Update: 2006-03-18 08:37 AM +0700

TIL

Medicinal Plants of Myanmar

Lauraceae

by Kyaw Soe and Tin Myo Ngw, Forest Resource Environment Development and Conservation Association (FREDA), Series 1, 2004, ISBN 974-91986-0-3
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UKT: Nagathein references are given to check the Burmese-Myanmar names. * shows where there is no agreement in Burmese name but when the plant is identifiable from botanical name.

{ka.ra.w:} Cinnamomum tamala Fr. Nees.
{this-kram:po:} ; {thi-ho-this-kram:po:} Cinnamomum zeylanicum Bl.

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KS-TMN 117

{ka.ra.w:} Cinnamomum tamala Fr. Nees.

Botanical name: Cinnamomum tamala Fr. Nees in Nees & Eberm. Med. Pharm. Bot. II:426.
Myanmar name: Karaway
English names: Cassia Cinnamon; Indian Cassia Lignea
Family: Lauraceae

Burmese-Myanmar name in Nagathein
{ka.ra.w:}

Photos:
left -- habit with flowers
right -- habit with fruits
Click on the pictures to enlarge. 

Identification characters:
An evergreen tree, bark slightly rough, dark brown or greyish brown, lenticels prominent. Leaves opposite to sub-opposite, simpe; exstipulate; petiolate; laminae ovate to broadly ovate-lanceolate, the bases obtuse to oblique, the margins entire, the margins entire, the tip acute to slightly acuminte, 3-costate, reticulate, the surfaces glabrous, the lower glaucous, coriaceous. Inflorescences in terminal paniculate cymes, axillary ones few; peduncles quadrangular, the main peduncles longer than the leaves, flowers lax; bracts deciduous. Flowers bracteolate, deciduous, pedicellate, bisexual, zygomorphic, trimerous, hypogynous. Perianth synphyllous, campanulate, 6-lobed, 2-seriate, the lobes elliptic, sericeous, cream colored, the tubes short, accrescent and persisting as a cupule at the base of fruit. Androecium polyandrous, stamens in 4 whorls of 3 each, adnate to the perianth tube, the first and the second whorls opposite the petals, inserted, introrse, the third whorl alternate the petals, extrorse, the filament bases of the third whorl bear 2 organe coloured sessile glands, the fourth whorl of 3 staminodes, the filament bases villous, the anthers 4-celled, basifixed, dehisce by flap-like valves opening upwards. Pistil 1, ovary oblongoid, sessile, 1-carpelled, 1-loculed, the placentation parietal, the ovule solitary, apical pendulous, the style thick and stout, the stigma discoid. Fruit a drupe, elliposid, apiculate, the basal prominent; seed 1, elliposid, hard, glabrous, non-endospermic.

Flowering period: October-December
Fruiting period: January-March

Distribution: Growa wild in tropical nad subtopical Myanmar, upto 4000ft.

Parts used and uses: Leaf and bark -- Pruritis; Gonorrhoea; Sinusitis; Heart disease; Carminative; Indigestion; Gastrointestinal colic; Diarrhoea; Gastric distention; Cough; Antidote for poisons. Leaf -- Aethritis; Gastrointestinal Colic; Asthma; Cough; Antidote for snake venom and opium intoxication. Bark -- Oedema.

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KS-TMN 118

{this-kram:po:} ; {thi-ho-this-kram:po:} Cinnamomum zeylanicum Bl.

Botanical name: Cinnamomum Zeylanicum Breyn. in Ephem. Nat. Cur. dec, I. ann. 4,139.
Myanmar names: Thit-kyan-bo; Thiho-thit-kyan-bo; Hman-thin.
English names: Cinnamon; Ceylon Cinnamon.
Family: Lauraceae

Burmese-Myanmar name in Nagathein
{this-kram:po:} ; {thi-ho-this-kram:po:}

Photos:
left -- habit with flowers
right -- habit with fruits
Click on the pictures to enlarge. 

Identification characters:
An evergreen tree; moderate sized; bark smooth, thick, greyish brown to yellowish brown, lenticles prominent, young parts glabrous, buds sericeous. Leaves opposite or subopposite, rarely alternate near the inflorescence axis, simple; exstipulate; petiolate; laminae ovate or ovate-lanceolate, the bases obtuse to slightly oblique, the margins entire, the tips subacute or slightly acuminate, 3- to 5-costate, reticulate glabrous, very coriaceous. Inflorescences in terminal and axillary paniculate cymes; peduncles quadrangular, the main peduncles longer than the leaves, flowers lax; bracts deciduous. Flowers bracteolate deciduous, pedicellate, bisexual, zygomorphic, trimerous, hypogynous. Perianth synphyllou, campanulate 6- to 8-lobed, 2-seriate, the lobes unequal, oblong or obovate, sericeous, cream or ivory-white, the tubes short, accrescent and persisting as a cupule at the base of fruit. Androecium polyandrous, stamens in 4 whorls of 3 each, adnate to the perianthe tube, the first and the second whorls opposite the petals, inserted, introrse, the third whorl alternate the petals, extrorse, the filament bases of the third whorl bear 2 orange colored sessile glands, the fourth whorl of 3 staminodes, the filament base villous, the anthers 4-celled, basifixed, dehisce by flap-like valves opening upwards. Pistill 1, ovary ovoid, sessile, 1-carpelled, 1-loculed, the placentation parietal, the ovule solitary, apical pendulous, the style thick and stout, the stigma discoid. Fruit a drupe, oblongoid, subtended by accrescent perianth tube at the base only, deciduous or often persistent, minutely apiculate, dark purple; seed 1, narrowly ovoid, pendulous, testa membranous, glabrous, non-endospermic.

Flowering period: April-June
Fruiting period: June-September

Distribution: Grows wild; common in the coastal regions of lower Myanmar upto 3000ft

Parts used and uses: Bark -- Cholecystitis; Laryngitis; Heartburn; Dysentery; Aphrodisiac; Abdominal tumour; Heart disease; Antiseptic; Pruritis; Cough; Influenza; Indigestion. Seed oil -- Haemostatic; Gastric distention; Loss of appetite; Emesis; Diarrhoea; Tinnitus; Tooth-ache.

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