Update: 2006-03-19 12:41 PM +0700

TIL

Medicinal Plants of Myanmar

Rubiaceae

by Kyaw Soe and Tin Myo Ngw, Forest Resource Environment Development and Conservation Association (FREDA), Series 1, 2004, ISBN 974-91986-0-3
Copied by U Kyaw Tun, and staff of TIL for staff and students of TIL. Not for sale.

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UKT: Nagathein references are given to check the Burmese-Myanmar names. * shows where there is no agreement in Burmese name but when the plant is identifiable from botanical name.

{ring-kat-kri:} Gardenia coronaria Buch.-Ham. 3-155
{poaN~Na.reip}  Lxora coccinia L. 2-264
{htein} ; {mhau-htein} Mitragyna parvifolia(Roxb.) Korth. 2-065
{ni-pa.hs:} ; {r:yo} Morinda citrifolia L. 2-141

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KS-TMN 190

{ring-kat-kri:} Gardenia coronaria Buch.-Ham. 3-155

Botanical name: Gardenia coronaria Buch.-Ham. in Symes Embassy to Ava ed. 2. 307
Myanmar name: Yingat-gyi English name: --
Family: Rubiaceae

Burmese-Myanmar name in Nagathein :3-155{ring-kat-kri:}

Photos:
left -- habit with flowers right -- habit with fruits
Click on the pictures to enlarge.

Identification characters:
A deciduous unarmed tree; branches stout, woody, younger stems notched at the nodes, pubescent, buds resinous. Leaves opposite and decussate, simple; stipules interpetiolar; subsessile; laminae abovate, sometimes elliptic-obovate, the bases cuneate, the margins entire, the tips abruptly and shortly acuminate, unicostate, reticulate, the surfaces glabrescent, glaucous. Inflorescences usually axillary cymes, sometimes terminal, solitary or 2-to3-flowered, frequently leaf-opposed or supra-axillary; bracts foliaceous. Flowers ebracteolate, subsessile, bisexual, actinomorphic, pentamerous, epigynous, large and showy, fragrant. Hypanthium tubiform, 5-or rarely 4-or 6-angled. Calyx synsepalous, tubular, obscurely and irregularly 5-toothed, acutely 5-angled, spathaceous, caducous. Corolla synpetalous, 5-lobed, rarely 4-or 6- lobed, salverform, twisted in bud, the tubes long, cylindrical, the lobes obliquely ovate, obtuse, about half the length of tube, pale to yellowish green. Androecium polyandrous, stamens 5, rarely 4 or 6, alternate the corolla lobes, epipetalous, attached at the mouth of corolla tube, subsessile, completely inserted, the anthers dithecous, linear-oblongoid, dorsifixed,dehiscence longitudinal. Pistil 1, ovary ellipsoid, 2-carpelled, syncarpous, 1-loculed  above, 2-loculed below, the ovules numerous on the parietal placentae, the style long, thick, persistent, the stigma 2-lobed, clavate fusiform. Fruit a hard drupe, ellipsoid, 5-ribbed, the style persistent forming a beak, orange to reddish brown when ripe; seeds many, reniform, compressed, testa thin, endosperm horny.

Flowering period: January - April
Fruiting period: February - August

Distribution: Grows wild throughoutMyanmar upto 4000ft. or cultivated

Parts used and uses: Flower -- Pyrexia due to either biliary or chest infections or blood dyscrasia . Fruit -- Cough; Mucolytic

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KS-TMN 193

{poaN~Na.reip}  Lxora coccinia L. 2-264


Botanical name: Ixora coccinea L.Sp. Pl.110. 1753. Myanmar name: Pone-na-yeik English name: Jungle Geranium Family: Rubiaceae


Burmese-Myanmar name in Nagathein :2-264
{poaN~Na.reip}

Photos:
left -- habit with flowers right -- close up of fruits Click on the pictures to enlarge.


Identification characters:
Shrubs, unarmed; younger stems cylindrical, glabrate. Leaves opposite and decussate, simple; stipules interpetiolar, ovate-caudate, deciduous; petioles obsolete; laminae obovate or elliptic-obovate, the bases cuneate, frequently cordate, the margins entire, the tips acute, mucronate, unicostate, reticulate, the surfaces glabrous. Inflorescences terminal, rarely axillary, cymes dichasial, paniculate, the cymules 3-flowered, occasionally the ultimate cymules 2-or 5-flowered; bracts minute, triangular. Flowers bracteolate, sessile or with short pedicels, bisexual; actinomorphic, tetramerous, epigynous. Hypanthium cupuliform, glabrous. Calyx aposepalous, the sepals 4, ovate, reddish, glabrous. Corolla synpetalous, 4-lobed, tubular-rotate, the lobes 4, ovate, glabrous. Androecium polyandrous, stamens 4, exserted, the anthers dithecous, acicular, apiculate, dorsifixed, introrse, dehiscence longitudinal. Pistil 1, ovary 2-carpelled, syncarpous, 2-loculed, the placentation axile, the ovule 1 in each locule, the style filiform, the stigma 2-lobed, ellipsoid, exserted. Fruit a berry, globose, with persistent calyx, dark or blackish red; seeds oblongoid, plano-convex, endospermic.

Flowering period:
fruiting period: Throughout the year

Distribution: Grows wild or cultivated especially in Lower Myanmar

Parts used and uses: Leaf -- Dismenorrhoea; Intestinal obstruction; Ascities; Laxative; Tooth-ache; Inflammation of gums; Analgesics for painful gums due to oropharyngeal ulcers.

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KS-TMN 194

{htein} ; {mhau-htein} Mitragyna parvifolia(Roxb.) Korth. 2-065


Botanical name: Mitragyna parvifolia(Roxb.) Korth. Obs. Naucl.Ind.19.1839. Myanmar names: Htein, Hnaw-htein English name: -- Family: Rubiaceae


Burmese-Myanmar name in Nagathein :2-065
{htein} ; {mhau-htein}

Photos:
left -- flowers and fruits
right -- Click on the pictures to enlarge.


Identification characters:
A deciduous tree, shedding leaves in the hot season; stems quadrangular, the younger ones puberulent, the older glabrous with lenticels. Leaves opposite, decussate, simple, stipules interpetiolar, obovate, caducous; petioles short; laminae oblong-obovate or suborbicular, variable in size and shape, the bases rounded to obscurely truncate, the margins entire, the tips acute to acuminate, unicostate, reticulate, the surfaces glabrous. Inflorescences terminal, sometimes axillary, in globose heads, solitary or in cymes of usually 3 heads, tomentose; bracts foliaceous, oblanceolate, deciduous. Flowers bracteolate, sessile, bisexual, actinomorphic, pentamerous, epigynous. Calyx synsepalous, tubular-truncate, glabrous, persistent. Corolla synpetalous, tubular, 5-lobed, the lobes lorate, the outer surfaces glabrous, the inner pubescent, greenish yellow. Androecium polyandrous, stamens 5, epipetalous to the throat of corolla tube, the non-adherent filaments short, the anthers dithecous, narrowly ovoid, basifixed, introrse, dehiscence longitudinal. Pistil 1, ovary ovoid, 2-carpelled, syncarpous, 2-loculed, the ovules numerous in each locule, pendulous, attached to the semi-cylindrical placentas, the style filiform, exserted, the stigma mitriform, disc absent. Fruits a capsule, with persistent calyx, ovoid, sulcate, glabrous; seeds numerous linear-obovoid, minute, winged all round, endosperm fleshy.

Flowering period: October - November
Fruiting period: December - January

Distribution: Grow wild throughout Myanmar.

Parts used and uses: Bark and root -- Pyrexia; Gastro-intestinal colic; Muscular pain.

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KS-TMN 197

{ni-pa.hs:} ; {r:yo} Morinda citrifolia L. 2-141


Botanical name: Morinda citrifolia L Sp. Pl. 176. 1753. Myanmar names: Nipa-se; Yeyo English name: Indian Mulberry Family: Rubiaceae


Burmese-Myanmar name in Nagathein :2-141
{ni-pa.hs:} ; {r:yo}

Photos:
left -- habit with flowers right -- habit with fruits Click on the pictures to enlarge.


UKT: Nagathein listed two species of Morinda :
1. M. angustifolia as {r:yo}-- Nagathein 3-097
2. M. tinctoria as {ni-pa.hs:} or {tau:r:yo} -- Nagathein 2-141

Identification characters:
A small tree; trunk straight, the barks smooth, the younger stems obtusely 4-angled, glabrous. Leaves opposite, simples stipules large, obovate or oblong, the tips rounded or acute; petioles short; lamiae broadly elliptic to obovate, the bases acute to cuneate, the margins entire, undulate, the tips acute, unicostate, reticulate, glabrous, green, the upper darker, glaucous. Inflorescences in dichisal cymes, condensed and aggregated into heads, borne on peduncles, the head ellipsoid, solitary, leaf opposed, at alternate node; bracts foliaceous. Flowers ebracteolate, pedicellate, bisexual, actinomorphic, pentamerous, epifynous. Calyx synsepalous, the tube or hypanthium urceolate, adnate to the ovary, basaly adnate to the other tubes. Corolla synpetalous, 5-lobed, infundibuligorm, the lobes lanceolate, acute, glabrous, the throat pubescent, white. Androecium polyandrous, stamens 5, epipetalous, the filaments short, hairy, the anthers dithecous, oblongoid, introrse, dehiscence longitudinal. Pistil 1, 2-carpelled, syncarpous, 2-loculed, the placentation axile-basal, the ovule solitary in each locule, the style 1, slender with 2 linear stigmatic branches. Fruit of many berries aggregated into a fleshy head, irregularly shaped, glaucous, pale green, whitish when ripe; seeds ovoid, testa membranous, endosperm fleshy.

Flowering and fruiting periods: Throughout the year

Distribution: Commonly grows wild especially on banks of streams and rivers or planted.

Parts used and uses: Diarrhoea;Amoebic dysentery; Regulates menstrual cycle: Antipyretic; Gains weight. Root-- Purgative. Leaf -- Arthritis; Infantile amoebic dysentery; Healscarbuncles; Neuritis; Pyrexia. Fruit young -- For the integrity of teethand gums. Fruit Dried -- Analgesic for gum inflammation. Fruit -- Bleeding in sores.

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