu.}. Since the people of Pagan area, from where my Bur-Myan relatives come from, are afraid of sea and ocean there must have been sailors of other ethnic groups, such as Mons, who were in the service of the king. What does {pu.} mean in Mon-Myan, if there is such a syllable in Mon. I must learn Mon-Myan myself to come up with a first-hand answer. The question remains: did the king undertake any sea voyage to India and Malaysia. If he did, it would have to be be from {pu.thaim}. -- UKT130119

After King Kyan-tsit-tha had entered the abode of the celestial beings, the crown prince, who was the beloved grandson of King Kyantsit-tha as well as the great-grand-son of King Naw-ya-hta (Anawratha) attained the royal coronation ceremony and obtained the name of Na-rapa-ti-zei-ya-thu-ra, popularly known as Alaung-si-thu {a.laung:s-u}, in the year of 473 Myanmar Chronological Era.

After thirty years, in the year 573 (fn39) Myanmar Chronological Era, in the year when the Mi-ga-thi constellation tilted, on the 4th waxing day of Kahson, Ve-sak, the second Myanmar month, corresponding with the Vesak constellation, on Saturday which coincided with the Tha-ra-wun constellation, King Alaung-si-thu who attained the name of Thi-ri-tri-bawa-na-ti-bi-ta-ya-pa-wa-ra-pan-di-ta-dhamma-ra-za and who possessed great prowess, and who was well-known in the title of Na-ra-pa-ti-zeiya-thu-ra and who was the greatly embraced grand-son of King Kyantsit-tha and also great-grand-son of King Naw-ra-hta-saw, built the famed, sacrosanct edifice of Shwe-gu in the golden, glorious city of Pagan. This holy temple was amazing and finely-proportioned. It resembled the golden pagoda, with magnificent Buddha image, which was dedicated to the great, venerable Buddhas right-hand disciple, noted for great wisdom, next to Gautama Buddha, who was known as Ashintha-ri-put-ta-ra. Sacred relics from the body of the holy Buddhist saint were enshrined inside this temple and a life-size statue of the disciple was [{p19end}] also sculpted. [UKT ]

After he had performed the meritorious deed of building the Shwe-gu sacred temple, the great, powerful king performed another work of merit by building the imposing, impressive, captivating, and magnificent temple of That-byin-nyu, which implies the All-knowing Wisdom of the Buddha, The Most Enlightened One. [UKT ]

The temple resembled the Pok-va-yon pagoda complex, which was constructed in dedication to the venerated Buddhist disciple, who was the left-hand saint of Gautama Buddha and was noted for his supernatural psychic powers. A great donor, a lay woman, known as Wi-tha-kha, contributed a large amount of money at a cost of ninety million, after having sold a precious ornament known as Maan-li-ka. [UKT ]

The mighty king enshrined the sacred relics and replicas from the Holy Ones body and made the Buddha image, the size of which was the same as that of The Buddha, The Omniscient One, in the attitude of preaching His sermon to the celestial beings, as well as to the lay human beings. In addition, the great king performed the meritorious deed of erecting a huge bell, made from the purest bronze, weighing five thousand viss, to the south-eastern side of the That-byin-nyu Temple. [UKT ]

The throne name of the great monarch, was Thi-ri-tri-ba-wa-na-ti-bi-ta-ya-pa-wa-ra-pan-di-ta-dhamma-ra-za. He was also called Na-ra-pa-ti-zei-ya-thu-ra-dhamma-ra-za, as well as King Alaung-si-thu. After performing the meritorious work of building the holy temples of Shwe-gu and That-byin-nyu and other religious edifices, the king entered the upper realm of the nats, the celestial beings, at the age of 74 (in 1167 AD), 26 years after 503 Myanmar Era, the year in which the Shwe-gu Temple was built.

There was a long line of 55 kings who ruled over the glorious city of Pagan, which was known by five different names:

Pon-na-ga-ma, and
Pu-ga-ma. [UKT ]

Out of these 55 rulers, the great king Na-ra-pa-ti-zei-ya-thu-ra, popularly known as King Alaung-si-thu, had got two grand-sons, Minn-yin-na-ra-thein-ga and Na-ra-pa-ti-si-thu. These were the sons of King Na-ra-thu. Na-ra-pa-tisi-thu erected the Su-la-ma-ni temple, the Gaw-daw-pa-lin, the Dham-miya-ladd-da, the Dham-ma-yan and a number of temples as well. His regnal name was Thi-ri-tri-ba-wa-na-ti-ta-ya-pa-wa-ra-pan-di-tadhamma-ra-za. [UKT ]

During the reign of King Na-ra-pa-ti-si-thu, five venerated Buddhist monks arrived in Pagan from Ceylon. These five missionaries were known as:

Hsa-ba-da Thera,
Ta-pa-nein-da Thera,
Thiwa-li Thera,
Ananda Thera and
Rahula Thera,

and they performed their religious duties for the sake of the Dispensation of the Buddha, The Most Enlightened One (several lines missing). [{p20end}]

The grandson of that king, known as Na-daung-mya, constructed famous religious edifices such as Cei-da-na Zedi, Ma-ha-bodhi Zedi, Hti-lo-minnlo Zedi and several other monuments. The famous king who built these three prominent zedis was known as King Zei-ha-thein-kha. His elder son, King Kya-zwa, was deeply absorbed in the purification, perpetuation, and prolongation of the teachings of the Buddha and compiled the historic, thought-provoking treatise known in the Pali language as Pa-ramatt-hta-bein-du kyann. [UKT ]

The grand-son of King Kya-zwa was King Thiha-pa-tei who built the great Min-ga-la Zedi to the southern side of the city of Pagan. A high-ranking royal court official who served under King Thi-ha-pa-tei compiled the authoritative, comprehensive text Ti-ka-letthann-than-yoke kyann, which means the text which was measured as one small finger in thickness. This was a commentary and introduction to the famed Kit-tsee kyann. UKT

UKT: "The famed Kit-tsee kyann" is no other than the Pali grammar written in Pal-Myan by Shin Kicsee {kic~s:}. -- UKT130120

In the city of Pan-ya {ping:ya.}, King Thi-ha-thu-radhamma-ra-za, known as Hsin-byu-shin, erected the pagoda known as the Pan-ya Shwe-zi-gon. The eminent envoy, Tsa-tu-rin-ga compiled the comprehensive text, which was a commentary on the dictionary known in Pali as Abi-dan-ti-ka kyann. He served under King Hsin-byu-shin. [UKT ]

UKT 130120: Note that Pinya {ping:ya.} was founded only after Pagan was conquered by the Mongol invaders of Kublai Khan. Thus "Hsin-byu-shin" referred to above must be {tic-si:rhing} of Pinya. An inscription in Bur-Myan script, dated 1296 AD, was found in India in which was mentioned the name of this king. See Translation of an Inscription in Bur-Myan at Buddh Gya -- Bur-inscrip-india.htm (link chk 130208)

The preceding document was finished in the year of 1152 Myanmar Chronological Era (1790 AD). [UKT ]

The next manuscript was finished in the year 1237 Myanmar Era (1875 AD). [UKT ]

The third written parabaik was finished on Saturday on the 7th waning day of Tha-dinn-gyut, the seventh month in the Myanmar traditional lunar calendar. The document, made from one kind of palm leaves, was written, copied and the record was completed in the evening of the last (14th) waning day of Na-yon, third month in the Myanmar traditional lunar calendar, on Monday, in the year of 1279 Myanmar Chronological Era (1917 AD.

[UKT: end of "blockquote}]

UKT: Ava was almost destroyed by Thohanbwa .
From: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thohanbwa 130208

Thohanbwa {o-hun-Bwa:}; Shan: Sao Hung Pha; 1505 May 1543) was king of Ava from 1527 to 1542 [assassinated] . The eldest son of Sawlon of Mohnyin was a commander who actively participated in Monhyin's numerous raids of Ava's territories in the first quarter of 16th century. In March 1527, the ethnically Shan king was appointed king of Ava by Sawlon after Mohnyin-led confederation of Shan States defeated Ava in 1527. After Sawlon was assassinated in 1533, Thohanbwa became the undisputed king of Ava as well as chief of Mohnyin. However, he was not immediately accepted by other chiefs as the leader of the confederation.


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Discussion and future prospects.

This document, while in part a retelling of earlier traditional stories, whose analysis we will leave to the textual specialists, contains some valuable technical information. The measurements of the city, despite what may be a few misprints or reproduced errors, fit the existing city walls fairly well (Figure 3). They suggest a rectangular site, with four walls, which supports the hypothesis that a western wall may have been washed away [{p21end}] by the river at some time in the past (fn40). The parabaiks location of the original palace in the geometric centre of the city is of course suggestive of a symbolic Mount Meru, with four slopes forming cosmological hillsides leading up to the royal (and holy) centre (fn41). [UKT ]

The apportioning of responsibility for different parts of the city to management committees of men and nats also has cosmological implications It suggests that the quarters of the city were divided into four rhomboid zones, based on a side of the main wall and the relevant side of the central elite centre (Figure 4). The description of a new allocation of governance in the city at the time of King Narapatisithu is interesting in that the western side of the city does not get a mention. Absence of evidence is not much evidence at all, but if we were to hypothesise that the document contains some valid historical information, could we ask if this was because the western wall had been washed away by that time?

The Brief History of Pagan must be viewed in the light of the existing archaeological evidence. Only half a dozen structures (Figure 5) are attributed to the 11th Century AD by the Inventory of Monuments at Pagan (fn42). They cluster in the northern and southern portions of the city, though there are not really enough of them to suggest a pattern. [UKT ]

The radiocarbon dates (fn43) that are now available relate to activities on the eastern side of the city, including a site excavated in the early 1990s that is widely assumed to be a palace complex (Figure 5). The carbon dates suggest that there was wall-building activity some time during or after the period 1020-1300 AD, that an earthenware-lined latrine was in use just outside the present wall some time between 990 and 1210 AD, and that in the elite compound, in which a teak post a metre wide, from a tree that dated to between 980 and 1250 AD, was used as construction material, there was also a substantial fire no earlier than 1300 AD.

None of this evidence supports a ninth century origin for the city. However proponents of the ninth century hypothesis can still take heart from the parabaik. The information in the document has been put to a practical test, with promising results. An excavation [{p22end}] by the Archaeology Department at Pagan in 2000-2001 on a corner of the area suggested by the measurements in the parabaik as the location of the original palace site has led to the discovery of some previously unrecorded building foundations (fn44).

It is much too early to reach any conclusions about this discovery, and more investigation will be required. For research methods, we might look to a range of technologies. The structure at Yon Hlut Kyun (Figure 2) was first located by augering, using a simple posthole-digging tool. Over a broader area, where there has not been, as we had at Yonhlut, both oral history and documentary information to point the way, there may be scope in the future for the use of ground-penetrating radar. Airborne radar survey, for example, has provided substantial new data on the origins and growth of Angkor, another of the great capitals of Southeast Asia (fn45). We should not exclude any method, from state-of-the-art science to discussions with farmers or local residents about what they have learned from the land they live on. As the hints already given to investigators by the Brief History of Pagan indicate, documentary sources can be, by design or by accident, valuable repositories of information for the field archaeologist, and help trigger the acquisition of hard evidence to aid the historian and the textual scholar.

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The archaeological side of the research was made possible by the Carlyle Greenwell Bequest and the Australian Institute of Nuclear Science and Engineering (Grants 00/180S, 01/150). The work has been encouraged and facilitated by U Nyunt Han, Director General of Archaeology, and U Aung Kyaing, Assistant Director General. Heartfelt thanks for their collaboration on ongoing projects goes to U Nyein Lwin and U Win Maung (Tanpawady). Thanks for data and academic input go to Pierre Pichard, Roland Fletcher, Mike Barbetti, Michael Aung-Thwin, Andrew Wilson, Ian Johnston and Pamela Gutman. At the Yon Hlut Kyun excavation, I would like to acknowledge the contributions of Tessa Boermah, Emma Hetherington, Shah Alam Zaini, Don [{p23end}] Tindale, Ted Robinson, Jordan Robinson and the excavators, U San Ke, U Nyunt Aung, U Kan Myint, Bo Kyin, Aung-Nine, Shwe-oo and Myint-oo. [{p24end. End of article.]

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fn29 The prophecy is related in Pe Maung Tin and G. H. Luce, op cit, 29. fn29b

fn30 23,982 feet [UKT: 5,280 feet = 1 mile. Thus, 23982 ft = 4.5 mile approx.] in circumference is much too big, and I suggest that the figure is erroneous. Luce suggested that 1 tar (or ta) was equal to 7 cubits (Luce, G. H. Economic Life of the Early Burman Journal of the Burma Research Society 1940 30(1): 291-292). I have taken this to mean the 20.62 inch Egyptian (52.37 centimetres) Royal cubit. See Flinders Petrie, W. M. The Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh. London; Field & Tuer, Ye Leadenhalle Presse; Simpkin, Marshall & Co., Stationers' Hall Court; Hamilton, Adams & Co., Paternoster Row. New York: Scribner & Welford, 743 Broadway. 1883. Chapter 20. By this reckoning 1 tar would equal 3.6659 metres and the circumference of the city would be 4,186 metres or 13,734 feet. fn30b

fn31 The parabaik describes every gate as being one tar wide and two tar deep. Repetition of this description has been omitted. fn31b

fn32 Also known as the Tharaba or Saraba gate, this is the main entrance to the old city from the east today. It is item number 1634 in Pichard, Pierre The Inventory of Monuments at Pagan (Volume 6) 1996 KISCADALE EFEO UNESCO. Statues of the brother and sister nats flank each side of the entrance, in shrines that the Inventory suggests are later additions. fn32b

fn33 This king reigned in the late 12th century AD. The date 53 MCE would be 691 AD. It may be a misprint. (Year AD = Year MCE + 638). fn33b

fn34 See The Glass Palace Chronicle, op cit, p 116-120, for more of this complex tale. fn34b

fn35 This may be an error on the part of the author or someone involved in a later transcription. It more likely refers to a calendrical transition from the Buddhist (Sasana) Era, which begins in 544 BC, to the Sakka Era, which begins in 78 AD fn35b

fn36 This is a little later than the traditional date mentioned in the Glass Palace Chronicle. Interestingly, the Hsipaw Chronicle puts the founding of the 19 villages about a century after the Glass Palace Chronicle date, at around 221 AD - see U Sai Aung Tuns paper, Shan-Myanmar Relations As Found in the Hsipaw Chronicle, Texts and Contexts Conference, 2001. fn36b

fn37 The first two sites, mountaintop pagodas on the western and eastern sides of the city, are well known. The locations of other two have eluded this author - the Lokananda and the Shwezigon are more commonly viewed as the citys other two main boundary markers. fn37b

fn38 There is a useful discussion of this pagoda, now mainly used as a viewing-platform for tourists, in Strachan, Paul. 1989 Pagan: Art and Architecture of Old Burma, Kiscadale. P 42-44. fn38b

fn39 This is presumably a misprint in the original document-503 MCE/1141 AD would be more likely. fn39b

fn40 See Thin Kyi, Daw. 1964 The Old City of Pagan. Essays offered to . H. Luce, Volume 2. Artibus Asiae. fn40b

fn41 Thanks to Dr Waldemar Sailer for pointing this out when the paper was read in Yangon in 2001. fn41b

fn42 Pichard 1992-1999, op cit. fn42b

fn43 Grave, Peter and Barbetti, Mike. 2001 Dating the City Wall, Fortification and the Palace Site at Pagan. Asian Perspectives 40(1). The authors point out that plateaux exist in the radiocarbon calibration curve for this period, seriously broadening the calendar age ranges. However their results essentially point to construction no earlier than the thirteenth and possibly during the fourteenth century. fn43b

fn44 This work owes much to the indefatigable antiquarian U Win Maung (Tanpawady), who introduced me to the parabaik. fn44b

fn45 See Fletcher, Roland. 2001 New radar imagery contributes to better understanding of Angkor World Heritage property, Cambodia. Asia-Pacific Focal Point Newsletter 1: 3. fn45b

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UKT notes

King Alaungsithu {a.laung:s-u}

-- UKT 130209 . The third most important king of Pagan is Alaungsithu. The following is from Glass Palace Chronicle. The account reads like a fairy tale, yet there are many pieces of useful information that could be gleaned from it.

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Prince Pataikkara

-- UKT 080826, 130209

The mention of "three different ethnic groups, namely, Thet, Pa-deik-kha-ya, and Pyu" reminds me of the story of {pa.Taik~ka.ra:} and {rhw-aim-}. See Glass Palace Chronicles, vol.1, p279-280. (See the story in ch04-alchem.htm. Link chk 130210) It makes me wonder whether the word {pa.Taik~ka.ra:} stands for
# Bengal - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Bengal 130210 
# Chittagon  - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chittagong 130210 
# Tripura - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tripura 130210
# Vaisali {w-tha-li} - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vaishali_ancient_city 130210

UKT translation:
When the Prince of Padeik-kaya heard about the Burmese princess, he placed a MagicEye {myak-rhing} (an alchemical-sphere of mercury and various materials for imbibing energy to make a person fly through the air) in his cheek, and travelled through the air to Pagan. In Pagan, he bribed the ministers-in-charge, a bribe of 10 bushels of silver, to get a chance to see the princess. In due time they became lovers. When the Lord of Hti'lhaing (Kyansittha) came to know of the affair he asked his ministers for advice whether to accept the prince, or to give his daughter in marriage to the grandson of Anawratha (his Lord), and the son of Sawlu. The ministers rejected the Prince of Padeik-kaya on the ground that he was an Indian which would make the country   Indian. On the other hand Saw'yun, even though he was lame would be suitable. The king gave his daughter in marriage to Saw'lun and make him the Crown Prince. -- end of p.279-2

UKT translation:
In due time, Shin Arahan {a.rhing a.ra.hn} (Anawratha's mentor responsible for making the king taking the Tipitika from Thaton by force and keeping the Mon-king as a well-treated "guest" in Pagan, because the Mon-kingdom was becoming "corrupt" by accepting un-Theravada Buddhism) was on his way to Maha-baudi on pilgrimage. (It was not clear whether the monk was on foot or flying through the air.) The monk saw the Prince of Padaik-kara coming through the air with the Magic-Eye in his mouth: "Prince, it is not suitable for you to go. Shw-ainthi is now married to Saw'yun". The prince in amazement said "Ha", and the Magic Eye dropped out of his mouth. He immediately fall from the sky and died. -- end of p280-1.

UKT translation:
According to some historians, the prince was flying through the air wearing a Magic Ruby finger-ring when he met Shin Arahan. On hearing the news of Shw-Ainthi being given in marriage to Saw'yun, he starved himself to death. -- end of p280-2

The next para 280-3 concerns the birth of Alaungsithu, and has been placed under the heading of Alaungsitghu.

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The royal line of Yon-lwut-kywun

The king who unified the 19 villages into the first capital of Pagan was Tha-mok-da-rit, who was followed by Ya-thae-gyaung.

1. Tha-mok-da-rit
2. Ya-thae-gyaung

Then came {pyu-ming:hti:} and his descendants -- from the names of the kings of this dynasty in Glass Palace Chronicles, vol.1, p.203-209.

3. {pyu-ming:hti:} (r. 75yr, 89 BE - 164 BE, life-span 110yr) >
4. {hti:ming:yi} (r. 57yr, 164 BE - 221 BE, life-span 107yr) >
5. {yi-ming:peik} (r. 25yr, 221 BE - 246 BE, life-span 75yr) >
6. {peik-th-l} (r. 20yr, 246 BE - 266 BE, life-span 61yr) >
7. {th-l-kraung} (r. 43yr, 266 BE - 309 BE, life-span 96yr) >
8. {kraung-du-ric} (r. 25yr, 309 BE - 334 BE, life-span 80yr)

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End of TIL file