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TIL

Medicinal Plants of Myanmar

Guttiferae

by Kyaw Soe and Tin Myo NgwÚ, Forest Resource Environment Development and Conservation Association (FREDA), Series 1, 2004, ISBN 974-91986-0-3
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UKT: Nagathein references are given to check the Burmese-Myanmar names. * shows where there is no agreement in Burmese name but when the plant is identifiable from botanical name.

{poan:˝ak} Calophyllum inophyllum L. 2-284
{ming:kwut} Garcinia mangostana L.2-449
{mak-lein-hkying} Garcinia pedunculata Roxb.2-445
{kan░.kau} Mesua ferrea L.1-121

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KS-TMN 105

{poan:˝ak} Calophyllum inophyllum L. 2-284

Botanical name: Calophyllum inophyllum L. Sp. Pl. 513. 1753.
Myanmar name: Pone-nyet
English name: Alexandrian Laurel; Dillo Oil tree
Family: Guttiferae

Burmese-Myanmar name in Nagathein 2-284:
{poan:˝ak}

Photos:
left -- habit with flowers
right --  habit with fruits
Click on the pictures to enlarge. 

Identification characters:
A middle sized tree, trunk crooked; bark grey, smooth, the younger stems glabrous. Leaves opposite, decussate, simple; exstipulate; petiolate; laminae oblong or obovate-oblong, the bases obtuse to rounded, the margins entire, obscurely undulate, the tips rounded, often emarginate, unicostate, reticulate, the lateral veins many, fine, arise at right angles to the midrib, parallel and closely set, the surfaces glabrous, glaucous, coriaceous. Inflorescences in axillary lax racemes, shorter than the leaves, few-flowered. Flowers ebracteate, ebracteolate, pedicellate, polygamous, actinomorphic, outer much smaller, the two inner petaloid. Corolla apopetalous, the petals 4, oblong, white, fragrant. Androecium tetra-adelphous, stamens numerous, the filaments erect, the anthers dithecous, oblongoid, exserted, basifixed, dehiscence longitudinal; staminodes numerous in pistillate flower. Pistil 1, ovary ovoid-globose, stipitate, 1-carpelled, 1-loculed, with an axile-basal ovule in the locule, the style long, twisted, the stigma capitate, peltate; pistillode often present in the staminate flower. Fruit a drupe, globose, pulp scanty, yellowish, smooth, seed globose, non-endospermic.

Flowering period: May-June/October
Fruiting period: July-August/December

Distribution: Grows wild, common in coastal areas. Planted.

Parts used and uses: Buds, barks: Haematemesis; Promotes spermatogenesis.

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KS-TMN 106

{ming:kwut} Garcinia mangostana L. 2-449

Botanical name: Garcinia mangostana L. Sp. Pl. 635. 1753.
Myanmar name: Min-gut
English name: Mangosteen
Family: Guttiferae

Burmese-Myanmar name in Nagathein 2-449:
{ming:kwut}

Photos:
left -- habit with a flowers
right --  habit with a fruits
Click on the pictures to enlarge. 

Identification characters:
An evergreen tree; younger stems cylindrical, glabrous, latex yellow juice. Leaves opposite, distichous, simple; exstipulate; petiolate; laminae elliptic-oblong, the bases obtuse, the margins entire, the tips acuminute, unicostate, reticulate, the veins horizontal, glabrous, deep green, coriaceous, glaucous. Inflorescences terminal cymes, bisexual flowers solitary, at the ends of branches, staminate flowers in 3- to 9- flowered fasicled cymes, pistillates solitary or paired at ends of branches. Flowers ebracteate, ebracteolate, pedicellate, polygamodioecious, actinomorphic, tetramerous, hypogynous. Bisexual flowers: Calyx aposepalous, the sepals 4, orbicular, concave, decussate, yellowish, persistent. Corolla apopetalous, the petals 4, broadly ovate, imbricate, rosy pink, glabrous. Androecium polyandrous, stamens numerous, inserted, or as 4 phalanges surrounding the postillode in staminte flowers, the filaments short, basifixed, dehiscence longitudinal. Pistil 1, ovary globose, 4-carpelled, syncarpous, 8-loculed, the ovule solitary in each locule, the placentation axile-basal, the stigma sessile, 8-rayed, peltate, yellow. Fruit a berry, globose, rind coriaceous, thick, deep brownish crimson; seeds reniform, 6-8, large, enclosed in a pulpy aril, non-endospermic.

Flowering period: November-March
Fruiting period: March-July

Distribution: Commonly cultivated along the coast of Tanin-thayi.

Parts used and uses: Rind of fruit -- Diarrhoea; Dysentery; Infantile diarrhoea; Irritable colon; Urethritis; Cystitis; Bleeding piles; Astringent effect.

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KS-TMN 109

{mak-lein-hkying} Garcinia pedunculata Roxb. 2-445

Botanical name: Garcinia pedunculata Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 625.
Myanmar name: Metlin-chin
English name:
Family: Guttiferae

Burmese-Myanmar name in Nagathein 2-445:
{mak-lein-hkying}

Photos:
left -- habit
right -- a fruits
Click on the pictures to enlarge. 

Identification charaters:
A large evergreen tree; younger stems cylindrical, glabrous, latex yellow juice. Leaves opposite, decussate, simple; exstipulate; petioles long; laminae obtuse, rarely elliptic-oblong, the bases obtuse, the margins entire, the tips acute or acuminate, unicostate, reticulate, glabrous, sub-coriaceous. Inflorescences terminal, solitary or 3-chotomous paniculate cymes.Flowers ebracteolate, pedicellate, polygamodioecious, actinomorphic, tetramerous, hypogynous. Staminate flowers on a 3-chotomous paniculate cymes, 8- to 12- flowered, pale green. Calyx aposepalous, the sepals 4, decussate, orbicular, fleshy, the inner pair narrower, persistent. Corolla apopetalous, the petals 4, imbricate, oblong, narrower than sepals, scarcely longer, sepaloid. Androecium polyandrous, numerous, stamens in a 4-angled truncate shortly stipitate mass surrounding the pistillode, the filaments short, thick, the anthers dithecous, oblongoid, dehiscence longitudinal. Pistillate and bisexual flowers solitary, larger than the staminates, terminal on a thick 4-angled peduncle. Calyx and corolla characters as in the staminate. Androecium adelphous, stamens 20-30, the filaments short, thick, in 4 phalanges, connate below, staminodes numerous in pistillate flower, the anthers dithecous, oblongoid, dehiscence longitudinal. Pistil 1, ovary globose, 4-carpelled, syncarpous, 8-loculed, the ovules solitary in each locule, the placentation axile-basal, the stigma sessile, 8- to 9- rayed, peltate, spreading. Fruit a berry, globose, rind coriaceous, thick, yellow; seeds reniform, 8-10, large, aril succulent, whitish, non-endospermic.

Flowering period: January-March
Fruiting period: Apirl-June

Distribution: Planted in Myitkyina, Bhamo.

Parts used and uses: Unripe fruit -- Carminative. Ripe fruit -- Angina pectoris; Abdominal tumour; Haemorrhoids; To allay thirst; Biliousness; Constipation; Heartburn; Appetizer; Gains weight.

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KS-TMN 110

{kan░.kau} Mesua ferrea L.1-121

Botanical name: Mesua ferrea L.Sp. Pl. 515. 1753.
Myanmar name: Gan-gaw
English name: Ceylon Iron-wood; Ironwood of Assam
Family: Guttiferae

Burmese-Myanmar name in Nagathein 1-121:
{kan░.kau}

Photos:
left -- habit with a flower
right -- habit with fruits
Click on the pictures to enlarge. 

Identification characters:
A middle-sized tree; trunk straight, erect, the younger stems obscurely quadrangular, glabrous. Leaves opposite, simple; exstipulate; petiolate; laminae linear-lanceolate, the bases obtuse, the margins entire, the tips acuminate, unicostate, reticulate, the lateral veins many, fine, closely set, the surfaces glaucous, green, the upper darker. Inflorescences usually terminal cymes, solitary or in pairs. Flowers bracteate, ebracteolate, pedicellate, bisexual, actinomorphic, tetramerous, hypogynous. Calyx aposepalous, the sepals 4, orbicular, cucullate, thick, the margins membranous, persistent. Corolla apopetalous, the petals 4, cuneate-obovate, the margins crisped, undulate, white. Androecium polyandrous, stamens numerous, monadelphous only at the base, the filaments filiform, golden yellow, the anthers dithecous, oblongoid, dehiscence longitudinal. Pistil 1, ovary ovoid, 2-carpelled, syncarpous, 2-loculed, the ovules 2 in each locule, the placentation basal, the ovules erect, the style twice as long as the stamens, the stigma peltate. Fruit a berry, ovoid, conical pointed, subtended by the persistent and accrescent sepals, 1- to 4- seeded, pericarp semi-woody; seeds 1-4, angular, non-arillate, chestnut brown, non-endospermic.

Flowering period: March-July
Fruiting period: August-December

Distribution: Commonly grows wild or planted throughout Myanmar up to 5000ft.

Parts used and uses: Anther -- Angina pectoris; Metrorrhagia; Cystitis; Leprosy; Herpes; Hypotension; Arthritis; Neuropathy; Leucorrhoes; To allay thirst; Haemorrhoids; Abortion; Head-ache; Deodorant; Indigestion; Antidote for poisons; Carminative; Biliousnes; Expectornat. Seed oil -- Arthritis; Aches; Chronic sores.

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