Update: 2006-03-17 06:04 PM +0700

TIL

Medicinal Plants of Myanmar

Combretaceae

by Kyaw Soe and Tin Myo Ngw, Forest Resource Environment Development and Conservation Association (FREDA), Series 1, 2004, ISBN 974-91986-0-3
Copied by U Kyaw Tun, and staff of TIL for staff and students of TIL. Not for sale.

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UKT: Nagathein references are given to check the Burmese-Myanmar names. * shows where there is no agreement in Burmese name but when the plant is identifiable from botanical name.

{Da.w~-mheing:} Quisqualis indica L. 2-97
{this-hseim.} Terminalia bellerica Roxb. 3-495
{hpan-hka:} Terminalia chebula Retz. 2-315
{kra.su.} ; {kra.su.-hpan-hka:} Terminalia citrina Roxb. 1-152

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KS-TMN 081

{Da.w~-mheing:} Quisqualis indica L. 2-97

Botanical name: Quisqualis indica L. Sp. Pl. 556. 1753.
Myanmar name: Daware-hmaing
English name: Rangoon creeper
Family: Combreataceae

Burmese-Myanmar name in Nagathein 2-097:
{Da.w~-mheing:}

Photos:
left -- habit with flowers
right --  close up of flowers
Click on the pictures to enlarge.

Identification characters:
A large shrub, subscandent. Leaves opposite, distichous, simple; exstipulate; petiolate; laminae oblong to broadly elliptic, the bases obtuse to rounded, the margins entire, the tips acute to acuminate, unicostate, reticulate, the upper surfaces glabrous, the lower puberulent. Inflorescences in terminal and axillary spikes; bracts subulate. Flowers ebracteolate, sessile, bisexual, actinomorphic, pentamerous, epigynous. Calyx synsepalous, 5-fid, the lobes triangular, acute, the tube or hypanthium long and slender above the ovary, the hypanthium base adnate to the ovary. Corolla apopetalous, the petals 5, oblong or obovate-oblong, pale red. Androecium polyandrous, stamens 10, biseriate, the outer oblongoid, versatile, extrorse, dehiscence longitudinal. Pistil 1, ovary ellipsoid, 1-carpelled, 1-loculed, the ovules 3-4, pendulous from locule apex, the style filiform, the stigma capitate, Fruit a drupe, 5-angled, winged, black, glabrous, coriaceous; seed 1, non-endospermic.

Flowering period: November-March
Fruiting period: November-March

Distribution: Grows wild throughout Myanmar. Planted.

Parts used and uses: Leaf -- Gastric pain; Dysentery; Seed -- As an antiseptic; Anthelmintic; Febrifuge for high fevers; Dysentery.

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KS-TMN 082

{this-hseim.} Terminalia bellerica Roxb. 3-495

Botanical name: Terminalia bellerica Roxb. Pl. Corom. 2:54.t. 198 Ind. or Malaya 1798.
Myanmar name: Thit-seint
English names: Bastard Mybolan; Bedda Nuts; Belleric Myrobalan
Family: Combretaceae

Burmese-Myanmar name in Nagathein 3-495:
{this-hseim.}

Photos:
left -- habit with flowers
right -- habit with fruit
Click on the pictures to enlarge.

Identification characters:
A deciduous tree; younger stems glabrescent, woody. Leaves clustered at branchlet ends, simple; exstipulate; petiolate; laminae broadly elliptic, the bases oblique, the margins entire, the tips rounded to sub-acute, unicostate, reticulate, the surfaces glabrous. Inflorescences axillary spikes, clustered, sometimes cauliflorous; bracts small, caducous. Flowers ebracteolate, sessile, the bisexuals about four-fifths of the spike length, the staminates few, only at the upper ends of spike, actinomorphic, pentamerous, epigynous. Calyx synsepalous, 5-fid, campanulate, pale yellow, the lobes small, subulate, the outer surfaces glabrous, the inner villous. Corolla absent. Anderoecium polyandrous, stamens 10, in 2 whorls, the filaments equal in length, the anthers dithecous, oblongoid, versatile, dehiscence longitudinal, disc present. Pistil 1, ovary ellipsoid, tomentose, 1-carpelled, 1-loculed, the ovules 1-2, pendulous, the style 1, the stigma simple. Fruit a drupe, broadly ellipsoid, tomentose, coriaceus; seed solitary, broadly elipsoid, 5-ribbed when dry, rugose, non-endospermic.

Flowering period: February-March
Furiting period: December-January

Distribution: Throughout Myanmar, grows up to 5000ft.

Parts used and uses: Root bark, leaves, flowers, fruits, seed -- Metrorrhagia; laryngitis; Opthalmia; Cough; Heart disease; Promotes hair growth; Good for eyes; Giddiness after excess eating. Root brake -- For tooth-ache and gum inflammation. Bark: Anemia; jaundice; Leucoderma; Dysentery. Dried leaf: Indigestion. Flower: Splenomegaly; Dysentery; Chest pain; Purifies blood; Bronchitis. Fruit rind -- Asthma; Cough; Laryngitis; Bronchitis; Cough; Astringent. Fruit flesh -- Lithasis; Dysuria; Opthalmia; Asthma; Cough; Palpitoation of heart; Analgesic for pains and aches. Flesh of ripe fruit: Arthritis, Opthalmia. Fruit powder: Impotency; Biliary infection; Cholecystitis; Indigestion; Unproductive cough Bronchitis. Seed -- Bronchitis; Emesis; Giddiness; Cough; To allay thirst; Heals boils and carbuncles

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KS-TMN 085

{hpan-hka:} Terminalia chebula Retz. 2-315

Botanical name: Terminalia chebula Retz. Obs. 5.31.1789.
Myanmar name: Hpan-ga
English names: Black Myrobalan; Chebulic Myrobalan.
Family: Combretaceae

Burmese-Myanmar name in Nagathein 2-315:
{hpan-hka:}

Photos:
left -- habit with flowers
right -- habit with fruit
Click on the pictures to enlarge.

Identification characters:
A deciduous tree; younger stems glabrescent, woody. Leaves sub-opposite, simple; exstipulate; petiolate; laminae broadly elliptic to elliptic-oblong, rarely ovate, the bases obtuse, the margins entire, the tips acute, unicostate, reticulate, glabrescent. Inflorescences paniculate spikes, terminal and axillary; peduncles tomentose; bracts subulate, small, caducous. Flowers ebracteate, sessile, bisexual, acinomorphic, pentamerous, epigynous. Calyx synsepalous, 5-fid, campanulate, pale yellow, the lobes small, ovate, the outer surfaces glabrous, the inner villous. Corolla absent. Androecium polyandrous stamens 10, in 2 whorls, the fialments equal in length, the anthers dithecous, ovoid, dorsifixed, versatile, dehiscence longitudinal, disc present. Pistil 1, ovary ovoid, pubescent, 1-carpelled, 1-loculed, the ovules 1-2, pendulous, the style glabrescent, the stigma simple. Fruit a drupe, broadly ellipsoid, 5 ribbed, coriaceous, scarlet when young, changing to green when ripe, glabrescent, rugose; seed solitary ellipsoid, 5-ribbed, rugose, non-endospermic.

Flowering and fruiting periods: March-June

Distribution: Throughout Myanmar, grow up to 5000ft.

Parts used and uses: Fruit -- Heartburn; Good for eyes; Gastrointestinal disesaes; Skin disease, Jaundice; Haemorrhoids; Hiccough; Indigestion; Gastrointestinal coilc. Bark -- Oedema; Hepatitis; Hepatomegaly; Best antidote for snake bite; Pyrexia. Seed -- Diarrhoea; Oedema; Very useful for inflammations either taken orally or as an external application

UKT: Medical terms from AHTD and other sources:
hemorrhoid n. 1. An itching or painful mass of dilated veins in swollen anal tissue. 2. hemorrhoids The pathological condition in which such painful masses occur. In this sense, also called piles . [From Middle English emoroides ]
hepatomegaly n. 1.Abnormal enlargement of the liver.
pyrexia n. 1. Fever. [New Latin from Greek purexis from puressein to have a fever from puretos fever; See pyretic ] pyrex ial or pyrex ic adj. ]
oedema n. Pathology Botany 1. Variant of edema . edema also oedema n. pl. edemas or edemata ( -m-t) 1. Pathology An excessive accumulation of serous fluid in tissue spaces or a body cavity.

 

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KS-TMN 086

{kra.su.} ; {kra.su.-hpan-hka:} Terminalia citrina Roxb. 1-152

Botanical name: Terminalia citrina Roxb.ex Flem. in As. Res. xi 183 and Ind. or Malaya, 1810.
Myanmar names: Kyasu; Kya-su-hpangah; Taw - hpangah
English name: Critrine Myrobalan
Family: Combretaceae

Burmese-Myanmar name in Nagathein 1-152:
{kra.su.} ; {kra.su.-hpan-hka:}

Photos:
left -- habit with flowers
right -- habit with fruit
Click on the pictures to enlarge.

Botanical name: Terminalia citrina Roxb.ex Flem. in As. Res. xi 183 and Ind. or Malaya, 1810.
Myanmar names: Kyasu; Kya-su-hpangah; Taw - hpangah
English name: Critrine Myrobalan
Family: Combretaceae

Identification characters:
A deciduous tree; younger stems woody, terete, glabresscent. Leaves sub-opposite, with 2 glands at the terminal end, simple; exstipulate; petioles puberulent; laminae elliptic or elliptic-lanceolate to ellipticoblong, the bases obtuse, the margins entire, the tips acute to abruptly acuminate, unicostate, reticulate, the surfaces glabrescent, coriaceous. Inflorescences in terminal and axillary paniculate spikes, laxly flowered; peduncles tomentose, the secondary peduncles 4-16; bracts subulate, pubescent. Flowers small, ebracteolate, sessile, bisexual, actinomorphic, pentamerous, epigynous, caducous.Calyx synsepalous, 5-fid, campanulate, the tube adnate to the ovary forming a hypanthium and prolonged above it, the lobes ovate, the outer surfaces glabrescent, the inner villous, pale yellow, persistent. Corolla absent. Androecium polyandrous, stamens 10, in 2 whorls, adnate to the base of the calyx tube, the filaments ovary inferior, ellipsoid, 1-carpelled, 1-loculed, with a solitary pendulous ovule from locule apex, glabrous, the style slender with a dilated base, subtended by a 5-lobed villous disc, the stigma simple. Fruit a drupe, ellipsoid, 5-ribbed, coriaceous, glabrous, rugose, dark green when young, bright yellow when ripe; seeds ellipsoid, 5-ribbed, rugose, non-endospermic.

Flowering period: April-June
Fruiting period: May-September

Distribution: Grows wild throughout Myanmar, up to 4,000ft.

Parts used and uses: Fruit -- Asthma; Diarrhoea; Boils; Burns; Constipation; Migraine; Dental disease; Haemoptysis; Dizziness; Bleeding haermorrhoids; Eye disease; Gastric hyperacidity; Anaemia; Elephantiasis; Orchitis; Arthritis; Anasarca; Hoarse voice; Dysentery; Pyrexia; Infections; Traumatic cuts; Cardiac diseases; Cough; Hepatomegaly; Urolithiasis; For life longevity.

UKT: Medical terms from AHTD and other sources:
hemoptysis n. 1. The coughing or spitting up of blood from the respiratory tract. [ hemo- Greek ptusis a spitting( from ptuein to spit) ]
hemorrhoid n. 1. An itching or painful mass of dilated veins in swollen anal tissue. 2. hemorrhoids The pathological condition in which such painful masses occur. In this sense, also called piles . [From Middle English emoroides ]
anaemia n. 1. Variant of anemia . n. 1. A pathological deficiency in the oxygen-carrying component of the blood, measured in unit volume concentrations of hemoglobin, red blood cell volume, or red blood cell number. [New Latin from Greek anaimia ]
elephantiasis n. 1. Chronic, often extreme enlargement and hardening of cutaneous and subcutaneous tissue, especially of the legs and external genitals, resulting from lymphatic obstruction and usually caused by infestation of the lymph glands and vessels with a filarial worm. [Latin from Greek elephas elephant-elephant -iasis -iasis ]
orchitis . alternative names: Epididymo-orchitis; Testis infection -- an inflammation of one or both of the testicles, often caused by infection. Orchitis may be caused by numerous bacterial and viral organisms. It is usually a consequence of epididymitis, which is inflammation of the epididymis (the tube which connects the vas deferens and the testicle). The most common viral cause of orchitis is mumps. Approximately 30 % of patients who have mumps will develop orchitis during the course of the illness. It is most common in boys past puberty, rare before the age of 10. It usually manifests 4 to 6 days after the onset of mumps. In one-third of boys who get orchitis caused by mumps, testicular atrophy (shrinking of the testicles) will result. -- www.pennhealth.com/ency/article/001280.htm
anasarca n. 1. A general accumulation of serous fluid in various tissues and body cavities. [Middle English from Medieval Latin Greek ana throughout; See ana- Greek sarx sark-flesh] an asarcous ( -srks) adj.
(UKT: compare with ascites n. pl. ascites 1. An abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in the abdominal cavity.)
pyrexia n. 1. Fever. [New Latin from Greek purexis from puressein to have a fever from puretos fever; See pyretic ] pyrex ial or pyrex ic adj. ]
hepatomegaly n. 1. Abnormal enlargement of the liver.
urolithiasis n. 1.A diseased condition resulting from the formation of calculi in the urinary tract.

 

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