Update: 2015-12-18 10:11 PM -0500

TIL

Notes on:
Principles of Language Learning and Teaching, 4th. ed.

n-Brown4-indx.htm

H. Douglas Brown, Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. Copyright 2000. Pearson Education, 10 Bank Street, White Plains, NY 10606. ISBN 0-13-017816-0

Notes by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com 

The whole book for researchers is available in TIL SD-Library - Brown4<Τ>

index.htm | |Top
lang-acqui-indx.htm

Contents of this page
Table of Contents, detail - on this page
00. Preface to 4th ed. - n-ch00.htm
01. Language, Learning, and Teaching  - n-ch01.htm
02. First Language Acquisition - n-ch02.htm
03. Age and Acquisition - ch03.htm
04. Human Learning - ch04.htm
05. Styles and Strategies - ch05
06. Personality Factors - ch06.htm
07. Sociocultural Factors - ch07.htm
08. Cross-linguistic Influence and Learner language - ch08.htm
09. Communicative Competence - ch09.htm
10. Theories of Second Language Acquisition - ch10.htm
11. Bibliography 301 - ch11.htm
12. Index 343 - ch12.htm

UKT notes
 

Contents of this page

Table of Contents, detail

00. Preface to 4th ed.
• 01. Purpose and Audience  x
• 02. Changes in the Fourth Edition  xi
• 03. Acknowledgements xii

Contents of this page

01. Language, Learning, and Teaching
• 01. Current Issues in Second Language Acquisition  002
• 02. Language 004
• 03. Learning and Teaching 007
• 04. Schools of Thought in Second Language Acquisition 008
  04.01. Structuralism/Behaviorism 008
  04.02. Rationalism and Cognitive Psychology 009
  04.03. Constructivism 011
• 05. Language Teaching Methodology 013
• 06. In the Classroom: The Grammar Translation Method 015
• 07. Topics and Questions for Study and Discussion 016
• 08. Suggested Readings 017
• 09. Language Learning Experience: Journal Entry 1  018

Contents of this page

02. First Language Acquisition - ch02.htm
• 01. Theories of First Language Acquisition 021
  01.01. Behavioristic Approaches 022
  01.02. The Nativist Approach 024
  01.03. Functional Approaches 027
  01.03.1. Cognition and Language Development 028
  01.03.2. Social Interaction and Language Development 029
• 02. Issues in First Language Acquisition 030
  02.01. Competence and Performance 030
  02.02. Comprehension and Production 033
  02.03. Nature or Nurture? 034
  02.04. Universals 035
  02.05. Systematicity and Variability 037
  02.06. Language and Thought 037
  02.07. Imitation 038
  02.08. Practice 040
  02.09. Input 041
  02.10. Discourse 042
• 03. In the Classroom: Gouin and Berlitz -- The First Reformers 043
• 04. Topics and Questions for Study and Discussion 046
• 05. Suggested Readings 047
• 06. Language Learning Experience: Journal Entry 2 048

Contents of this page

03. Age and Acquisition - ch03
• 01. Dispelling Myths 050
• 02. Types of Comparison and Contrast 052
• 03. The Critical Period Hypothesis 053
• 04. Neurological Considerations 054
  04.01. Hemispheric Lateralization 054
  04.02. Biological Timetables 055
  04.03. Right-Hemispheric Participation 056
  04.04. Anthropological Evidence 057
• 05. The Significance of Accent 058
• 06. Cognitive Considerations 061
• 07. Affective Considerations 063
• 08. Linguisitic Considerations, 066
  08.01. Bilingualism 067
  08.02. Interference Between First and Second Languages 067
  08.03. Interference in Adults 068
  08.04. Order of Acquisition 068
• 09. Issues in First Language Acquisition Revisited 070
• 10. In the Classroom: The Audiolingual Method 073
• 11. Topics and Questions for Study and Discussion 075
• 12. Suggested Readings 076
• 13. Language Learning Experience: Journal Entry 3 077

Contents of this page

04. Human Learning - ch04.htm
• 01. Learning and Training 078
• 02. Pavlov's Classical Behaviorism 080
• 03. Skinner's Operant Conditioning 080
• 04. Ausubel's Meaningful Learning Theory 083
  04.01. Systematic Forgetting 086
• 05. Rogers's Humanistic Psychology 089
• 06. Types of Learning 091
• 07. Transfer, Interference, and Overgeneralization 094
• 08. Inductive and Deductive Reasoning 097
• 09. Aptitude and Intelligence 098
• 10. In the Classroom: The "Designer" Methods of the 1970s 103
• 11. Topics and Questions for Study and Discussion 109
• 12. Suggested Readings 110
• 13. Language Learning Experience; Journal Entry 4 111

Contents of this page

05. Styles and Strategies - ch05
• 01. Process, Style, and Strategy 112
• 02. Learning Styles 113
  02.01. Field Independence 114
  02.02. Left- and Right-Brain Functioning 118
  02.03. Ambiguity Tolerance 119
  02.04. Reflectivity and Impulsivity 121
  02.05. Visual and Auditory Styles 122
• 03. Strategies 122
  03.01. Learning Strategies 124
  03.02. Communication Strategies 127
  03.02.1. Avoidance Strategies 129
  03.02.2. Compensatory Strategies 129
• 04. Strategies-Based Instruction 130
• 05. In the Classroom; Styles and Strategies in Practice 135
• 06. Topics and Questions for Study and Discussion 139
• 07. Suggested Readings 140
• 08. Language Learning Experience; Journal Entry 5 141

Contents of this page

06. Personality Factors - ch06.htm
• 01. The Affective Domain 143
  01.01. Self-Esteem 145
  01.02. Inhibition 147
  01.03. Risk-Taking 149
  01.04. Anxiety 150
  01.05. Empathy 152
  01.06. Extroversion 154
• 02. Myers-Briggs Character Types 156
• 03. Motivation 160
  03.01. Instrumental and Integrative Orientations 162
  03.02. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation 164
• 04. The Neurobiology of Affect 166
• 05. Measuring Affective Factors 167
• 06. In the Classroom; Putting Methods into Perspective 169
• 07. Topics and Questions for Study and Discussion 172
• 08. Suggested Readings 174
• 09. Language Learning Experience; Journal Entry 6 175

Contents of this page

07. Sociocultural Factors - ch07.htm
• 01. From Stereotypes to Generalizations 178
• 02. Attitudes 180
• 03. Second Culture Acquisition 182
• 04. Social Distance 185
• 05. Culture in the Classroom 189
• 06. Language Policy and Politics 191
  06.01. World Englishes 192
  06.02. ESL and EFL 193
  06.03. Linguistic Imperialism and Language Rights 194
  06.04. Language Policy and the "English Only" Debate 195
• 07. Language, Thought, and Culture 196
• 08. In the Classroom: Toward a Principled Approach to Language Pedagogy 201
• 09. Topics and Questions for Study and Discussion 203
• 10. Suggested Readings 204
• 11. Language Learning Experience: Journal Entry 7 206

Contents of this page

08. Cross-linguistic Influence and Learner language - ch08.htm
• 01. The Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis 207
• 02. From the CAH to CLI (Cross-Linguistic Influence) 211
• 03. Markedness and Universal Grammar 213
• 04. Learner Language 215
• 05. Error Analysis 216
  05.01. Mistakes and Errors 217
  05.02. Errors in Error Analysis 218
  05.03. Identifying and Describing Errors 220
  05.04. Sources of Error 223
  05.04.1. Interlingual Transfer 224
  05.04.2. Intralingual Transfer 224
  05.04.3. Context of Learning 226
  05.04.4. Communication Strategies 227
• 06. Stages of Learner Language Development 227
• 07. Variability in Learner Language 229
• 08. Fossilization 231
• 09. Form-Focused Instruction 233
• 10. Error Treatment 235
• 11. In the Classroom: A Model for Error Treatment 239
• 12. Topics and Questions for Study and Discussion 242
• 13. Suggested Readings 243
• 14. Language Learning Experience: Journal Entry 8 244

Contents of this page

09. Communicative Competence - ch09.htm
• 01. Defining Communicative Competence 246
• 02. Language Functions 248
• 03. Functional Syllabuses 252
• 04. Discourse Analysis 253
• 04.01. Conversation Analysis 255
• 05. Pragmatics 257
  05.01. Language and Gender 259
• 06. Styles and Registers 260
• 07. Nonverbal Communication 262
  07.01. Kinesics 262
  07.02. Eye Contact 263
  07.03. Proxemics 264
  07.04. Artifacts 264
  07.05. Kinesthetics 264
  07.06. Olfactory Dimensions 265
• 08. In the Classroom: Communicative Language Teaching 266
• 09. Topics and Questions for Study and Discussion 267
• 10. Suggested Readings 269
• 11. Language Learning Experience: Journal Entry 9 270

Contents of this page

10. Theories of Second Language Acquisition - ch10.htm
• 01. Building a Theory of SLA 272
  01.01. Domains and Generalizations 272
  01.02. Hypotheses and Claims 274
  01.03. Criteria for a Viable Theory 276
• 02. An Innatist Model: Krashen's Input Hypothesis 277
• 03. Cognitive Models 281
  03.01. McLaughlin's Attention-Processing Model 282
  03.02. Implicit and Explicit Models 285
• 04. A Social-Constructivist Model: Long's Interaction Hypothesis 286
• 05. From Theory to Practice 288
• 06. Out on a Limb: The Ecology of Language Acquisition 294
• 07. Topics and Questions for Study and Discussion 296
• 08. Suggested Readings 298
• 09. Language Learning Experience: Final Journal Entry 299

11. Bibliography 301 - ch11.htm

12. Index 343 - ch12

Contents of this page
xii Preface

H. Douglas Brown

From: www.sfsu.edu
Professor, San Francisco State University. Director, American Language Institute. 415.338.7384. 415.338.3095. hdbrown@sfsu.edu

H. Douglas Brown received his M.A. in Linguistics and Ph.D. in Educational Psychology at the University of California, Los Angeles. Previously, he was Professor of English as a Second Language and Linguistics at the University of Illinois in Champaign-Urbana, where he also served as Director of the Division of ESL. Before that, he was on the faculty of the Department of Linguistics and the English Language Institute (ELI) at the University of Michigan; he was Acting Director of the ELI for three years.

Professor Brown was the 1980-81 President of International TESOL. For nine years, he served as the Editor of Language Learning. He has given lectures, seminars and workshops across the USA and in many other countries. In 2001, Professor Brown was the recipient of TESOL's prestigious James E. Alatis Award for Distinguished Service.

Professor Brown has published a large number of articles and books on second language acquisition and pedagogy. Professional reference books include Principles of Language Learning and Teaching (4th ed., 2000), Teaching by Principles: An Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy (2nd ed., 2001), and Readings on Second Language Acquisition (co-edited with Susan Gonzo, 1995). Two books written for lay language-learning audiences are Breaking the Language Barrier (1991) and A Practical Guide to Language Learning (1989). Among ESL textbooks to his credit are Challenges (1991), a book on academic reading and writing (co-authored with Deborah Cohen and Jennifer O'Day), and Vistas (1992), a multiple-level ESL basal series, now extensively revised (1999-2001) as New Vistas (domestic) and Voyages (international). A strategies-based guide for ES/FL students, Strategies for Success, was published in July 2001.

His current research interests center on strategies-based instruction, classroom language assessment, and relating second language acquisition research to classroom methodology.

Contents of this page

U Kyaw Tun

U Kyaw Tun first became an educator as an assistant lecturer in Chemistry in the Department of Chemistry, University of Rangoon in 1955. In that capacity he lectured to the first year Science students at Yankin College campus. The following year saw him lecturing the third year Science students (those taking Chemistry) at the main campus in addition to the first year Science students at Yankin College campus. He served for 33 years in various universities and colleges throughout Myanmar: Rangoon University, Rangoon Institute of Technology, Mandalay University, Bassein College, Workers’ College and Taunggyi College. His last posting from which he retired was Associate Professor and Head of Department of Chemistry, Taunggyi Degree College.
     Though trained as a scientist and engineer, U Kyaw Tun has a keen interest in the culture, history, religion and mythology of various peoples of the world. His knowledge of several languages: Myanmar, English, French, Pali, Swedish and German has helped him in his cultural studies. He has an extensive knowledge of Hindu astrology, specializing the Ashtakavarga system.
     U Kyaw Tun was a part-time columnist writing for the Working Peoples’ Daily in Myanmar and was a member on the editorial board of the North Renfrew Times in Canada. He has given several public lectures in Canada on Buddhism particularly to scientists and engineers, and to non-Buddhists.

Contents of this page

UKT notes
and references

• AHTD. American Heritage Talking Dictionary.

 

Reference (non-Myanmar sources) used for development of Romabama

• ANTIM: www.antimoon.com
• Childers, R.C. Dictionary of Pali Language, R. C. Childers, 1909. Reprint for Research Purposes only by U Hla Maung, Buddha Sasana Council, Myanmar, 1974
• DJPD16 (Daniel Jones Pronouncing Dictionary, 16 ed. -- Scanned from printed book

Please also note that I have to identify every phonemic or phonetic symbol including the diacritical marks given in the original book. The task is not easy since the print was quite small. The symbols you are finding in this digitized version are in Unicode font, and the reader should note that I could have made mistakes in the reproduction. I have included the Unicode number for future checking and editing.
     As an example: the entry for the word <cradle> is given as /kreɪ.dl/ in DJPD16. The lower case "l" has a diacritical mark below. In the small print it looks like a "combining vertical line below" (U0329). It certainly is not a "combining cedilla" (U0327). However, when I reproduced it using Arial Unicode MS font, the diacritical mark became shifted with U0329 but not with U0327: [ l̩ ] and [ ļ ]. Suspecting that what DJPD16 has given might be a cedilla, I searched the Internet using Google with the search string "cedilla in pronunciation". One of the results was http://www.chlewey.org/cs/as-en.html . The website gave the example of <cradle> where it was stated that "l" was "l cedilla" with Unicode x13C. Looking into the XP character map shows that x13C is U013C which gives [ ļ ]. Though I haven't yet made up my mind, as a temporary measure I will take what DJPD16 has given as U013C.
     One remark must be made about brackets:
• Angle brackets < >.In the printed book a word being referred to is generally within inverted commas. However, in this digitized version, the inverted commas have been replaced with angle brackets < >.
• Square brackets [ ]. In the original printed version square brackets [ ] were used to indicate the phonetic transcription. In this digitized version I have retained the original square brackets, but had introduced more square brackets to highlight single letters and digraphs. Though this practice has been discontinued, you might still find left-overs [ ] around letters and digraphs. Since these are all of English origin, I am now (080215) using < >.
• You might find some « », which are being introduced but not in any well defined manner. I am thinking of using them to highlight letters in some places of <  >.

• Element-Pali, An Elementary Pali Course, by Ven. Narada Thera, Buddha Dhamma Association, Inc. (Sri Lanka)  www.buddhanet.net
• PTK (Phonemic Transcription Key)  www.xibalba.demon.co.uk/jbr/index.html
• PTS Pali Text Soc. Pali-English Dictionary, ed. Rhys Davids and W. Stede, Pali Text Soc., reprint 1999 (1st publ. 1921-1925)
• SAMPA (Speech Assessment Methods Phonetic Alphabet) www.phon.ucl.ac.uk/home/sampa/home.htm
• Unicode Standard, Version 4.0, Unicode Consortium,
   Chapter 9, http://www.unicode.org/versions/Unicode4.0.0/ch9.pdf
   Chapter 10, http://www.unicode.org/versions/Unicode4.0.0/ch10.pdf
• Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia

 Contents of this page

References from Myanmar sources used for development of Romabam

01. Myanmar Orthography (MOrtho),
  U Tun Tint editor, Myanmar Language Commission (MLC), 1986, pp292
  (Note: MLC has been renamed several times.)
02. Myanmar English Dictionary (MEDict)
    by MLC, 1993, pp 635
03. Travelling Pocket Myanmar Dictionary (MMDict )
   Burmese-Myanmar to Burmese-Myanmar)  by MLC, 1999, pp 401.
04. {pa-Li. a.Bi.Daan-hkyoap} (PMDict - Compendium Pali Dictionary),
   by {lθύ-ti-paN~Πi.ta.} U Maung Gyi, Rangoon, 1966, pp.524 - in Burmese-Myanmar
05. U Tun Tint - editor (retd.), MLC - personal communication.
06. Myanmar Thudda, volumes 1 to 5 (in Burmese), Text-book Committee,
   Basic Education, Ministry of Education, Myanmar, ca. 1986
07. "Pali Lessons" Module {a.ra.}-111{ka.}, (in Burmese) Univ. of Distance Education, 1999.
08. "Pali Lessons" Module {a.ra.}-1001 Pali grammar, (in Burmese)
   Yangon Univ. of Distance Education, 2003
09. The Glass Palace Chronicles, written in 1819 to 1837), republished by Ministry of Information, Myanmar Government, 4th reprint in Burmese-Myanmar, in 3 volumes.

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End of TIL file