Update: 2006-03-19 02:08 PM +0700

TIL

Medicinal Plants of Myanmar

Verbenaceae

by Kyaw Soe and Tin Myo NgwÚ, Forest Resource Environment Development and Conservation Association (FREDA), Series 1, 2004, ISBN 974-91986-0-3
Copied by U Kyaw Tun, and staff of TIL for staff and students of TIL. Not for sale.

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UKT: Nagathein references are given to check the Burmese-Myanmar names. * shows where there is no agreement in Burmese name but when the plant is identifiable from botanical name.

{nga.ran░.pa.du} Clerodendrum siphonanthus R. Br. 1-343
{kraung-pan:} Vitex trifolia L. 1-187

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KS-TMN 218

{nga.ran░.pa.du} Clerodendrum siphonanthus R. Br. 1-343

Botanical name: Clerodendrum siphonanthus R. Br. in Ait. Hort. Kew. ed. n. 2. 65. 1813.
Myanmar name: Ngayant-padu
English name:  ---
Family: Verbenaceae

Burmese-Myanmar name in Nagathein :1-343
{nga.ran░.pa.du}

Photos:
left -- habit with flowers
right -- habit with fruits
Click on the pictures to enlarge.

Identification characters:
An evergreen shrub, tall, erect; stems woody, cylindrical. Leaves in whorls of 3-4, simple; exstipulate; subsessile; laminae oblong or oblong or narrowly lanceolate, the baaes cuneate, the margins entire or sinuate, the tips shortly acuminate, unicostate, reticulate, he surfaces glabrous. Inflorescences in terminal and axillary dichasial cymes, the cymules 3-flowered, very lax; bracts linear. Flowers bracteolate, pedicellate, bisexual, zygomorphic, pentamerous, hypogynous. Calyx synsepalous, 5-partite, campanulate, the lobes oblong or ovate, acute, peristent. Corolla synpetalous, 5-lobed, salverform, the lobes ovate-oblong, spreading, the tubes tubular, very slender, curved, white. Androecium polyandrous, stamens 4, didynamous, epipetalous, much exserted, the anthers dithecous, dorsifixed, introrse, dehiscence longitudinal. Pistil 1, 2-carpelled, imperfectly 4-loculed, due to false septation, the placentaiton axile, the ovule solitary in each locule, the style filicorm, the stigma shortly 2-fid. Fruit a drupe, globose, persistent calyx; seeds 1-4, ellipsoid, non-endospermic.

Flowering period: October-December
Fruiting period: November-January

Distribution: Grows wild throughout Myanmar
Parts used and uses: Root -- Lung disease; Fatigue. Root, leaf, flower, fruit and seed -- Reduce inflammation due to induration. Root -- Pleural effusion; Cough; Leucoderma; Leucoderma; Leprosy; Gouty arthritis; Analgesic for muscle aches and pains ;Muscle relaxant; Regulates the urinary system and bowel habits; Fatigue due to overwork; Menstrual disorders. Leaf and root -- Dynamic effect on blood circulatory system; Carminative; Bronchial asthma; Cough; Suppurative lung infection; Fatigue

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KS-TMN 221

{kraung-pan:} Vitex trifolia L. 1-187

Botanical name: Vitex trifolia L.Sp.Pl. 638. 1753.
Myanmar name: Kyaung-ban
English name: ---
Family: Verbenaceae

Burmese-Myanmar name in Nagathein :1-187
{kraung-pan:}

Photos:
left --habit with flowers
right -- habit with fruits
Click on the pictures to enlarge.

Identification characters:
A shrub or small tree; bark grey, younger stems tomentose. Leaves opposite, some simple, some palmately 3-foliolate; exstipulate; petiolate; leaflets elliptic, obovate or obovate-oblong, the bases obtuse, the margins entire, the tips acute to obtuse, the upper surfaces glabrous, the lower tomentose, sessile, rarely very shortly petiolulate, Inflorescences paniculate cymes, usually terminal; bracts minute. Flower ebracteolate, pedicellate, bisexual, zygomorphic, pentamerous, hypogynous. Calyx synsepalous, 5-toothed, campanulate, peristent, slightly accrescent in fruit. Corolla synpetalous, tubular, 5-lobed, bilabiate, the lower lip 3-lobed, the middle lobe largest, tomentose, purplish blue. Androecium polyandrous, divaricate, introrse, dehiscence longitudinal. Pistil 1, ovary globose, 2-carpelled, syncarpous, 4-loculed, due to false septation, the placentation axile, the ovule 1 in each locule, the style filiform, the stigma 2-fid. Fruit a drupe, globose, embraced by the persistent and slightly accrescent calyx, more than half its length, endocarp bony; seeds obovid or oblongoid, non-endospermic.

Flowering and fruiting periods: Throughout the year
Distribution: Throughout Myanmar, usually found in both tropical and temperate regions.

Parts used and uses: Roots, barks, leaves, flowers -- Leprosy; Carminative; Aches; Heal sores, boils and pustules; Antipyretic; Antiseptic; Cough; Expectorant; Diuretic; Regulates menstrual cycle; Promotes bone marrow function; Give energy; Antidote for snake and scorpion venoms. Leaf -- Neuropathy; Otorrhea; Otalgia; Oedema; Heals boils and pustules; Skin disease; Leucorrhea; Diptheria; Puerperal pyrexia; Malaria; Hepatitis.

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