Update: 2006-03-18 08:18 AM +0700

TIL

Medicinal Plants of Myanmar

Labiatae

by Kyaw Soe and Tin Myo Ngw, Forest Resource Environment Development and Conservation Association (FREDA), Series 1, 2004, ISBN 974-91986-0-3
Copied by U Kyaw Tun, and staff of TIL for staff and students of TIL. Not for sale.

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UKT: Nagathein references are given to check the Burmese-Myanmar names. * shows where there is no agreement in Burmese name but when the plant is identifiable from botanical name.

{ping.ku-hteip-peit} Leucas cephalotes Spreng. 2-245
{ping-seim:} Ocimum basilicum L. 2-241

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KS-TMN 113

{ping.ku-hteip-peit} Leucas cephalotes Spreng. 2-245

Botanical name: Leucas cephalotes Spreng. Syst, ii 743. 1825.
Myanmar name: Pinku-hteik-peik
English name:
Family: Labiatae

Burmese-Myanmar name in Nagathein 2-245:
{ping.ku-hteip-peit}

Photos:
left -- habit with flowers
right -- habit with fruits
Click on the pictures to enlarge. 

Identification characters:
Annual herbs, erect; stems stout, shallowly grooved, branchesdiffuse, pubescent. Leaves opposite and decussate, simple; exstipulate; petioles pubescent; laminae ovate or ovate-lanceolate, the bases obtuse, the margins serrulate, the tips acute, unicostate, reticulate, the upper pubescent, the lower puberulent, the veins more conspicuous. Inflorescents verticillasters, axillary, the verticils many-flowered, the verticil bearing axils condensed at the terminal end to form a globose head, pubescent; peduncles absent; bracts lanceolate, many, forming an incolucre, awned, pubescent. Flowers ebracteolate, sessile, bisexual, zygomorphic, tetramerous, hypogynous. Calyx synsepalous, 10-lobed, the tubes tubular,  curved, the mouths oblique, villous, 10-ribbed above, the upper half pubescet, the lower glabrous, the lobes triangular, acute, awned, unequal. Corolla synpetalous, bilabiate, the tubes curved, broader above, hairs forming a slightly oblique ring within, about half the tube, the upper lip erect, cucullate, the outer surfaces villous, the inner glabrous, the lower lip 3-lobed, spreading, longer and broader than the upper, the median lobe cuneate, the tip truncate, white. Androecium polyandrous, stamens 2+2, didynamous, the lower pair longer, epipetalous, inserted, the filaments cylindrical, flattened at the bases, ventrally pilose at the middle, the anthers dithecous, ellipsoid, notched at the middle, connivent, confluent, those of the upper pair larger than the lower, dorsifixed, introrse, dehiscence longitudinal. Pistil 1, ovary cuboid, 2-carpelled, syncarpous, 4-loculed due to false septation, placentation basal with a solitary ovule in each locule, the style strap-shaped, cylindrical at the base, gynobasic, the stigmas 2-fid, subulate, disc 4-lobed, the anterior lobes larger. Fruit of 4 dry nutlets, oblongoid, small, erect, endosperm scanty.

Flowering and fruiting periods: October-June

Distribution: Grows wild throughout Myanmar.

Parts used and uses: Whole plant -- Cathartic; Indigestion; As an expectorant; Jaundice; Oedema. Leaf -- Biliousness; Jaundice; Oedema; Polyuria; Cough; Asthma; Metrorrhagia; Urinary tract infection; Pruritis; Aspermia; Jaundice. Root -- Jaundice. Infusion of plant -- Infantile cough; Rheumatism; Antidote for snake bite. Infusion of fresh: Plant -- Antidote for snake bite. Fruit -- Malaria; As an antipyretic

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KS-TMN 114

{ping-seim:} Ocimum basilicum L. 2-241

Botanical name: Ocimum basilicum L. Sp. Pl. 597.1753.
Myanmar names: Pin-sein; Pin-pwa
English names: Basil; Common Basil; Sweet Basil: Common Sweet Basil.
Family: Labiatae

Burmese-Myanmar name in Nagathein 2-241:
{ping-seim:}

Photos:
left -- habit with flowers and fruits
right -- close up of flower
Click on the pictures to enlarge. 

Identification characters:
An annual herb, suffrutescent; younger stems quadrangular, hispid, green. Leaves opposite and decussate, simple; exstipulate; petiolate; laminae ovate, the bases obtuse or cuneate, the margins serrate or sometimes obscurely toothed, the tips acute to acuminate, unicostate, reticulate, glabrescent on the veins and along the margins. Inflorescences terminal, rarely axillary, spiciform racemes of verticillasters, the verticils 6-flowered, 3 each in a reduced cincinnus. Flowers pendant, ebracteolate, pedicellate, bisexual, zygomorphic, pentamerous, hypogynous. Calyx synsepalous, campanulae, obscurely bilabiate, the upper lip uncut, orbicular, larger and broader than the lower, the lower lip 4-fid, ovate-lanceolate, awned, the 2 middle awns longer than the upper lip, pubescent. Corolla synpetalous, bilabiate, the tubes short, cylindrical, the upper lip 4-fid, erect, the lower lip uncut, cucullate, white, pubescent, pilose at the base of the upper lip and the cucullate part of the lower. Androecium polyandrous, stamens 2+2, didynamous, epipetalous, the filaments of the posterior pair longer than those of the anterior ones, attached to the middle of the corolla tube, those of the anterior pair to the base of the upper lip, declinate, slightly exserted, the anthers dithecous, sagittate, confluent, papillose, bisefixed, introrse, dehiscence longitudinal. Pistil 1, ovary 4-lobed, 2-carpelled, syncarpous 4-loculed due to false septation, the placentation basal with one ovule in each locule, nectariferous disc 4-lobed, the style 1, gynobasic, purple, the stigma 2-fid, subulate. Fruit of 4 dry 1-seeded nutlets, enclosed within persistent and accrescent calyx, the stigma nutlets ellipsoid, obscurely muricate; seeds ellipsoid, black, endosperm scanty, fleshy.

Flowering and fruiting periods: October-December

Distribution: Grows wild and cultivated throughout Myanmar.

Parts used and uses: Whole plant -- Appetizer; Heartburn; Antiseptic; Carminative; Biliousness; Expectorant; Pyrexia; Heart disease; Pruritis; Leprosy; Emesis; Heals carbuncles; Antidote for poisons; Blood disease. Seed -- Oedema; To allay thirst.

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