Update: 2017-07-14 04:23 PM -0400

TIL

Folk Elements in Burmese Buddhism

RC-Temple37.htm

Collection U Kyaw Tun (UKT), M.S. (I.P.S.T., U.S.A.). Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR 
 - http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com
Sources:
Klein, W, Burma, Apa Productions (HK) Ltd, 1981, Pictures on (L-page) p88; and on (R-page) p89: taken from
   R.C. Temple's classic work, the 37 Nats (London, 1906)
Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nat (spirit) (080926)

UKT 170711: I've left this file unattended for a long time, since 080926, because of the large size of its pix images. Only today I have reduced the size to 50% of the original downloaded pix. Some individual nat pix have been reduced to width 200pix I've also updated some Romabama transcriptions.

index.htm | Top
flk-ele-indx.htm 

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UKT 140711, 170711: I was not even certain of the original title of the book until I came across: Journal of Royal Asiatic Society, vol 39, issue 1, Jan 1907. The original book have been referred to by various authors under slightly different names.
For descriptions of Nats referred to by R.C. Temple, see The Dramas and Dramatic Dances of non-European Races - by William Ridgway, Cambridge Univ. Press, 1915,
- dramasdramatic...pdf  140711
in TIL library. No connection on the Internet.

 

Identification of the nats
List of official nats
01. Thagya Min
02. Min Mahagiri 03. Hnamadawgyi or Royal Sister
04. Shwenaby 05. Thonbanhla (Beautiful in Three Ways)
06. Taungoo Mingaung 07. Mintara
08. Thandawgan 09. Shwe Nawrahta
10. Aung Zwa Magyi 11. Ngazi Shin
12. Aung Pinle Hsinbyushin 13. Taungmagyi
14. Maung Min Shin 15. Shindaw
16. Nyaung Gyin O 17. Tabinshwehti
18. Min Y Aung Din 19. Shwe Sitpin
20. Medaw Shwezaga 21. Maung Po Tu
22. Yun Bayin 23. Maung Minbyu
24. Mandalay Bodaw 25. Shwe Hpyin Naungdaw
26. Shwe Hpyin Nyidaw 27. Mintha Maungshin
28. Htibyusaung 29. Htibyusaung Medaw
30. Bayinma Shin Mingaung 31. Min Sithu or Alaungsithu
32. Min Kyaw Zwa, aka U Min Gyaw 33. Myaukhpet Shinma
34. Anauk Mibaya 35. Shingon
36. Shingwa 37. Shin Nemi
Original pictures given in download

Author's notes

UKT notes
 

 

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Identification of the nats

UKT 080926: So far (080926), I have not been able to get the book by R. C. Temple. The nearest I could get was by W. Klein, Burma, Apa Productions (HK) Ltd, 1981, p88 (L-page) and p89 (R-page). I can't remember when I downloaded the pictures (most probably in 2002), and I can't remember if there were legends to go with the pictures. When I looked into what I had downloaded, I found two remarks I had made then:

The following figures were from Klein, W, Burma, Apa Productions (HK) Ltd, 1981, p88 (L-page) and p89 (R-page). The legend given by Klein:
"The 37 nats have changed their identities through the ages, but their number has remained constant. The nats represented in this collage, taken from Sir R.C. Temple's classic work, the 37 Nats (London, 1906), may not be the same 37 as Burmese worship today."

The description of the images by U Po Kya [in Burmese-Myanmar] generally agreed with that of R. C. Temple.

I had to rely on the descriptions given by U Po Kya until I came across the Wikipedia article of 080926. The names given in Romabama are mine based on Wikipedia names. The serial numbers of U Po Kya and Dr. Htin Aung have been made the same for ease of comparison and reference.

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List of official nats

From: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nat_ (spirit) 080926

King Anawrahta of Bagan (1044-1077) designated an official pantheon of 37 Nats, after he had failed to enforce a ban on nat worship. His stratagem of incorporation by bringing the nats to his Shwezigon Pagoda in positions of worshipping the Buddha, and by enlisting Thagya Min at the head of the pantheon above the Mahagiri nats, eventually succeeded. [5] [7] Seven out of the 37 Nats appear to be directly associated with the life and times of Anawrahta. [7] The official pantheon is made up predominantly of those from the royal houses of Burmese history, but also contains nats of Thai (Yun Bayin) and Shan (Maung Po Tu) descent. Listed in proper order as follows. [UKT - Transcription of Burmese-Myanmar names are from Wikipedia. I have transliterated these names in  Romabama.]

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01. Thagya Min

Wikipedia: {i.kra: mn:} - Considered King of the Nats, is identified with the Buddhist deva Śakra and the Hindu deity Indra. [8]. He is often portrayed atop a three-headed white elephant, holding a conch shell in one hand, and a yak-tail whisk in the other. [8]
   wiki08 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah
   Hla Tha Mein. " Thirty-Seven Nats". Yangonow. Retrieved on 2006- 07-03.

Dr. Htin Aung 01. Thagyamin (the King of the Gods)
U Po Kya 01. {i.kra:mn:}

UKT 170711: Except for Thigyamin who is a dva who lives in Heaven, the rest below are lower spirits identifiable with Roman Ma'nes. They inhabit the lower regions, and Theravada monks took pity on them and tried to promote them to higher regions. Lay people who considered themselves to be endowed with Buddhist scriptures and practice follow the examples of the monks. Some of these lower Nats are protectors protecting their worshippers, but others are on par with devils and witches.

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02. Min Mahagiri

Wikipedia: {mn: ma.ha.gi.ri.} - Son of a famous blacksmith, U Tint Daw. His given name was Maung Tint De (Nga Tinde) or Mr Handsome. He was extremely strong, able to break the tusks of an elephant. The King of Tagaung was worried, least he attempt to usurp his throne, so Maung Tint De hid himself in a village. As a stratagem, the king married Maung Tint De's sister, Saw Me Ya, also called Myat Hla or Shwe Myet-hna (Golden Face), to become one of his queens. He persuaded Saw Me Ya to ask her brother to come out of hiding so that he could be given a high office. However when Maung Tint De came out of hiding, the king had him arrested and burned alive tied to a Champac (sagawabin) tree.[8][9] His sister (see below) also died with him and the two became evil Nats resident in that tree, periodically feasting on people who happened to come near the tree. The King of Tagaung (Tagaung Min) had the tree cut down and cast into the waters of the Irrawaddy where it floated, coming to rest in the kingdom in Bagan ruled by King Thinligyaung (344-387), when the two Nats appeared in a dream apprising the king of their plight. They offered to guard the city if they were given a place to dwell. King Thinligyaung had the trunk carried to Mount Popa, divided into two parts (one for each Nat) and carved with human features. Henceforth Maung Tint De was to be known as the Lord of the Great Mountain. They were also enshrined on either side of the city's Tharabha Gate, Maung Tint De on the right and Shwe Myet-hna on the left.[3][7][9] Later kings had golden heads made of the two Nats and had these heads mounted on pillars at Mt Popa (the ones from 1812 are still worshiped at the mountain).
   wiki03 ^ a b c d
   Spiro, Melford E (1996). Burmese Spiritualism. Transaction Publishers. Retrieved on 2008-09-15.
 
   wiki07 ^ a b c d e f g h i
   DeCaroli, Robert (2004). Haunting the Buddha: Indian Popular Religions and the Formation of Buddhism. Oxford Univ. Press, US.
   Retrieved on 2008-09-13
.
 
   wiki08 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah
   Hla Tha Mein. " Thirty-Seven Nats". Yangonow. Retrieved on 2006- 07-03.
   wiki09 ^ a b
   " Sacred Mount Popa". MRTV3. Retrieved on 2008- 09-13.

Dr. Htin Aung 02. The Lord of the Great Mountain
U Po Kya 02. {ma.ha-gi-ri. nat}

U Po Kya described the image of Minmahagiri as: standing on belu platform on white-elephant, dressed like a prince with {baung:} head-dress, conical ear ornament, and crossed-sash, fan in left-hand and sword in right-hand.

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03. Hnamadawgyi or Royal Sister

Wikipedia: {nha.ma.tau-kri:} - Her given name was Saw Me Ya, the elder sister of Maung Tint De. She became the queen of the King of Tagaung. When she saw her brother being burned alive, she leapt into the fire, but only managed to save his head. She died of her burns and became a Nat. She is portrayed standing on a dais upon a black elephant, her right hand on her chest with a plum between her thumb and index finger, and her left hand by her side. [8]
   wiki08 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah
   Hla Tha Mein. "Thirty-Seven Nats". Yangonow. Retrieved on 2006-07-03.

Dr. Htin Aung 03. Princess Golden Face
U Po Kya 03. {nha.ma.tau}
U Po Kya described the image of sister as: standing on belu platform on black female-elephant, right-hand on chest with thumb and pointer-finger holding a Terminalia citrina fruit {kra.su.thi:}, left-hand hanging down.

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04. Shwenabay <L

Wikipedia: {rhw-na.B} was a beautiful woman of Mindon Village who married a Naga. Later, her husband deserted her and she died of a broken heart. Another story maintains that she was actually the wife of Maung Tint De. She is portrayed standing, wearing Naga headdress, her right hand on her chest and her left hand by her side.[8]
  
wiki08 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah
   Hla Tha Mein. "Thirty-Seven Nats". Yangonow. Retrieved on 2006-07-03.

Dr. Htin Aung 04. Lady Golden Sides
U Po Kya 04. {rhw-na.p}
U Po Kya described the image as: standing on lotus platform; head-dress in the form of the head and hood of a naga, conical ear-ornament, right-hand on chest, left-hand down.

 

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05. Thonbanhla (Beautiful in Three Ways)

Wikipedia: {on:pan-lha.} was a native of a Mon village called Takunnwan. She was (sic) "beautiful in three ways within one day." She was given to King Duttabaung of Pyay, but the queen was jealous of her beauty and told the king that she was actually very ugly and so fat that she could not fit through the city gate. Hearing this, the king refused to marry Thonbanhla who then died in despair. Another story says that she was the younger sister of Maung Tint De. She married King Samim Htaw Yama of Utthala and gave birth to a daughter, Shin Mi-hn, but then died of a sudden illness. She is portrayed standing on an ogre bending over a dais supported by an elephant. She wears a topknot, her right hand on her chest and her left hand by her side.[8]
   wiki08 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah
   Hla Tha Mein. "Thirty-Seven Nats". Yangonow. Retrieved on 2006-07-03.

Dr. Htin Aung 05. Lady Three Times Beautiful
U Po Kya 05. {thon:pan-lha.}
U Po Kya described the image as: standing on belu-platform above elephant, hair in knot, right-hand on chest, left-hand down.

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06. Taungoo Mingaung <L

Wikipedia: {taung:ngu ming:hkaung} - a minor governor of Taungoo and son of Min Y Theinkthu, the royal attendant, he died of illness. He is portrayed sitting crosslegged on a simple couch wearing royal garments, holding a fan in his right hand and resting his left hand on his knee.[8]
   wiki08 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah
   Hla Tha Mein. "Thirty-Seven Nats". Yangonow. Retrieved on 2006-07-03.

Dr. Htin Aung 35. Lord Minhkaung of Toungoo
U Po Kya 35. {taung-ngu-rhing ming:hkaung}

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07. Mintara R>

Wikipedia: {ming:ta.ra:} - the King of Innwa, was hunting in the forest where he met a fairy, and went insane when the fairy disappeared. While he was in this state, one of his followers, Nga Nawk, murdered him. He is portrayed sitting on a throne, wearing his royal garments with a fan in his right hand and his left hand resting on his knee.[8]
   wiki08 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah
   Hla Tha Mein. "Thirty-Seven Nats". Yangonow. Retrieved on 2006-07-03.

Dr. Htin Aung 24. The Lord King, Master of Justice
U Po Kya 24. {ming:ta.ra: nat}

 

 

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08. Thandawgan

Wikipedia: {thn-tau-hkn} - a royal messenger of King Minkhaung of Taungoo, his given name was Y Thiha. He went into the forest to gather flowers, contracted malaria, and died. He is portrayed sitting on a lotus pedestal holding a fan in his right hand and his left hand resting on his knee.[8]
   wiki08 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah
   Hla Tha Mein. "Thirty-Seven Nats". Yangonow. Retrieved on 2006-07-03.

Dr. Htin Aung 36. Royal Secretary
U Po Kya 36. {thn-tau-hkn}

 

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09. Shwe NawrahtaR>

Wikipedia: {rhw nau-ra.hta} - grandson of King Minkhaung II of Innwa (1481-1502). His servant tried to assassinate the king, but was caught and put to death. Because of Shwe Nawrahta's involvement in the plot, he too was put to death. He is portrayed sitting with one knee raised upon a simple throne, holding a gu lee ball in one hand and a gu lee stick in the other.[8][10]
   wiki08 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah
   Hla Tha Mein. "Thirty-Seven Nats". Yangonow. Retrieved on 2006-07-03.
   wiki10 ^
   Dr Khin Maung Nyunt. "The Equestrian Festival". myanmars.net. Retrieved on 2008-09-11.

Dr. Htin Aung 29. Golden Nawrahta
U Po Kya 29. {rhw-nau-ra.hta}

 

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10. Aung Zwa Magyi<L

Wikipedia: {aung-swa ma.kri:}, also called Bo Aung Zwa, was a commander in the service of King Narapatisithu of Bagan (1173-1210). He was killed by the king when he showed disrespect to the king, who had failed to keep his promise of rewarding him with one of his maids. He is portrayed sitting on a throne, playing a harp and wearing a headdress and a sash.[8]
   wiki08 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah
   Hla Tha Mein. "Thirty-Seven Nats". Yangonow. Retrieved on 2006-07-03.

Dr. Htin Aung 20. Captain of the Main Army Aungswa
U Po Kya 20. {aung-swa-ma.kri:}

 

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11. Ngazi Shin R>

Wikipedia: {nga:si:rhing} - (Lord of Five Elephants), also called Kyaw Zwa, became King of Pinya (1343-1350) after his father Thihathu died. He acquired five white elephants, and died of illness in the eighth year of his reign. He is portrayed sitting on a lotus supported by a five-headed elephant, and shaded by four white royal umbrellas.[8]
   wiki08 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah
   Hla Tha Mein. "Thirty-Seven Nats". Yangonow. Retrieved on 2006-07-03.

Dr. Htin Aung 23. Lord of Five Elephants
U Po Kya 23. {nga:si:rhing}

 

 

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12. Aung Pinle Hsinbyushin <L

Wikipedia: {aung-ping-l hsing-hpru-rhing} -  (Lord of the White Elephant of Aung Pinle), King Thihathu II (1422-1426) and son of King Minkhaung of Innwa (1401-1422), was killed by an arrow released by his enemy the Sawbwa of Ohnbaung at the Battle of Aung Pinle. He was portrayed sitting crosslegged on a throne on elephant back in full regalia, with one of the elephant attendants crouching in front and another on horseback wielding a sword.[8]
   wiki08 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah
   Hla Tha Mein. "Thirty-Seven Nats". Yangonow. Retrieved on 2006-07-03.

Dr. Htin Aung 27. Lord of Aungpinl, Master of White Elephants
U Po Kya 27. {aung-ping-l hsing-hpru-rhing}

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13. Taungmagyi R>

 Wikipedia: {taung-ma.kri:} - (no description given - one of the last to be identified.)

 

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14. Maung Min Shin <L

Wikipedia: {maung ming:rhing} the swing rider, grandson of King Alaungsithu of Bagan (1112-1167), son of Min Shin Saw who was deposed. While he was still a young novice monk, he fell off a swing and died.[8]
   wiki08 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah
   Hla Tha Mein. "Thirty-Seven Nats". Yangonow. Retrieved on 2006-07-03.

Dr. Htin Aung 18. Young Lord of the Swing
U Po Kya 18. {dan:maung-rhing}

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15. Shindaw R>

Wikipedia: {rhing-tau} - was a young novice monk of Innwa and died of a snake bite. He is portrayed standing on a pedestal with headwear, and a yellow robe. He holds a fan in his right hand and rosary beads in his left.[8]
   wiki08 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah
   Hla Tha Mein. "Thirty-Seven Nats". Yangonow. Retrieved on 2006-07-03.

Dr. Htin Aung 32. Lord Novice
U Po Kya 32. {rhing-tau nat}

 

 

 

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16. Nyaung Gyin O<L

Wikipedia: {aung-hkying:o} - a descendant of the captive King Manuha of Thaton in Bagan. He died of leprosy during the reign of King Anawrahta. He is portrayed standing on a pedestal with a topknot, his left hand raised and holding a staff in his right.[7][8]
   wiki07 ^ a b c d e f g h i
   DeCaroli, Robert (2004). Haunting the Buddha: Indian Popular Religions and the Formation of Buddhism.
   Oxford Univ Press, US. Retrieved on 2008-09-13.
 
   wiki08 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah
   Hla Tha Mein. "Thirty-Seven Nats". Yangonow. Retrieved on 2006-07-03.

Dr. Htin Aung 16. Old Man by the Solitary Banyan Tree
U Po Kya 16. {aung-hkying:o}

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17. TabinshwehtiR>

Wikipedia: {ta.ping-rhw-hti} - King of Taungoo (1512-1550), became a drunk and was assassinated by a servant. He is portrayed sitting crosslegged on a throne in full regalia, sword in left hand and right hand on his knee.[8]
   wiki08 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah
   Hla Tha Mein. "Thirty-Seven Nats". Yangonow. Retrieved on 2006-07-03.

Dr. Htin Aung 33. Tabinshwehti
U Po Kya 33. {ta.ping-rhw-hti:}

 

 

 

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18. Min Y Aung Din <L

Wikipedia: {ming:r:aung-ting} - husband of Princess Shwe Sin Tu, daughter of King Thar Sun of Innwa and his queen, who was daughter of Sawbwa of Mon in Shan State. He died from an excess of opium smoking. He is portrayed sitting on a pedestal with a topknot and holding a harp.[8]
   wiki08 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah
   Hla Tha Mein. "Thirty-Seven Nats". Yangonow. Retrieved on 2006-07-03.

Dr. Htin Aung 30. Valiant Lord Aung Din
U Po Kya 30. {min:r:aung-ting}

 

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19. Shwe Sitpin R>

 Wikipedia: {rhw-sic-ping}  - (no description given - one of the last to be identified.)

Dr. Hting Aung 21. Royal Cadet
U Po Kya 21. {rhw-sic-thing}

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20. Medaw Shwezaga <L

Wikipedia: {m-tau rhw-sn-ka:} - the mother of Shwe Sitpin, she died of heartbreak over the sorrowful plight of her son. She is portrayed sitting on a pedestal with her right hand on her bosom and her left hand resting on her lap.[8]
   wiki08 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah
   Hla Tha Mein. "Thirty-Seven Nats". Yangonow. Retrieved on 2006-07-03.

Dr. Htin Aung 22. His [Royal Cadet] Mother, the Lady Golden Words
U Po Kya 22. {m-tau rhw-sa.ka:}

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21. Maung Po Tu R>

Wikipedia: {maung hpo:tu} - a tea trader during the reign of King Minkhaung of Innwa, was killed by a tiger on his way to Shan state. He is portrayed sitting on a tiger, a stick in right hand and left hand on his thigh.[8]
   wiki08 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah
   Hla Tha Mein. "Thirty-Seven Nats". Yangonow. Retrieved on 2006-07-03.

Dr. Htin Aung 25. Maung Po Tu
U Po Kya 25. {maung-po:tu}

 

 

 

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22. Yun Bayin <L

Wikipedia: {ywan: Bu.ring} - (King of the Yun) was Mekuti, the captive king of Chiang Mai, who died of illness during the reign of King Bayinnaung of Hanthawaddy (1551-1581). He is portrayed sitting with right knee raised, right hand holding a sheathed sword across the shoulder, and left hand on left knee.[8][11][12]
   wiki08 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah
   Hla Tha Mein. "Thirty-Seven Nats". Yangonow. Retrieved on 2006-07-03.
   wiki11 ^ Forbes, Andrew (2005).
   "King Mae Ku: From Lan Na Monarch to Burmese Nat". CPAmedia. Retrieved on 2008-09-12.
   wiki12 ^ Barlow, Joel John.
   "History of Lanna - Burmese Rule and Other Foreign Influence". Chiang Rai Province.com. Retrieved on 2008-09-14.

Dr. Htin Aung 37. King of Chiengmai
U Po Kya 37. {ywan: Bu.ring}

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23. Maung Minbyu R>

Wikipedia: {maung ming:hpru} -  (no description given - one of the last to be identified.)

Dr. Htin Aung 31. Young Lord White
U Po Kya 31. {maung-ming:hpru}

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24. Mandalay Bodaw <L

Wikipedia: {man~ta.l: Bo:tau} - (Lord Grandfather of Mandalay), son of a Brahmin, he was killed for not properly supervising Shwe Hpyin Naungdaw and Shwe Hpyin Nyidaw, who were negligent in their duties.[7][8] He is portrayed standing on a pedestal with a sword on his shoulder and a hand raised, pointing his finger.[8]
   wiki07 ^ a b c d e f g h i
   DeCaroli, Robert (2004).
   Haunting the Buddha: Indian Popular Religions and the Formation of Buddhism. Oxford Univ. Press, US. Retrieved on 2008-09-13.
 
   wiki08 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah
   Hla Tha Mein. "Thirty-Seven Nats". Yangonow. Retrieved on 2006-07-03.

Dr. Htin Aung 14. Lord Grandfather of Mandalay
U Po Kya 14. {man~ta.l: Bo:tau}

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25. Shwe Hpyin Naungdaw R>

Wikipedia: {rhw-hpi:naugn-tau} - (Inferior Gold the Elder), also called Shwe Hpyin Gyi or Min Gyi, and

Dr. Htin Aung 12. Elder Inferior Gold
U Po Kya 12. {rhw-hpyi:kri:}

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26. Shwe Hpyin Nyidaw <L

Wikipedia: {rhw-hpi:i-tau} - (Inferior Gold the Younger), also called Shwe Hpyin Nge or Min Lay, together known as Shwe Hpyin Nyinaung (Brothers) or Taungbyone Min Nyinaung (Brother Lords), were sons of Byatta, the royal messenger, and Me Wunna, a flower-eating ogress from Mt Popa, during the reign of King Anawrahta of Bagan. They were killed for neglecting their duty to provide a brick each thus leaving gaps in Taungbyone Pagoda, which was built by King Anawrahta. [6][7] They are portrayed on pedestals, one lying down and the other upright with his sword shouldered arrogantly.[8] Me Wunna died of a broken heart after Byatta was killed and later their sons were taken away on the king's orders. She became a nat known as Popa Medaw (Mother of Popa).[3]
   wiki03 ^ a b c d
   Spiro, Melford E (1996). Burmese Spiritualism. Transaction Publishers. Retrieved on 2008-09-15.
 
   wiki06 ^ a b
   Shwe Mann Maung. "The Taung Byone Nat Festival". Perspective (August 1997). Retrieved on 2008-09-11.
   wiki07 ^ a b c d e f g h i
   DeCaroli, Robert (2004). Haunting the Buddha: Indian Popular Religions and the Formation of Buddhism. Oxford Univ., US. Retrieved on 2008-09-13.
 
   wiki08 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah
   Hla Tha Mein. "Thirty-Seven Nats". Yangonow. Retrieved on 2006-07-03.

Dr. Htin Aung 13. Younger Inferior Gold
U Po Kya 13. {rhw-hpri:ng}

 

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27. Mintha Maungshin R>

 Wikipedia: {ming:tha maung-rhing}  - (no description given - one of the last to be identified.)

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28. Htibyusaung <L

Wikipedia: {hti:hpru-hsaung:} - (Lord of the White Umbrella) was King Kyaungbyu, father of Anawrahta.[7][8] He was deposed and forced to become a monk by his stepsons, and died later.[8]
   wiki07 ^ a b c d e f g h i
   DeCaroli, Robert (2004). Haunting the Buddha: Indian Popular Religions and the Formation of Buddhism.
   Oxford Univ. Press, US. Retrieved on 2008-09-13.
 
   wiki08 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah
   Hla Tha Mein. "Thirty-Seven Nats". Yangonow. Retrieved on 2006-07-03.

Dr. Htin Aung 09. Lord with the White Umbrella
U Po Kya 09. {hti:hpru-hsaung:}

 

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29. Htibyusaung Medaw R>

Wikipedia: {hti:hpru-hsaung: m-tau} - (Royal Mother of Htibyusaung), grandmother of Anawrahta, died of illness.[7][8] She is portrayed with hair knotted and dangling, sitting on folded knees with hand on her lap.[8]
   wiki08 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah
   Hla Tha Mein. "Thirty-Seven Nats". Yangonow. Retrieved on 2006-07-03.

Dr. Htin Aung 10. Royal Mother (of No.9)
U Po Kya 10. {hti:hpru-hsaung: m-tau}

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30. Bayinma Shin Mingaung <L

 Wikipedia: {Bu.ring-ma. rhing ming:hkaung}  - (no description given - one of the last to be identified.)

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31. Min Sithu or Alaungsithu R>

Wikipedia: {ming:s-thu} or {a.laung:s-thu} - King of Bagan (1112-1167), grandson and successor of King Anawrahta was assassinated by his son Narathu (1167-1170) who usurped his throne. He is portrayed sitting on a throne with one knee up and his foot on the seat, wearing royal garments.[8]
   wiki08 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah
   Hla Tha Mein. "Thirty-Seven Nats". Yangonow. Retrieved on 2006-07-03.

Dr. Hting Aung 17. Lord Sithu
U Po Kya 17. {ming:s-thu}

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32. Min Kyaw Zwa aka U Min Gyaw <L

Wikipedia: {ming:kyau-swa} aka {U:ming:kyau} - he was the son of the Lord of Pyay and Kuni Devi. He was a drunkard, cock fighter, and excellent horseman. He was killed by the (sic) devils who had been his victims.[8]
   wiki08 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah
   Hla Tha Mein. "Thirty-Seven Nats". Yangonow. Retrieved on 2006-07-03.

Dr. Htin Aung 19. Valiant Lord Kyawswa
U Po Kya 19. {kyau-swa}

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33. Myaukhpet Shinma R>

Wikipedia: {mrauk-hpak rhn-ma.} - (Lady of the North) was the wet nurse of King Tabinshwehti, and a native of North Kadu. She died in childbirth. She is portrayed on her knees, right hand on her bosom and left hand on her knee.[8]
   wiki08 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah
   Hla Tha Mein. "Thirty-Seven Nats". Yangonow. Retrieved on 2006-07-03.

Dr. Htin Aung 34. Lady of the North
U Po Kya 34. {mrauk-Bak rhing-ma}

 

 

 

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34. Anauk Mibaya <L

Wikipedia: {a.nauk mi.Bu.ra:} - (Western Queen) was queen of King Minkhaung I of Innwa, daughter of Shan chief Tho Ngan Bwa, and mother of Min Y Kyaw Zwa. She died of a heart attack after being startled by seeing Min Kyaw Zwa (U Min Gyaw) on a magic stallion in a cotton field. She is portrayed with a headdress sitting on a lotus and nursing her baby.[8]
   wiki08 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah
   Hla Tha Mein. "Thirty-Seven Nats". Yangonow. Retrieved on 2006-07-03.

Dr. Htin Aung 26. Queen of the Western Palace
U Po Kya 26. {a.nauk-mi.hpu.ra:}

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35. Shingon R>

Wikipedia: {rhing-koan:} - (Lady Hump Back) was a maid of King Thihathu , and accompanied him to the battlefront. She died on her return to the capital. She is portrayed walking limply with her hands dangling.[8]
   wiki08 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah
   Hla Tha Mein. "Thirty-Seven Nats". Yangonow. Retrieved on 2006-07-03.

Dr. Htin Aung 28. Lady Bent or Lady Hunchback
U Po Kya 28. {rhin-koan:}

 

 

 

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36. Shingwa <L

Wikipedia: {rhn-kwa.} - (Lady Bandy Legs) was the sister of Mandalay Bodaw, and killed together with her brother for hiding the brothers Shwe Hpyin.[7][8]
   wiki07 ^ a b c d e f g h i
   DeCaroli, Robert (2004). Haunting the Buddha: Indian Popular Religions and the Formation of Buddhism.
   Oxford Univ. Press, US. Retrieved on 2008-09-13.
 
   wiki08 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah
   Hla Tha Mein. "Thirty-Seven Nats". Yangonow. Retrieved on 2006-07-03.

Dr. Htin Aung 15. Lady Bandy-Legs
U Po Kya 15. {rhing-kwa.}

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37. Shin Nemi

Wikipedia: {rhing-n:mi.}  - (no description given - one of the last to be identified.)

Dr. Htin Aung 06. Little Lady with the Flute
U Po Kya 06. {ma.n:mi.}
U Po Kya described the image as: standing on lotus-throne-platform, a child figure, {si:pon} on head, belt on waist, bead bangles on both hands which were hanging down.

 

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Original pictures given in download

UKT 170711: reduced to 50% of original size (width 800 pix)

Those on the left page:

 

Those on the right page

 

 


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Author's notes

wiki01 ^ Braun, Kelly (January 15, 2001). "Syncretism in Burma and Thailand". Axis Mundi, University of Alberta. Retrieved on 2008-09-15.

wiki02 ^ a b c Brac de la Perriere, Benedicte. "The Spirit-possession Cult in the Burmese Religion". dhammaweb.net. Retrieved on 2008-09-14.

wiki03 ^ a b c d Spiro, Melford E (1996). Burmese Spiritualism. Transaction Publishers. Retrieved on 2008-09-15. 

wiki04 ^ Dr Sein Tu. "Traditional Myanmar Folk Beliefs and Forest and Wildlife Conservation". Perspective (January 1999). Retrieved on 2008-09-13.

wiki05 ^ a b c Maung Htin Aung (February 1958). "Folk-Elements in Burmese Buddhism". The Atlantic. Retrieved on 2008-09-11.

wiki06 ^ a b Shwe Mann Maung. "The Taung Byone Nat Festival". Perspective (August 1997). Retrieved on 2008-09-11.

wiki07 ^ a b c d e f g h i DeCaroli, Robert (2004). Haunting the Buddha: Indian Popular Religions and the Formation of Buddhism. Oxford University Press, US. Retrieved on 2008-09-13. 

wiki08 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah Hla Tha Mein. "Thirty-Seven Nats". Yangonow. Retrieved on 2006-07-03.

wiki09 ^ a b "Sacred Mount Popa". MRTV3. Retrieved on 2008-09-13.

wiki10 ^ Dr Khin Maung Nyunt. "The Equestrian Festival". myanmars.net. Retrieved on 2008-09-11.

wiki11 ^ Forbes, Andrew (2005). "King Mae Ku: From Lan Na Monarch to Burmese Nat". CPAmedia. Retrieved on 2008-09-12.

wiki12 ^ Barlow, Joel John. "History of Lanna - Burmese Rule and Other Foreign Influence". Chiang Rai Province.com. Retrieved on 2008-09-14.

 

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UKT notes

 

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