Update: 2006-03-19 08:20 AM +0700

TIL

Medicinal Plants of Myanmar

Euphorbiaceae

by Kyaw Soe and Tin Myo Ngwé, Forest Resource Environment Development and Conservation Association (FREDA), Series 1, 2004, ISBN 974-91986-0-3
Copied by U Kyaw Tun, and staff of TIL for staff and students of TIL. Not for sale.

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UKT: Nagathein references are given to check the Burmese-Myanmar names. * shows where there is no agreement in Burmese name but when the plant is identifiable from botanical name.

{thak-ring:-kri:} Croton oblongifolius Roxb. 3-436
{ka.na.hko}  Croton tiglium L. 1-45
{hsé:ma.hkam:} ; {Bein:hpo} Jatropha multifida L.
{hsi:hpru} ; {sha:hpru} Phyllanthus emblica L.
{krak-hsu} Ricinus communis L.

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KS-TMN 093

{thak-ring:-kri:} Croton oblongifolius Roxb. 3-436

Botanical name: Croton oblongifolius Roxb. FL. Ind. 111. 685. 1832.
Myanmar name: Thetyin-gyi
English name: --
Family: Euphorbiaceae

Burmese-Myanmar name in Nagathein 3-436:
{thak-ring:-kri:} 

Photos:
left -- habit with flowers
right --  fruits
Click on the pictures to enlarge. 

Identification characters:
A middle sized tree, deciduous; bark brownish, branches lepidote while young. Leaves alternate, crowded towards the ends of the branchlets, simple; stipules deciduous; petioles cylindrical, lepidote; laminae elliptic-oblong or oblong-lanceolate, the bases acute or obtuse, the margins serrate, the tips acute to acuminate, unicostate, reticulate, the surfaces glabrescent, the upper dark green. Inflorescences in terminal paniculate cymes, the cymules fascicled at the axils of minute bracts, monoecious, the staminate flowers at the upper portion, more numerous than the pistillates, the pistillates at the lower; peduncles erect, lepidote; bracts lanceolate to ovat. Flowers ebracteolate, pedicellate, unisexual, actinomorphic, pentamerous, hypogynous. Staminate flowers: Calyx synsepalous, 5-partite, lepidote, persistent. Corolla apopetalous, the petals 5, ovate, villous within, glabrous without, pale yellowish green. Androecium polyandrous, stamens 12, inserted on a villous receptacle, the filaments long, slender, inflexed in bud, more hairy at the bases, the anthers dithecous, oblongoid, adnate, introrse, dehiscence longitudinal. Pistillode absent. Pistillate flowers: Calyx synsepalous, 5-partite, the lobes broadly ellitptic, lepidote, persistent. Corolla obsolete. Androecium nil. Pistil 1, ovary oblongoid, glabrous, 3-carpelled, syncarpous, 3-loculed, the placentation axile, the ovule one in each locule, the styles 3, the stigmas 2-fid for more than half the length. Fruit a regma of three, 2-valved 1-seeded cocci, globose, 3-lobed, depressed at the top, with persistent calyx, pale greenm lepidote; seeds 3, oblongoid, pale green, smooth, caruncle small, endosperm copious, fleshy.

Flowering period: December--February
Fruiting period
: June--April

Distribution: Grows wild, more common in lower Myanmar.

Parts used and uses: Root bark, leaves and seeds Root bark -- Pneumonitis; Hepatitis; Hepatomegaly; Arthritis. Bark --Oedema; Hepatitis; Hepatomegaly;  Best antidote for snake bite; Pyexia. Seeds -- Diarrhoea; Oedema; Very useful for inflammations either taken orally or as an external application

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KS-TMN 094

{ka.na.hko}  Croton tiglium L. 1-45

Botanical name: Croton tiglium L. Sp. PL. 1004. 1753.
Myanmar name: Kana-kho
English name: Purging Croton
Family: Euphorbiaceae

Burmese-Myanmar name in Nagathein 1-45
{ka.na.hko} 

Photos:
left -- habit
right -- habit with flowers & fruits
Click on the pictures to enlarge. 

Identification characters:
A small tree, evergreen; bark smooth, the younger stems stellate puberulent. Leaves alternate, simple; stipulate; petioles long; laminae ovate or elliptic-lanceolate, the bases obtuse to rounded, the margins serrate, the tips acute to acuminate, 3-costate, reticulate, the surfaces glabrous. Inflorescences in terminal racemes, bearing unisexual flowers; monoecious; bracts subulate. Flowers ebracteolate, pedicellate, unisexual, actinomorphic, pentamerous, hypogynous. Staminate flower: Calyx synsepalous, 5-partite, the tips bearded, glabrescent, persistent. Corolla apopetalous, the petals 5, linear, as long as the calyx., the margins pubescent, white. Androecium polyandrous, stamens 15, inserted on a villous receptacle, disc glands 5, small, opposite the calyx lobes, the anthers dithecous, adnate, introrse, dehiscence longitudinal. Pistillode absent. Pistillate flower: Calyx synsepalous, 5-partite, the tips bearded, stellate puberulent, villous at the base within, persistent. Corolla absent; disc obscure, annular. Pistil 1, ovary ellipsoid, stellately hispid, 3-lobed, 3-carpelled, syncarpous, 3-loculed, the placentation axile, the ovule one in each locule, the styles 3, the stigmas 2-fid. Fruit a schizocarp capsule of three 1 - seeded cocci, elliptic-oblongoid, 3-lobed, hispid; seeds oblongoid, 3-lobed, hispid; seeds oblongoid, obtusely trigonous, carunculate ,endosperm copious, fleshy.

Flowering period: July - September
Fruiting period: August - November

Distribution: Grows wild in Myanmar. Planted.

Parts used and uses: Seed: Ascites; Febrifuge; Leprosy; As an antidote for scorpion stings

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KS-TMN 097

{hsé:ma.hkam:} ; {Bein:hpo} Jatropha multifida L.

Botanical name: Jatropha multifida L. Sp. Pl. 1006. 1753.
Myanmar names: Hsay-makhan; Bein-hpo
English names: Coral Plant; Coral-bush; French Physic Nut; Small Physic Nut
Family: Euphorbiaceae

Burmese-Myanmar name in Nagathein
{hsé:ma.hkam:} ; {Bein:hpo}

Photos:
left -- habit with flowers
right -- habit
Click on the pictures to enlarge. 

Identification characters:
A large shrub or a small tree; younger stems glabrous, sap milky. Leaves alternate, simple; stipules multifid stalks; petioles long, canaliculated; laminae orbicular, palmatisect, 3- to 5-lobed, incised into many narrow entire or lobulate segments, the bases rounded or cordate, the margins entire or glandular semulated, the tips caudate-acuminate, 5- to 10-costate, reticulate, glabrous, the upper surfaces green, the lower reddish green glaucous. Inflorescences in terminal and axillary corymbose scorpioid cymes; peduncles long; bracts subulate, minute, green. Flowers ebracteolate, pedicellate, unisexual, monoecious, actinomorphic, pentamerous, hypogynous. Staminate flowers 8-12: Calyx synsepalous, 5-partite, companulate, the lobes ovate, petaloid, orange-red. Corolla synpetalous, connate only at the bases, the petals 5, obovate, cuneate, each base with a glandular disc, red or orange-red. Androecium monadelphous, stamens 10, the anthers dithecous, ovoid, erect, dorsifixed, extrorse, dehiscence longitudinal; intrastaminal disc entire; pistillode absent. Pistillate flowers 2-3: solitary, axillary, calyx and corolla as in the staminate flowers; intrastaminal disc urceolate. Pistil 1, ovary oblongoid, 3-carpelled, syncarpous, 3-loculed, the placentation axile, the ovule 1in each locule, pendulous, micropyle carunculate, the style short, the stigmas 3, each 2-fid.Fruit a septifragal capsule, globose, 3-lobed, splitting into three 2-valved, 1 -seeded crustaceous cocci,  dehiscing ventrally, green when young, yellow or pale black when mature; seeds 3, carunculate, pale black, endosperm fleshy.

Flowering period: Throughout the year
Fruiting period: Throughout the year

Distribution: Planted.

Parts used and uses: Leaf, fruit, seed, latex -- Haemorrhoids; Common cold; Ascites. Leaf -- Scabies. Seed -- Aphrodisiac; Abortifacient. Latex -- Common cold; Heals boils and pustules.

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KS-TMN 098

{hsi:hpru} ; {sha:hpru} Phyllanthus emblica L.

Botanical name: Phyllanthus emblica L. Sp. Pl. 982. 1753.
Myanmar names: Zibyu; Shabyu.
English names: Emblic Myrobalan tree; Eastern Goose- berry
Family: Euphorbiaceae

Burmese-Myanmar name in Nagathein
{hsi:hpru} ; {sha:hpru}

Photos:
left -- habit with flowers
right -- habit with fruits
Click on the pictures to enlarge. 

Identification characters:
A middle sized tree, deciduous; trunks crooked, branches slender, spreading, bark greenish gray, younger stems pubescent. Leaves alternatedistichous, closely and symmetrically set along the branch lets, appear like the leaflets of a pinnate leaf, simple; stipules ovate, scarious; subsessile; laminae linear-oblong or narrowly linear, the bases obtuse, the margins entire, the tips acute, unicostate, reticulate, the surfaces glabrous. Inflorescences axillary cymes, densely fasicled along the leaf bearing branchlets, often on the naked portion below the leaves; bracts fimbriate. Flowers ebracteolate, the staminates pedicellate, the pistillates subsessile, unisexual, monoecious, actinomorphic, trimerous, hypogynous. Staminate flowers numerous; calyx aposepalous, the sepals 6, oblong, obtuse, 2-seriate, greenish yellow. Androecium monadelphous, stamens 3, the staminal column short, central, the anthers dithecous, oblongoid, extrorse, dehiscence longitudinal; intrastaminal disc obsolete; pistillode absent. Pistillate flowers few: calyx as in the staminates. Petals absent; intrastaminal disc a lacerate cup. Pistil 1, ovary globose, 3-carpelled, syncarpous, 3-locuted the placentation axile, the ovules 2 in each locule, pendulous, micropyle carunculate, the styles 3, basally connate, each 2-fid, the arms recurved, the stigmas 6, very large filiform branches. Fruit fleshy with 3-bony 2-valved cocci, indehiscent, depressed globose, obscurely 6-lobed; seeds 3-gonous, endosperm fleshy.

Flowering period: November - December
Fruiting period: January - July

Distribution: Common in mixed deciduous forests up to 4,000ft. Also cultivated.

Parts used and uses: Fruit -- Dysuria; Polyuria; Constipation; Dysentery; Hiccough. Seed: Blennorrhoea

UKT: Medical terms from AHTD and other sources:
dys·u·ri·a n. 1. Painful or difficult urination.
pol·y·u·ri·a n. 1. Excessive passage of urine, as in diabetes.
blennorrhoea -- 1. Rarely used term for any mucous discharge, especially from the urethra or vagina. 2. In ophthalmic usage, was synonymous with conjunctivitis, but is now obsolete. Synonym: blennorrhagia, myxorrhoea. Origin: blenno-+ G. Rhoia, a flow (05 Mar 2000) -- http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/cgi-bin/omd?blennorrhoea

UKT: The following is a bit of interesting information www.lagosforum.com/interv.php?NR=326 on an African plant belonging to the same genus as {zi:phru-thi:}
   "Phytochemical analysis of phyllanthus amarus by pharmacognosists at the Pharmacognosy Laboratory College of Medicine University of Lagos (CMUL), Idi-Araba, shows that the whole plant is very bitter due to the presence of a group of substances such as alkaloid, sesquiterpene, essential oils, phyllanthine. These substances, according to the Senior Laboratory Attendant, Mr. Isaac Adeleke, are generally referred to as having bitter principle.
   "Ihesie told The Guardian that local clinical trials of phyllanthus amarus in ElizKaf Herbal Home shows that it possesses a very active blood cleansing property, increases the elimination of waste from the blood and the body through the kidneys, lungs, skin and liver. The blood purifying effects of phyllanthus amarus, he said is enhanced by mixing equal quantity of it with chickweed (Stellaria media). This mixture according to Ihesie, when used as an infusion could help those suffering from weight related arthritis or rheumatism.
   "Ihesie continued: "phyllanthus is one bitter tonic herb, which helps in promoting the function of the liver. It is one of the herbs recommended in most liver disorder especially, in acute phases of viral hepatitis jaundice. Even after recovery from the disease, it is often taken orally for a long period in order to help prevent the degenerative changes that might later occur in the liver due to the viral infection. Such changes include the cirrhosis of the liver or the cancer of the liver. "

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KS-TMN 101

{krak-hsu} Ricinus communis L.

Botanical name: Ricinus communis L. Sp. Pl. 1007. 1753.
Myanmar name: Kyet-su
English names: Castor-oil Plant; Palma Christi.
Family: Euphorbiaceae

Burmese-Myanmar name in Nagathein
{krak-hsu a.kri:}

Photos:
left -- habit with flowers and fruits
right -- flowers and fruits
Click on the pictures to enlarge. 

Identification characters:
Evergreen small trees or annual herbs; stems cylindrical, hollow, glabrous, the younger ones and the infloreseence axes red or green. Leaves alternate, simple; stipules intrapetiolor, linear; petioles long, red or green; laminae palmatipartite, 5-to 11-lobed, the lobes oblong to linear, the bases peltate, the margins dentate or serrate, the tips acauminate, 5-to 11-costate, reticulate, the surfaces glabrous, membranous, green or reddish-green. Inflorescences thyrsiform, terminal, the cymules 3- to 6-flowered; bracts ovate, persistent. Flowers ebracteolate, pedicellate, unisexual, monoecious, the staminates borne on the lower part of the peduncle, the pistillates on the upper part, apetalous, actinomorphic, hypogynous. Staminate flowers: Pedicels short. Calyx aposepalous, the sepals 5, ovate, glabrous, Androecium polyadelphous, the bundles 1-6, stamens numerous, the filaments much branched, the anthers dithecous, cells distinct, globose, divergent, basifixed, introrse, dehiscence longitudinal. Pistillode absent. Pistillate flowers: Pedicels long. Calyx aposepalous, the sepals 5, ovate, deciduous. Pistil 1, ovary ellipsoid, usually 3-carpelled, cyncarpous, 3-loculed, 4-carpelled and 4-loculed rare, the placentation apical, the ovule one in each locule, pendulous, the styles 3, terminal, the stigmas bifid, plumose. Fruit a dehiscent regma, spiny, globosely  oblongoid, green, red or reddish-green, dehiscing into 3, 2-valued coccae when ripe, the cocci 1-seeded; seeds ovoid, oblongoid or cuboid, testa crustaceous, variously coloured, grey, brown, black, reddish brown or deep chocolate brown, the markings or mottlings various, white or brown or wholly black and non mottled, endosperm oily and fleshy.

Flowering and fruiting periods: October-May

Distribution: Commonly grows wild, naturalized or cultivated in Myanmar.

Parts used and uses: Seed -- Promotes spermatogenesis; Cathartic; Dysentery; Ascites; Colic; Hyperlipaemia; Hepatitis; Carminative; Cough; As an expectorant; Asthma; Backache; Head-ache; Orchitis; Haemorrhoids; Gouty arthritis; Leprosy; Pyrexia

UKT: Medical terms from AHTD and other sources:
ca·thar·tic adj. 1. Inducing catharsis; purgative. n. 1. An agent for purging the bowels, especially a laxative. [Late Latin catharticus from Greek kathartikos from kathairein to purge; See catharsis ]
as·ci·tes n. pl. ascites 1. An abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in the abdominal cavity. [Middle English aschites from Late Latin ascºt¶s from Greek askit¶s from askos belly, wineskin] as·cit “ic ( -s¹t“¹k) adj.
hy·per·li·pe·mi·a n. 1. An excess of fat or lipids in the blood. Also Called hyperlipidemia .
orchitis -- an inflammation of one or both of the testicles, often caused by infection -- www.pennhealth.com/ency/article/001280.htm
hem·or·rhoid n. 1. An itching or painful mass of dilated veins in swollen anal tissue. 2. hemorrhoids The pathological condition in which such painful masses occur. In this sense, also called piles .
py·rex·i·a n. 1. Fever. [New Latin from Greek purexis from puressein to have a fever from puretos fever; See pyretic ] py·rex “i·al or py·rex “ic adj.

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