Update: 2015-11-24 01:45 PM -0500

TIL

Bhagavagītā

Gita.htm

From: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bhagavad_Gita 101109
UKT 151112: There are later updates, such as the one I read on 151112. However, this file is on the Wikipedia of 101109

Downloaded, set in HTML, and edited by U Kyaw Tun, M.S. (I.P.S.T., U.S.A.), and staff of TIL. Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR
http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

index.htm | |Top
lang-relig-indx.htm 

Contents of this page

UKT 151116: I consider Bhagavad Gita (= ) {Ba.ga.wud~gi-ta} to be a Philosophy preached by Philosopher-king {ka.Nha. mn:} of the city of {dwa-ra.ka mro.}, and the city itself as {ka.Nha. mn: n-pr}. I hope with this perspective, Theravada Buddhists of Myanmarpr can come to terms with this Philosophy which is exactly the opposite of Anatta {a.nt~ta.} Doctrine, just as they have accepted King Rama {ra-ma. mn:} (of Ramayana) as their own, to be revered with respect.
   In the story of Mahabharata, Bhagavad Gita (= ) {Ba.ga.wud~gi-ta} was preached to Prince Arjuna अर्जुन {ar~zu.na. mn:a:}, right on the battle field, inside a war chariot. You can see that the Prince could very well be taken for a Bur-Myan prince.
   As I go on reading, it dawned on me that Bhagavad Gita may not be authored by {ka.Nha. mn:} in ages past, but authored by some philosopher(s) of relatively later times of Atta {t~ta.} Doctrine, and superimposed on an Vdic war story - the Mahabharata. I base my conjecture that the fact that Vdic language, most probably written in Asokan script, is different from Sanskrit of Panini which is written in Devanagari script.

Introduction
Date and text
Prelude
Background
War as allegory
Overview of chapters
Scripture of Yoga
Major themes of Yoga
  Karma Yoga
  Bhakti Yoga
  Jnana Yoga : Bg18-2<)) (loaded on 151112)
  Text from
Eighteen Yogas
Message of the Gita
Influence
Commentaries and translations
Adaptations
Bhagavad Gita, by Vimal Vyas, VimalYoga.com, can be heard in mp3 format
Bg01<)) Bg02<)) Bg03<)) Bg04<)) Bg05<)) Bg06<)) Bg07<)) Bg08<)) Bg09<))
Bg10<)) Bg11<)) Bg12<)) Bg13<)) Bg14<)) Bg15<)) Bg16<)) Bg17<)) Bg18<))
If you are on a TIL research computer you can watch the following Bhagavad Gita videos in mp4 format in TIL SD-Library
Bg01<> Bg02<> Bg03<> Bg04<> Bg05<> Bg06<> Bg07<> Bg08<> Bg09<>
Bg10<> Bg11<> Bg12<> Bg13<> Bg14<> Bg15<> Bg16<> Bg17<> Bg18<>

 

Wiki notes
UKT notes
Dwarka
  {dwa-ra.ka} - Dwarawati {dwa-ra.wa.ti}
Historicity of Krishna
  - historicity key: Dwarka - the city of Krishna. Archeological evidence?
Rishi Vyasa
  {bya-a. ra..} - the compiler of Mahabharata
Swami Vivekananda
yogi

Contents of this page

Introduction

The Bhagavad Gītā भगवद्गीता (= भ ग व द ् ग ी त ा --> {Ba.ga.wd~gi-ta}), 'Song of God', also more simply known as Gita, is a sacred Hindu scripture ( wiki-001) ( wiki-002), considered among the most important texts in the history of literature and philosophy ( wiki-003). The Bhagavad Gita comprises roughly 700 verses, and is a part of the Mahabharata. The teacher of the Bhagavad Gita is Lord Krishna {ka.Nha. mn:}, who is revered by Hindus as a manifestation of God ( Parabrahman) itself ( wiki-003-ii), and is referred to within as Bhagavan, the Divine One. ( wiki-004).

UKT 101109, 151116:
#1. How do we refer to this Krishna? The word "Krishna" simply means 'black', and any person with a "black" skin can be named Krishna. One way would be to use the names of his father as an affix. Thus 'Krishna of Mahabharata' would be Vasudeva Krishna or in modern parlance Krishna Vasudeva (Vasudeva being the father).   
#2. Was Lord Krishna a historical person like Gautama Buddha? If he was not, the statement "the teacher of the Bhagavad Gita is Lord Krishna" is misleading.
See in my note on Historicity of Krishna .
#3. What about the historicity of the Kurukshetra battle of the Mahabharata war? It was just before the battle was fought that Krishna delivered the Gita (the core of the Hindu religion) to Prince Arjuna अर्जुन {ar~zu.na.} , right on the battle field, inside a war chariot.
#4. Who is Parabrahman ? Is he/she/it a {brah~ma} of the Buddhist Cosmology ? At the moment (151116), I consider him to be just an Axiom not to be interpreted by a scientist and Theravada-Buddhist like me. He is an Axiom worshipped by {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na:}.

The content of the Gita is the conversation between Lord Krishna {ka.Nha. mn:} and Arjuna taking place on the battlefield before the start of the Kurukshetra war. Responding to Arjuna's confusion and moral dilemma about fighting his own cousins, Lord Krishna explains to Arjuna his duties as a warrior and prince, and elaborates on different Yogic  ( wiki-005) and Vedantic philosophies, with examples and analogies. This has led to the Gita often being described as a concise guide to Hindu an Indian theology and also as a practical, self-contained guide to life. [UKT ]

UKT 151116: Note {ka.Nha. mn:} was a human being. He was not armed. He was driving the war-chariot of Prince Arjuna who was fully armed. Because he was not armed {ka.Nha. mn:} was not considered to be a participant of the battle and theoretically should not be targeted to be killed. He was a civilian. You can treat him just like a war-correspondent of our age.

During the discourse, Lord Krishna {ka.Nha. mn:} reveals His identity as the Supreme Being Himself ( Svayam Bhagavan), blessing Arjuna with an awe-inspiring vision of His divine universal form.

The direct audience to Lord Krishnas discourse of the Bhagawata Gita included Arjuna (addressee), Sanjay (using Divya Drishti gifted by Rishi Veda Vyasa {bya-a. ra..}) and Lord Hanuman (perched atop Arjunas chariot) and Barbarika, son of Ghatotghaj, who also witnessed the complete 18 days of action at Kurukhsetra.

UKT: See my note on Rishi Vyasa - the compiler of the Mahabharata .

The Bhagavad Gita is also called Gītopaniṣad, implying its having the status of an Upanishad, i.e. a Vedantic scripture. ( wiki-006). Since the Gita is drawn from the Mahabharata, it is classified as a Smṛiti  text. However, those branches of Hinduism that give it the status of an Upanishad also consider it a śruti  or "revealed" text. (wiki-007) (wiki-008). As it is taken to represent a summary of the Upanishadic teachings, it is also called "the Upanishad of the Upanishads". (wiki-001-ii). Another title is mokṣaśāstra, or " Scripture of Liberation". ( wiki-009)

Contents of this page

Date and text

The Bhagavad Gita occurs in the Bhishma Parva of the Mahabharata and comprises 18 chapters from the 25th through 42nd and consists of 700 verses. (wiki-010). Its authorship is traditionally ascribed to Vyasa , the compiler of the Mahabharata. ( wiki-011) (wiki-012). Because of differences in recensions, the verses of the Gita may be numbered in the full text of the Mahabharata as chapters 6.2542 or as chapters 6.2340. (wiki-013). According to the recension of the Gita commented on by Shankaracharya, the number of verses is 700, but there is evidence to show that old manuscripts had 745 verses. (wiki-014). The verses themselves, using the range and style of Sanskrit meter ( chhandas) with similes and metaphors, are written in a poetic form that is traditionally chanted.

The Bhagavad Gītā appeared later than the great movement represented by the early Upanishads and earlier than the period of the development of the philosophic systems and their formulation. The date and authorship of the Gītā are not known with certainty and scholars of an earlier generation opined that it was composed between the 5th and the 2nd century BCE. (wiki-011-ii) (wiki-015) (wiki-016) Radhakrishnan, for example, asserted that the origin of the Gītā is in the pre-Christian era. (wiki-011-iii). [UKT]

More recent assessments of Sanskrit literature, however, have tended to bring the chronological horizon of the texts down in time. In the case of the Gītā, John Brockington has now made cogent arguments that it can be placed in the first century CE ( wiki-017) . Based on claims of differences in the poetic styles, some scholars like Jinarajadasa have argued that the Bhagavad Gītā was added to the Mahābhārata at a later date. (wiki-018) (wiki-019).

Within the text of the Bhagavad Gītā itself, Lord Krishna states that the knowledge of Yoga contained in the Gītā was first instructed to mankind at the very beginning of their existence. (wiki-020). Although the original date of composition of the Bhagavad Gita is not clear, its teachings are considered timeless and the exact time of revelation of the scripture is considered of little spiritual significance by scholars like Bansi Pandit, and Juan Mascaro. (wiki-001-iii) (wiki-021). Swami Vivekananda dismisses concerns about differences of opinion regarding the historical events as unimportant for study of the Gita from the point of acquirement of Dharma . (wiki-022)

Contents of this page

Prelude

The Mahabharata centers on the exploits of the Pandavas and the Kauravas, two families of royal cousins descended from two brothers, Pandu and Dhritarashtra, respectively. Because Dhritarashtra was born blind, Pandu inherited the ancestral kingdom, comprising a part of northern India around modern Delhi. [UKT]

The Pandava brothers were Yudhishthira the eldest, Bhima, Arjuna, Nakula, and Sahadeva. [UKT]

The Kaurava brothers were one hundred in number, Duryodhana being the eldest. When Pandu died at an early age, his young children were placed under the care of their uncle Dhritarashtra who usurped the throne. (wiki-023) (wiki-024).

The Pandavas and the Kauravas were brought up together in the same household and had the same teachers, the most notable of whom were Bhishma and Dronacharya. (wiki-024-ii). Bhishma, the wise grandsire, acted as their chief guardian, and the brahmin Drona was their military instructor. The Pandavas were endowed with righteousness, self-control, nobility, and many other knightly traits. On the other hand, the hundred sons of Dhritarashtra, especially Duryodhana, were endowed with negative qualities and were cruel, unrighteous, unscrupulous, greedy, and lustful. Duryodhana, jealous of his five cousins, contrived various means to destroy them. (wiki-025).

When the time came to crown Yudhisthira, eldest of the Pandavas, as prince, Duryodhana, through a fixed game of dice, exiled the Pandavas into the forest. (wiki-024-iii) [UKT]

UKT 101111: Yudhisthira, eldest of the Pandava brothers, seemed to be addicted to gambling. He gambled everything away: his kingdom, his obedient brothers, even himself, and his queen (the common wife of all the 5 brothers - a case of polyandry). His (un-kingly) failing seemed to be well known (at least to his enemies). He seemed to have no self-control when it comes to a game of chance which could be easily fixed. Because of this, he was not fit to be a leader and a king of the people of his country. Because of his folly, he was the cause of the loss of life of many (common people) and should be the one to be blamed by the common people who seemed to be of no importance in ancient India.

On their return from banishment the Pandavas demanded the return of their legitimate kingdom. Duryodhana, who had consolidated his power by many alliances, refused to restore their legal and moral rights. Attempts by elders and Krishna {ka.Nha. mn:} of {dwa-ra.ka mro.}, who was a friend of the Pandavas and also a well wisher of the Kauravas, to resolve the issue failed. Nothing would satisfy Duryodhana's inordinate greed. (wiki-026) (wiki-027).

War became inevitable. Both Duryodhana and Arjuna  requested Krishna  to support them in the war, since he possessed the strongest army, and was revered as the wisest teacher and the greatest yogi. [UKT]

UKT 101111: see my note on yogi
Arjuna was the third brother: why didn't his elder brothers, Yudhisthira and Bhima, made the request.

Krishna offered to give his vast army to one of them and to become a charioteer and counselor for the other, but he would not touch any weapon nor participate in the battle in any manner. (wiki-026-ii). While Duryodhana [the chief of the Kauravas] chose Krishna's vast army, Arjuna preferred to have Krishna as his charioteer. (wiki-028). The whole realm responded to the call of the Pandavas and the Kauravas. The kings, princes, and knights of India with their armies assembled on the sacred plain of Kurukshetra. (wiki-026-iii) [UKT]

UKT 101111: My interest in the place of the battle, Kurushetra, is from the point of logistics of moving vast armies across many miles to fight. I wonder, how it would be possible to feed the living and dispose of the dead during the 18 days of battle. Is it possible that the Kurushetra War was just a local skirmish, which had been overblown over the centuries to describe an event - the deliverance of Gita by Krishna to Arjuna ? See my note on Jyotisar. UKT101111

The blind king Dhritarashtra wished to follow the progress of the battle. The sage Vyasa {bya-a. ra..} [see my note on Vyasa] offered to endow him with supernatural sight, but the king refused the boon, for he felt that the sight of the destruction of those near and dear to him would be too much to bear. Thereupon, Vyasa bestowed supernatural sight on Sanjaya संजय 'victory' {n-za.ya.}, who was to act as reporter to Dhritarashtra. The Gita opens with the question of the blind king to Sanjaya regarding what happened on the battlefield when the two armies faced each other in battle array. (wiki-029).

Contents of this page

Background

The Bhagavad Gita begins before the start of the climactic battle at Kurukshetra, with the Pandava prince Arjuna becoming filled with doubt on the battlefield. Realizing that his enemies are his own relatives, beloved friends, and revered teachers, he turns to his charioteer and guide, Krishna, for advice.

In summary the main philosophical subject matter of the Bhagavad Gita is the explanation of five basic concepts or "truths":[30]

Ishvara (The Supreme Controller)
Jiva (Living beings/the individualized soul)
Prakrti (Nature/Matter)
Dharma (Duty in accordance with Divine law)
Kaala (Time)

Krishna counsels Arjuna on the greater idea of dharma, or universal harmony and duty. He begins with the tenet that the soul ( Atman) is eternal and immortal. [31] Any 'death' on the battlefield would involve only the shedding of the body, whereas the soul is permanent. Arjuna's hesitation stems from a lack of accurate understanding of the 'nature of things,' the privileging of the unreal over the real. His fear and hesitance become impediments to the proper balancing of the universal dharmic order. Essentially, Arjuna wishes to abandon the battle, to abstain from action; Krishna warns, however, that without action, the cosmos would fall out of order and truth would be obscured.

In order to clarify his point, Krishna expounds the various Yoga processes and understanding of the true nature of the universe. Krishna describes the yogic paths of devotional service, [32] action, [33] meditation [34]and knowledge. [35] Fundamentally, the Bhagavad Gita proposes that true enlightenment comes from growing beyond identification with the temporal ego, the 'False Self', the ephemeral world, so that one identifies with the truth of the immortal self, the absolute soul or Atman. Through detachment from the material sense of ego, the Yogi, or follower of a particular path of Yoga, is able to transcend his/her illusory mortality and attachment to the material world and enter the realm of the Supreme. [36]

Krishna does not propose that the physical world must be forgotten or neglected. Rather, one's life on Earth must be lived in accordance with greater laws and truths, one must embrace one's temporal duties whilst remaining mindful of timeless reality, acting for the sake of service without consideration for the results thereof. Such a life would naturally lead towards stability, happiness and, ultimately, enlightenment.

To demonstrate his divine nature, Krishna grants Arjuna the boon of cosmic vision (albeit temporary) and allows the prince to see his 'Universal Form' (this occurs in the eleventh chapter). [37] He reveals that he is fundamentally both the ultimate essence of Being in the universe and also its material body, called the Vishvarupa ('Universal Form').

In the Bhagavad Gita, Krishna refers to the war about to take place as 'Dharma Yuddha', meaning a righteous war for the purpose of justice. In Chapter 4, Krishna states that he incarnates in each age ( yuga) to establish righteousness in the world. [38]

Contents of this page

War as allegory

There are many who regard the story of the Gita as an allegory; Swami Nikhilananda, for example, takes Arjuna as an allegory of Atman, Krishna as an allegory of Brahman, Arjuna's chariot as the body, etc. [39]

Mahatma Gandhi, in his commentary on the Gita, [40] interpreted the battle as "an allegory in which the battlefield is the soul and Arjuna, man's higher impulses struggling against evil." [41] Swami Vivekananda also said that the first discourse in the Gita related to war can be taken allegorically. [42] Vivekananda further remarks, "this Kurukshetra War is only an allegory. When we sum up its esoteric significance, it means the war which is constantly going on within man between the tendencies of good and evil." [12]

In Sri Aurobindo's view, Krishna was a historical figure, but his significance in the Gita is as a "symbol of the divine dealings with humanity", [43] while Arjuna typifies a "struggling human soul." [44] However, Aurobindo rejects the interpretation that the Gita, and the Mahabharata by extension, is "an allegory of the inner life, and has nothing to do with our outward human life and actions": [44]

...That is a view which the general character and the actual language of the epic does not justify and, if pressed, would turn the straightforward philosophical language of the Gita into a constant, laborious and somewhat puerile mystification ....the Gita is written in plain terms and professes to solve the great ethical and spiritual difficulties which the life of man raises, and it will not do to go behind this plain language and thought and wrest them to the service of our fancy. But there is this much of truth in the view, that the setting of the doctrine though not symbolical, is certainly typical...

 

Contents of this page

Overview of chapters

The Gita consists of eighteen chapters in total:

01. Arjuna requests Krishna to move his chariot between the two armies. When Arjuna sees his relatives on the opposing army side of the Kurus, he loses morale and decides not to fight.

02. After asking Krishna for help, Arjuna is instructed that only the body may be killed as he was worried if it would become a sin to kill people (including his gurus and relatives), while the eternal self is immortal. Krishna appeals to Arjuna that, as a warrior, he has a duty to uphold the path of dharma through warfare.

03. Arjuna asks why he should engage in fighting if knowledge is more important than action. Krishna stresses to Arjuna that performing his duties for the greater good, but without attachment to results, is the appropriate course of action.

04. Krishna reveals that he has lived through many births, always teaching Yoga for the protection of the pious and the destruction of the impious and stresses the importance of accepting a guru.

05. Arjuna asks Krishna if it is better to forgo action or to act. Krishna answers that both ways may be beneficent, but that acting in Karma Yoga is superior.

06. Krishna describes the correct posture for meditation and the process of how to achieve Samādhi.

07. Krishna teaches the path of knowledge ( Jnana Yoga).

08. Krishna defines the terms brahman, adhyatma, karma, atman, adhibhuta and adhidaiva and explains how one can remember him at the time of death and attain his supreme abode.

09. Krishna explains panentheism, "all beings are in me" as a way of remembering him in all circumstances.

10. Krishna describes how he is the ultimate source of all material and spiritual worlds. Arjuna accepts Krishna as the Supreme Being, quoting great sages who have also done so.

11. On Arjuna's request, Krishna displays his "universal form" (Viśvarūpa), a theophany of a being facing every way and emitting the radiance of a thousand suns, containing all other beings and material in existence. 

12. Krishna describes the process of devotional service ( Bhakti Yoga).

13. Krishna describes nature ( prakrti), the enjoyer ( purusha) and consciousness.

14. Krishna explains the three modes ( gunas) of material nature.

15. Krishna describes a symbolic tree (representing material existence), its roots in the heavens and its foliage on earth. Krishna explains that this tree should be felled with the "axe of detachment", after which one can go beyond to his supreme abode.

16. Krishna tells of the human traits of the divine and the demonic natures. He counsels that to attain the supreme destination one must give up lust, anger and greed, discern between right and wrong action by discernment through Buddhi and evidence from scripture and thus act correctly.

17. Krishna tells of three divisions of faith and the thoughts, deeds and even eating habits corresponding to the three gunas.

18. In conclusion, Krishna asks Arjuna to abandon all forms of dharma and simply surrender unto him. He describes this as the ultimate perfection of life.

Contents of this page

Scripture of Yoga

The Gita addresses the discord between the senses and the intuition of cosmic order. It speaks of the Yoga of equanimity, a detached outlook. The term Yoga covers a wide range of meanings, but in the context of the Bhagavad Gita, describes a unified outlook, serenity of mind, skill in action and the ability to stay attuned to the glory of the Self (Atman) and the Supreme Being (Bhagavan). According to Krishna, the root of all suffering and discord is the agitation of the mind caused by selfish desire. The only way to douse the flame of desire is by simultaneously stilling the mind through self-discipline and engaging oneself in a higher form of activity.

However, abstinence from action is regarded as being just as detrimental as extreme indulgence. According to the Bhagavad Gita, the goal of life is to free the mind and intellect from their complexities and to focus them on the glory of the Self by dedicating one's actions to the divine. This goal can be achieved through the Yogas of meditation, action, devotion and knowledge. In the sixth chapter, Krishna describes the best Yogi as one who constantly meditates upon him [45] - which is understood to mean thinking of either Krishna personally, or the supreme Brahman - with different schools of Hindu thought giving varying points of view.

Krishna summarizes the Yogas through eighteen chapters. Three yogas in particular have been emphasized by commentators:

Bhakti Yoga or Devotion,
Karma Yoga or Selfless Action
Jnana Yoga or Self Transcending Knowledge

While each path differs, their fundamental goal is the same - to realize Brahman (the Divine Essence) as being the ultimate truth upon which our material universe rests, that the body is temporal, and that the Supreme Soul (Paramatman) is infinite. Yoga's aim (मोक्ष  mokṣa {mauk~hka.}) is to escape from the cycle of reincarnation through realization of the ultimate reality. [UKT]

UKT:
मोक्ष  mokṣa 
Skt: मोक्ष  [moksha] - m. release, liberation, escape, release from transmigration ... - Mac236c1
Skt: मोक्ष  mokṣa -  m.  freedom, release, solution (of a problem), absolution, redemption, emancipation,
  release from rebirth, deliverance, settling a question, salvation, riddance, discharge of a debt - SpkSkt
Pal: mokkha
- adj. principal, pre-eminent; m. release, deliverance - UPMT-PED174
Pal: {mauk~hka.} -  UHS-PMD0788
 
  UKT from UHS: m. set free, release. n. become leader

There are three stages to self-realization enunciated from the Bhagavad Gita:

1. Brahman - The impersonal universal energy
2. Paramatma - The Supreme Soul sitting in the heart of every living entity.
3. Bhagavan - God as a personality, with a transcendental form.

 

Contents of this page

Major themes of Yoga

The influential commentator Madhusudana Sarasvati (b. circa 1490) divided the Gita's eighteen chapters into three sections, each of six chapters. According to his method of division, the first six chapters deal with Karma Yoga, which is the means to the final goal, and the last six deal with the goal itself, which he says is Knowledge (Jnana). The middle six deal with bhakti.[46] Swami Gambhirananda characterizes Madhusudana Sarasvati's system as a successive approach in which Karma yoga leads to Bhakti yoga, which in turn leads to Jnana yoga.[47]

Contents of this page

Karma Yoga

Karma Yoga is essentially Acting, or doing one's duties in life as per his/her dharma, or duty, without concern of results - a sort of constant sacrifice of action to the Supreme. It is action done without thought of gain. In a more modern interpretation, it can be viewed as duty bound deeds done without letting the nature of the result affecting one's actions. Krishna advocates Nishkam Karma (Selfless Action) as the ideal path to realize the Truth. The very important theme of Karma Yoga is not focused on renouncing the work, but again and again Krishna focuses on what should be the purpose of activity. Krishna mentions in following verses that actions must be performed to please the Supreme otherwise these actions become the cause of material bondage and cause repetition of birth and death in this material world. These concepts are described in the following verses:

"Work done as a sacrifice for Vishnu has to be performed, otherwise work causes bondage in this material world. Therefore, O son of Kuntī, perform your prescribed duties for His satisfaction, and in that way you will always remain free from bondage."[48]

 

"To action alone hast thou a right and never at all to its fruits; let not the fruits of action be thy motive; neither let there be in thee any attachment to inaction"(2.47)[49]

 

"Fixed in yoga, do thy work, O Winner of wealth (Arjuna), abandoning attachment, with an even mind in success and failure, for evenness of mind is called yoga"(2.48)[50]

 

"With the body, with the mind, with the intellect, even merely with the senses, the Yogis perform action toward self-purification, having abandoned attachment. He who is disciplined in Yoga, having abandoned the fruit of action, attains steady peace..."[51]

 

In order to achieve true liberation, it is important to control all mental desires and tendencies to enjoy sense pleasures. The following verses illustrate this: [52]

"When a man dwells in his mind on the object of sense, attachment to them is produced. From attachment springs desire and from desire comes anger."(2.62)[52]

 

"From anger arises bewilderment, from bewilderment loss of memory; and from loss of memory, the destruction of intelligence and from the destruction of intelligence he perishes"(2.63)[52]

 

Contents of this page

Bhakti Yoga

According to Catherine Cornille, Associate Professor of Theology at Boston College, "The text [of the Gita] offers a survey of the different possible disciplines for attaining liberation through knowledge (jnana), action (karma) and loving devotion to God (bhakti), focusing on the latter as both the easiest and the highest path to salvation."[53]

In the introduction to Chapter Seven of the Gita, bhakti is summed up as a mode of worship which consists of unceasing and loving remembrance of God. As M. R. Sampatkumaran explains in his overview of Ramanuja's commentary on the Gita, "The point is that mere knowledge of the scriptures cannot lead to final release. Devotion, meditation and worship are essential."[54]

As Krishna says in the Bhagavad Gita:

"And of all yogins, he who full of faith worships Me, with his inner self abiding in Me, him, I hold to be the most attuned (to me in Yoga)."[55]

 

 "After attaining Me, the great souls do not incur rebirth in this miserable transitory world, because they have attained the highest perfection."[56]

 

"... those who, renouncing all actions in Me, and regarding Me as the Supreme, worship Me... For those whose thoughts have entered into Me, I am soon the deliverer from the ocean of death and transmigration, Arjuna. Keep your mind on Me alone, your intellect on Me. Thus you shall dwell in Me hereafter."[57]

 

"And he who serves Me with the yoga of unswerving devotion, transcending these qualities [binary opposites, like good and evil, pain and pleasure] is ready for liberation in Brahman." [58]

 

"Fix your mind on Me, be devoted to Me, offer service to Me, bow down to Me, and you shall certainly reach Me. I promise you because you are My very dear friend."[59]

 

"Setting aside all meritorious deeds (Dharma), just surrender completely to My will (with firm faith and loving contemplation). I shall liberate you from all sins. Do not fear." [60]

 

Contents of this page

Jnana Yoga

UKT 151112: Bg18 with SND included on 151112
Txt from - http://www.vedabase.com/ 151112
and http://www.holy-bhagavad-gita.org/chapter/18/verse/2 151112
SND by Vimal Vyas, vimalyoga.com Gita18<))
and Gita18-2<))
Note how English transliteration can be differ from website to website, and also that script rendering can also change from font to font. Thus: is rendered differently in Arial Unicode MS as
सन्न्यासं .

श्रीभगवानुवाच śrī-bhagavān uvāca 'the Supreme Personality of Godhead said';

काम्यानां kāmyānāṁ 'with desire'
कर्मणां karmaṇāṁ 'of activities'
न्यासं nyāsaṁ 'renunciation'

सन्न्यासं sannyāsaṁ 'the renounced order of life'
कवयो kavayaḥ 'the learned'
विदु: viduḥ 'know'

सर्वकर्मफलत्यागं sarva 'of all' karma 'activities' phala 'of results'
  ty
āgam 'renunciation'

प्राहुस्त्यागं prāhuḥ 'call' tyāgam 'renunciation'
विचक्षणा: vicakṣaṇāḥ 'the experienced'

Jnana Yoga is a process of learning to discriminate between what is real and what is not, what is eternal and what is not. Through a steady advancement in realization of the distinction between Real and the Unreal, the Eternal and the Temporal, one develops into a Jnani. This is essentially a path of knowledge and discrimination in regards to the difference between the immortal soul (atman) and the body.

In the second chapter, Krishnas counsel begins with a succinct exposition of Jnana Yoga. Krishna argues that there is no reason to lament for those who are about to be killed in battle, because never was there a time when they were not, nor will there be a time when they will cease to be. Krishna explains that the self (atman) of all these warriors is indestructible. Fire cannot burn it, water cannot wet it, and wind cannot dry it. It is this Self that passes from body to another body like a person taking worn out clothing and putting on new ones. Krishnas counsel is intended to alleviate the anxiety that Arjuna feels seeing a battle between two great armies about to commence. However, Arjuna is not an intellectual. He is a warrior, a man of action, for whom the path of action, Karma Yoga, is more appropriate.

"When a sensible man ceases to see different identities due to different material bodies and he sees how beings are expanded everywhere, he attains to the Brahman conception."[61]

 

"Those who see with eyes of knowledge the difference between the body and the knower of the body, and can also understand the process of liberation from bondage in material nature, attain to the supreme goal."[62]

 

Contents of this page

Eighteen Yogas

In Sanskrit editions of the Gita, the Sanskrit text includes a traditional chapter title naming each chapter as a particular form of yoga. These chapter titles do not appear in the Sanskrit text of the Mahabharata.[63] Since there are eighteen chapters, there are therefore eighteen yogas mentioned, as explained in this quotation from Swami Chidbhavananda:

All the eighteen chapters in the Gita are designated, each as a type of yoga. The function of the yoga is to train the body and the mind.... The first chapter in the Gita is designated as system of yoga. It is called Arjuna Vishada Yogam - Yoga of Arjuna's Dejection.[64]

In Sanskrit editions, these eighteen chapter titles all use the word yoga, but in English translations the word yoga may not appear. For example, the Sanskrit title of Chapter 1 as given in Swami Sivananda's bilingual edition is arjunaviṣādayogaḥ which he translates as "The Yoga of the Despondency of Arjuna".[65] Swami Tapasyananda's bilingual edition gives the same Sanskrit title, but translates it as "Arjuna's Spiritual Conversion Through Sorrow".[66] The English-only translation by Radhakrishnan gives no Sanskrit, but the chapter title is translated as "The Hesitation and Despondency of Arjuna".[67] Other English translations, such as that by Zaehner, omit these chapter titles entirely.[68]

Swami Sivananda's commentary says that the eighteen chapters have a progressive order to their teachings, by which Krishna "pushed Arjuna up the ladder of Yoga from one rung to another."[69] As Winthrop Sargeant explains, "In the model presented by the Bhagavad Gītā, every aspect of life is in fact a way of salvation."[70]

Contents of this page

Message of the Gita

There are 6 arishadvargas, or evils that the Gita says one should avoid: kama (lust), krodha (anger), lobh (greed), moha (delusion), mada or ahankar (pride) and matsarya (jealousy). These are the negative characteristics which prevent man from attaining moksha (liberation from the birth and death cycle).

The Gita centers on the revelation of Vaishna monotheism, offering the alternative of just war, even against relatives, provided the aggression is in the "active and selfless defence of dharma", to the pacifist Hindu concept of non-violence.[71]

Some commentators have attempted to resolve the apparent conflict between the proscription of violence and ahimsa by allegorical readings. Gandhi, for example, took the position that the text is not concerned with actual warfare so much as with the "battle that goes on within each individual heart". Such allegorical or metaphorical readings are derived from the Theosophical interpretations of Subba Row, William Q. Judge and Annie Besant. Stephen Mitchell has attempted to refute such allegorical readings.[72]

Scholar Radhakrishnan writes that the verse 11.55 is "the essence of bhakti" and the "substance of the whole teaching of the Gita":[73]

He who does work for Me, he who looks upon Me as his goal, he who worships Me, free from attachment, who is free from enmity to all creatures, he goes to Me, O Pandava.

Scholar Steven Rosen summarizes the Gita in four basic, concise verses:[74]

"I am the source of all spiritual and material worlds. Everything emanates from me. The Wise who fully realize this engage in my devotional service and worship me with all their hearts." (10.8)

"My pure devotees are absorbed in thoughts of me, and they experience fulfillment and bliss by enlightening one another and conversing about me." (10.9)

"To those who are continually devoted and worship me with love, I give the understanding by which they can come to me." (10.10)

"Out of compassion for them, I, residing in their hearts, destroy with the shining lamp of knowledge the darkness born of ignorance." (10.11)

Ramakrishna said that the essential message of the Gita can be obtained by repeating the word several times,[75] "'Gita, Gita, Gita', you begin, but then find yourself saying 'ta-Gi, ta-Gi, ta-Gi'. Tagi means one who has renounced everything for God."

According to Swami Vivekananda, "If one reads this one Shloka क्लैब्यं मा स्म गमः पार्थ नैतत्त्वय्युपपद्यते । क्षुद्रं हृदयदौर्बल्यं त्यक्त्वोत्तिष्ठ परंतप॥ one gets all the merits of reading the entire Gita; for in this one Shloka lies imbedded the whole Message of the Gita.[76]

Do not yield to unmanliness, O son of Pritha. It does not become you. Shake off this base faint-heartnedness and arise, O scorcher of enemies! (2.3)

Mahatma Gandhi writes, "The object of the Gita appears to me to be that of showing the most excellent way to attain self-realization" and this can be achieved by selfless action, "By desireless action; by renouncing fruits of action; by dedicating all activities to God, i.e., by surrendering oneself to Him body and soul." Gandhi called Gita, The Gospel of Selfless Action.[77]

Eknath Easwaran writes that the Gita's subject is "the war within, the struggle for self-mastery that every human being must wage if he or she is to emerge from life victorious",[78] and "The language of battle is often found in the scriptures, for it conveys the strenuous, long, drawn-out campaign we must wage to free ourselves from the tyranny of the ego, the cause of all our suffering and sorrow".[79]

Contents of this page

Influence

In a heterogeneous text, the Gita reconciles facets and schools of Hindu philosophy, including those of Brahmanical (orthodox Vedic) origin and the parallel ascetic and Yogic traditions. It had always been a creative text for Hindu priests and Yogis. Although it is not strictly part of the 'canon' of Vedic writings, almost all Hindu traditions draw upon the Gita as authoritative. For the Vedantic schools of Hindu philosophy, it belongs to one of the three foundational texts Prasthana Trayi (lit. "three points of departure"), the other two being the Upanishads and Brahma Sutras.

The Bhagavad Gita's emphasis on selfless service was a prime source of inspiration for Mahatma Gandhi.[citation needed]

J. Robert Oppenheimer, American physicist and director of the Manhattan Project, learned Sanskrit in 1933 and read the Bhagavad Gita in the original, citing it later as one of the most influential books to shape his philosophy of life. Upon witnessing the world's first nuclear test in 1945, he later claimed to have thought of the quotation "Now I am become Death, the destroyer of worlds", verse 32 from Chapter 11 of the Bhagavad Gita.[80][81]

A 2006 report suggests that the Gita is replacing the influence of the "The Art of War" (ascendant in the 1980s and '90s) in the Western business community.[82]

Contents of this page

Commentaries and translations

Classical commentaries

Traditionally the commentators belong to spiritual traditions or schools (sampradaya) and Guru lineages (parampara), which claim to preserve teaching stemming either directly from Krishna himself or from other sources, each claiming to be faithful to the original message. In the words of Hiriyanna, "[The Gita] is one of the hardest books to interpret, which accounts for the numerous commentaries on it - each differing from the rest in an essential point or the other."[83]

Different translators and commentators have widely differing views on what multi-layered Sanskrit words and passages signify, and their presentation in English depending on the sampradaya they are affiliated to. Especially in Western philology, interpretations of particular passages often do not agree with traditional views.

The oldest and most influential medieval commentary was that of the founder of the Vedanta school[84] of extreme 'non-dualism", Shankara (788-820 A. D.),[85] also known as Shankaracharya (Sanskrit: Śaṅkarācārya).[86] Shankara's commentary was based on a recension of the Gita containing 700 verses, and that recension has been widely adopted by others.[87] There is not universal agreement that he was the actual author of the commentary on the Bhagavad Gita that is attributed to him.[88] A key commentary for the "modified non-dualist" school of Vedanta[89] was written by Ramanujacharya (Sanskrit: Rāmānujacharya), who lived in the eleventh century A.D.[86][90] Ramanujacharya's commentary chiefly seeks to show that the discipline of devotion to God (Bhakti yoga) is the way of salvation.[91] The commentary by Madhva, whose dates are given either as (b. 1199 - d. 1276)[92] or as (b. 1238 - d. 1317),[70] also known as Madhvacharya (Sanskrit: Madhvācārya), exemplifies thinking of the "dualist" school.[86] Madhva's school of dualism asserts that there is, in a quotation provided by Winthrop Sargeant, "an eternal and complete distinction between the Supreme, the many souls, and matter and its divisions."[70] Madhva is also considered to be one of the great commentators reflecting the viewpoint of the Vedanta school.[93]

In the Shaiva tradition,[94] the renowned philosopher Abhinavagupta (10-11th century CE) has written a commentary on a slightly variant recension called Gitartha-Samgraha.

Other classical commentators include Nimbarka (1162 CE), Vallabha(1479 CE)., Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (1486 CE),[95] while Dnyaneshwar (1275-1296 CE) translated and commented on the Gita in Marathi, in his book Dnyaneshwari.

Independence movement

In modern times, notable commentaries were written by Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Mahatma Gandhi, who used the text to help inspire the Indian independence movement.[96][97] Tilak wrote his commentary while in jail during the period 1910-1911 serving a six-year sentence imposed by the British colonial government in India for sedition.[98] While noting that the Gita teaches possible paths to liberation, his commentary places most emphasis on Karma yoga.[99] No book was more central to Gandhi's life and thought than the Bhagavadgita, which he referred to as his "spiritual dictionary". (wiki-100) .[100] During his stay in Yeravda jail in 1929,[101] Gandhi wrote a commentary on the Bhagavad Gita in Gujarati. The Gujarati manuscript was translated into English by Mahadev Desai, who provided an additional introduction and commentary. It was published with a foreword by Gandhi in 1946.[102][103] Mahatma Gandhi expressed his love for the Gita in these words: "I find a solace in the Bhagavadgītā that I miss even in the Sermon on the Mount. When disappointment stares me in the face and all alone I see not one ray of light, I go back to the Bhagavadgītā. I find a verse here and a verse there and I immediately begin to smile in the midst of overwhelming tragedies - and my life has been full of external tragedies - and if they have left no visible, no indelible scar on me, I owe it all to the teaching of Bhagavadgītā."[104]

Hindu revivalism and Neo-Hindu movements

Other notable modern commentators include Sri Aurobindo, Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan and Swami Vivekananda, who took a syncretistic approach to the text.[105][106]

Swami Vivekananda, the follower of Sri Ramakrishna, was known for his commentaries on the four Yogas - Bhakti, Jnana, Karma and Raja Yoga. He drew from his knowledge of the Gita to expound on these Yogas. Swami Sivananda advises the aspiring Yogi to read verses from the Bhagavad Gita every day. Paramahamsa Yogananda, writer of the famous Autobiography of a Yogi, viewed the Bhagavad Gita as one of the world's most divine scriptures. A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, the founder of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness, wrote Bhagavad-Gītā As It Is, a commentary on the Gita from the perspective of Gaudiya Vaishnavism. The work became the principal text for the modern Hare Krishna movement. In 1965, Maharishi Mahesh Yogi published his own commentary of the Gita and proclaimed his technique of Transcendental Meditation to be the "practical procedure for experiencing the field of absolute Being described by Lord Krishna." [107]

Scholarly translations

The first English translation of the Bhagavad Gita was done by Charles Wilkins in 1785. [108] [109] In 1981, Larson listed more than 40 English translations of the Gita, stating that "A complete listing of Gita translations and a related secondary bibliography would be nearly endless" (p. 514 [110]). He stated that "Overall... there is a massive translational tradition in English, pioneered by the British, solidly grounded philologically by the French and Germans, provided with its indigenous roots by a rich heritage of modern Indian comment and reflection, extended into various disciplinary areas by Americans, and having generated in our time a broadly based cross-cultural awareness of the importance of the Bhagavad Gita both as an expression of a specifically Indian spirituality and as one of the great religious "classics" of all time." (p. 518 [110])

The Gita has also been translated into other European languages. In 1808, passages from the Gita were part of the first direct translation of Sanskrit into German, appearing in a book through which Friedrich Schlegel became known as the founder of Indian philology in Germany. [111

Contents of this page

Adaptations

Philip Glass retold the story of Gandhi's early development as an activist in South Africa through the text of the Gita in the opera Satyagraha. The entire libretto of the opera consists of sayings from the Gita sung in the original Sanskrit. [112] In Douglas Cuomo's Arjuna's dilemma, the philosophical dilemma faced by Arjuna is dramatized in operatic form with a blend of Indian and Western music styles. [113]

UKT: End of Wikipedia article.

Contents of this page

Wiki notes

wiki-001. a b c  Pandit, Bansi, Explore Hinduism, p. 27   wiki-001b wiki-001-iib wiki-001-iiib

wiki-002. Hume, Robert Ernest (1959), The world's living religions, p. 29 wiki-002b

wiki-003. a b Nikhilananda, Swami, "Introduction", The Bhagavad Gita, p. 1   wiki-003b wiki-003-iib

wiki-004."Bhagavan". Bhaktivedanta VedaBase Network (ISKCON). http://www.vedabase.net/b/bhagavan. Retrieved 2008-01-14. wiki-004b

wiki-005. Introduction to the Bhagavad Gita wiki-005b

wiki-006. The phrase marking the end of each chapter identifies the book as Gītopanishad. The book is identified as "the essence of the Upanishads " in the Gītā-māhātmya 6, quoted in the "introduction" to Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, A.C. (1983), Bhagavad-gītā As It Is, Los Angeles: The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust, http://vedabase.net/bg . wiki-006b

wiki-007. Thomas B. Coburn, "Scripture" in India: Towards a Typology of the Word in Hindu Life, Journal of the American Academy of Religion, Vol. 52, No. 3 (Sep., 1984), pp. 435-459. JSTOR  1464202 wiki-007b

wiki-008. Tapasyananda, p. 1.  wiki-008b

wiki-009. Nikhilananda, Swami (1944), "Introduction", The Bhagavad Gita, Advaita Ashrama, p. xxiv   wiki-009b

wiki-010. Swarupananda, Swami (1909), "FOREWORD", Srimad-Bhagavad-Gita, http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/sbg/sbg03.htm  wiki-010b

wiki-011. a b c Radhakrishnan, S. (2002), "Introductory Essay", The Bhagavad Gita, HarperCollins, pp. 1415   wiki-011b wiki-011-iib wiki-011-iiib

wiki-012. a b Vivekananda, Swami, "Lectures and Discourses ~ Thoughts on the Gita", The Complete works of Swami Vivekananda, 4, http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/The_Complete_Works_of_Swami_Vivekananda/Volume_4/Lectures_and_Discourses/Thoughts_on_the_Gita   wiki-012b wiki-012-iib

wiki-013. The Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute (BORI) electronic edition. Electronic text (C) Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Pune, India, 1999. wiki-013b

wiki-014. Gambhiranda (1997), p. xvii. wiki-014b

wiki-015. Juan Mascaro; Simon Brodbeck (2003), "Translator's introduction to 1962 edition", The Bhagavad Gita, Penguin Classics, p. xlviii   wiki-015b

wiki-016. Zaehner, Robert Charles (1973), The Bhagavad-Gita, Oxford University Press, p. 7, "As with most major religious texts in India, no firm date can be assigned to theGītā . It seems certain, however, that it was written later than the 'classical' Upanishads with the possible exception of the Maitrī which was post-Buddhistic. One would probably not be going far wrong if one dated it at some time between the fifth and the second centuries B. C."   wiki-016b

wiki-017. John Brockington, The Sanskrit Epics (Leiden, 1998) wiki-017b

wiki-018. C. Jinarajadasa (1915). "The Bhagavad Gita". Theosophical Publishing House, Adyar, Madras. India. Archived from "the original" on May 23, 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080523224426/http://www.theosophical.ca/BhagavadGitaCJ.htm. Retrieved 2008-09-24. "an analysis of the epic shows at once by differences of style and by linguistic and other peculiarities, that it was composed at different times and by different hands"  wiki-018b

wiki-019. For a brief review of the literature supporting this view see: Radhakrihnan, pp. 14-15. wiki-019b

wiki-020. Bhagavad Gita Chapter 4, Text 1: vivasvan manave praha, manur ikshvakave 'bravit wiki-020b

wiki-021. Mascaro, Juan; Simon Brodbeck, The Bhagavad Gita, p. xlviii, "Scholars differ as to the date of the Bhagavad Gita; but as the roots of this great poem are in Eternity the date of its revelation in time is of little spiritual importance."  wiki-021b

wiki-022. Vivekananda, Swami, "Thoughts on the Gita", The Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda, Advaita Ashrama, http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/The_Complete_Works_of_Swami_Vivekananda/Volume_4/Lectures_and_Discourses/Thoughts_on_the_Gita, "One thing should be especially remembered here, that there is no connection between these historical researches and our real aim, which is the knowledge that leads to the acquirement of Dharma. Even if the historicity of the whole thing is proved to be absolutely false today, it will not in the least be any loss to us. Then what is the use of so much historical research, you may ask. It has its use, because we have to get at the truth; it will not do for us to remain bound by wrong ideas born of ignorance."  wiki-022b

wiki-023. Nikhilananda, Swami (1944), Introduction, p. xiii wiki-023b

wiki-024. a b c Rama, Swami (1985), Perennial Psychology of the Bhagavad Gita, Himalayan Institute Press, p. 10 wiki-024b wiki-024-iib wiki-024-iiib

wiki-025. Nikhilananda, Swami (1944), Introduction, pp. xiv-xv wiki-025b

wiki-026. a b c Nikhilananda, Swami (1944), Introduction, p. xvi wiki-026b wiki-026-iib wiki-026-iiib

wiki-027. Rama, Swami (1985), Perennial Psychology of the Bhagavad Gita, Himalayan Institute Press, p. 11 wiki-027b

wiki-028. Rama, Swami (1985), Perennial Psychology of the Bhagavad Gita, Himalayan Institute Press, p. 12 wiki-028b

wiki-029. Nikhilananda, Swami (1944), Introduction, p. vii wiki-029b

wiki-030. A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. "Bhagavad-gita As It Is, Introduction". Bhaktivedanta VedaBase Network (ISKCON). http://bhagavadgitaasitis.com/introduction/en1. Retrieved 2008-01-14. "The subject of the Bhagavad-gita entails the comprehension of five basic truths" wiki-030b

wiki-031. Ramanuja's translation BG 2.12 "...you have always existed. It is not that 'all of us', I and you, shall cease to be 'in the future', i.e., beyond the present time; we shall always exist. Even as no doubt can be entertained that I, the Supreme Self and Lord of all, am eternal, likewise, you (Arjuna and all others) who are embodied selves, also should be considered eternal." wiki-031b

wiki-032. A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. "Bhagavad-gita As It Is, Chapter 12: Devotional Service". Bhaktivedanta VedaBase Network (ISKCON). http://bhagavadgitaasitis.com/12/en1. Retrieved 2008-01-14. wiki-032b

wiki-033. A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. "Bhagavad-gita As It Is, Chapter 3: Karma Yoga". Bhaktivedanta VedaBase Network (ISKCON). http://bhagavadgitaasitis.com/3/en1. Retrieved 2008-01-14. wiki-033b

wiki-034. A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. "Bhagavad-gita As It Is, Chapter 6: Dhyana Yoga". Bhaktivedanta VedaBase Network (ISKCON). http://bhagavadgitaasitis.com/6/en1. Retrieved 2008-01-14. wiki-034b

wiki-035. A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. "Bhagavad-gita As It Is, Chapter 2:Summary". Bhaktivedanta VedaBase Network (ISKCON). http://bhagavadgitaasitis.com/2/en1. Retrieved 2008-01-14. wiki-035b

wiki-036. A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. B-Gita 8.10 "Bhagavad-gita As It Is, verse 8.10". Bhaktivedanta VedaBase Network (ISKCON). http://vedabase.net/bg/8/10/ B-Gita 8.10. Retrieved 2008-01-14.  "by the strength of yoga, with an undeviating mind, engages himself in remembering the Supreme Lord in full devotion, will certainly attain to the Supreme" wiki-036b

wiki-037 . A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. "Bhagavad-gita As It Is, Chapter 11:Universal Form". Bhaktivedanta VedaBase Network (ISKCON). http://bhagavadgitaasitis.com/11/en1. Retrieved 2008-01-14. wiki-037b

wiki-038. A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. "Bhagavad-gita As It Is, Verse 4.8". Bhaktivedanta VedaBase Network (ISKCON). http://bhagavadgitaasitis.com/4/8/en1. Retrieved 2008-01-14. "to reestablish the principles of religion, I Myself appear" wiki-038b

wiki-039. "Arjuna represents the individual soul, and Sri Krishna the Supreme Soul dwelling in every heart. Arjuna's chariot is the body. The blind king Dhritarashtra is the mind under the spell of ignorance, and his hundred sons are man's numerous evil tendencies. The battle, a perennial one, is between the power of good and the power of evil. The warrior who listens to the advice of the Lord speaking from within will triumph in this battle and attain the Highest Good." Nikhilananda, Swami (1944), "Introduction", The Bhagavad Gita, p. 2 wiki-039b

wiki-040. Gandhi, Mohandas K., The Bhagavad Gita According to Gandhi Berkeley Hills Books, Berkeley 2000 wiki-040b

wiki-041. Fischer, Louis: Gandhi: His Life and Message to the World Mentor, New York 1954, pp. 15-16 wiki-041b

wiki-042. Vivekananda, Swami, "Sayings and Utterances", The Complete works of Swami Vivekananda, 5, p. 416 wiki-042b

wiki-043. Aurobindo, Sri (1995), "The divine teacher", Essays on the Gita, Lotus Press, p. 15, ISBN 0914955187 wiki-043b

wiki-044. a b Aurobindo, Sri (1995), "The human disciple", Essays on the Gita, Lotus Press, pp. 1718, ISBN 0914955187 wiki-044b

wiki-045. A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. "Bhagavad-gita As It Is, Verse 6.47". Bhaktivedanta VedaBase Network (ISKCON). http://bhagavadgitaasitis.com/6/47/en1. Retrieved 2008-01-14. "And of all yogis, the one with great faith who always abides in Me, thinks of Me within himself, and renders transcendental loving service to Me -- he is the most intimately united with Me in yoga and is the highest of all. That is My opinion." wiki-045b

wiki-046. Gambhirananda (1998), p. 16. wiki-046b

wiki-047. Gambhiranda (1997), p. xx.wiki-047b

wiki-048. A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. "Bhagavad-gita As It Is, Verse 3.9". Bhaktivedanta VedaBase Network (ISKCON). http://vedabase.net/bg/3/9. Retrieved 2010-09-23. wiki-048b

wiki-049. Radhakrishnan 1993, p. 119 wiki-049b

wiki-050. Radhakrishnan 1993, p. 120 wiki-050b

wiki-051. A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. "Bhagavad-gita As It Is, Verse 5.11". Bhaktivedanta VedaBase Network (ISKCON). http://vedabase.net/bg/5/11. Retrieved 2008-01-14. wiki-051b

wiki-052. a b c Radhakrishnan 1993, pp. 125-126 wiki-052b

wiki-053. Cornille, Catherine, ed., 2006. Song Divine: Christian Commentaries on the Bhagavad Gita." Leuven: Peeters. p. 2. wiki-053b

wiki-054. For quotation and summarizing bhakti as "a mode of worship which consists of unceasing and loving remembrance of God" see: Sampatkumaran, p. xxiii. wiki-054b

wiki-055. Radhakrishan(1970), ninth edition, Blackie and son India Ltd., p.211, Verse 6.47 wiki-055b

wiki-056. A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. "Bhagavad-gita As It Is, Verse 8.15". Bhaktivedanta VedaBase Network (ISKCON). http://vedabase.net/bg/8/15. Retrieved 2008-01-14. wiki-056b

wiki-057. A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. "Bhagavad-gita As It Is, Verse 12.6". Bhaktivedanta VedaBase Network (ISKCON). http://vedabase.net/bg/12/6. Retrieved 2008-01-14. wiki-057b

wiki-058. A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. "Bhagavad-gita As It Is, Verse 14.26". Bhaktivedanta VedaBase Network (ISKCON). http://vedabase.net/bg/14/26. Retrieved 2008-01-14. wiki-058b

wiki-059. A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. "Bhagavad-gita As It Is, Verse 18.65". Bhaktivedanta VedaBase Network (ISKCON). http://vedabase.net/bg/18/65. Retrieved 2008-01-14. wiki-059b

wiki-060. A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. "Bhagavad-gita As It Is, Verse 18.66". Bhaktivedanta VedaBase Network (ISKCON). http://vedabase.net/bg/18/66. Retrieved 2008-01-14. wiki-060b

wiki-061. A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. "Bhagavad-gita As It Is, Verse 13.31". Bhaktivedanta VedaBase Network (ISKCON). http://vedabase.net/bg/13/31. Retrieved 2008-01-14. wiki-061b

wiki-062. A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. "Bhagavad-gita As It Is, Verse 13.35". Bhaktivedanta VedaBase Network (ISKCON). http://vedabase.net/bg/13/35. Retrieved 2008-01-14. wiki-062b

wiki-063. For example, the first line of the Bhagavad Gita is dhṛtarāşţra uvāca, which occurs immediately after the last line of the preceding chapter in the full Sanskrit text of the Mahabharata: | 6.23.1 dhṛtarāşţra uvāca | 6.23.1a dharmakşetre kurukṣetre samavetā yuyutsavaḥ || Source: Electronic text (C) Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Pune, India, 1999. Electronic edition downloaded from: [1]. wiki-063b

wiki-064. Chidbhavananda, p. 33.wiki-064b

wiki-065. Sivananda, p. 3. wiki-065b

wiki-066. Tapasyananda, p. 13 wiki-066b

wiki-067. Radhakrishnan, p. 79.wiki-067b

wiki-068. Zaehner, passim. wiki-068b

wiki-069. Sivananda, p. xvii. wiki-069b

wiki-070. a b c Sargeant, p. xix. wiki-070b

wiki-071. "Strength founded on the Truth and the dharmic use of force are thus the Gita's answer to pacifism and non-violence. Rooted in the ancient Indian genius, this third way can only be practised by those who have risen above egoism, above asuric ambition or greed. The Gita certainly does not advocate war; what it advocates is the active and selfless defence of dharma. If sincerely followed, its teaching could have altered the course of human history. It can yet alter the course of Indian history." Michel Danino, "Greatest Gospel of Spiritual Works" in New Indian Express (10 December 2000). wiki-071b

wiki-072. Steven J. Rosen, Krishna's Song (2007), ISBN 9780313345531, pp. 22f. wiki-072b

wiki-073. Radhakrishnan, S (1974), "XI. The Lord's Transfiguration", The Bhagavad Gita, HarperCollins, p. 289 wiki-073b

wiki-074. Rosen, Steven; Graham M. Schweig, "The Bhagavad-Gita and the life of Lord Krishna", Essential Hinduism, p. 121 wiki-074b

wiki-075. Isherwood, Christopher (1964), "The Story Begins", Ramakrishna and his Disciples, p. 9 wiki-075b

wiki-076. Vivekananda, Swami, "Thoughts on the Gita", The Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda, 4, Advaita Ashrama, http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/The_Complete_Works_of_Swami_Vivekananda/Volume_4/Lectures_and_Discourses/Thoughts_on_the_Gita wiki-076b

wiki-077. Gandhi, M.K. (1933), "Introduction", The Gita According to Gandhi, http://www.wikilivres.info/wiki/The_Gita_According_to_Gandhi/Introduction wiki-077b

wiki-078. Eknath Easwaran, The Bhagavad Gita (2007), ISBN 978-1586380199 p. 15. wiki-078b

wiki-079. Eknath Easwaran, The End of Sorrow: The Bahagavad Gita for Daily Living (vol 1) (1993), ISBN 978-0915132171 p. 24. wiki-079b

wiki-080. James A. Hijiya, "The Gita of Robert Oppenheimer" Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 144, no. 2 (June 2000). [2] wiki-080b

wiki-081. See Robert_Oppenheimer#Trinity for other refs wiki-081b

wiki-082. "Karma Capitalism". Business Week. The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc.. 2006-10-30. http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/06_44/b4007091.htm. Retrieved 2008-01-12.   wiki-082b

wiki-083. Singh pp.54-55 wiki-083b

wiki-084. For Shankara's commentary falling within the Vedanta school of tradition, see: Flood (1996), p. 124. wiki-084b

wiki-085. Dating for Shankara as 788-820 CE is from: Sargeant, p. xix. wiki-085b

wiki-086.  a b c Zaehner, p. 3. wiki-086b

wiki-087. Gambhirananda (1997), p. xviii. wiki-087b

wiki-088. Flood (1996), p. 240. wiki-088b

wiki-089. For classification of Ramanujacharya's commentary as within the Vedanta school see: Flood (1996), p. 124. wiki-089b

wiki-090. Gambhirananda (1997), p. xix. wiki-090b

wiki-091. Sampatkumaran, p. xx. wiki-091b

wiki-092. Dating of 1199-1276 for Madhva is from: Gambhirananda (1997), p. xix. wiki-092b

wiki-093. For classification of Madhva's commentary as within the Vedanta school see: Flood (1996), p. 124. wiki-093b

wiki-094. For classification of Abhinavagupta's commentary on the Gita as within the Shaiva tradition see: Flood (1996), p. 124. wiki-094b

wiki-095. Singh p.55 wiki-095b

wiki-096. For B. G. Tilak and Mahatma Gandhi as notable commentators see: Gambhiranda (1997), p. xix. wiki-096b

wiki-097. For notability of the commentaries by B. G. Tilak and Mahatma Gandhi and their use to inspire the independence movement see: Sargeant, p. xix. wiki-097b

wiki-098. Stevenson, Robert W., "Tilak and the Bhagavadgita's Doctrine of Karmayoga", in: Minor, p. 44. wiki-098b<

wiki-099. Stevenson, Robert W., "Tilak and the Bhagavadgita's Doctrine of Karmayoga", in: Minor, p. 49. wiki-099b

wiki-100. Jordens, J. T. F., "Gandhi and the Bhagavadgita ", in: Minor, p. 88. wiki-100b

wiki-101. For composition during stay in Yeravda jail in 1929, see: Jordens, J. T. F., "Gandhi and the Bhagavadgita", in: Minor, p. 88. wiki-101b

wiki-102. Desai, Mahadev. The Gospel of Selfless Action, or, The Gita According To Gandhi. (Navajivan Publishing House: Ahmedabad: First Edition 1946). Other editions: 1948, 1951, 1956. wiki-102b

wiki-103. A shorter edition, omitting the bulk of Desai's additional commentary, has been published as: Anasaktiyoga: The Gospel of Selfless Action. Jim Rankin, editor. The author is listed as M.K. Gandhi; Mahadev Desai, translator. (Dry Bones Press, San Francisco, 1998)ISBN 1-883938-47-3. wiki-103b

wiki-104. Quotation from M. K. Gandhi. Young India. (1925), pp. 1078-1079, is cited from Radhakrishnan, front matter. wiki-104b

wiki-105. For Sri Aurobindo, Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, and Swami Vivekananda as notable commentators see: Sargeant, p. xix. wiki-105b

wiki-106. For Sri Aurobindo as notable commentators, see: Gambhiranda (1997), p. xix. wiki-106b

wiki-107. Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, On The Bhagavad Gita; A Translation and Commentary With Sanskrit Text Chapters 1 to 6, Chapter Two, Verse 42, p. 129 and pp. 470-472 wiki-107b

wiki-108. Clarke, John James (1997), Oriental enlightenment, Routledge, pp. 5859, ISBN 9780415133753, http://books.google.com/?id=qdoyw_6Y3cYC&pg=PA58 wiki-108b

wiki-109.Winternitz, Volume 1, p. 11. wiki-109b

wiki-110. a b Gerald James Larson (1981), "The Song Celestial: Two centuries of the Bhagavad Gita in English", Philosophy East and West: A Quarterly of Comparative Philosophy (University of Hawai'i Press) 31 (4): 513540, doi:10.2307/1398797, http://www.jstor.org/stable/1398797.wiki-110b

 wiki-111.  What had previously been known of Indian literature in Germany had been translated from the English. Winternitz, Volume 1, p. 15. wiki-111b

wiki-112. Tommasini, Anthony (April 14, 2008). "Fanciful Visions on the Mahatmas Road to Truth and Simplicity". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/04/14/arts/music/14saty.html. Retrieved 2009-10-16. wiki-112b

wiki-113. Tommasini, Anthony (November 7, 2008). "Warrior Prince From India Wrestles With Destiny". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/07/arts/music/07arju.html. Retrieved 2009-10-16. wiki-113b

Contents of this page

UKT notes

Dwarka {dwa-ra.ka} - Dwarawati {dwa-ra.wa.ti}

-- UKT 101117, 151116:

The first time I wrote this note was on 101117, long before I become familiar with Skt-Dev. Now that I am more familiar with the language, I am comparing it to Pal-Myan as given in Myanmar sources. My dictionary of choice is U Hoke Sein Pali-Myanmar Dictionary (UHS PMD). You can check the orthography of Pal-Myan words in the dictionary. The gloss given following Romabama transcription is mine mostly derived from UHS-PMD.

Skt-Dev: द्वारका   = द ् व ा र क ा -- {dwa-ra.ka}

The principal character in this note is "Lord Krishna" {ka.Nha.} 'dark-skinned'. I am beginning to consider him as a human king before he became deified as a Hindu-god. I will refer to him as {ka.Nha. mn:}, and {dwa-ra.ka} as {ka.Nha. mn: n-pr}. I am looking on Bhagavad Gita as the Philosophy preached by the Philosopher-King {ka.Nha. mn:}. I hope with this perspective, Theravada Buddhists can come to terms with this Philosophy, just as they have accepted King Rama (of Ramayana) as their own to be revered with respect.

 

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dwarka 101117

Dwarka द्वारका , {dwa-ra.ka}, Gujarati: દ્વારકા) also spelled Dvarka, Dwaraka, and Dvaraka, is a city and a municipality of Jamnagar district in the Gujarat state in India. Dwarka (Dvaraka in Sanskrit - used in this article when referring to the city in a historical context), also known as Dwarawati in Sanskrit literature is rated as one of the seven most ancient cities in the country. The legendary city of Dvaraka was the dwelling place of Lord Krishna {ka.Nha.}. It is believed that due to damage and destruction by the sea, Dvaraka has submerged six times and modern day Dwarka is therefore the seventh such city to be built in the area.

Geography

The modern city of Dwarka is located in the Jamnagar District of Gujarat. The city lies in the westernmost part of India.

Dwarka is located at the geographical coordinates of 2214′N 6858′E / 22.23N 68.97E / 22.23; 68.97. It is a relatively flat region at sea-level, having an average elevation of 0 metres (0 feet).

Among Seven Holy Cities of India

Moreover, Dwarka {dwa-ra.ka} is one of seven most holy places for Hindus in India where Varanasi {ba-ra.Na.i mro.} is considered as the holiest of the seven holy cities.

Ayodhyā Mathurā Māyā Kāsi Kāchī Avantikā I
Purī Dvārāvatī chaiva saptaitā moksadāyikāh II - Garuḍa Purāṇa I XVI .14

A Kṣetra {hkt~ta.ra} is a sacred hallowed ground, a field of active power, a place where Moksha {mauk~hk-ti.} 'liberation', final release can be obtained. The Garuda Purana enumerates seven cities as giver of Moksha, They are Ayodhya, Mathura, Māyā, Kāsi, Kāchī, Avantikā and Dvārāvatī {dwa-ra.wa.ti}. [1]

... ... ...

Holy City

The city derives its name from word dvar  {dwa-ra.} meaning 'door' or 'gate' in the Sanskrit language. Dwarka is considered to be one of the holiest cities in Hinduism and one of the 4 main "dhams" along with Badrinath, Puri, Rameswaram. The city is especially respected by Vaishnavas.

The Jagatmandir temple which houses the Dwarkadhish, a form of Krishna is also located in Dwaraka.

Nageshwar Jyotirling, one of the 12 holy shrines of Lord Shiva, is located near Dwaraka.

Dwarka is also the site of Dwaraka Pītha (also known as Sharada Pītha), one of the four cardinal mathas established by Sri Adi Shankaracharya, the others being those at Sringeri, Puri and Jyotirmath.

Dwaka Kingdom

Dwarka is mentioned in the Mahabharata, the Harivansha, the Bhagavata Purana, the Skanda Purana, and the Vishnu Purana. It is said that this Dwarka was located near the site of the current city of Dwarka, but was eventually deserted and submerged into the sea.

Founding

Sri Krishna renounced war in Mathura for the greater good of the people living in the region (and was hence known by the name Ranchodrai') and founded the city of Dwarka. Sri Krishna had previously killed Kansa (an oppressive king who ruled the city, and his maternal uncle) and made Ugrasen (Kansa's father and his maternal grandfather) the king of Mathura. Enraged, the father-in-law of Kansa, Jarasandha (king of Magadha) with his friend Kalayavan attacked Mathura 17 times. For the safety of the people, Krishna and the Yadavas decided to move the capital from Mathura to Dvaraka.

Characteristics of the City

The city was built by Vishwakarma on the order of Lord Krishna. Land was reclaimed from the sea near the western shores of Saurashtra. A city was planned and built here. Dwarka was a planned city, on the banks of Gomati River. This city was also known as Dvaramati, Dvaravati and Kushsthali. It had six well-organized sectors, residential and commercial zones, wide roads, plazas, palaces and many public utilities. A hall called "Sudharma Sabha" was built to hold public meetings. The city also boasted having the possession of a good sea harbour. The city had 700,000 palaces made of gold, silver and other precious stones. Besides this, the city had beautiful gardens filled with flowers of all seasons and beautiful lakes.

Submersion into the Sea

After Krishna left the earth for Vaikunta, about 36 years after the Mahabharat War (3138 BC), and the major Yadava leaders were killed in disputes among themselves, Arjuna went to Dwarka to bring Krishna's grandsons and the Yadava wives to Hastinapur, to safety. After Arjuna left Dwarka, it was submerged into the sea. Following is the account given by Arjuna, found in the Mahabharata:

...imposed on it by nature. The sea rushed into the city. It coursed through the streets of the beautiful city. The sea covered up everything in the city. I saw the beautiful buildings becoming submerged one by one. In a matter of a few moments it was all over. The sea had now become as placid as a lake. There was no trace of the city. Dwaraka was just a name; just a memory.

The Vishnu Purana also mentions the submersion of Dwarka, stating:

On the same day that Krishna departed from the earth the powerful dark-bodied Kali Age {ka.li. yoag} descended. The oceans rose and submerged the whole of Dwarka.

Recent archeological findings

On May 19, 2001, India's science and technology minister Murli Manohar Joshi announced the finding of ruins in the Gulf of Khambhat. The ruins, known as the Gulf of Khambhat Cultural Complex (GKCC), are located on the seabed of a nine-kilometer stretch off the coast of Gujarat province at a depth of about 40 m. The site was discovered by a team from the National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT) in December 2000 and investigated for six months with acoustic techniques.

A follow up investigation was conducted by the same institute in November 2001, which included dredging to recover artifacts. A round of further underwater explorations was made in the Gulf of Khambhat site by the NIOT team from 2003 to 2004, and the samples obtained of what was presumed to be pottery were sent to laboratories in Oxford, UK and Hannover, Germany, as well as several institutions within India, to be dated. Inconclusive findings however, raised the possibility that the extremely old samples, as argued for many other artifacts recovered from the Gulf of Khambhat (Cambay), are not man-made artifacts or potsherds, but rather geofacts and related objects of natural origin.

According to western archaeologists, the "ruins" are either natural rock formations and result of faulty remote sensing equipment and the "artifacts" recovered are either geofacts or foreign objects introduced to the site by the very strong tidal currents in the Gulf of Cambay. The side scan sonar equipment used to image the bottom of the Gulf may have been faulty, and the claimed supporting evidence is purely circumstantial.[3]. Some western archaeologists have ridiculously suggested that these objects and inscriptions found there might have been drifted from the Middle east and Afghanistan. This is seen by most Hindus as degrading factual science for the sake of anti-Hinduism. Since the Congress has come to power, the issue has been killed, possibly to avoid BJP from gaining prominence.

Bet Dwarka

Bet Dwarka is famous for its temples dedicated to Lord Krishna and is of great importance in the ancient Hindu tradition. It and other coastal sites have ample antiquities, mainly potsherds, suggesting maritime trade and commerce with the Mediterranean countries around the Christian era.[4] This flourishing harbor and religious capital is believed to have submerged under the sea after the Krishna left dwarka for vaikunth.[4]

A team of archeologists have carried out onshore and inter-tidal zone explorations and a few trial trenches were laid to trace a proper cultural sequence. The most potential sites, where a large number of antiquities were recovered are the sectors, Bet Dwarka-I, II, VI, and IX.

The findings of Bet Dwarka may be divided into two broad periods: Pre-historic period which includes a small seal of conch shell engraved with a three-headed animal motif[5], two inscriptions, a copper fishhook and late Harappan pottery (circa 1700-1400 BC) and the Historical period consisting of coins and pottery. Onshore and inter-tidal zone explorations have indicated some kind of shoreline shifting around the Bet Dwarka island as a few sites get submerged during high tide.

Offshore explorations near present Bet Dwarka brought to light a number of stone anchors of different types that include triangular, grapnel and ring stones. They are made out of locally available rocks and their period may also be similar to those found at Dwarka and other places. Recently, Roman antiquities including shreds of amphorae and a lead ingot and lead anchors were found. There is also an indication of a shipwreck of Roman period in Bet Dwarka waters.

The archaeological explorations at Bet Dwarka Island have brought to light a large number of data on Indias external overseas trade and commerce with western countries. Recent findings at the Bet Dwarka have shown evidence of Indo-Roman trade. India had an active maritime trade with Rome from the fourth century BCE to 4th century CE. These findings would concentrate on the time period from the first century BCE to the 2nd century CE. The discovery of the amphoras in Bet Dwarka is significant in view of the maritime history of India in concerned. There are remains of seven amphoras from which a black encrustation can be seen. This ware was mainly used for exporting wine and olive oil from the Roman Empire; it is most likely that these were wine amphoras. The discovery of a large quantity of amphora sherds suggests that Bet Dwarka had international trade contact during the early centuries of the Christian era.[4] The findings present the possibility of a shipwreck in this area associated with Roman trade, though it is unlikely that the remains of the hull of the wreck survive.[4] Thus the presence of Roman amphoras show that Roman ships reached Bet Dwarka waters earlier than has been previously noted. These same archaeological findings along with anchors have indicated the existence of several ports, jetties and anchoring points along the west coast of Indian. Though there are no remains of an ancient jetty at Bet Dwarka, the presence of stone anchors in the intertidal one indicates that the high tide was effectively used for anchoring the boats.[6] The presence of a large number and variety of stone anchors in Bet Dwarka suggests that this was one of important ports in ancient times. The location of Bet Dwarka was favorable for safe anchorage in the past since it was protected from high waves and storms.

... ... ...

UKT: End of Wikipedia article.

 

From Sacred Sites: http://sacredsites.com/asia/india/dwarka.html 101117

Among India's many different pilgrimage sites, particular ones are traditionally viewed as being especially holy for a variety of different mythological reasons. Preeminent among this listing are the Sapta Puri or Seven Sacred Cities and the four Dhamas or Divine Abodes (for more information on the Dhamas, see the photos and text for Rameshvaram, on this web site). The Seven Sacred Cities of Ayodhya, Mathura, Haridwar, Banaras, Kanchi, Ujjain and Dwarka are known as Mokshada, meaning Bestower of Liberation, and these sites are believed to confer liberation upon all persons who die within their boundaries. Dwarka, one of these seven sacred cities, is also listed among the Four Divine Abodes.

Seldom visited by westerners because of its remote location in the western state of Gujarat, the fascinating and extremely beautiful Jagatmandir temple is bordered on one side by the ocean coast and on the other side by the town of Dwarka. One of India's oldest and most venerated pilgrimage sites, Dwarka's archaeological and historical background is shrouded in mystery. [UKT]

Mythologically, Dwarka - or Dvaravati as it is known in Sanskrit - was the site chosen by Garuda, the Divine Eagle, who brought Krishna here when he departed Mathura. Krishna founded the beautiful city and lived there the remaining years of his life until he died (according to legend) in 3102 BC. Scholars confer that the oldest parts of the Jagatmandir temple may only date to the reconstructions of the Gupta period in 413 AD.

From: Studies in the Geography of Ancient and Medieval India, by D.C. Sircar, 1990,
https://books.google.ca/books?...Dvaravati 151115 :

"... I-tsing places the kingdom of Śrīkṣetra (Prome in Burma) to the west of Dvāravatī.
"The names of Lavapurī, Dvāravatī, Ayudhyā and Śrīkṣetra remind us of the Indian cities of Lavapura (Lahore) (fn04), Dvāravatī or Dvārāvatī (i.e. Dvārākā, Ayudhyā and Śrīkṣetra-Vṛṣṇis in Kathiawar, Gujarat) (fn05), Ayodhyā (capital of the ancient Ikṣvākus in the Faizabad District of U.P.) (fn06) and Śrīkṣetra or Jagannāthakṣetra (i.e. Purī in Orissa) (fn07). It should, however, be noted that Jagannātha-kṣetra or Purī might not have become famous before I-tsing visited South-East Asia about the close of the 7th century A.D.

In the 7th century the sage Shankaracharya established four great monasteries in the cardinal directions of the country (Sringeri in the south, Puri in the east, Joshimath in the north, and Dwarka in the west). This emphasis on Dwarka further increased its importance as a pilgrimage destination. The original temples were destroyed during the 11th century by Muslim armies; frequently rebuilt, they continued to be attacked by the Muslims through the 15th century. The existing temple of Jagatmandir, also known as Sri Dwarkadish, dates from a 1730 rebuilding. It is 52 meters tall, and enshrines an idol called Sri Ranchhodrayji. The temple stands five storeys tall and is built on 72 pillars.

UKT 151116: The number 1.5 of average solar months is the duration of transit of Moon nodes, Rahu & Ktu, through a Rasi of 30 deg. of arc of the Celestial Sphere with Earth at its center. For 12 Rasi, we have 1.5 x 12 = 18 solar years. The number 72 = 18 x 4.

Students of the science of archaeo-astronomy will recognize significance in this number 72, one of the most important numbers in the so-called precessional code (re)discovered by the scholars Santillana and von Dechend. The astronomical phenomenon of precession concerns the very slow wobble of the axis of the earth and its effect for earth-bound observers of a gradual and cyclical slippage of the belt of the zodiac against the rising point of the sun. This precessional slippage operates at the rate of one degree every 72 years and means that each constellation houses the Sun for an average of 2160 years. All twelve constellations [Rasi] take 25,920 years to pass completely through the cycle. These numbers of 72, 2160, 25,920 and various permutations of them have been shown by Santillana and von Dechend, in their book Hamlets Mill, to be mysteriously present in ancient myths and sacred architecture all around the world. While little archaeoastronomical study of Jagatmandir temple has so far been conducted, the presence of the number 72 in so important a part of the temples architecture suggests that future studies will result in many fascinating revelations.

Besides being a Sapta Puri, a Dhama, and a Shankaracharya Mutt, Dwarka is also visited by large numbers of pilgrims because of its association with the great bhakti saint Mira Bai. One of India's most popular saints, Mira Bai renounced her splendid life as the wife of a powerful 16th century king to dedicate her days to the worship of Lord Krishna. [UKT]

Mira Bai followed the spiritual path known as Bhakti Yoga, which is characterized by a devotional love of god. Much easier to practice (and perhaps more efficient at producing spiritual enlightenment) than other yogic methods which require textual study and great discipline, Bhakti Yoga is the primary religious method of India's teeming masses. The path of the Bhakti yogi is essentially the practice of invoking the presence of the divine through adoration of a statue, icon or painting of a deity. In Mira Bai's case, as with many other saints in India's long history, this invocation called forth not only the felt presence of the deity but actually a living, moving form of Krishna. Similar to the physical apparitions of Mary and Christ to devoted Christians, Krishna [apparation] visited Mira Bai to eat, sing, dance and play with her. Mira Bai lived the final years of her life in Dwarka and there wrote to Krishna her immortal poems of love. Krishna, the preeminent devotional deity in Hinduism is venerated here and legions of bhakti yogis such as Mira Bai have infused the temple with a power of love. The pilgrimage shrine of Jagatmandir in Dwarka is thus highly charged with the quality or energy of devotion and will awaken and amplify that quality in visiting pilgrims.

Ancient legends of Dwarka tell that the holy city was long ago entirely swept away by a great wave of water. This legend, disregarded by contemporary historians and archaeologists, has recently been given credence by findings of the new science of inundation mapping, which produces accurate models of ancient shorelines at specific dates. The legend has been given further support by oceanographic studies which have proven the existence of submerged temple structures off the coast of Dwarka.

Other sacred sites associated with Krishna are Mathura, Vrindivana, Gokula, Barsana, Govardhana and Kuruksetra.

UKT: End of Sacred Sites article.

Go back Dwarka-note-b

Contents of this page

Historicity of Krishna

From: Rakesh Krishnan Simha, Thursday, August 26, 2010
http://www.indianweekender.co.nz/Pages/ArticleDetails/51/1421/Comment/How-science-discovered-the-historical-Krishna 101109

(About the author: Rakesh Krishnan Simha is a features writer at Fairfax New Zealand. He has previously worked with Businessworld, India Today and Hindustan Times, and was news editor with the Financial Express. )

Introduction

"The sea, which had been beating against the shores, suddenly broke the boundary that was imposed on it by nature. The sea rushed into the city. It coursed through the streets of the beautiful city. The sea covered up everything in the city. Arjuna saw the beautiful buildings becoming submerged one by one. He took a last look at the mansion of Krishna. In a matter of a few moments it was all over. The sea had now become as placid as a lake. There was no trace of the beautiful city, which had been the favourite haunt of all the Pandavas. Dwarka was just a name; just a memory." Mausala Parva, Mahabharata.

Does this account from the ancient Indian epic have a true historical core? Did Lord Krishna, indeed the favourite Indian deity, walk the streets of ancient Dwarka? [See my note on Dwarka.] Did Krishna, considered the Lord of the universe by a billion Hindus, rule the Yaduvanshi clan thousands of years ago?

Using archaeological, scriptural, literary and astronomical data, scholars and scientists are coming round to the view that Krishna was definitely a historical character.

Archeological evidence

The Rosetta stone, or the key, to the Krishna story is Dwarka. The strongest archaeological support comes from the structures discovered in the late 1980s under the seabed off the coast of modern Dwarka in Gujarat by a team of archaeologists and divers led by Dr S.R. Rao, one of India's most respected archaeologists. An emeritus scientist at the marine archaeology unit of the National Institute of Oceanography, Goa, Rao has excavated a large number of Harappan sites, including the port city of Lothal in Gujarat.

In his book The Lost City of Dwarka, published in 1999, he writes about his undersea finds: The discovery is an important landmark in the history of India. It has set to rest the doubts expressed by historians about the historicity of Mahabharata and the very existence of Dwarka city.

Conducting 12 expeditions during 1983-1990, Rao identified two underwater settlements, one near the present-day Dwarka and the other in the nearby island of Bet Dwarka. This tallies with the two Dwarkas mentioned in the epic. The underwater expeditions won Rao the first World Ship Trust Award for Individual Achievement.

Another important find by our divers was a seal that establishes the submerged township's connection with the Dwarka of the Mahabharata. The seal corroborates the reference made in the ancient text, the Harivamsa, that every citizen of Dwarka should carry such a seal for identification purposes. Krishna had ruled that none without the seal should enter it. A similar seal has been found onshore as well.

Literary evidence

The west coast of Gujarat was the traditional land of the Yadavs, or Yadus. According to the Bhagavad Puran, Krishna led the Yadavs thousands of kilometres west to establish Dwarka, so they could start a new life, safe from their many enemies in the Gangetic Valley.

The Mahabharata says, Dwarka was reclaimed from the sea. Raos divers discovered that the submerged city's walls were erected on a foundation of boulders, suggesting that land indeed was reclaimed from the sea.

One cannot separate Dwarka from Krishna. If the city existed, then it is true that Krishna ruled over it.

Astronomical evidence

Dr Narhari Achar, professor of physics at the University of Memphis, Tennessee, has dated the Mahabharata war using astronomy and regular planetarium software. According to his research conducted in 2004-05, the titanic clash between the Pandavas and the Kauravas took place in 3067 BC. Using the same software, Dr Achar places the year of Krishnas birth at 3112 BC.

Dr Manish Pandit, a nuclear medicine physician in the UK, after examining the astronomical, archaeological and linguistic evidence, agrees with Dr Achars conclusions. Dr Pandit, who is also a distinguished astrologer and has written several books on the subject, traced the route of Krishnas journeys to shoot the documentary, Krishna: History or Myth?

Dr Pandit says there are more than 140 astronomy references in the Mahabharata. Simulations of the night sky have been combined with geographical descriptions to arrive at various dates. He says the chances of these references repeating are next to nothing.

According to historian S.M. Ali, the author of Geography of Puranas, The geographical matter contained in the Mahabharata is immense. It is perhaps the only great work which deals with geographic details and not incidentally, as other works.

Who's history? 

Of course, none of the evidence is good enough for the ossified historians that lord over Indias academia, regurgitating the lies written by British colonial scholars, who were in reality Christian missionaries.

For the missionaries, destroying the historicity of Krishna was important if they had any chance of establishing their religion in India. Also, many European scholars were shocked to learn that Indian history pre-dated their world by thousands of years. By labelling as myth the Indian historical sources like the Vedas, Mahabharata, Upanishads, and especially the Puranas, which give exact chronologies of Indian kings including Krishna, the missionaries ensured that Indian history did not clash with their world view.

That tradition continues. Disregarding all new research, academics like Romilla Thapar, R.S. Sharma and Irfan Habib have consigned Krishna to mythology.

In his textbook for Class X, Sharma writes, Although Lord Krishna plays an important role in the Mahabharata, the earliest inscriptions and sculpture pieces found in Mathura between 200 BC and 300 AD do not attest his presence. What brilliant deduction. Going by Sharmas logic, any fool can dig at a random site, and upon failing to discover an artefact, declare Krishna never existed. Sadly, millions of Indian school children are being taught such lies.

Thapar, in fact, says the Mahabharata is a glorified account of a skirmish between two Aryan tribes, with Krishna merely playing the role of an agent provocateur.

And what do they do when confronted with the new evidence? They withdraw into their parallel dystopian world and argue it is not clinching evidence. But, of course, they will accept as truth the myths of other religions.

Dr Rao says further digging and diving, in tandem with Indias vast treasure trove of historical facts will further corroborate key dates of our eventful and glorious past.

As the Upanishads say, pratnakirtim apavirnu know thy past.

Go back hist-krishna-note-b 

Contents of this page

Jyotisar

From: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jyotisar 101111

Jyotisar is a town on the Kurukshetra-Pehowa road, 5 km west of Thanesar in the Kurukshetra district of Haryana. 'Jyoti' means light and 'Sar' means the core meaning. Hence the name of place is a reference to the 'core meaning of light' or ultimately of God. It is one of the most revered holy sites of the holy city of Kurukshetra. A Vat (Banyan tree) stands on a raised plinth. Local traditions say that this tree is an offshoot of the holy Banyan tree under which Lord Krishna delivered the sermon of Bhagavad Gita, the doctrine of Karma and Dharma to his wavering friend Arjuna. It is here that He showed his Virat rupa (Universal form), the terrifying image of Himself as the Destroyer God.

A marble chariot depicting Lord Krishna delivering the sermon to Arjuna marks the site of the Srimad Bhagwad Gita. In one secluded section of this center, an old Shiva temple can also be seen. Hundreds of years ago, a holy water tank was present here and it can still be seen in the rainy season. The Kurukshetra Development Board has renovated the site in recent times. A mango shaped lake has been constructed here with covered bathing ghats for ladies. Cement parapets and enclosures have been built for protection. A light and music show is organized by the tourism department at the site, on a regular basis, which recreates episodes from Mahabharta. A restaurant and accommodation wing for Yatrees have been built and the entire area has been landscaped with flowering bushes and eucalyptus trees.

Go back Jyotisar-note-b

Contents of this page

Rishi Vyasa - the compiler of the Mahabharata

- UKT 151113

Though Rishi Vyasa {bya-a. ra..} is considered to be the compiler of Mahabharata, he need not be the author of Bhagavad Gita. Even without the war setting of Mahabharata, the timeless Hindu philosophy of Gita can exist by itself. Gita could have been written much later probably by Adi Shankara (fl. ca 8th century CE) and his followers the Shaivite-Sanskrit scholars.

From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vyasa 151113

Vyasa , व्यास vyāsa 'literally: Compiler' , {bya-a. ra..}, is a central and revered figure in most Hindu traditions. He is also sometimes called Veda Vyāsa (वेदव्यास, veda-vyāsa, "the one who classified the Vedas") or Krishna Dvaipāyana (referring to his complexion and birthplace). He is the author of the Mahabharata, as well as a character in it. He is considered to be the scribe of both the Vedas and Puranas. [UKT ]

According to Hindu beliefs, Vyasa is an avatar of the deva-god Vishnu. [1] [2] . Vyasa is also considered to be one of the seven Chiranjivins (long lived, or immortals), who are still in existence according to Hindu belief.

Vyasa lived around the 3rd millennium BCE. [3] [4] The festival of Guru Purnima is dedicated to him. It is also known as Vyasa Purnima, for it is the day believed to be both his birthday and the day he divided the Vedas. [5] [6]

Vyasa appears for the first time as the compiler of, and an important character in, the Mahabharata. It is said that he was the expansion of the god Vishnu who came in Dwaparayuga {dwa-pa.ra. yoag} to make all the Vedic knowledge available in written form which was available in spoken form at that time. [UKT ]

UKT 151114: In Buddhism and Hinduism, Time-Eon is given in Yuga {yoag}. Darma {Dm~ma.} 'Righteousness' is supported on four legs in Krita yuga , on 3 legs in Treta yuga {tr-ta yoag}, on 2 legs in Dwapara yuga {dwa-pa.ra. yoag}, and on just 1 leg in Kali yuga {ka.li. yoag}.
See UHS PMD0799 for the time divisions in Bur-Myan.

He was the son of Satyavati, daughter of the fisherman Dusharaj, [7] and the wandering sage Parashara (who is credited with being the author of the first Purana: Vishnu Purana). [UKT ]

UKT 151114: Parashara is described as the "wandering sage". It is probable that this "sage" was the ancient scientist and botanist, Parāśara (3100 BCE?), who travelled all over the Indian subcontinent in pursuit of his studies - long before the IE speakers (and their male gods) had appeared in our part of the world sheltered by the the Himalayas in the north. He was the author of the Vṛkṣāyurveda ("the science of life of trees". For fathering a son, he gave a remedy - a medicine - to cure Satyavati who had smelled of "fish". He was eaten by wolves during his travels in his study of trees. I have devoted a section, Section #5, to him, under the caption Para-Medicine {pa.ra.hs:} . It is a shame that the Hindu religionists (of Axiomatic Atta {t~ta.}) had "turned" persons of note, including the Gautama Buddha (of Anata doctrine {a.nt~ta.}) into adherents of their male gods such as Vishnu. See Wikipedia:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parashara 151114

He [Vyasa ] was born on an island in the river Yamuna. [8] There are two different views regarding his birthplace. One of the views suggests that he was born in the Tanahun district in western Nepal, other view suggests that he was born on Island in Yamuna river near Kalpi, Uttar Pradesh, India. Vyasa was dark-complexioned and hence may be called by the name Krishna (black) {ka.Nha.}, and also the name Dwaipayana, meaning 'island-born'.

Vyasa was grandfather* to the Kauravas and Pandavas. Their fathers, Dhritarashtra and Pandu, the sons of Vichitravirya by the royal family, were fathered by him. He had a third son, Vidura, by a serving maid Parishrami.

*UKT 151114: Never be misled by the term "grandfather" and "father". There is always a possible mix-up of biological sire and a surrogate because of Niyoga नियोग is an ancient Hindu tradition, in which a woman (whose husband is either incapable of fatherhood or has died without having a child) would request and appoint a person for helping her bear a child. See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Satyavati 151114

Vyasa is believed to have lived on the banks of Ganga aka River Ganges in modern day Uttarakhand. The place was also the abode of sage Vashishta along with Pandavas, the five brothers of Mahabharata. [9]

... ... ...

There is some evidence however that writing [Mahabharata] may have been known earlier based on archeological findings of styli in the Painted Grey Ware culture, dated between 1100 BC and 700 BC. [14] [15] [16] and archeological evidence of the Brahmi Asokan script * being used from at least 600 BC. [17]

*UKT151113: The Brahmin-Poannars {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na:} could not read the script when their  Emperor Feroz Shah Tughlaq, asked them to. See Wikipedia:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ashokan_Edicts_in_Delhi 151113
It was an Englishman, James Prinsep who decipher the script in 1837.
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Prinsep 151113
The Brahmin-Poannars {braah~ma.Na. poaN~Na:} have no claim to the ownership of the script. According to Rev. F. Mason, 1868, the Myanmar script is the modern version of the Asokan which Mason termed "Pali characters". - PEG-indx.htm > c01.htm (link chk 151113)

... ... ...

Within Buddhism Vyasa appears as Kanha-dipayana (the Pali version of his name) in two Jataka tales: the Kanha-dipayana Jataka and Ghata Jataka. Whilst the former in which he appears as the Bodhisattva has no relation to his tales from the Hindu works, his role in the latter one has parallels in an important event in the Mahabharata.

Go back Vyasa-note-b

Contents of this page

Swami Vivekananda

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swami_Vivekananda 101109

Swami Vivekananda (Skt: स्वामी विवेकानन्द , Bengali: স্বামী বিবেকানন্দ, Shami Bibekānondo) (January 12, 1863July 4, 1902), born Narendranath Dutta (Bengali: নরেন্দ্রনাথ দত্ত)[1] was the chief disciple of the 19th century mystic Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa and the founder of Ramakrishna Mission.[2] He is considered a key figure in the introduction of Hindu philosophies of Vedanta and Yoga in Europe and America[2] and is also credited with raising interfaith awareness, bringing Hinduism to the status of a world religion during the end of the 19th century.[3] Vivekananda is considered to be a major force in the revival of Hinduism in modern India.[4] He is perhaps best known for his inspiring speech beginning with "Sisters and Brothers of America",[5][6] through which he introduced Hinduism at the Parliament of the World's Religions at Chicago in 1893.[1] Swami Vivekananda was born in an aristocratic Bengali family of Calcutta in 1863. Swami's parents influenced his thinking the father by his rational mind and the mother by her religious temperament. From his childhood, he showed inclination towards spirituality and God realization. While searching for a man who could directly demonstrate the reality of God, he came to Ramakrishna and became his disciple. As a guru, Ramakrishna taught him Advaita Vedanta (Hindu religious non-dualism) and that all religions are true, and service to man was the most effective worship of God. After the death of his Guru, Vivekananda became a wandering monk, touring the Indian subcontinent and getting first-hand knowledge of India's condition. He later sailed to Chicago and represented India as a delegate in the 1893 Parliament of World Religions. An eloquent speaker, Vivekananda was invited to several forums in the United States and spoke at universities and clubs. He conducted hundreds of public and private lectures and classes, disseminating Vedanta and Yoga in America, England and a few other countries in Europe. He also established the Vedanta societies in America and England. Later he sailed back to India and in 1897 founded the Ramakrishna Math and Ramakrishna Mission, a philanthropic and spiritual organization.

UKT: As a child going into teens, I lived in Thompson St., East Rangoon, just opposite the Ramakrishna Mission Society. That (1945-1948) was soon after the Second World War. My cousin U Saw Tun and I had rendered volunteer service in the library on the ground floor of the Mission. Our experience there had not only improved our English, but had widened our views of the world. With remark of mine, I sincerely thank the Mission.

More in the Wikipedia article.

Go back Vivekanand-note-b

Contents of this page

yogi

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yogi 101111

A yogi or yogin (Skt: योगी, feminine root: yogini) is a term for a male practitioner of various forms of spiritual practice. In contemporary English yogin is an alternative rendering for the word yogi. [1] Another rendering is the word Jogi (یوگی) which is mostly used to refer to wandering Sufi saints and ascetics. In Hinduism it refers to an adherent of Yoga. The word is also often used in the Buddhist context to describe Buddhist monks or a householder devoted to meditation. Chatral Rinpoche for example is a famous wandering yogi from Tibet.

The Shiva Samhita text defines the yogi as someone who knows that the entire cosmos is situated within his own body, and the Yoga-Shikha-Upanishad distinguishes two kinds of yogins: those who pierce through the "sun" (surya) by means of the various yogic techniques and those who access the door of the central conduit (sushumna-nadi) and drink the nectar.

UKT: End of Wikipedia stub

Go back yogi-note-b

Contents of this page

End of TIL file