Update: 2006-03-18 05:40 PM +0700

TIL

Medicinal Plants of Myanmar

Leguminosae - Caesalpinioideae

by Kyaw Soe and Tin Myo Ngw, Forest Resource Environment Development and Conservation Association (FREDA), Series 1, 2004, ISBN 974-91986-0-3
Copied by U Kyaw Tun, and staff of TIL for staff and students of TIL. Not for sale.

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UKT: Nagathein references are given to check the Burmese-Myanmar names. * shows where there is no agreement in Burmese name but when the plant is identifiable from botanical name.

{hsu:kauk-nak} -- C. sepiaria {hsu:hkauk} -- C. nuga{a.lo-l:} -- ? Caesalpinia nuga  Ait. 1-4341-433?
{ngu.} ; {ngu.shw-wa} ; {hpwa:hpak}  Cassia fistulaL. 1-349
{pri~-pan:o} ; {pri~-pan:shw}   Cassia glauca Lam.
{m-za.li} ; {tau-m-za.li} Cassia siamea Lam. 2-436
{dan.hkyw:} Cassia tora L. 2-086
{man-kri:} Tamarindus indica L. 2-456

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KS-TMN 122

{hsu:kauk-nak} -- C. sepiaria {hsu:hkauk} -- C. nuga{a.lo-l:} -- ? Caesalpinia nuga  Ait. 1-4341-433?

Botanical name: Caesalpinia nuga Ait. Hort. Kew.ed.2.111, 32. 1811.
Myanmar names: Sugauk-net; Sugauk; Alolay
English name;
Family: Leguminosae - Caesalpiniodeae

Burmese-Myanmar name in Nagathein 1-4341-433:
{hsu:kauk-nak} -- C. sepiaria {hsu:hkauk} -- C. nuga {a.lo-l:} -- ?

Photos:
left -- habit with young flowers
right -- habit with fruits
Click on the pictures to enlarge. 

Identification characters:
A large woody climber; stems stiff, wiry, armed with retrorse prickles, glabrous, bark rough, fibrous, yellowish grey. Leaves alternate, bipinnately compound, paripinnate; stipules spinous; petioles pulvinate, petioles and racheae beset with retrorse prickles; secondary racheae 2-3 pairs; petiolules short; leaflets 2-3 pairs, elliptic to elliptic-ovate, the bases rounded, oblique, the margins entire, the tips acute, the surfaces glabrous, the upper smooth and glaucous, coriaceous; stipels spinous. Inflorescences in terminal and axillary panicles; bracts caducous. Flowers ebracteolate, pedicellate, bisexual, zygomorphic, 5-merous, hypogynous. Calyx synsepalous, 5-sect, the lobes dimorphic, the anterior lobe largest, concavely cymbiform, enclose other lobes yellow or yellowish green, deciduous. Corolla apopetalous, the petals 5, dimorphic, distinctly clawed, the posterior petal spathulate, the others orbicular, yellow. Androecium polyandrous, stamens 10, the filaments densely lanuginose from mid-length to base, the anthers dithecous, oblongoid, dorsifixed, introrse, dehiscence longitudinal. Pistil 1, ovary ellipsoid, subsessile, 1-carpelled, 1-loculed, the placentation parietal along ventral suture, the ovules few in the locule, the gynophore short, the style filiform, the stigma simple. Fruit a pod, obliquely and broadly ellipsoid, flattened, sharply beaked, coriaceous, black; seeds 1-2, discoid, compressed, smooth, non-endospermic.

Flowering period: October - November
Fruiting period: December - March

Distribution: Grows wild throughout Myanmar, particularly along the coastal areas.

Parts used and uses: Root -- Urolithiasis; Gives energy. Juice of wood -- Opthalmia (for oral and external application). Leaf -- For post-partum uterine contraction . Fruit -- Opthalmia

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KS-TMN 125

{ngu.} ; {ngu.shw-wa} ; {hpwa:hpak}  Cassia fistula L. 1-349

Botanical name: Cassia fistula L. Sp. Pl. 377. 1753.
Myanmar names: Ngu; Ngu-shwe-wa; Hpwa-bet
English names: Cassia; Golden shower; Indian Laburnum; Purging Cassia
Family: Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae

Burmese-Myanmar name in Nagathein 1-349:
{ngu.} ; {ngu.shw-wa} ; {hpwa:hpak}

Photos:
left -- habit with flowers
right -- habit with fruits
Click on the pictures to enlarge. 

Identification characters:
A tree; younger stems terete, pubescent, bark smoothe and pale grey when young, rough and dark brown when old. Leaves opposite, unipinnately compound, paripinnate; stipules minute, linear-oblong, persistent; petioles and racheae obscurely canaliculate at the adaxial sides, glands absent; petiolules distinct; leaflets 4-e pairs, ovate to ovate-oblong or elliptic-oblong, the bases cuneate, the margins entire, the tips acute to acuminate, the upper surfaces subcoriaceous, glaucous, puberulent, Inflorescences in axillary racemes, lax, pendant, 10- to 23-flowered; peduncles puberulent; bracts lanceolate, caducous. Flowers ebracteolate, pedicellate, bisexual, zugomorphic, pentamerous, hypogynous. Calyx aposepalous, sepals 5, equal, oblong or obovate-oblong, persistent. Corolla apopetalous, petals 1+4, bimorphic, shortly dawed, the anterior petal largest, ovate to elliptic-ovate, the remaining 4 ovate, bright yellow, deciduous. Androecium polyandrous, stamens 10, 7 fertile, 3 sterile, the 3 fertile stamens long and lowest, the other 4 short and lateral, the long filaments curved with large anthers, the short ones straight with small anthers, the anthers dithecous, oblongoid, the large anthers basifixed, dehisce by longitudinal slits, the small ones versatile, dehisce by pores at the base, the sterile anthers much smaller, erect, indehiscent. Pistil 1, ovary cylindrical, curved, 1-carpelled, 1-loculed, the placentation parietal along ventral suture, the ovules many in 2 alternating rows on a single placenta, the style 1, short, the stigma capitate, the gynophore distinct. Fruit a pod, indehiscent, cylindical, pendulous, not torulose, hard, dark brown or black, pulp sweetish, dark coloured, seeds completely separated by transverse dissepiments; seeds 25-90, ovoid to broadly ovoid or obovoid, compressed, brown or reddish brown, endospermic.

Flowering period: April-May
Fruiting period: June-August

Distribution : Common throughout the dry plains

Parts used and uses: Root, leaf, flower, fruit, seed -- Root -- Flatulence; Haematological disorder. Leaf -- Herpeszoster; Leprosy. Fruit -- Dysuria; Oliguria; Haematuria; Orchitis; Bronchitis; Arthritis; Constipation; Flatulence.

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KS-TMN 126

{pri-pan:o} ; {pri~-pan:shw}  Cassia glauca Lam.

Botanical name: Cassia glauca Lam. Dc. Prodr. ii.495. 1830.
Myanmar names: Pyi-pan-nyo; Pyi-pan-shwe
Myanmar name in script: {pri-pan:o}
English name:
Family: Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae

Burmese-Myanmar name in Nagathein
{pri-pan:o} ; {pri~-pan:shw}

Photos:
left -- habit with flowers
right -- habit with fruits
Click on the pictures to enlarge. 

Identification characters:
A small tree; younger stems terete, glabrous. Leaves opposite to subopposite, alternate near the inflorescence axis, unipinnately compound, paripinnate; stipules linear, falcately curved, caducous; petioles and racheae canaliculate at the adaxial sides, racheae glandular between 2-5 pairs of lower leaflets; leaflets 6-10 pairs, oblong or elliptic-oblong, the bases rounded, oblique, the margins entire, the tips obtuse or rounded, the upper surfaces subcoriaceous, pale green, glabrous, the lower puberulent, glaucous; petiolules short. Inflorescences terminal or axillary corymbs, 2- to 6- flowered; bracts lanceolate, caducous. Flowers pedicellate, zygomorphic, bisexual, pentamerous, hypogynous. Calyx aposepalous, sepals trimorphic, 1+2+2, the 3 outer smaller than the 2 inner. Corolla apopetalous, petals trimorphic, shortly clawed, 1+2+2, rarely 1+4, yellow, deciduous. Androecium polyandrous, stamens 10, all fertile, 2 long +8 short, inserted, the 1-carpelled, 1-loculed, the placentation parietal along ventral suture, the ovules many in 2 alternating rows on a single placenta, the style 1, curved, the stigma simple, the gynophore distinct, Fruit a pod, oblongoid straight, flattened, stalked; seeds 10-30, ovoid or oblongoid, dark brown, smooth, edospermic.

Flowering period -- May-July
Fruiting period -- July-September

Distribution -- Grows wild or planted throughout Myanmar.

Parts used and uses: Leaf, bark -- Dysuria

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KS-TMN 129

{m-za.li} ; {tau-m-za.li} Cassia siameaLam. 2-436

Botanical name: Cassia siamea Lam. Encyc. 1.648. 1791.
Myanmar names: Mezali; Taw mezali
English name: Siamese Cassia
Family: Leguminosae - Caesalpinioideae

Burmese-Myanmar name in Nagathein 2-436
{m-za.li} ; {tau-m-za.li}

Photos:
left -- habit with flowers
right -- habit with fruits
Click on the pictures to enlarge. 

Identification characters:
A tree; younger stems terete, puyberulent. Leaves alternate, unipinnately compound, paripinnate; stipules caducous; petioles and racheae canaliculate at the adaxial side, glands absent; petiolules short; leaflets oblong to elliptic-oblong, the bases truncate, the margins entire, the tips mucronate, the upper surfaces subcoriaceous. Inflorescences terminal or axillary corymbose panicles; bracts lanceolate. Flowers ebracteolate, pedicellate, bisexual, zygomorphic, pentamerous, hypogynous. Calyx aposepalous, thesepals trimorphic, 1+2+2. Corolla apopetalous, the petals trimorphic, clawed, 1+2+2, rarely 1+4, yellow, deciduous. Androecium dithecous, oblongoid, basifixed, introrse, yellowish brown, dehiscence by terminal pores. Pistil 1, ovary oblongoid, 1-carpelled, 1-loculed, the placentaion parietal along ventral suture, the ovules many in 2 alternating rows on a single placenta, the style 1, curved, the stigma simple, the gynophore distinct. Fruit a pod, linear-oblongoid, flattened, acuminate at both ends, dark brown; seeds 10-30, oblongoid to obovoid-oblong, flattened, dark brown, endospermic.

Flowering and fruiting periods: Throughout the year
Distribution: Grows wild or planted in warmer parts of Myanmar.

Parts used and uses: Leaf -- Indigestioin; Carminative; As an expectorant. Root -- Conjunctivitis. Leaf -- Heart burn; Promotes digestion; Hypnotic; Expectorant, Antipyretic, Apthus ucler; Gingivitis; Purifies blood; Eczema; Antidote for bites of poisonous animals; Replenishes energy; Heals blotches on skin due to menstrual disorder. Leaf and flower -- Heal blotches on skin due to menstrual disorder.

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KS-TMN 130

{dan.kyw:} Cassia tora L. 2-086

Botanical name: Cassia tora L. Sp. Pl. 376. 1753.
Myanmar name: Dan-gywe
English name: Foetid Cassia
Family: Leguminosae - Caesalpinioideae

Burmese-Myanmar name in Nagathein 2-086:
{dan.kyw:}

Photos:
left -- habit with flowers
right -- habit with fruits
Click on the pictures to enlarge. 

Identification characters:
An annual herb, fortid, woody below; younger stems cylindrical, pubsecent. Leaves alternate, unipinnately compound, paripinnate; stipules linear-subulate, caducous; petioles cylindrical, canaliculate at the adaxial sides, pulvinii cylindrical; racheae cylindrical, canaliculate at the adaxial sides, a yellow filiform gland distinct between each of the two lowest pairs of leaflets; petiolules short, pubescent; leaflets opposite, 3 pairs, obovate-oblong, the bases oblique, the margins entire, the tips mucronate, the surfaces glabrous or pubescent at the margins, the upper glaucous. Inflorescences in axillary cymes, the cymules 1- to 2-flowered, the upper dense; peduncles glaucous; bracts linear-subulate, caducous. Flowers ebracteloate, pedicellate, bisexual, zygomorphic, pe, pentamerous, hypogynous. Calyx aposepalous, the sepals 5, trimorphic, cucullate, the 2 inner ovate, the 2 outer ovate-oblong, the remaining one broadly ovate, coriaceous. Corolla apopetalous, the petals 5, trimorphic, the posterior petal broadly obovate, 2-lobed, the 2 laterals obliquely oblong or obovate-oblong, the 2 anterior ones obliquely obovate, bright yellow with distinct veins. Androecium polyandrous, stamens 10, 7 fertile, 3 sterile, the fertile stamens 2 long, 5 short, the anthers dithecous, oblongoid, the tips truncate, the bases obscurely sagittate, yellowish brown basifixed, introrse, dehisce by terminal pores, the sterile ones light brown. Pistil 1, ovary oblongoid, sickled-shaped, 1-carpelled, 1-loculed, the placentation parietal along ventral suture, the ovules many 2 alternating rows on a single placenta, the style 1, short, the stigma capitate. Fruit a pod, subtetragonous, long, the tips obscurely capitate, brown, curved, obliquely septate, glabrous; seeds 20-30, rhomboidal, brown or yellowish brown, hard, shining, glabrous.

Flowering period: July-September
Fruiting period: August-October

Distribution: A weed throughout Myanmar, common in dry plains and on low hills.

Parts used and uses: Leaf and seed -- Diuretic; Carthartic; Carminative; Asthma; Cough; Expectorant; Pruritis; Ringworm; Infections; Knee-ache; Antidote for poisons; Skin diseases; Good for heart. Seed -- Oedema; Heals boils and pustules; Cellulitis; Eye diseases.

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KS-TMN 133

{man-kyi:} Tamarindus indica L. 2-456

Botanical name: Tamarindus indica L.Sp. Pl. 34. 1753.
Myanmar name: Magyi
Myanmar name in script: {man-kyi:} -- loosely pronounced as {ma.kyi:}
English name: Tamarind Tree
Family: Leguminosae - Caesalpiniodeae

Burmese-Myanmar name in Nagathein 2-456:
{man-kyi:}

Photos:
left -- habit with flowers
right -- habit with fruits
Click on the pictures to enlarge. 

Identification characters:
A large tree, unarmed; branches spreading, glabrous. Leaves alternate, unipinnately compound, paripinnate; stipules caducous; petiolate; petiolules obsolete; leaflets oblong, 10-16 pairs, opposite, closely set on the rachis, the bases obtusely oblique, the margins entire, the tips rounded or retuse, reticulate, glabrous. Inflorescences terminal and axillary at the ends of the branchlets, racemes lax, few-flowered; bracts concave, enclosing the buds, caducous. Flowers ebracteolate, pedicellate, bisexual, zygomorphic, penamerous, hypogynous. Calyx sunsepalous, 5-fid, the tubes narrowly trubinate, disc prominent above its base, the lobes oblong or lanceolate. Corolla apopetalous, the petals 3, the upper hooded, the two laterals obovate-oblong, the 2 lower reduced to scales, yellowish with pink stripes. Androecium monadelphous, connate nearly half their lengths, fertile stamens 3, staminodes 7, reduced to bristle, the anthers dithecous, oblongoid, versatile, dehiscence longitudinal. Pistil 1, ovary oblongoid, flattened, 1-carpelled, 1-loculed, the placentation parietal along ventral suture, the ovules many, in 2 alternating rows on a single placenta, the style 1, pubescent, as long as the stamens, the stigma capitate; gynophore distinct. Fruit a pod, ligulate, 3- to 10-seeded, epicarp thin and crustaceous, mesocarp thick and pulpy; seeds obovoid-oblongoid, truncate at the ends, smooth, brown, non-endospermic.

Flowering period: September-October
Fruiting period: October-February

Distribution: Naturalized and planted throughout Myanmar.

Parts used and uses: Roots, Leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds -- Abdominal tumours. Root -- Amoebic dysentery. Bark -- Heals boils and carbuncles; As an antidote for poisons; Haemorrhoids; Polyuria; Jaundice; Indigestion; Flatulence; Emesis; Colic; Dysentery. Leaf -- Otalgia; Prickly hearts; As an antidote for snake-bite; Dysuria; Deodorant; Eye disease. Flower -- Biliousness. Ripe fruit -- Internal haemorrhoid; Loss of appetite; Cannabis intoxication; Leprosy; Constipation; Biliousness; Indigestion; Cholera; Heartburn. Seed -- Amoebic dysentery; Oligospermia; Polyuria; As an antidote for scorpion stings; Dysentery.

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End of TIL file