Update: 2015-11-01 12:02 PM -0500

TIL

TIL Grammar Glossary

indx-GramGloss.htm

Compiled from various sources by U Kyaw Tun (UKT), M.S. (I.P.S.T., U.S.A.), and staff of TIL (Tun Institute of Learning. Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

index.htm | Top
GramGloss-indx.htm

Contents of this page

A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M
N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z

You should note that Myanmar was and still is a magical land -- the land of the Magi. The Chinese used to fear it and according to one Chinese writer of the 7th century (I still have to check the date), commented that the land had many "astrologers". Of course, Astrology and modern Astronomy are related. Any Burmese-Myanmar astrologer of note would know something of the related science of Alchemy. As a young college student when I started learning Chemistry in 1950, I already had my earful of Astrology and Alchemy. I knew that Alchemy is a very expensive study to follow because of the cost of a very special kind of charcoal used to melt metals at high temperature. I had already come to know some rudiments of the the Runes - {ing:} as is known in Burmese-Myanmar (Burmese spoken language in Myanmar script).

With this background knowledge, I took Chemistry, and from the time I came across the very book the "Skeptical Chemist", Robert Boyle has been one of my heroes. Ever since a child, I was quite skeptical never being satisfied unless I had considered the nature of things, either by observation or experimentation. I remember at the age of 4 or 5, standing on the sea shore, looking at the wave patterns formed in the sand and at the waves coming in, had come to the conclusion that there must be "particles" in water similar to "particles" of the sand. Imagine when I discussed it with my classmates. And when I told my elders, even my father, U Tun Pe (lit. "Father Tun"), who was a very knowledgeable person, failed to grasped what I was saying. I knew my father would have understood, if only I could have described to him fully -- but alas, my childhood vocabulary was limited. - UKT: 091221.

References
UKT Notes
•

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Entries A -- A01.htm
• abbreviation • ablaut • absolute phrase • abstract and concrete • abstract noun • academic question • accent • acrostic • accusative case • acronym • active voice • adjectival • adjectival noun • adjective • adjective clause • adjective phrase • adjunct • adverb • adverb clause • adverbial • adverbial conjunction • adverb phrase • affix • agent • agreement • allegory • allomorph • allophone • alphabet • ambitransitive • analogy • analysis • animate noun • antecedent • antonym • aorist • APA style • apodosis • apostrophe • appeals • apposition • appositive • argument • article • aspect • assertion • assumption • attributive adjective • audience • auxiliary verb
UKT notes:
• English roots • Grammatical aspect • preterit

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Entries B -- B01.htm
• Babu English • balanced sentence • base form • belief • bilingual dictionary • body • bookmark • brainstorming • branching • browser
UKT notes: •

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Entries C -- C01.htm
• CALL • capital letter • cardinal number • case • causative verb • cause-and-effect analysis • CBE style • characters • Chicago style • chronological organization • citation • claim • classification • clause • cliché • climatic organization • clip art • clitic • close pair • clustering • coherence • collaborative learning • collective noun • collocation • colloquial • Columbia style • comma splice (comma fault) • common errors • common noun • comparative • comparison • comparison and contrast • complement • complete predicate • complete subject • complex sentence • compound construction • compound-complex sentence • compound predicate • compound sentence • compound subject • compound verb

Entries C contd. -- C02.htm
• conciseness • conclusion • concord • concordancer • concrete • concrete noun • conditional • conditional perfect • conditional statement • conjugation • conjunct • conjunction • conjunctive adverb (adverbial conjunction) • conjunctive mood • connector (connective) • connotation • consonant • construction • continuous verb • contraction • contranym • contrast • coordinate adjective • coordinating • conjunction • coordination • copula (copula verb) • correlative conjunction (correlative) • count noun • countable noun • courseware • creole • critical thinking, reading, and writing • crossword dictionary • cumulative (loose) sentence
UKT notes:
• c'est la vie • clitic • common errors in English • compound verb • que sera sera • SPQR

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Entries D -- D01.htm
• dangling modifier • dangling participle • data • database • declarative • declension • deductive reasoning • definite article • definition • degree • demonstrative • demonstrative adjective • demonstrative pronoun • denotation • dependent clause • derivational suffix • description • description adjective • descriptive grammar • descriptor • determiner • developing (planning) • diachronic • dialect • diction • dictionary • dictionary form • dictionary types • dictionary of contemporary English • direct address • direct object • direct question • direct quotation (direct discourse) • direct speech • discourse analysis • discussion list • disjunct • disyllabic • ditransitive verb • division • documentation • document • design • domain • double negative • double possessive • double talk (doublespeak) • download • drafting • dyad • dynamic verb
UKT notes: •

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Entries E -- E01.htm
• EAP • editing • EFL • ellipsis • elliptical clause • emoticon • emotional appeal • emphasis • English writing style • ESOL • essay • essential element • ethical appeal • etymological dictionary • etymology • euphemism • evaluation • evidence • expletive • exposition
UKT notes: •

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Entries F -- F01.htm
• fallacies • faulty predication • figurative language (figures of speech) • finite verb • first person • flame • Flesch-Kincaid Index • Fog Index • foil • formal and informal • format • fragment • frame • freewriting • fricative • FTP (file transfer protocol) • function word • fused sentence (run-on sentence) • future continuous • future perfect • future perfect continuous • future perfect tense • future tense
UKT notes: •

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Entries G -- G01.htm
• garden path sentence • gender • general and specific • generalization • generic he • generic noun • genitive case • gerund • gerund phrase • glossary • grammar • grapheme • grounds
UKT notes:
• English -'s endings (Saxon genitive) • General American (Standard Spoken American English) • Genitive case • Genitive is not always possessive

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Entries H -- H01.htm
• head • helping verb (auxiliary verb) • homograph • homonyms • homophone • HTML (hypertext markup language) • hyperbole • hypertext • hyponym • hypothetical question
UKT notes:
• homonym and related terms

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Entries I -- I01.htm
• idiolect • idiom • illustrated dictionary • illustration or support • imagery • imperative • inanimate noun • inchoative verb • indefinite article • indefinite pronoun • independent clause • indicative • indirect object • indirect question • indirect quotation (indirect discourse) • indirect speech • inductive reasoning • infinitive • infinitive marker • infinitive phrase • inflection • inflectional suffix • informal • intensifier • intensive pronoun • interjection • interpretation • interrogative • interrogative adjective • interrogative pronoun • intransitive verb • introduction • invention • inversion • IRC • irony • irregular plural • irregular verb
UKT notes:
• infinitive • inflection • isolating language

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Entries J -- J01.htm
• jargon • journal • journalist's questions
UKT notes: •

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Entries K -- K01.htm
• keyword
UKT notes: •

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Entries L -- L01.htm
• lemma • letter • lexical category or part of speech • Lexical Density Test • lexical word • lexicon • liaison (linguistics) • limerick • linear text • linking verb • listserv • litotes • loan word • logical agreement • logical fallacies • lower case • lurking
UKT notes:
• lemma • liaison (linguistics) • Limerick

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Entries M -- M01.htm
• main clause • main verb • malapropism • mass noun • measure word • mechanics • metaphor • metonymy • mini-dictionary • minimal pair • misplaced modifier • mixed conditionals • mixed construction • mixed metaphor • MLA style • modal • modal verb • modality • modifier • monolingual dictionary • monosyllabic • MOO • mood (mode) • morpheme • MUD
UKT notes: • linguistic modality • measure word (numerical classifiers)

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Entries N -- N01.htm
• narration • narrator • negative • negative pronoun • neologism • netiquette • newsgroup • nominal • nominative case • non-action verb • noncount noun • non-defining relative clause • nonessential element • nonfinite verb • nonrestrictive element • nonstandard • noun • noun as adjective • noun clause • noun phrase • number • numeral 
UKT notes:
• Nominalizers in Burmese • Noun phrase • Unnecessary uses of verb "to Be"

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Entries O -- O01.htm
• object • object complement • objective case • onomatopoeia • opinion • ordinal number • oxymoron
UKT notes: •

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Entries P -- P01.htm
• palindrome • paragraph • parallelism • paraphrase • parataxis • parenthetical citation • parenthetical expression • participial phrase • participle • particle • parts of speech • pasquinade • passive • Passive Index • passive voice • past continuous • past participle • past perfect • past perfect continuous • past perfect tense • past simple • path • patterns of development
• perfect • perfect aspect • perfect tense • periodic sentence • person • personal pronoun • personification • philologist • phone • phoneme • phonetic alphabet • phonetics • phrasal verb • phrase • pidgin • plagiarism • plain case • plain form • planning • plot • plural
UKT notes:
• parataxis • participial phrase • particle • phoneme

Entries P  -- P02.htm
• pocket dictionary • poetry • point of view • polysemy • polysyllabic • portmanteau word • positive degree • possessive • possessive adjective •  possessive case • possessive pronoun • postmodifier
• precedent • predicate • predicate adjective (predicative adjective) • predicate noun (predicate nominative) • prefix • premise • premodifier • preposition • prepositional phrase • prescriptive grammar • present continuous • present participle • present perfect • present perfect continuous • present perfect tense • present simple • present tense • pretentious writing • primary source • principal clause • principle parts • problem-solution organization • process analysis • progressive aspect • progressive tense • pronominal • pronoun • pronoun case • proofreading • proper adjective • proper noun • prose • prosody • protocol • punctuation • purpose
UKT notes:
• Preposition and postposition • Voice communication phonetic alphabet

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Entries Q -- Q01.htm
• quantifier • question • question tag • question types • quotation
UKT notes:

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Entries R -- R01.htm
• rational appeal • Readability Test • Received Pronunciation (RP) • reciprocal pronoun • reflexive pronoun • regional language • regular verb • relative clause • relative pronoun • reported speech • restrictive element • revising • rhetoric • rhetorical question • rhyme • rhyming dictionary • roots • run-on sentence
UKT notes:
• Received Pronunciation (RP)

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Entries S -- S01.htm
• san serif • sandhi • sarcasm • satire • search engine • secondary source • second person • semantics • sentence • sentence fragment • sentence modifier • series • serifs • server • setting • sexist language • signal phrase • simile • simple past • singular • slang • source • spam • spoonerism • spatial organization • split infinitive • squinting modifier • Standard English • stanza • stative verb • subject • subject complement • subjective case (subject case) • subjunctive • subordinate clause • subordinating conjunction • subordination • substantive • suffix • summary • superlative • superordinate • swear word • syllable • syllable division • syllogism • symbolism • synchronic • synchronous communication • synecdoche • synonym • syntactic category • syntax • synthesis • synthetic language
UKT notes:
• sandhi • subjunctive (M. Israel) • subjunctive mood (Niel Coffey) • subjunctive mood (Wikipedia) • syntax

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Entries T -- T01.htm
• tag question (tail question) • TAM (Tense-Aspect-Mood) • tautology • TEFL • telicity • template • tense • TESOL • text • thematic relation • theme • thesaurus • thesis • thesis statement • third person • thread • tone • topic • topic sentence • transitional expression • transitive verb • trite expressions (clichés) • two-word verb
UKT notes:
• grammatical tense • telicity • thematic relation • tone sandhi • transformational grammar • transitive verb

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Entries U -- U01.htm
• uncountable noun • understatement • uniform resource locator (URL) • unity • upload • upper case • utterance
UKT notes: •

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Entries V -- V01.htm
• variety • verb • verb forms • verb group • verb phrase • verb to be • verbal • verbal adjective • verbal noun • verbal phrase • voice • vowel
UKT notes:
• verb to be 

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Entries W -- W01.htm
• warrant • Web forum • wizard • word • word order • writing process • writing situation
UKT notes: •

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Entries X -- X01.htm
•

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Entries Y -- Y01.htm
• Yaska (Sanskrit grammarian)

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Entries Z -- Z01.htm
• zero article  • zero conditional
UKT notes: •

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References

I had failed to note that many internet websites just work for a time, and that the links may no longer work when I need them. After coming to that realization, I have given the last date on which I had accessed each one.

• AHDEL The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth ed., 2000,
http://www.bartleby.com/am/
-- AHTD American Heritage Talking Dictionary, CD ROM, 
www.dictionary.com

• AUE The alt.usage.english newsgroup http://www.alt-usage-english.org/

• Burmese Grammar and Grammatical Analysis (Lonsdale 1899)
by A. W. Lonsdale, Education Department, Burma. British Burma Press, Rangoon, 1899, pp. 459. Photocopy available in TIL library.

• Burmese-Myanmar Sources
¤ Myanmar Orthography (MOrtho),
  U Tun Tint editor, Myanmar Language Commission (MLC), 1986, pp292
  (Note: MLC has been renamed several times.)
¤ Myanmar English Dictionary (MEDict) by MLC, 1993, pp 635
¤ Travelling Pocket Myanmar Dictionary (MMDict ) Burmese-Myanmar to Burmese-Myanmar)  by MLC, 1999, pp 401.
¤ {pa-Li. a.Bi.Daan-hkyoap} (PMDict - Compendium Pali Dictionary), by {lèý-ti-paN~Ði.ta.} U Maung Gyi, Rangoon, 1966, pp.524 - in Burmese-Myanmar
¤ U Tun Tint - editor (retd.), MLC - personal communication.

• Commnet
http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/to_be.htm 080615
Fomerly • WNet http://webster.commnet.edu/grammar/to_be.htm

• DC Dictionary.com www.dictionary.com

• DJPD16
English Pronouncing Dictionary by Daniel Jones. 16th ed. Edited by Peter Roach, James Hartman and Jane Setter. Cambridge University Press, 2003.

• CoG Kenneth G. Wilson (1923–), Columbia Guide to Standard American English, 1993,
www.bartleby.com/68/

• EClub EC.com English Grammar englishclub.com
http://grammar.english.english.com

• Encarta , http://encarta.msn.com/dictionary_1861670287/c%E2%80%99est_la_vie.html

• EnPlus English Plus, Glossary
http://englishplus.com/grammar/glossary.htm

• GGW Guide to Grammar and Writing, Capital Community College, Hartford, Connecticut, © 2002
http://webster.commnet.edu/grammar

• GHWW- Univ.Illinois Grammar Handbook, Writers' Workshop, Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 
www.english.uiuc.edu/cws/wworkshop/grammar/

• HG / HyperGram HyperGrammar, Writing Centre, Univ. of Ottawa 
http://www.uottawa.ca/academic/arts/writcent/hypergrammar/ 080719

• HypTxt
The HyperTextBooks, http://papyr.com/hypertextbooks

• LBH Addison-Wesley-Longman The Little Brown Handbook, 8ed, (AWL-Glossary)
http://occawlonline.pearsoned.com/bookbind/pubbooks/aaronlbh_awl/medialib/
terms/gloss_01.html (UKT: this link is no longer functioning. -- 080602)
UKT: The Little, Brown Handbook by H. Ramsey Fowler and Jane E. Aaron, Univ. of Memphis, 10th ed. is on the market. http://wps.ablongman.com/long_fowler_lbh_10/ . It does not include a glossary of terms. -- UKT 080602

• Linn-Benton Linn-Benton Community College.
http://www.linnbenton.edu/

• UIUC
www.english.uiuc.edu/cws/wworkshop/grammar_handbook.htm

• UseE UsingEnglish.com Glossary of English Grammar Terms
http://www.usingenglish.com/ 080525

• UVic Univ. Victoria English Language Centre, 1999
http://web2.uvcs.uvic.ca/elc/studyzone/410/grammar/advphr.htm 080521
-- UVWG UVic Writer's Guide  http://web.uvic.ca/wguide/Pages/GramSub.html

• Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/

• WN WordNet ® 1.6, © 1997 Princeton University

• WDProj Webster Dictionary, 1913. Mark Olsen, ARTFL Project, mark@gide.uchicago.edu

• WRUD Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary, © 1996, 1998
www.dictionary.com

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UKT notes

 

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U Kyaw Tun

U Kyaw Tun first became an educator as an assistant lecturer in Chemistry in the Department of Chemistry, University of Rangoon in 1955. In that capacity he lectured to the first year Science students at Yankin College campus. The following year saw him lecturing the third year Science students (those taking Chemistry) at the main campus in addition to the first year Science students at Yankin College campus. He served for 33 years in various universities and colleges throughout Myanmar: Rangoon University, Rangoon Institute of Technology, Mandalay University, Bassein College, Workers’ College and Taunggyi College. His last posting from which he retired was Associate Professor and Head of Department of Chemistry, Taunggyi Degree College.
     Though trained as a scientist and engineer, U Kyaw Tun has a keen interest in the culture, history, religion and mythology of various peoples of the world. His knowledge of several languages: Myanmar, English, French, Pali, Swedish and German has helped him in his cultural studies. He has an extensive knowledge of Hindu astrology, specializing the Ashtakavarga system.
     U Kyaw Tun was a part-time columnist writing for the Working Peoples’ Daily in Myanmar and was a member on the editorial board of the North Renfrew Times in Canada. He has given several public lectures in Canada on Buddhism particularly to scientists and engineers, and to non-Buddhists.

End of TIL file