Update: 2016-08-19 05:30 AM -0400


An Elementary Geography of
India, Burma, and Ceylon


by Henry Francis Blanford, F.R.S, Late Metrological Reporter to the Government of India, Macmillan & Co., London & New York, 1890, pp191. http://books.google.ca/books?... 130103 

Downloaded and set in html by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA), and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL). Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR:  http://www.tuninst.net, www.romabama.blogspot.co

Bur-Myan spellings in Myanmar script and Romabama are included. Romabama spellings are within { }, and regular English words within < >. You'll need only Arial Unicode MS font to read these files. Any other Unicode font may not display the characters correctly.

caption on pix: UKT frm Elem-Geog-Blanford, 1890

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See downloaded files in SD-TIL Library:
1. 6.78 MB version, stored in this folder
- Blanford-ElemGeo-Ind-Burm-Ceylon-1890 (link chk 160819)
2. 12.1 MB version in TIL SD-Library
- Blanford-Geo-Indi-Burm-Ceylon-1890<Ô> / bkp<Ô> (link chk 160819)
Based on my interest I have divided this presentation in three parts. Part 2, dealing with Burma and Adaman-Nicobar island groups in which Coco-Islands are now included in Myanmarpré, is my interest. Parts 1 (with most of the pix) and 3 (without any pix) are at present only of cursory interest. -- UKT130104

Original TOC
Images from the first part

Burma : p162
Adaman and Nicobar islands : p 175

Ceylon : p177


UKT notes

UKT frm Elem-Geog-Blanford, 1890

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(roman 05)
In this little book the geography of the Indian Empire is described on the same general plan as that adopted by Dr. Geikie in his Geography of the British India , but with much modifications as were found necessary in dealing with a country far more extensive, diversified, and unfamiliar in most its aspects. [UKT ¶]

In order to bring so large a subject within the modest limits of less than 200 pages, it has been necessary to restrict the descriptions to such features as are most characteristic and important, and it has not been possible to enter into much detail. Teachers and others who may require such for their own information may readily obtain it in Dr. George Smith's excellent Students' Geography of British India, in Sir W.W. Hunter's Indian Empire, and especially the Imperial Gazetteer of India, and the numerous articles in the ninth edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica. Elphinstone's History of India, edited by Professor E.B. Cowell, is perhaps the best work of reference for the history of the Indian people under their Hindu and Muhammadan rulers, and for the elucidation of such few historic allusions as are to be met with in these pages. And for a philosophical insight into the character and social condition of the people of India, no work can compare wtih Sir Alfred Lyall's Asiatic Studies.

(roman 06)
In the course of long service in India, the author has had occasion to visit most parts of the Empire, and much of the general description of the country and its provinces is either based on or controlled by the results of personal observation. But of course the great mass of the information, has been taken from other authentic sources, and the author is also indebted to several friends for additional information on certain subjects for which his own means of references were insufficient.

The statistics of areas, population, etc., are given chiefly for comparison, and in order to inculcate true ideas of proportion, not for the purpose of burdening  the pupil's mind with tables of unmeaning figures.

The illustrations are for the most part taken from photographs. Many of those of the natives of India have been copied, wtih the courteous permission of Dr. Rost, the chief librarian of the India Office, from the beautiful series collected by the Government of India. It is due to Messrs. Cooper and Sons, the engravers, to testify to the truthfulness of their reproduction as woodcuts.

In the spelling of Indian names, the authorized lists issued by the Government of India have been followed. The principle on which these lists have been drawn up is that the names of well known places that have acquired a fixed English spelling, such as Calcutta, Delhi, Lucknow, Cawnpore, etc, are written in the usual form. In the case of others, the native spelling is followed more or less closely in so far as the elemental sounds, can be represented by English letters. By attention to a few simple rules the proper pronunciation of these names can be easily mastered.

Consonants have the same sound as in English, observing that g is always hard as in gig ; ch has the same sound as in church ; and sh the ordinary English sound as in shall . Except after these two letters h is always an aspirate, and the consonant that it follows is aspirated.

(roman 07)
The accent is thrown on the accented syllable : á always has the same sound as in father ; é that of a in mate or ê in the French même ; í  that of ee in feel ; ó that of o in pole ; and ú that of u in rule or oo in pool .

The unaccentuated a has generally the sound of u in but , or better , that of the o in button ; e that of the e in met or of the French é in the été ; i that of the i  in fill ; o that of o in folly ; and u its sound in put .

These rules of course do not apply to Anglicised names nor do they to those of most of most places in Burma, but Indian names of objects and technical terms, such as pipal , pandit , rath , vihára , Khádar , etc., are spelt and should be pronounced according to the same system. [UKT ¶]

It is to be regretted, perhaps, that the system of accenting the long vowels has not been quite rigorously adhered to, since the u in the final syllable pur  ( púr , a town), so common in Indian names, though unaccented is a long vowel, and the first A in Aligarh is long, but not the second. [UKT ¶]

In a few instances, also, the official lists are discordant in the different provinces. Thus the rivers Són , Gandak , Mahánadi , etc., of the Central Provinces and the North-West Provinces appear as the Soane , Gunduk , Mahanuddy , etc., in the Bengal list. In such cases both forms are given in these pages. 

Contents of this page


(roman 09
The Indian Empire -- 001
  Influence of India's Geography on its People
  Geographical Position
  Outer Form, Size, and Boundaries
  General Surface Features
  Plants and Animals
  Religion and Caste
  Products, Industries, and Commerce
  Internal Communications

The Government of India and its Provinces -- 047
  The Supreme Government
  Provincial Governments
  Native States
  Foreign Possessions

The Provinces of India -- 050
  The Punjab
  North-West Provinces and Oudh
  Central India Agency
  Central Provinces
  Bombay [{roman 10}]
  Mysore and Coorg
  Burma  -- 162
  Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Foreign Possessions in India -- 182

Frontier States -- 184


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The Indian Empire

We speak of India as a single country, because it is under one supreme government; but it is really a collection of many countries, differing from each other in soil, climate, and productions, in the races that occupy them, in the languages, religions, and civilization of their peoples, and in many respects. Yet no country is more distinctly marked off by natural boundaries. Although it forms a part of Asia it is nearly cut off from the remainder of the continent by the great mountain chain, the Himalaya, on its northern border, and the almost equally lofty, cold, and barren table-land of Tibet beyond; while its southern half projects into the Indian Ocean, and is ...


Images from the first part



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Reprd by UKT 130104 from
Elementary Geography by Blanford, 1890


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Adaman and Nicobar islands


Barren Island coordinates: 12.27 deg.N., 93.85 deg.E.
-- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barren_Island_Andaman_Islands 130104

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(contd from p177)


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UKT notes



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End of TIL file