Update: 2006-03-19 02:08 PM +0700

TIL

Medicinal Plants of Myanmar

Zingiberaceae

by Kyaw Soe and Tin Myo Ngw, Forest Resource Environment Development and Conservation Association (FREDA), Series 1, 2004, ISBN 974-91986-0-3
Copied by U Kyaw Tun, and staff of TIL for staff and students of TIL. Not for sale.

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UKT: Nagathein references are given to check the Burmese-Myanmar names. * shows where there is no agreement in Burmese name but when the plant is identifiable from botanical name.

{pa.t-kau:kri:} Alpinia conchigera Griff. 2-183
{meith~tha.ling} Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. 2-453

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KS-TMN 222

{pa.t-kau:kri:} Alpinia conchigera Griff. 2-183

Botanical name: Alpinia conchiger Griff. Notul. 3. 424
Myanmar name: Pade-gaw-gyi
English name: Greater Galangal
Family: Zingiberaceae

Burmese-Myanmar name in Nagathein 2-183:
{pa.t-kau:kri:}

Photos:
left -- close up of flowers
right -- close up of fruits
Click on the pictures to enlarge.

Identification characters:
A perennial herb; rhizomes horizontal, tuberous, thick, fleshy, aromatic; aerial stems elongate, leafy; roots adventitious, arise from rhizomes. Leaves cauline, alternate, distichous; petioles short; ligules triangular; blades lanceolate to elliptical, the bases usually cuneate, sometimes obtuse, the margins entire, undulate, the tips acute to acuminate, venation closely parallel-pinnate, the upper surfaces glabrous, the lower pubescent. Inflorescences terminal paniculate cymes; bracts small, ovate, scarious. Flowers pedicellate, bisexual, zygomorphic, trimerous, epigynous. Calyx synsepalous, 3-lobed, the lobes minute, triangular, the tubes tubular, short. Corolla synpetalous, 3-lobed, the tubes cylindrical, the lobes equal, elliptic-oblong, cucullate, the upper lobe broaderthan the laterals, greenish white. Androecium polyandrous, the fertile stamen 1, stout arcuate, the filament flattened, epipetalous at mouth of corolla tube, yellow above, reddish below, the anthers dithecous, the lobes ellipsoid, divergent apically, yellow the spur and crest absent, the lateral staminodes absent, the lip or labellum orbicular, retuse, the margins incurved, cream coloured, with red streaks on either side, the 2 basal auricles small, tooth-like, basifixed, introrse, dehiscence longitudinal. Pistil 1, ovary globose, 3-lobed, 3-carpelled, syncarpous, 3-loculed, the ovules numerous, the placentation axile with one row of ovules in each locule, the style filiform, inserted within the grooved filament of the fertile stamen, the stigma infundibuliform. Fruit a loculicidal capsule, globose; seeds numerous, small, angled, arillate, aromatic, endospermc.

Flowering period: October-December
Fruiting period: January-March

Distribution: Grows wild or cultivated throughout Myanmar.
Parts used and uses: Rhizomes -- Expectorant; Cough; Sore throat; Carminative; Indigestion; Purexia; Heart disease Oral infection; Dysuria.

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KS-TMN 225

{meith~tha.ling} Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. 2-453

Botanical name: Zingiber cassumunar Roxb in Asiat. Res. 9.347.f.5.1810.
Myanmar name: Meik-thalin
English name: ---
Family: Zingiberaceae

Burmese-Myanmar name in Nagathein 2-453:
{meith~tha.ling}

Photos:
left -- habit with pedunculate spikes
right -- cultivated plants
Click on the pictures to enlarge.

Identification characters:
A perennial herb; rhizomes horizontal creeping, tuberous, cylindrical to ovoid, irregular, palmately and profusely branched, laterally compressed, strongly aromatic; aerial stems leafy, cylindrical, erect, annual. Leaves alternate, distichous, simple, subsessile or shortly petiolate; leaf sheaths oblong, with membranous margins; ligules ovate, membranous. Inflorescences radical, spikes cylindrical, fusiform or cone-like, borne on a peduncle produced from rootstock; bracts outer and inner, spirally arranged, very dense, persistent, reddish white, the outer broadly ovate to sub-orbicular, cucullate, the inner ovate, glabrous. Flowers ebracteolate, bisexual, zygomorphic, trimerous, epigynous. Calyx synsepalous, cylindrical, 3-toothed, the tubes split half way down, whitish, deciduous. Corolla synpetalous, unequally 3-lobed, the posterior lobe elliptic-lanceolate, erect and concave, the laterals alnceolate, deflexed, yellowish white, deciduous. Androecium of 1 fertile stamen, epipetalous at the mouth of corolla tube, inserted, the filaments very short, deeply grooved, yellowish white, with purplish mottlings at the dorsals of bases, the anthers dithecous, oblongoid, appendix or beak curved, introrse, dehiscence longitudinal; lip or labellum 3-lobed, as long as the corolla lobes, attached at the mouth of corolla tube, opposite the fertile stamen, the middle lobe orbicular, emarginate, the 2 laterals or the basal auricles large, ovate or oblong-obtuse, crisped, yellowish white with reddish purple mottlings. Pistil 1, ovary triangular or 3-lobed, tomentose, 3-carpelled, syncarpous, 3-loculed, the placentation axile, the ovules many, superposed, the style filiform, passing through the channel of two anther lobes and appendix of connectives, the filiform processes 2, acicular, at anterior side of style bases, the stigma cupuliform, ciliate. Fruit a dehiscing capsule, globose or globosely oblongoid; seeds large, globosely oblongoid, arillate.

Flowering period: April-July
Fruiting period: June-August

Distribution: Grows wild especially in lower Myanmar. Commonly cultivated.

Parts used and uses: Rhizome -- Amenorrhoea; Gastrointestinal colic; Dysentery; Haemorrhoid; Skin disease; Antidote for snake venom; Indigestion.

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