Update: 2007-03-16 02:45 PM -0500

TIL

Medicinal Plants of Myanmar

 Apocynaceae

by Kyaw Soe and Tin Myo Ngw, Forest Resource Environment Development and Conservation Association (FREDA), Series 1, 2004, ISBN 974-91986-0-3
Copied by U Kyaw Tun, and staff of TIL for staff and students of TIL. Not for sale.

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UKT: Nagathein references are given to check the Burmese-Myanmar names. * shows where there is no agreement in Burmese name but when the plant is identifiable from botanical name.

{taung-ma.ro:} ; {lak-htoak} ; {taung-m:oak} Alstonia scholaris R.Br. 2-047
{hkn} Carissa carandas L. 1-274
{nw~tha-ki} ; {ta.roat-nhing:hsi} Nerium odorum Soland. 2-171
{ta.roat-sa.ka:} Plumeria acutifolia Poir. 1-366
{Boam~ma.ra-za} ; {za.lat-hpru} Rauvolfia serpentina L. Benth. 2-371
{hs~.nha.ra-thi} ; {hpa.yaung:pan:} Thevetia neriifolia Juss. 1-479

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Agri.Dept.2000: Akshara | Science names | Family names
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KS-TMN 045

{taung-ma.ro:} ; {lak-htoak} ; {taung-m:oak} Alstonia scholaris R.Br. 2-047

Botanical name: Alstonia scholaris R. Br. in Mem. Wern. Soc. 1, 76, 18811.
Myanmar names: Taung-ma-yoe; Let-htoke; Taung-mare-oke
English names: Devil's Tree; Ditta Bark Tree.
Family: Apocynaceae

Burmese-Myanmar name in Nagathein 2-047:
 {taung-ma.ro:} ; {lak-htoak} ; {taung-m:oak}

Photos:
left -- habit with flowers
right -- habit with fruits
Click on the pictures to enlarge.

Identifiaction characters:
An evergreen tree, the bases often buttressed; bark dark greyish brown with lenticels, latex milky, copious. Leaves whorled, 4-7 per node, simple; stipules intrapetiolar; petioles stout; laminae oblong or ogovate-oblong, the bases cuneate, the margins entire, the tips obtuse, rounded or acute, unicostate, reticulate, the surfaces glabrous, the upper dark green , coriaceous, glaucous, the lower papillose, whitish. Inflorescences in terminal paniculate cymes, densely flowered; bracts linear-oblong. Flowers bractolate, pedicellate, bisexual, actinomorphic, pentamerous, hypogynous. Calyx synsepalous, 5-lobed, urceolate. Corolla sunpetalous, 5-lobed, salverform, greenish white, the tube cylindrical, broader above the base, narrow below the middle, inflated towards region of anthers, the lobes with left margins overlapping, throat rim with tufts of long white hairs. androecium polyandrous, stamens 5, epipetalous below the throat, the anthers dithecous, introrse, basifixed, dehiscence longitudinal.Pistil 1, 2-carpelled, syncarpous and 2-loculed at the base, ovary ovoid, splits into two unilocular and unilocular and unicarpellate ovaries, the stigma placentation parietal in each ovary, disc absent, the styles 2, fused into one just above the ovaries, the stigma clavate, 2-fid. Fruit follicles, cylindrical; seeds elliptic-oblongoid, comose at both ends, endospermfleshy, scanty.

Flowering period: October - November
Fruiting period: December - April

Distribution: Grows wild in moist regions, throughout Myanmar

Parts used and uses: Bark -- Astringent; Antiseptic; Febrifuge; Chronic amoebic dysentery; Chronic dysentery. Leaf -- Heals chronic sores. Latex -- Heals sores

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KS-TMN 046

{hkn} Carissa carandas L. 1-274

Botanical name: Carissa carandas L. Mant. 1.52. 1767.
Myanmar name: Khan
English name: Bengal currents
Family: Apocynaceae

Burmese-Myanmar name in Nagathein 1-274:
{hkan}

Photos:
left -- habit with flowers
right -- close up of fruits
Click on the pictures to enlarge.

Identification characters:
A large evergreen shrub; bark light grey, branchlets usually with thin stout sharp spines. Leaves opposite, simple; exstipulate; petioles short; laminae elliptic or broadly elliptic or abovater, the bases obtuse to rounded, the margins entire, the tyips acute, often shortly mucronate, unicostate, reticulate, the surfaces glabrous, glaucous, coriaceous. Inflorescences in axillary corymbose cymes; bracts linear. Flowers ebracteolate, pedicellate, bisexual, actinomorphic, pentamerous, hypogynous. Calyx synsepalous 5-partite, the lobes lanceolate, pubescent. Corolla synpetalous, 5-lobed, salverform, the lobes oblong lanceolate, puvbescent, the tube cylindrical, dilated at the throat, pubescent, white. Androecium polyandrous, apically appendaged, basifixed, introrse, dehiscence longitudinal. Pistil 1,ovary ellipsoid 2-carpelled, syncarpous, 2-loculed, the placentation axile, the ovules 2 in each locules 2 in each locule, the style filiform  the stigma minutely 2-fid. Fruit a drupe, ellipsoid, purplish black when ripe; seeds oblongoid, concave endosperm fleshy.

Flowering and fruiting periods: October - January - June

Distribution: Grows wild and cultivated throughout Myanmar.

Parts used and uses: Root: -- Pruritis; Gonorrhoea: Pyrexia; Indigestion; Chronic ulcer. Unripe fruit -- Haematemesis; Appetizer; Mucolytic; To allay thirst. Ripe fruit -- Carminative; Expectorant; Biliousness; Haematemesis; Antidote for poisons ; Appetizer; Easily digested

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KS-TMN 049

{nw~tha-ki} ; {ta.roat-nhing:hsi} Nerium odorum Soland. 2-171

Botanical name: Nerium odorum Soland. in Hort. Kew. ed. 1,1 297.1798.
Myanmar name: Nwe-tha-gee; Tayoke-hnin-si
English names: Indian Oleander; Sweet scented Oleander
Family: Apocynaceae

Burmese-Myanmar name in Nagathein 2-171:
{nw~tha-ki}

Photos:
left -- habit with flowers
right -- habit with fruits
Click on the pictures to enlarge.

Identification characters:
A large evergreem shrub; stems erectm glabrous, sap milky. Leaves in whorls of three, simple; exstipulate; petioles very short; laminace linear-lanceolate, the bases decurrent, tapering into the petiole, the margins entire, the tips acuminate, unicostate, the midrib very stout, reticulate, glabrous, coriaceous. Inflorescences in terminal cymes. Flowers fragrant, bracteate, bracteolate, pedicellate, bisexual, actinomorphic, pentamerous, hypogynous. Calyx synsepalous, 5-partite, the lobes lanceolate, narrow, glandular within. Corolla synpetalous, 5-lobed, infundibuligorm, the tubes cylindric, the throat campanulate with 5 broad fringed scalesm the lobes orbicular, overlapping to the right, reddish rose or white, fragrant. Androecium polyandrous, staments 5, epipetalous, the filaments short, inserted near the mouth of the corolla tube, alternate with the corolla lobes, the anthers dithecous, sagittate, adherent by viscid exudates to the stigma or clavuncle, apically appendaged, the anther cells spurred, the spuyrs long, linear, as long as the cells, dehiscence longitudinal. Pistil 1, ovaries 2,distinct, each ovary 1-carpelled, 1-loculed, the placentation parietal, the ovules straight; seeds oblongoid, comose, endosperm fleshy, thin.

Flowering and Fruiting period: Throughout the year

Distribution: Naturalized and planted throughout Myanmar

Parts used and uses: Root -- Aphrodisiac; Gives energy; Very poisonous. Flower -- Analgesic for chronic pains and aches; Back-ache; Head-ache; Scabies; Aphrodisiac.

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KS-TMN 050

{ta.roat-sa.ka:} Plumeria acutifolia Poir. 1-366

Botanical name: Plumeria acutifolia Poir. Encycl. Meth. Suppl. 11. 667. 1811
Myanmar names: Tayoke-saga
English names: Franipani ; Jasmine tree ; Pagoda tree
Family: Apocynaceae

Burmese-Myanmar name in Nagathein 1-366:
{ta.roat-sa.ka:}

Photos:
left -- habit with flowers
right -- fruits
Click on the pictures to enlarge.

 

Identification characters:
A deciduous small tree; trunk crooked, bark rough, branches swollen, leafy at the tips, latex milky, copious. Leaves spirally arranged, simple; exstipulate; petioles long, stout; laminae oblong-lanceolate or oblanceolate, the bases acute, the margins entire, the tips acute, unicostate, reticulate, glabrous. Inflorescences 2-to 3-chotomous cymes, 2- 4-flowered, termina; bracts deciduous. Flowers large and showy, bracteolate, pedicellate, bisexual, actinomorphic, pentamerous, perigynous. Calyx synsepalous, 5-fid, the lobes obtuse. Corolla synpetalous, 5-lobed, salverform, the tubes cylindrical, the lobes obovate, contorted, over lapping to the left, the throat naked, the inner white with a yellow centre, the outer tinged with pink, fragrant. Androecium polyandrous, stamens 5, epipetalous, inserted near the base of the corolla tube, alternate the lobes, the anthers dithecous, linear-oblongoid, free from the stigmatic clavuncle, dehiscence longitudinal. Pistil 1, ovaries 2, distinct, half inferior, each ovary 1-carpelled, 1-loculed, the placentation parietal, the ovules numerous in each, the style 1, the stigma or clavuncle single, massive. Fruit follicles, linear-oblongoid; seeds oblongoid, plano-convex, winged, endosperm fleshy, thin.

Flowering period: Throughout the year
Fruiting period: Throughout the year

Distribution: Naturalized and planted throughout Myanmar

Parts used and uses: Shoot, bark, flower -- Leprosy; Pruritis; Heal boils and carbuncles; Analgesic; Febrifuge for prolong fevers; Inflammations; Ascites. Bark, leaf -- Abdominal tumours; Inflammations; Rheumatism; Skin diseases. Flower and shoot -- Malaria; Pruritis. Latex -- Very poisonous

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KS-TMN 053

{Boam~ma.ra-za} ; {za.lat-hpru} Rauvolfia serpentina L. Benth. 2-371

Botanical name: Rauvolfia serpentina (L.) Benth. ex Kurz. For. Fl.Brit. Burma, ii: 171. 1877.
Myanmar names: Bonma-yaza; Zalat-hpyu.
English names: Serpent wood; Serpentine.
Family: Apocynaceae

Burmese-Myanmar name in Nagathein 2-371:
{Boam~ma.ra-za} ; {za.lat-hpru}

Photos:
left -- habit with flowers
right -- flowers and fruits
Click on the pictures to enlarge.

 

Identification characters:
A small shrub or an undershrub; younger stems cylindrical, rarely branched dichotomously, bark rarely lentrcellate. Leaves in whorls of 3, rarely 2,simpla; exstipulate; petioles glabrous; laminae elliptic to ovate-elliptic, the bases attenuate, the margins entire, the tips acute to acuminate, unicostate, reticulate, the surfaces glabrous, membranous. Inflorescences terminal or lateraGl cymes, the cymes many-flowered, the primary peduncle 2- to 3- or 4-chotomously branched, the secondary peduncles bear 2-flowered cymules, the ultimate cymules 4- to 5-flowered, the peduncles red or green; bracts subulate, red, decuduous. Flowers bracteolate, peidcellate, the pedicels red or green, bisexual, actinomorphic, pentamerous, hypogynous. Calyx synsepalous, 5-sect, campanulate, the lobes unequal, linear-lanceolate, reddish. Corolla sunpetalous, 5-lobed, salverform, the tubes slender, obscurely decurved, reddish pink, dilated slightly above the middle, the lobes elliptic-ovate, white. Androecium polyandrous, staments 5, epipetalous, the filaments curved, inserted, the anthers ovoid, dithercous, dorsifixed, dehiscence longitudinal. Pistil 1, ovaries 2, ovoid, apocarpous becoming syncarpous, 2-carpelled, 2-loculed, the placentation axile, the ovules drupe, deeply 2-lobed, syncarpous at the base, obscurely bi-apiculate. Fruit a drupe, deeply 2-lobed, the style 1, filiform, the stigma calyptriform at the base, obscurely bi-apiculate, Fruit a 1-seeded, green when young, purplish black when ripe; seeds ovoid, endosperm fleshy.

Flowering period: October - December
Fruiting period: November _ March

Distribution: Grows wild on low hills, ascending up to 1000 ft, throughout Myanmar.

Parts used and uses: Root: Cures hypertension; Hypnotic: Insanity; Infections; Gives energy; For longevity of life.

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KS-TMN 054

{hs~.nha.ra-thi} ; {hpa.yaung:pan:} Thevetia neriifolia Juss. 1-479

Botanical name: Thevetia neriifolia Juss, ex Steud. Nom. ed. 2 II.680. 1841.
Myanmar names: Set hnit-yathi; Hpayaung-pan.
English names: Bastard Oleander; Exile Oleander; Yellow Oleander
Family: Apocynaceae

Burmese-Myanmar name in Nagathein 1-479:
{hs~.nha.ra-thi} ; {hpa.yaung:pan:}

Photos:
left -- habit with flowers
right -- habit with fruits
Click on the pictures to enlarge.

Identification characters:
An evergreen shrub or small tree; younger stems glabrous, sap milky. Leaves alternate, spirally arranged, simple; exstipulate; sessile; laminae linear to linear-lanceolate, the bases attenuate, the margins entire, the tips acute, unicostate, reticulate, the upper surfaces bright green, glaucous. Inflorescences terminal or supra-axillary scorpioid cymes, few-flowered; bracts subulate, deciduous. Flowers ebracteolate, pedicellate, bisexual, actinomorphic, pentamerous, hypogynous. Calyx synsepalous, 5-sect, the lobes ovate, imbricate, persistent. Corolla synpetalous, 5-lobed, funnelform, the lower part of tube cylindrical, campanulate above the lobes contorted, overlapping to the left in bud, the tube appendaged at the throat of 5 scales, arching over the stamens, yellow, white or pink. Androecium polyandrous, stamens 5, epipetalous, inserted at the base of the corolla throat, alternate the lobes, the anthers dithecous, sagittate, incumbent on the stigmatic clavuncle, dehiscence longitudinal; disc cupular, thick, accrescent in fruit. Pistil 1, ovaries 2, distinct, each ovary 1-carpelled, 1-loculed, the placentation parietal, ovules 2 in each, the style 1, slender, the stigma or clavuncle  single, angular. Fruit a drupe, broadly obovoid, epicarp fleshy, black when ripe; seeds 4, endospermic.

Flowering and fruiting periods: Throughout the year

Distribution: Commonly planted in the plains of Myanmar.

Parts used and uses: Root -- Skin disease; Ringworm. Leaf -- Arthritis; Pruritis. Flower -- Carminative; Haemorrhoids; Carbuncles; Pyrexia; Pruritis; Pruritis; Good for eyes

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End of TIL file