Update: 2006-03-18 06:24 PM +0700

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Medicinal Plants of Myanmar

Nymphaeaceae

by Kyaw Soe and Tin Myo Ngw, Forest Resource Environment Development and Conservation Association (FREDA), Series 1, 2004, ISBN 974-91986-0-3
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UKT: Nagathein references are given to check the Burmese-Myanmar names. * shows where there is no agreement in Burmese name but when the plant is identifiable from botanical name.

{kra-ni} Nymphaea rubra Roxb.1-161
{kra-o} Nymphaea stellata Willd.1-16

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KS-TMN 173

{kra-ni} Nymphaea rubra Roxb.1-161


Botanical name: Nymphaea rubra Roxb. ex Salisb. Parad. Lond.I,subt. 14. 1805.

Myanmar name: Kyar-ni

English name: Indian Water-lily

Family: Nymphaeaceae

Burmese-Myanmar name in Nagathein :1-161
{kra-ni}

Photos:
left -- habit with a flowers
right -- close up of a flower
Click on the pictures to enlarge.

Identification characters:
A large aquatic perennial herb, floating; rootstock a cluster of short, erect, pinkish corm-shaped rhizomes. Leaves alternate, simple; exstipulate; petioles very long, arising directly from the submerged rhizome, floating, dark red, pubescent; laminae orbicular, the younger subsagittate, the bases with a the tips rounded, multicostate, reticulate, the veins prominent, the upper surfaces glabrous, reddish green, the lower tomentose, dark red. Inflorecences scapose, the scapes radical, axillary, solitary, very long, stout, pubescent, floating. Flowers showy, open only in the mornings, fragrant, bisexual, actinomorphic, polymerous, hypogynous. Calyx aposepalous, the sepals 4, elliptic-concave, 5- to 10-ribbed, the outer surface red, the inner with 5 dark red veins, inserted at the base of the torus. Corolla apopetalous, the petals about 25, elliptic-concave or elliptic-oblong, obtuse, length thrice longer than breadth, many-seriate, spirally arranged, the inner gradually transformed into stamens, all adnate to the base of the disk, red or pale rose with 5 veins, glabrous. Androecium polyandrous, stamens about 40, many-seriate, spirally arranged, the filaments petaloid, broadly dilated at the base, dark red, the anthers dithecous, linear-oblongoid, without appendages, dark red, introrse, dihiscence longitudinal. Pistil 1, ovary globose, enveloped in a fleshy torus, many-carpelled, syncarpous, many-loculed, the ovules many per locule, the placentation parietal, the style absent, the stigma discoid, radiate, the rays 18-20, with clavate appendages. Fruit a berry, globose, fleshy, green, ripening under water, bursting irregularly; seeds broadly ellipsoid, rough, each enclosed in a white transparent aril, endospermic.

Flowering period: November-January
Fruiting period: November-January

Distribution: Common in warmer parts of Myanmar

Parts used and uses: Root, leaf, flower, fruit, seed -- Purify blood. Flower, pollen -- Promote spermatogenesis

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KS-TMN 174

{kra-o} Nymphaea stellata Willd.1-162

Botanical name: Nymphaea stellata Willd. var. cyanea It. f. k. J.Fl. Ind. 1.243
Myanmar name: Kyar-nyo; Kyar-pyar
English name: Indian Blue Water-lily
Family: Nymphaeaceae

Burmese-Myanmar name in Nagathein :1-16
{kra-o}

Photos:
left -- habit with a flowers
right -- close up of a flower
Click on the pictures to enlarge.

Identification characters:
A large aquatic perennial herb, floating; rootstock a cluster of short, ovoid purplish rhizomes. Leaves alternate, simple; exstipulate; petioles long, slender, arising directly from the submerged rhizome, floating, dark purplish green; laminae ovate-orbicular, the younger sagittate, the bases with a narrow deeply cordate sinus, peltate, the margins entire or irregularly sinuate-dentate, the tips rounded, multicostate, reticulate, the surfaces glabrous, the upper purplish green, cutinized, the lower dark purple, often with black blotches. Inflorescences scapose, the scapes radical, axillary, solitary, very long, stout, floating. Flowers showy, faintly fragrant, bisexual, actinomorphic, polymerous, hypogynous. Calyx aposepalous, the sepals 4, oblong-lanceolate, acute or subobtuse, many-veined, not ribbed, often with purplish fine streaks, inserted at the base of the torus. Corolla apopetalous, the petals 10-30, elliptic-oblong or lanceolate, many-seriate, spirally arranged, the inner gradually transformed into stamens, all adnate to the base of the disk, usually pale violet or light blue. Androecium polyandrous, stamens 10-50, many-seriate, spirally arranged, the filament petaloid, broadly dilated at the base, the anthers dithecous, linear-oblongoid, with a lingual appendage, introrse, dehiscence longitudinal. Pistil 1, ovary globose, enveloped in a fleshy torus, superior, many-carpelled, syncarpous, many-loculed, the ovules many per locule, the placentation parietal, the style absent, the stigma discoid, radiate, the rays 10-30, without appendage. Fruit a berry, globose, fleshy, ripening under water, bursting irregularly; seeds globose, minute, embedded in pulp, each enclosed in a fleshy aril, endospermic.

Flowering period and fruiting period: October-May

Distribution: Grows wild in warmer parts of Myanmar. Common in lakes and ponds

Parts used and uses: Roots, leaves, flowers, fruits, seeds -- Biliousness: Give strength and stamina to body.

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