Update: 2011-12-31 05:52 PM +0630

TIL

English Pronunciation Guide: Vowel 

A Phonetic Approach using Myanmar Akshara and the International Phonetic Alphabet in Teaching of English as a Second Language

EPG-vow.htm

by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff, Tun Institute of Learning, http://www.tuninst.net
Based on Pronunciation Guide, Learn to Speak English Part 1: Consonant, the Learning Company, Foreign Language Division - HyperGlot TM, 6493 Kaiser Drive, Fremont, CA 94555.

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EPG-indx.htm

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Your computer must have Arial Unicode font installed to display the IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet) phonetic symbols as well as the graphemes of languages such as Hindi and Sanskrit in Devanagari.

The sound files are from the folder EPGE of the original CD #1 (of the package of 2 CDs). The file name is assumed to stand for English Pronunciation Guide. Since, I could not open the original CDs on my Vista-computers, the following is a reconstruction of my work of 000905.
See Note to myself for audio identification of WAV files. -- UKT 090125

1.01 English alphabet
1.02 Vowel sounds
1.02.0 Rime sounds (from TIL sound-clip collection)
1.02.1 Vowel sounds with "A"
Additions from DJPD16: • letter A • letters AE • letters AEO • letters AI, AY • letters AU, AW
1.02.2 Vowel sounds with "E"
Additions from DJPD16: • letter E • letters EA • letters EE • letters EI • letters EO • letters EOU • letters EU/EW • letters EY
1.02.3 Vowel sounds with "I"
Additions from DJPD16: • letter I • letters IE • letters IEU • letters IO
1.02.4 Vowel sounds with "O"
Additions from DJPD16: • letter O • letters OA • letters OEU • letters OI, OY • letters OO • letters OU • letters OW
1.02.5 Vowel sounds with "U"
Additions from DJPD16: • letter U • letters UE • letters UI • letters UOU • letters UY
1.02.6 Vowel sounds with IPA "schwa"
1.02.07 Sounds with IPA /iː/ and /ɪ/
1.03 Diphthongs 

• Index of Sound .WAV files
¤ File name A - Alphabet
¤ File name C - Combination sounds
¤ File name D - Diphthong
¤ File name L
¤ File name S - Stress
¤ File name V - Vowels

UKT notes
• lateral • rhotic

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1.01. English Alphabet

The Alphabet - the back-bone of a language

The first letter of the alphabet, A <)), is pronounced differently by various native-English speakers. And , a non-native English speaker who had spent sometime with  a particular group usually pick up some noticeable aspect of pronunciation of the host group. Thus, a non-native speaker, say a Burmese speaking Myanmar who had spent sometime in the US can easily be recognized as having some American training by, say, a white English-speaking person from Australia.

Let’s listen to the names of the graphemes (letters) of the alphabet by clicking on each letter.

a  b  c  d  e  f  g  h  i 

j  k  l  m  n  o  p  q  r 

s  t  u  v  w  x  y  z

Remember these are the names and not the sound associated with them. For example, the 10th grapheme "JAY" has the name j but the sound associated with it has the sound of Bur-Myan {ya.} denoted in IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet) as /j/.

The following are confirmed
• A1_1_01 A • A1_1_02 B • A1_1_03 C • A1_1_04 D • A1_1_05 E • A1 1 06 F • A1 1 07 G • A1 1 08 H • A1 1 09 I
• A1_2_01 J • A1_2_02 K • A1_2_03 L • A1_2_04 M • A1 2 05 N • A1 2 06 O • A1 2 07 P • A1 2 08 Q • A1 2 09 R
• A1_3_01 S • A1_3_02 T • A1_3_03 U • A1_3_04 V • A1 3 05 W • A1 3 06 X • A1 3 07 Y • A1 3 08 Z

The Americans pronounce the last grapheme, the 26th, "z", differently from all other English-speaking people including the English from England and English-speaking Canadians.

Remember that the sound represented by a particular grapheme is not always in sync with the name. The sound is given in IPA which is not regular English, e.g., r gives the pronunciation /ɹ/ . The sound in IPA is given within /.../ or [...]. Here /ɹ/ means that the English r is pronounced with very little "rolling" of the tongue. English r is pronounced similar to the way Burmese-Myanmar pronounce {ra.} - not as South Indians do. In fact, Americans pronounce r with more "rolling" sound, and we say that GA (General American) is more rhotic than RP (Received Pronunciation or British pronunciation).

Since, English (as well as most other Europeans) cannot differentiate the sounds of {ka.}, {ta.}, {pa.} from those of {hka.}, {hta.}, {hpa.}, Myanmars have to be careful in pronouncing the English k t p . These three sounds are more similar to {hka.}, {hta.} and {hpa.} than to {ka.} {ta.} and {pa.}. English speakers pronounce k t p as {ka.} {ta.} {pa.} only when preceded by s as in <skin>. In <kin>, k sounds like {hka.}.

One letter of the English alphabet that had given me trouble is the letter "H". A word that begins with an "h" such as "herb" is pronounced with the Burmese-Myanmar-sound {ha.} in Australia, Canada and England, whereas in the U.S. and in certain parts of England it is "pronounced" as an aspirate (pronounced with the initial release of breath). The problem is what to put in as article in front of "H-E-R-B": "SND/A herb" or "SND/An herb". I was corrected to say "SND/An herb" in the U.S. (1957-1959), and then re-corrected in Australia (1975). I now say whatever I like and refused to be corrected and re-corrected by the "native-speakers" again and again. Now, my question is what do you mean by the term "native-speakers"? From which country? Which dialect?

One person of note who made fun of the English pronunciation (particularly "H") was George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950) an Irish-born British writer. Shaw’s comic masterpiece, Pygmalion (1914; many years later popular also as a film and as the basis for the musical comedy My Fair Lady), was claimed by its author to be a didactic play about phonetics; it is, rather, about love and class and the exploitation of one human being by another. (Microsoft® Encarta® 96 Encyclopedia. © 1993-1995 Microsoft Corporation).

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1.02. Vowel Sounds

For a Myanmar, the English vowels are particularly difficult to pronounce. Unless an ethnic Burmese had been born in North America, that person will continue to stand out among other English-speakers as having had some Burmese influence. Even native-English speakers can be distinguished as to their origins by listening to how they pronounce their vowels.

You should remember that trying to pronounce an English word from its spelling is quite futile. For example why do you pronounce P-U-T and B-U-T differently, but spell the rime the same? Before attempting to answer the why, we need to indicate the U's in the two rimes differently. For this, IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet) has two graphemes for the English U: as /ʊ/ and /ʌ/, and denotes PUT as /pʊt/ and BUT as /bʌt/. The trend set by IPA is followed in Romabama where English U is given as u for /ʊ/ and û for /ʌ/.

However, we do not have this problem in regular Burmese-Myanmar orthography because, the sound-equivalent of P-U-T is spelled with a {wa.hswè:} as: {pwat} . Speakers of the Burmese-dialect of the central Myanmar region (particularly those from Mandalay and Yangon), pronounce this word without the {wa.} sound, but those from other regions such as Rakhine and Yaw pronounce it with the {wa.} sound. For a long time my attempts at transcription of the Burmese into English had been unsuccessful because I was paying too much attention to the pronunciation. However sometime in the late 1990's I realized that pronunciation can be arbitrary and that I should stick to spelling (orthography) and so my system, Romabama is NOT transcription but transliteration. My everlasting thanks to Dr. Antony Dubach Green, University of Potsdam, March 2003, http://www.ling.uni-potsdam.de/~green/cv/Burmese.pdf, author of Word, Foot, and Syllable Structure in Burmese , who pointed out to me what Romabama actually was. -- UKT 090514

A Burmese native-born speaker who is used to writing Burmese-Myanmar should always keep in mind the relation between English vowels and their Burmese counterparts. English words tend to become diphthongs in Britain (RP or Received Pronunciation) and the U.S. (GA or General American), whereas in other countries such as Canada, the same word can be pronounced as a monophthong. Also, it is worthwhile to remember that English pronunciation tend to change quite often over time. Even now, there is a strong tendency to drop the H sound from WH sounds and many speakers will pronounce WHAT as "WAT". This has occurred within my lifetime.

Vowels in the vowel space can be represented diagrammatically in various ways. The vowel trapezium given by Daniel Jones is is a simplified and highly modified way of showing the vowel space. There is another way of representation: the rectangle. The rectangle is useful to differentiate the free vowels from the checked vowels. A free vowel is a vowel not followed by a consonant (i.e. zero coda), e.g. /iː/ which is represented in Romabama as {i:}. When this vowel is checked by a coda consonant -- in Burmese-Myanmar by a {wag a.thût}-consonant -- it becomes a checked vowel /ɪ/. Thus, /iː/ {i:} --> /eɪt/ {ait}. However, when the {a.thût} consonant is an {a.wag} the movement toward the centre does not occur.

The tongue plays a unique part in the pronunciation of lateral consonants such as {la.} , {lya.} , {lwa.}, {lha.} , {lhya.} and {lhwa.} . In fact a native-born English speaker can pronounce no further than {la.} and is at a loss to pronounce the Welsh names which uses the {lha.}, and end up spelling them with double L , e.g.

<Llanberis>   /hlænˈber.ɪs , θlæn-/   (US)   /hlæn-/

Because of this inability of the English speakers to pronounce the Burmese names properly, a Miss Pretty becomes Miss Moon:

Ma Hla,  {ma.lha.} --> Ma La, {ma.la.}

If the English person were to pronounce the name with a schwa, it can mean "not pretty" meaning "ugly".

Lip rounding seems to be more important in back vowels compared to front vowels.

UKT note: The original CD 1 of 2 on XP computers will display the lip positions as well as the side-way tongue positions. However, unfortunately, my original CDs are no longer compatible with the Vista computers.

You should pay particular attention to the neutral vowel Schwa /ə/. Schwa is not indicated by any special grapheme in Burmese-Myanmar, but is written only as {a.}. Such a vowel is present in words such as {a.ni} and {a.thût}. These are pronounced without any sound break after {a.}. However, in words such as {a.wag} there is a prominent sound break after {a.}.

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Rime sounds

The problem with Romabama at this stage is to find correspondence between vowels of Burmese-Myanmar IPA vowels as in the case of consonants. I have been trying to solve this problem for many years.

UKT note of 090514: At the present, I am finding that the problem is almost non-resolvable, and I will be trying to find the correspondence between the rimes in IPA and in Romabama. And as the first step, I will be looking at the various rimes themselves . Whenever both RP and GA transcriptions are given by the DJPD16, I have taken the American pronunciation because the sound clips are from American programmes. The following list, prepared from TIL sound collection, is still in the collection process.

UKT note of 090613: I will now concentrate on rimes involving vowel /iː/ and /ɪ/
and their nearest correspondents {i.}, {i}, {i:}, {il}, {ait}, {ain}, {aim}.

 

01. Rimes with free vowels

   /ɝː/ : /wɝː/ <were> - {èr}

   /iː/ : /tiː/ <tea> - {ti:}

   /uː/ : /tuː/ <too> - {tu:}

01-b. Rimes with free diphthongs

UKT: Since English diphthongs are difficult for Burmese speakers to pronounce, they are encouraged to pronounce the English diphthongs as monophthongs, and only when they are familiar with the monophthongal pronunciation are they to proceed to diphthongal pronunciation.

   /aɪ/ : /aɪ/ <eye> - {eih} / {eingl} 

The transcription for <eye> is given as involving killed {ha.}. The reason for this is, because POA for h is not well defined and is well into the interior of the mouth after {ka.} and {nga.}. The transcription is also unsatisfactory because of the lack of a dedicated grapheme for /ŋ/ : English-Latin uses a digraph ng .
   In the second transcription for <eye>, killed {la.} is completely silent: Romabama transcription is not satisfactory in this case also. In the following the killed {la.} is not silent.
   Compare with IPA transcript for
/aɪl/ <aisle>  - {eihl}  

   /aʊ/ : /kaʊ/ <cow> - {kauh}

   /eɪ/ : /ðeɪ/ (they) -

   /oʊ/ : /soʊ/(sew)

   /ɔɪ/ :  /bɔɪ/(boy)

02. Rimes with free vowels followed by approximants

   /iːl/ : /hiːl/ (heel)

Compare with transcripts of:
<hill> /ɪl/ :  /hɪl/ (hill)
<hail> /heɪl/

   /ɑːr/ : /ɑːr.mi/ (army)
   /ɑːl/ : /ɑːl/ (all)

02-b. rimes with free diphthongs followed by approximants:
 

03. Rimes with free vowels followed by fricatives 

   /uːθ/ : /truːθ/ (truth)

   /ɔːf/ : /kɔːf/ (cough)

   /ɑːs/ : /bɑːs/ (boss)

03-b. rimes with free diphthongs followed by fricatives:
 

04. Rimes with free vowels followed by nasals 

   /ɑːn/ : /dɑːn/ (dawn)

04-b. rimes with free diphthongs followed by nasals:

05. Rimes with free vowels followed by plosives

   /iːt/ : /biːt/ (beet)
   /iːp/ : /iːp/ (sheep)

   /uːt/ : /buːt/ (boot)

   /ɑːt/ : /kɑːt/ (caught)
   /ɑːp/ : /ʃɑːp/ (shop)

05-b. rimes with free diphthongs followed by plosives:
 

06. Rimes with checked vowels followed by approximants

   /el/ : /fel/(fell)

   /ɪl/ :  /hɪl/ (hill)

06-b. Rimes with checked diphthongs followed by approximants

   /aɪl/ : /aɪl/(aisle)

   /eɪl/ : /teɪl/(tail)

   /ɔɪl/ : /bɔɪl/(boil)

07. Rimes with checked vowels followed by fricatives

   /es/ : /ges/(guess)

   /ɪs/ : /mɪs/(miss)

07-b. Rimes with checked diphthongs followed by fricatives

   /aʊs/ : /haʊs/(house)

   /ɔɪs/ : /vɔɪs/(voice)

08. Rimes with checked vowels followed by nasals

   /æn/ : /mæn/ (man)
   /æm/ : /hæm/ (ham)

   /en/ : /pen/(pen)
   /em/ : /'kem.ɪ.stri/ (chemistry)

   /ɪŋ/ : /kɪŋ/ (king)
   /ɪn/ : /bɪn/ (been)

   /ʌn/ : /bʌn/(bun)

08-b. Rimes with checked diphthongs followed by nasals

   /aɪm/ : /taɪm/(time)

   /aʊn/ : /braʊn/(brown)

   /eɪn/ : /peɪn/(pain)

   /oʊn/ : /foʊn/(phone)

09. Rimes with checked vowels followed by plosives

The vowel that is checked can be both short /æ/, and long /eɪ/. See DJPD16-001: Pronouncing the letter A.
   The counter parts of these in Burmese-Myanmar exemplified by {dat} and {Daat} are quite unique because {Daat} is the only long vowel that is followed by a killed consonant. (My comment to be checked with my Myanmar peers - UKT090516

   /æk/ : /'æk.sə/(ax)
   /æt/ : /kæt/(cat) ,
   /æp/ : /kæp/(cap)
   /æf/ : /læf/(laugh) - Brit pronunciation is quite different

   /ek/ : /ʧek/(check)
   /et/ : /wet/(wet)

   /ɪk/ :  /ʧɪk/(chick)
   /ɪt/ :  /ɪt/(it)
   /ɪp/ :  /lɪp/(lip)

   /ʌk/ : /dʌk/(duck)
   /ʌt/ : /kʌt/(cut)
   /ʌp/ : /kʌp/(cup)

   /ʊk/ :  /bʊk/(book)
   /ʊd/ : /kʊd/(could)

09-b. Rimes with checked diphthongs followed by plosives

   /aɪt/ : /braɪt/(bright)

   /eɪk/ :  /teɪk/(take)
   /eɪt/ :  /weɪt/(wait)
   /eɪp/ : /teɪp/(tape)

 

Contents of this page

1.02.1 Vowel Sounds with "A"

In the following list, you will find that though a certain word does not have a particular vowel in its spelling, it still have the sound of that vowel.

Original program: Click on Ae

A as in "cat" - [UKT: GA (General American) open front vowel]

cat - /kæt/ --> {kakt} -->
sat - /sæt/ --> {sakt}/{hsakt}
sad - /sæd/ --> {sakd}/{hsakd}
bag - /bæg/ --> {bakg}

UKT: The above group should be compared to
cap - /kæp/ --> {kakp}

man - /mæn/ --> {man}
pan - /pæn/ --> {pan}/{hpan}

UKT: The above group should be compared to
ham - /hæm/

ax - /'æk.sə/ --> {aks} --> [UKT: Myanmar transcription is not satisfactory because of the lack of dedicated akshara or diacritic for schwa /ə/ ]
laugh - /lɑːf/ (US) /læf/  / [UKT: Myanmar transcription is not satisfactory because of the lack of dedicated akshara for /f/ ]

UKT: On many occasions (since I was in my early teens} I have attempted to transcribe English-Latin into Burmese-Myanmar. The above is one of my attempts. The result is unsatisfactory because of the changing nature of the inherent vowel of the akshara. No wonder the Ancients did not give a dedicated grapheme for it. However, the Ancients would not accept my view on the changing nature of the akshara: to them the akshara is immutable. It clearly shows that I am still not competent enough to comment on the nature of the akshara ! I feel small indeed in front of the great Pāṇini (Devanāgarī: पाणिनि, Myanmar: {pa-Ni.ni.), the Indian "grammarian/phonetician" from Gandhara (traditionally 520–460 BC, but estimates range from the 7th to 4th centuries BC).  -- 090224

vowel /æ/

The following are confirmed
• V1_1_01 cat • V1_1_02 sat • V1_1_03 sad • V1_1_04 bag • V1_1_05 man
• V1_1_06 pan • V1_1_07 ax • V1_1_08 laugh • V1_1_09 /æ/

A as in "SND/All" - [UKT: GA open unrounded back vowel]

all - /ɔːl/ (US) /ɑːl/
cough - /kɒf/ (US) /kɔːf/
boss - /bɒs/ (US) /bɑːs/
caught - /kɔːt/ (US) /kɑːt/

dawn - /dɔːn/ (US) /dɑːn/

vowel /ɔ/ ?

The following are to be confirmed
• V1_2_01 all • V1_2_02 cough • V1_2_03 loss • V1_2_04 caught
• V1_2_05 dawn • V1_2_06 aw?

A as in "SND/Army"

army - /ˡɑː.mi/ (US) /ˡɑːr-/
father - /ˡfɑː.ðəʳ/ (US) /ˡðɚ/
star - /stɑːʳ / (US) /staːr/
shop - /ʃɒp/ (US) /ʃɑːp/

college /ʹkɒl.ɪʤ/ (US) /ʹkɑː.lɪʤ/

vowel /ɑ/ - long a ?

The following are to be confirmed
• V1_3_01 army • V1_3_02 father • V1_3_03 star • V1_3_04 shop
• V1_3_05 college • V1_3_06 ar?

 

Contents of this page

letter A

From: DJPD16-001

p1. The vowel letter [a] has two main strong pronunciations linked to spelling: a 'short' pronunciation /æ/ (U00E6) and a 'long' pronunciation /eɪ/ (U0065 U026A). In the 'short' pronunciation, the [a] is usually followed by a consonant which closes the syllable, or a double consonant before another vowel, e.g.:

<tap>  /tæp/
<tapping>  /ˈtæp.ɪŋ/

UKT: 080208
'Short' [a] seems to be the vowel best suited to stand in for the inherent vowel of the Burmese-Myanmar abugida. Thus, <tap> can be transcribed in Romabama as {tap}.
   However, in the transliteration of , if we are to write {tap} using the same <a>, we get into serious pronunciation problem. Using <u> (see pronunciation of letter <u>) as in regular English words is no solution, unless we differentiate the two possible pronunciations of <u>. If Romabama had used Unicode, we could use /ʌ/ (as in <but> /bʌt/), and /ʊ/ (as in <put> /pʊt/). One possible solution is to substitute Unicode /ʌ/ with ASCII {û} and /ʊ/ with {u} (the regular English <u>. Thus, the transliteration for: {tûp}. On the other hand we can use <a> for transliterations of syllables like {tak}.
   Using {û} for /ʌ/, also solves the problem of transliteration of {tût}.

The 'long' pronunciation usually means the [a] is followed by a single consonant and then a vowel, e.g.:

<tape>  /teɪp/
<taping>  /ˈteɪ.pɪŋ/

When there is an [r] in the spelling, the strong pronunciation is one of three possibilities: /ɑː (US) ɑːr/ , /eə (US) er/ or /æ (US) e, æ/ , e.g.:

<car>  /kɑːʳ/  (US)  /kɑːr/
<care>  /keəʳ/  (US)  /ker/
<carry>  /kær.i/  (US)  /ker.i, kær.i/

In addition

There are other vowel sounds associated with the letter [a], e.g.:

/ɑː/ 
  <father>  /ˈfɑː.ðəʳ/  (US)  /ˈfɑː.ðɚ/
/ɑː (US) æ/ 
  <bath>  /bɑːθ/  (US)  /bæθ/
/ɒ (US) ɑː/ 
  <swan>  /swɒn/  (US)  /swɑːn/
/ɔː (US) ɑː, ɔː/ 
  <walk>  /wɔːk/  (US)  /wɑːk/
  <warm>  /wɔːm/  (US)  /wɔːrm/

And, in rare case:

/e/  <many>  /ˈmen.i/

In weak syllables

The vowel letter [a] is realised with the vowels /ə/ and /ɪ/ in weak syllables, and may also not be pronounced at all in British English, due to compression, e.g.:

<above>  /əˈbʌv/
<village>  /ˈvɪl.ɪʤ/
<necessary>  /ˈnes.ə.sri/  (US)  /-ser.i/

Contents of this page

letters AE

From DJPD19-009

UKT: It is interesting to note that this two-letter combination is referred to  as diagraph -- not diphthong. You will see this usage in most of the cases which I take it to be DJPD16's indication that they can be either monophthong or diphthong. -- 080207

p9. The vowel digraph [ae] is a fairly low-frequency spelling. In some cases, the American spelling of words containing [ae] omits the [a], e.g. in <aesthetic>, which is spelt in American English as <esthetic> .

The pronunciation of the digraph in strong syllables depends on whether or not it is followed by an [r] in the spelling. If so, the pronunciation is /eə (US) er/, e.g.:

<aeroplane>  /ˈeə.rə.pleɪn/  (US)  /ˈer.ə-/

When not followed by [r], the pronunciation is most usually one of /iː/ , /ɪ/ or /e/, the latter being most common in American English pronunciation, e.g.:

<Caesar>  /ˈsiːzəʳ/  (US)  /-zɚ/
<aesthetic>  /iːsˈθet.ɪk, ɪs-/  (US)  /esˈθet̬-/

UKT: Note that <seizure> /'siːʒəʳ/ and <Caesar> /ˈsiːzəʳ/ are pronounced with /iː/.

In addition

Other vowel sounds associated with the digraph [ae] include /æ/, for Old English names, e.g.:

<Aethelstan>  /ˈæθ.əl.stɔn/

In weak syllables

The vowel digraph is realised with the vowels /ə/ and /ɪ/ in weak syllables, e.g.:

<gynaecology>  /ˌgaɪ.nəˈkɒl.ə.ʤi , -nɪˈ/  (US)  /-ˈkɑː.lə-/

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letters AEO

From: DJPD16-010

p10. The vowel letter combination [aeo] is low frequency, and is often spelt [eo] in American English. It has two pronunciations associated with it.

/iˈɒ ((US)) iˈɑː/  <archaeology>  /ˌɑː.kiˈɒl.ə.ʤi/  (US)  /ˌɑːr.kiˈɑː.lə-/
/iəʊ ((US)) ioʊ, iə/  <palaeotype>  /'pæl.əʊ.taɪp/ (US) /'peɪ.li.oʊ-, -ɚ-/

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letters AI, AY

From: DJPD16-014

UKT: It is interesting to note that this two-letter combination is referred to  as diagraph -- not diphthong. You will see this usage in most of the cases which I take it to be DJPD16's indication that they can be either monophthong or diphthong. -- 080207

p14. The vowel letter digraphs [ai] and [ay] are similar in that their most common pronunciation is /eɪ/, e.g.:

<day>  /deɪ/
<daily>  /ˈdeɪ.li/

However, in days of the week, [ay] is also frequently pronounced /i/, e.g.:

<Monday>  /ˈmʌn.di/

When followed by an [r] in the spelling, [ai] and [ay] are pronounced as /eə, ((US)) er/ , e.g.:

<air> /eəʳ/  (US)  /er/
<Ayr>  /eəʳ/  (US)  /er/

UKT: Note that <air> and <Ayr> are pronounced exactly alike in British English, and also exactly alike in US English.

In addition

There are other vowel sounds associated with the digraphs [ai] and [ay], e.g.:

/e/  <said, says>  /sed, sez/
/æ/  <plait> /plæt/
/aɪ/  <aisle>  /aɪl/

And, in rare cases:

/eɪ.ɪ/  <archaic>  /ɑːˈkeɪ.ɪk/  (US)  /ɑːr-/

In weak syllables

The vowel digraphs [ai] and [ay] are realised with the vowels /ɪ/ and /i/ in weak syllables respectively, and [ai] may also result in a schwa vowel or a syllabic consonant, e.g.:

<bargain>  /ˈbɑː.gɪn/  (US)  /ˈbɑːr-/
<Murray>  /ˈmʌr.i/  (US)  /ˈmɝː-/
<Britain>  /ˈbrɪt.ən/

Contents of this page

letters AU, AW

From: DJPD16-041

UKT: Since <w> is consonant, its equivalent in Burmese-Myanmar {wa.} is a killed consonant in the rime <aw>. See Pronunciation <w>.

p41. The vowel letter combinations <au> and <aw> are similar in that their most common pronunciation is /ɔː (US) ɑː/ , e.g.:

<sauce>  /sɔːs/  (US)  /sɑːs/
<saw>  /sɔː/  (US)  /sɑː/

However, there is more variation in the case of [au].  When followed by [gh] in the spelling realised as /f/ , it is pronounced as /ɑː ((US)) æ/ , e.g.:

<laugh>  /lɑːf/  (US)  /læf/

The combination [au] may also be produced as /ɒ ((US)) ɑː/ , e.g.:

<Australia>  /ɒsˈtreɪ.li.ə/  (US)  /ɑːˈstreɪ-/
<because>  /bɪˈkɒz/  (US)  /-ˈkɑːz/

In addition
Other sounds associated with the combinations au are:

/əʊ   (US)  oʊ/  <chauffeur>  /ˈʃəʊ.fəʳ/  (US)  /ʃoʊˈfɝː/

And, in rare cases:

/eɪ/  <gauge>  /geɪdʒ/

In weak syllables
The vowel combinations [au] and [aw] are realised with the vowel /ə/ in weak syllables, and [au] may also result in a syllabic consonant or an elided vowel, e.g. :

<awry>  /əˈraɪ/
<restaurant>  /ˈres.tər.ɔ̃ːŋ ,  ˈ-trɔ̃ːŋ/   (US)  /-tə.rɑːnt,  ˈ-trɑːnt/

Contents of this page

1.02.2 Vowel Sounds with "E"

Original program: Click on Ee

E as in "me"

• UKT: The vowel /iː/ is perhaps the easiest to identify in any language. It is the most closed and the most front. It is one of the three vowels used in vowel-triangles for comparison of languages.

In Burmese-Myanmar it is equivalent to {i:}. Burmese-Myanmar is no longer identified as a tonal language. It is now recognized as a pitch-register language with 3 registers. Here we are comparing it with English-Latin (and eventually with Pali-Latin) which have two "registers" - the "short" and the "long" .

When this vowel is "checked" by a killed {wag}-consonant, it moves slightly towards the centre when it is denoted by /ɪ/. Remember that {a.wag}-consonants (sometimes called "semi-vowels" by Pali scholars) do not check the vowel /iː/, and we do not pronounce it in regular Burmese. However, in English-derived transcriptions, it is required to pronounce it.

me - /miː/ {mi:}
tea - /tiː/ {ti:}
heel - /hiːl/ {hi:l}
sheep - /ʃiːp/ {rhi:p}
beet - /biːt/ {bi:t}

beat - /biːt/
people - /ˈpiː.pḷ/
leave - /liːv/
pea - /piː/

vowel /i:/

The following are to be confirmed
• V1_4_01 me • V1_4_02 tea • V1_4_03 teal • V1_4_04 sheep • V1_4_05 beat
• V1_4_06 beet • V1_4_07 people • V1_4_08 leave • V1_4_09 pea • V1_4_10 e?

E as in "end"

end - /end/
bell - /bel/
pen - /pen/
check - /tʃek/

UKT: pen - /pen/ should be compared to the stressed syllable of chemistry - /'kem.ɪ.stri/ , and employ - / .

rest - /rest/
fell - /fel/
any - /ˡen.i/
guess - /ges/

vowel /ɪŋ/ {ing} - I am waiting for comments from my Burmese-Myanmar peers -- UKT 090204

The following are to be confirmed
• V1_5_01 end • V1_5_02 bell • V1_5_03 can • V1_5_04 check
• V1_5_05 rest • V1_5_06 fell • V1_5_07 any • V1_5_08 guess • V1_5_09 in?

E as in "they"

they - /ðeɪ/
pain - /peɪn/
wait - /weɪt/
tail - /teɪl/

taste - /teɪst/
paper - /ˡpeɪ.pəʳ/ (US) /-ɚ/

vowel /eɪ/

The following are to be confirmed
• V1_6_01 they • V1_6_02 pain • V1_6_03 wait • V1_6_04 tail
• V1_6_05 taste • V1_6_06 paper • V1_6_07 air?

Contents of this page

letter E

From: DJPD16-168

UKT: The letter <e> at the end of word frequently has no pronunciation at all. It is then called Silent E. Children are taught that it is also the Magic E, because adding it to a word at the end can change the word like <tap> instantly into <tape>.

p168. The vowel letter [e] has two main strong pronunciations linked to spelling: a 'short' pronunciation /e/ and a 'long' pronunciation /iː/. However, the situation is not clear cut and other pronunciations are available.

The 'short' pronunciation always occurs when the [e] is followed by a consonant which closes the syllable, or a double consonant before another vowel, e.g.:

<bed>  /bed/
<bedding>  /ˈbed.ɪŋ/

UKT: Leaving aside the double letters such as <dd>, if we concentrate on the single end consonant, we notice that it has an effect on the preceding vowel. For example, a nasal consonant has an effect differently than that of a non-nasal, especially on voice quality. Thus:
• nasal ending: <ben>  /ben/ - can have three tones, very short, short, and long
• non-nasal: <bed> /bed/ - can have only one tone

The 'long' pronunciation is usually found when the [e] is followed by a single consonant and then a vowel, e.g.:

<Eve>  /iːv/
<credence>  /ˈkriːdənʦ/

However, the 'short' pronunciation occurs in many cases where the [e] is followed by a single consonant and then a vowel, e.g.:

<ever>  /ˈev.əʳ/  (US)  /-ɚ/
<prejudice>  /ˈpreʤ.ə.dɪs/

The 'long' pronunciation may also occur where the [e] is followed by two consonants, e.g.:

<negro>  /ˈniːgrəʊ/  (US)  /-roʊ/
<secret>  /ˈsiːkrət/

When there is an [r] in the spelling, the strong pronunciation is one of four possibilities:
/ɪə (US) ɪr/,
/eə (US) er/ ,
/ɜː (US) ɝː/ or
/e/, e.g.:

<here>  /hɪəʳ/  (US)  /hɪr/
<there>  /ðeəʳ/  (US)  /ðer/
<were>  /wɜːʳ/  (US)  /wɝː/
<very>  /ˈver.i/

It frequently happens that the letter [e] has no pronunciation at all, but is used as a spelling convention to show that a preceding vowel is realised with its 'long' pronunciation, e.g.:

<brave>  /breɪv/
<mice>  /maɪs/
<hope>  /həʊp/  (US)  /hoʊp/
<use> (v.)  /juːz/

In addition

There are other vowel sounds associated with the letter [e], e.g.:

/eɪ/  <ballet>  /ˈbæl.eɪ/  (US)  /bælˈeɪ/

And, in rare cases:

/ɑː/ (US) /ɚː/ 
  <clerk>  /klɑːk/  (US)  /klɝːk/
/ɪ/
  <women>  /ˈwɪm.ɪn/

UKT: Compare the pronunciation of <women> with:

  <woman>  /ˆwʊm.ən/

In weak syllables

The vowel letter [e] is realised with the vowels /ɪ/, /i/ and /ə/ in weak syllables, or may also not be pronounced at all due to syllabic consonant formation or compression, e.g.:

<begin>  /bɪˈgɪn/
<react>  /riˈækt/
<arithmetic>  /əˈrɪθ.mə.tɪk/
<castle>  /ˈkɑː.sļ/  (US)  /ˈkæs.ļ/

UKT: The word <castle> has an "l" with a diacritical mark to show that it is a syllabic consonant -- See l cedilla.

Contents of this page

letters EA

From: DJPD16-169

UKT: It is interesting to note that this two-letter combination is referred to  as diagraph -- not diphthong. You will see this usage in most of the cases which I take it to be DJPD16's indication that they can be either monophthong or diphthong. -- 080207

p169. The vowel digraph [ea] has two main strong pronunciations linked to spelling: a 'short' pronunciation /e/ and a 'long' pronunciation /iː/. However, it is not normally predictable which one will occur, e.g.:

<bread>  /bred/
<bead>  /biːd/
<cleanse>  /klenz/
<clean>  /kliːn/

When the digraph is followed by an [r] in the spelling, the strong pronunciation is one of four possibilities:
/ɪə (US) ɪr/,
/eə (US) er/,
/ɜː (US) ɝː/ or
/ɑː (US) ɑːr/, e.g.:

<fear> (n.)  /fɪəʳ/  (US)  /fɪr/
<tear> (v.)  /teəʳ/  (US)  /ter/
<pearl>  /pɜːl/  (US)  /pɝːl/
<heart>  /hɑːt/  (US)  /hɑːrt/

In addition

There are other vowel sounds associated with the digraph [ea], e.g.:

/ɪə/  <idea>  /aɪˈdɪə/
/i.ə/  <area>  /ˈeə.ri.ə/  (US)  /ˈer.i-/
/eɪ/  <great>  /greɪt/
/i.æ/  <theatrical>  /θiˈæt.rɪ.kəl/
/i.eɪ/  <create>  /kriˈeɪt/

In addition, there are instances when the two letters [e] and [a] come together in closed compounds, e.g.:

<whereas>  /hweəˈræz/  (US)  /hwerˈæz/
<hereafter>  /hɪərˈɑːf.təʳ/  (US)  /hɪrˈæf.tɚ/

In weak syllables

The vowel diagraph [ea] is realised with the vowels /i/ and /ə/ in weak syllables and may result in a syllabic consonant, e.g.:

<guinea>  /ˈgɪn.i/
<ocean>  /ˈəʊ.ʃən/  (US)  /ˈoʊ-/

UKT: Words with the vowel diagraph [ea] in word-initial position is of importance in transliteration of Myanmar syllables and words. The following are what I have found in various pages of DJPD16

<ear>  /ɪəʳ/  (US)  /ɪr/
<earl>  /ɜːl/  (US)  /ɝːl/
<earth> (n)  /ɜːθ/  (US)  /ɝːθ/
<eat>  /iːt/

Contents of this page

letters EE

From: DJPD16-172

UKT: It is interesting to note that this two-letter combination is referred to  as diagraph -- not diphthong. You will see this usage in most of the cases which I take it to be DJPD16's indication that they can be either monophthong or diphthong. -- 080207

p172. The most common pronunciation for the vowel digraph ee is /iː/

<bee>  /biː/

When followed by an [r] in the spelling, [ee] is pronounced as either /ɪə (US) ɪr/ or /iː.ə (US) iː.ɚ/, e.g.:

<steer>  /stɪəʳ/  (US)  /stɪr/
<freer> (comparative adj.)  /ˈfriːəʳ/  (US)  /-ɚ/

UKT: Compare the pronunciation of <steer> with:

<stearin>  /ˈstɪə.rɪn/  (US)  /ˈstiː.ɚ.ɪnː ; ˈstɪr-/
<stir>  /stɜːʳ/  (US)  /stɝː/

In addition

There are other vowel sounds associated with the diagraph [ee], e.g.:

/eɪ/  <fiancée>  /fiˈɑ̃ːn.seɪ/  (US)  /fiˈɑːn.seɪ/
/iː.ɪst/  <freest> (superlative adj.)  /ˈfriːɪst/

In weak syllables

The vowel digraph [ee] is realised with the vowel sound /i/ in weak syllables, e.g.:

<coffee>  /ˈkɒf.i/  (US)  /ˈkɑː.fi/

Contents of this page

letters EI

From: DJPD16-173

UKT: It is interesting to note that this two-letter combination is referred to  as diagraph -- not diphthong. You will see this usage in most of the cases which I take it to be DJPD16's indication that they can be either monophthong or diphthong. -- 080207

p173. There are several pronunciation possibilities for the vowel diagraph [ei]. One is /iː/ when following a [c]; this is immortalised in the spelling rhyme "I before E except after C, but only if the sound is /iː/", e.g.:

<receive>  /rɪˈsiːv/

When followed by a silent [gh] in the spelling, it is usually pronounced as /eɪ/ but may be pronounced /aɪ/, e.g.:

<eight>  /eɪt/
<height>  /haɪt/

The pronunciation /aɪ/ also occurs in two words which do not include [gh], but only in British English, e.g.:

<either>  /ˈaɪ.ðəʳ/  (US)  /ˈiːðɚ/
<neither>  /ˈnaɪ.ðəʳ/  (US)  /ˈniːðɚ/

When followed by an r in the spelling, [ei] is pronounced as /eə ((US)) er/ and /ɪə ((US)) ɪr/, e.g.:

<their>  /ðeəʳ/  (US)  /ðer/
<weir>  /wɪəʳ/  (US)  /wɪr/

In addition

Other vowel sounds are associated with the digraph [ei], e.g.:

/e/  <Leicester>  /ˈles.təʳ/  (US)  /-tɚ/
/eɪ/  <rein>  /reɪn/

UKT:
Compare the pronunciation of <rein> with:
<reign>  /reɪn/
<rain>  /reɪn/

UKT: <rein>, <reign> and <rain> are homophones (sometimes mistakenly called homonyms) in British English. See Homonym

In weak syllables

The vowel digraph [ei] is realized with the vowel /ɪ/ in weak syllables, e.g.:

<foreign>  /ˈfɒr.ɪn/  (US)  /ˈfɔːr-/

Contents of this page

letters EO

From: DJPD16-182

UKT: It is interesting to note that this two-letter combination is referred to  as diagraph -- not diphthong. You will see this usage in most of the cases which I take it to be DJPD16's indication that they can be either monophthong or diphthong. -- 080207

p182. There are several pronunciation possibilities for the vowel diagraph [eo], e.g.:

/iː/  <people>  /ˈpiː.pļ/
/e/  <leopard>  /ˈlep.əd/  (US)  /-ɚd/
/i.ə/  <chameleon>  /kəˈmiː.ki.ən/

UKT: The word <people> has an "l" with a diacritical mark to show that it is a syllabic consonant -- See l cedilla.

When followed by an [r] in the spelling, [eo] is pronounced as /ɔː (US) ɔːr/ and /ɪə (US) ɪr/, e.g.:

<George>  /ʤɔːʤ/  (US)  /ʤɔːrʤ/
<theory>  /ˈθɪə.ri/  (US)  /ˈθɪr.i/

Where [geo-] is a prefix, there are several possible realisations, e.g.:

/i.ɒ (US) i.ɑː/
  <geography>  /ʤiˈɒg.rə.fi/  (US)  /-ˈɑː.grə-/
  <geothermal>  /ˌʤiː.əʊˈθɜː.məl/  (US)  /-oʊˈθɝː-/

(In <geography>, the prefix may also be pronounced as /ˈʤɒg-/ in British English.)

In addition

There are instances when the two letters [e] and [o] come together in closed compounds, e.g.:

<thereof>  /ðeəˈrɒv/  (US)  /ðerˈɑːv/
<whereon>  /hweəˈrɒn/  (US)  /hwerˈɑːn/

In weak syllables

The vowel digraph [eo] is realised with the vowel /ə/ in weak syllables, e.g.:

<pigeon>  /ˈpɪʤ.ən/
<luncheon>  /ˈlʌnʧ.ən/

Contents of this page

letters EOU

From: DJPD16-182

p182. The vowel letter combination [eou] has two possible pronunciations. After [c] or [g] the pronunciation is /ə/, e.g.:

<cretaceous>  /krɪˈteɪ.ʃəs/
<gorgeous>  /ˈgɔː.ʤəs/  (US)  /ˈgɔːr-/

After other letters, the pronunciation is /i.ə/, e.g.:

<spontaneous>  /spɒnˈteɪ.ni.əs/  (US)  /spɑːn-/

Contents of this page

letters EU/EW

From: DJPD16-187

UKT: It is interesting to note that this two-letter combination is referred to  as diagraph -- not diphthong. You will see this usage in most of the cases which I take it to be DJPD16's indication that they can be either monophthong or diphthong. -- 080207

p187. The vowel digraphs [eu] and [ew] are similar in that their most common pronunciation is one of /juː/ or /uː/, e.g.:

<feud>  /fjuːd/
<flew>  /fluː/

Many words in British English which have /juː/ are pronounced without the /j/ in American English, e.g.:

<news>  /njuːz/  (US)  /nuːz/

UKT: Words of interest for transliteration of Burmese-Myanmar:

<ewe>  /juː/
<ewer>  /juː.əʳ , jʊəʳ/  (US)  /juː.ɚ/
<you> (strong form)  /juː/

When the digraph [eu] is followed by an [r] in the spelling, the strong pronunciation is usually /jʊə (US) jʊr/, although words borrowed from French may have /ɜː (US) ɝː/ in stressed syllables, and /əʳ (US) ɚ/ in unstressed syllables, e.g.:

<European> /ˌjʊə.rəˈpiː.ən/  (US)  /ˌjʊr.ə-/
<connoisseur>  /ˌkɒn.əˈsɜːʳ/  (US)  /ˌkɑː.nəˈsɝː/
<amateur>  /ˈæm.ə.təʳ/  (US)  /-ʧɚ/

In addition

Other sounds associated with the digraphs [eu] and [ew] are as follows:

/əʊ (US) oʊ/  <sew>  /səʊ/  (US)  /soʊ/
/i.ə/  <museum>  /mjuːˈzi.əm/
/ɔɪ/  <schadenfreude>  /ˈʃɑː.dənˌfrɔɪ.də/

/ɜː (US) ɜː, uː/  <masseuse>  /mæsˈɜːz/  (US) /məˈsɜːz, -suːz/

In words borrowed from German, [eu] is pronounced /ɔɪ/, e.g.:

/ɔɪ/  <schadenfreude>  /ˈʃɑː.dənˌfrɔɪ.də/

Contents of this page

letters EY

From: DJPD16-194

UKT: It is interesting to note that this two-letter combination is referred to  as diagraph -- not diphthong. You will see this usage in most of the cases which I take it to be DJPD16's indication that they can be either monophthong or diphthong. -- 080207

p194. The most common position for the vowel digraph [ey] is in word final position in an unstressed syllable.

In weak syllables the vowel digraph [ey] is realised with the vowel /i/, e.g.:

<donkey>  /ˈdɒŋ.ki/  (US)  /ˈdɑːŋ-/
<Surrey>  /ˈsʌr.i/  (US)  /ˈsɝː-/

UKT: Words of interest in transliteration of Burmese-Myanmar:

<eye> (noun, verb)  /aɪ/
<I> (personal pronoun) /aɪ/

However, there are several pronunciation possibilities for the digraph in stressed syllables, e.g.:

/eɪ/  <they>  /ðeɪ/
/iː/  <key>  /kiː/
/aɪ/  <geyser>  /ˈgiː.zəʳ, ˈgaɪ-/  (US)  /-zɚ/

Contents of this page

1.02.3 Vowel Sounds with "I"

Original program: Click on Ii

it - /ɪt/
hill - /hɪl/
sit - /sɪt/
chick - /ʧɪk/

fill - /fɪl/
build - /bɪld/
been - /biːn, bɪn/ (US) /bɪn/

vowel /ɪ/

UKT: note that /ɪ/ is a checked vowel and must always be followed by a consonant (a {wag}-consonant), whereas /i/ is a free vowel. For transliteration of these two vowels, I will tentatively take:
/i/ - {i} or {i:}
/il/ - {il} [Note: {la.} belongs to {a.wag} and the killed {a.wag} does not change the vowel,
   e.g. {bo-l} pronounced in Burmese as /{bo}/.
/ɪt/ - {ít} . I have considered representing as {hkít} which would have some semblance to IPA, or to use {hkeat}.
However the combination <ea> is deemed objectionable because it can be pronounced in two ways.

The following are to be confirmed
• V1_7_01 it • V1_7_02 hill • V1_7_03 sit • V1_7_04 chick
• V1_7_05 fill • V1_7_06 build • V1_7_07 been • V1_7_08 /ɪ/

Contents of this page

letter I

From DJPD16-265

p265. The vowel letter [i] has two main strong pronunciations linked to spelling: a 'short' pronunciation /ɪ/, and a 'long' pronunciation /aɪ/. In the 'short' pronunciation, the [i] is generally followed by a consonant which closes the syllable, or a double consonant before another vowel, e.g.

<ship>  /ʃɪp/
<shipping>  /ˈʃɪp.ɪŋ/

The 'long' pronunciation is usually found when the i is followed by a single consonant and then a vowel, although it should be noted that this spelling spelling does not regularly predict a 'long' pronunciation, e.g.:

<pipe>  /paɪp/
<piping>  /ˈpaɪ.pɪŋ/

In many cases, the 'short' pronunciation results from the above kind of spelling, e.g.:

<give>  /gɪv/
<living>  /ˈlɪv.ɪŋ/

Also, the 'long' pronunciation appears in some words where the vowel is followed by two consonants, e.g.:

<mind>  /maɪnd/
<wild>  /waɪld/

Preceding the letters gh, i is pronounced /aɪ/, except in some names such as <Brigham> and <Brighouse> e.g.:

<high>  /haɪ/
<light>  /laɪt/
<Brigham>  /ˈbrig.əm/

When [i] is followed by [r], the strong pronunciation is one of two possibilities: /aɪə (US) aɪɚ/ or /ɜː (US) ɝː/. E.g., in:

<fire>  /faɪəʳ/  (US)  /faɪɚ/
<fir>  /fɜːʳ/  (US)  /fɝː/

Another vowel sound associated with the letter i is /iː/, e.g.:

/iː/  <machine>  /məˈʃiːn/

In weak syllables

The vowel letter i is realized with the vowels /ɪ/ and /ə/ in weak syllables, and may also be elided in British English, e.g.:

<divide>  /dɪˈvaɪd, də-/
<medicine>  /ˈmed.sən/  (US)  /ˈ-ɪ.sən/

Contents of this page

letters IE

From DJPD16-267

UKT: It is interesting to note that this two-letter combination is referred to  as diagraph -- not diphthong. You will see this usage in most of the cases which I take it to be DJPD16's indication that they can be either monophthong or diphthong. -- 080207

p267. There are several pronunciation possibilities for the vowel digraph ie. One of the most common is /iː/ :

<achieve>  /əˈʧiːv/
<piece>  /piːs/

Another common pronunciation is /aɪ/, e.g.:

<pie>  /paɪ/
<magnifies>  /ˈmæg.nɪ.faɪz/

When followed by an [r] in the spelling, [ie] is pronounced as /ɪə (US) ɪr/, e.g.:

<pier>  /pɪəʳ/  (US)  /pɪr/
<fierce>  /fɪəs/  (US)  /fɪrs/

In addition

Other vowel sounds are associated with the digraph ie, e.g.:

/ɪ/   <handkerchief>  /hæŋ.kə.ʧɪf/  (US)  /-kɚ-/
/aɪə/  <diet>  /daɪət/
/e/  <friend>  /frend/
/i.e/  <conscientious>  /ˌkɒn.tʃiˈen.tʃəs/  (US)  /ˌkɑːn.tʃiˈent.ʃəs/
/i.iː/  <medieval/  /ˌmed.iˈiːvəl/  (US)  /ˌmiː.dɪˈ-/

In weak syllables

The vowel digraph ie is realised with the vowel /ə/ in weak syllables, or can cause the following consonant to be realised as syllabic, e.g.:

<patient>  /ˈpeɪ.ʃənt/

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letters IEU

From DJPD16-267

p267. The vowel letter combination [ieu] has a number of possible pronunciations, but most are associated with particular words, e.g.:

<lieutenant>  /lefˈten.ənt/  (US)  /lː-/
<lieu>  /ljuː, luː/  (US)  /luː/

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letters IO

From DJPD16-286

UKT: It is interesting to note that this two-letter combination is referred to  as diagraph -- not diphthong. You will see this usage in most of the cases which I take it to be DJPD16's indication that they can be either monophthong or diphthong. -- 080207

p286. There are several pronunciation possibilities for the vowel digraph [io], e.g.:

/aɪə/  <lion>  /laɪən/
/i.əʊ (US) i.oʊ/  <radio>  /ˈreɪ.di.əʊ/  (US)  /-oʊ/
/aɪ.ɒ (US) aɪ.ɑː , aɪ.ɔː/  <priority>  /praɪˈɒr.ə.ti/  (US)  /-ɔːr.ə.t̬i/
/i.ɒ ((US)) i.ɑː/  <curiosity>  /ˌkjʊə.riˈɒs.ə.ti/  (US)  /ˌkjʊr.iˈɑː.sə.t̬i/

In weak syllables

In weak syllables where it is preceded by the letters [s] and [t], the vowel digraph [io] is realised with the vowel /ə/, and may result in a syllabic consonant, e.g.:

<station>  /ˈsteɪ.ʃən/
<invasion>  /ɪnˈveː.ʒən/

In other weak syllabic contexts, [io] is realised with /i.ə/ or /jə/, e.g.:

<million>  /ˈmɪl.jən, -i.ən/  (US)  /jən/
<patriot>  /ˈpæt.ri.ət/  (US)  /ˈpeɪ.tri-/

Contents of this page

1.02.4 Vowel Sounds with "O"

Original program: Click on Oo

O as in "old"

old - /əʊld/ (US) /oʊld/
sew - /səʊ/ (US) /soʊ/
boat - /bəʊt/ (US) /boʊt/
hole - /həʊl/ (US) /hoʊl/

phone - /fəʊn/ (US) /foʊn/
know - /nəʊ/ (US) /noʊ/
mow - /məʊ/ (US) /moʊ/ {mow} - I am waiting for comments from my Burmese-Myanmar peers -- UKT 090205
go - /gəʊ/ (US) /goʊ/

vowel /oʊ/ [UKT: to my ears, it sound exactly like the Burmese-Myanmar {o}]

The following are to be confirmed
• V1_8_01 old • V1_8_02 sew • V1_8_03 boat • V1_8_04 hole
• V1_8_05 phone • V1_8_06 know • V1_8_07 mow • V1_8_08 go • V1_8_09

O as in "book"

book - /bʊk/
full - /fʊl/
cook - /kʊk/
crook - /krʊk/

should - /ʃʊd/
could - /kʊd/
would - /wʊd/

vowel /ʊ/ - short o ?

The following are to be confirmed
• V1_9_01 book • V1_9_02 full • V1_9_03 cook • V1_9_04 crook
• V1_9_05 should • V1_9_06 could • V1_9_07 would • V1_9_08

O as in "too"

too - /tuː/ {tu:}
boot - /buːt/ {bu:t}
suit - /suːt/ {su:t}
fool - /fuːl/ {hphu:l}

truth - /truːθ/ {tru:th}
Sue - /suː, sjuː/ (US) /suː/
do - /duː/

vowel /uː/ - {u:}

The following are to be confirmed
• V1_10_01 too • V1_10_02 boot • V1_10_03 suit • V1_10_04 fool
• V1_10_05 truth • V1_10_06 Sue • V1_10_07 do

Contents of this page

letter O

From DJPD16-373

UKT: The pronunciation of the vowel letter <o> has been a point of controversy between my good friend U Tun Tint of MLC and me to this day. He insists that <o> is {AU:}/ {au:} following the International Pali transcription (based on Indian transcription). My position is what he calls "man-on-street" position: <o> is Burmese-Myanmar {o}. When he calls my position as the "man-on-street" position, he is right, because that is what the majority in Myanmar has accepted. -- 080209

UKT: The <o> problem is actually related to the pair of vowels:
• Hindi-Devanagari
  vowel-letter:     ओ «O» U0913 and औ «Au» U0914
  vowel-sign with <k>: को «ko» and कौ «kau»
• Bangala-Bengali
   vowel-letter: ও «O» U0993 ঔ «Au» U0994
   vowel-sign with <k>: েকা «ko» and েকৗ «kau»
     (notice the split vowel-signs ো U09CB and ৌ U09CC)
• Burmese-Myanmar
   vowel-letter: {au:} and {au}
   vowel-sign with <k>: {kau:} {kau}
     (notice the split vowel-signs on each side of the consonant)

p373. The vowel letter <o> has several pronunciations. The two most predictable strong pronunciations linked to spelling are:
• a monophthongal pronunciation, sometimes described as 'short' in British English /ɒ (US) ɑː ɔː/ and
• a diphthongal pronunciation, sometimes described as 'long' /əʊ (US) oʊ/.

In the monophthongal pronunciation, the <o> [ {au}/ {au:} ] is generally followed by a consonant which closes the syllable, or a double consonant before another vowel, e.g.:

<cod>  /kɒd/  (US) /kɑːd/
<robbing>  /ˈrɒb.ɪŋ/  (US)  /ˈrɑːbɪŋ/

The diphthongal pronunciation usually means the <o> is followed by a single consonant and then a vowel, e.g.:

<code>  /kəʊd/  (US)  /koʊd/
<robing>  /ˈrəʊ.bɪŋ/  (US)  /ˈroʊ.bɪŋ/

In many cases, the monphthongal pronunciation results from the above kind of spelling, e.g.:

<gone>  /gɒn/  (US)  /gɑːn/
<copy>  /ˈkɒp.i/  (US)  /ˈkɑː.pi/

Also, the 'long' pronunciation occasionally appears in words where the vowel is followed by a single consonant and no vowel, e.g.:

<control>  /kənˈtrəʊl/  (US)  /-ˈtroʊl/

When <r> is followed by <o>, the strong pronunciation is one of several possibilities: /ɒ (US) ɔːr/ , /ɔː (US) ɔːr/ , /ʌ (US) ɝː/ or /ɜː (US) ɝː/, e.g.:

<forest>  /ˈfɒr.ɪst/  (US)  /ˈfɔːr-/
<foremost>  /ˈfɔː.məʊst/  (US)  /ˈfɔːmoʊst/
<borough>  /ˈbʌr.ə/  (US)  /ˈbɝː-/
<word>  /wɜːd/  (US)  /wɝː-/

And exceptionally, /ʊ/, e.g.:

<Worcester>  /ˈwʊs.təʳ/  (US)  /-tɚ/

In addition

There are other vowel sounds associated with the letter <o>, e.g.:

/ʌ/  <colour>  /ˈkʌl.əʳ/  (US)  /-ɚ/
/uː/  <move>  /muːv/
/ʊ/  <woman>  /ˈwʊm.ən/
/wʌ/  <once>  /wʌnts/
/ɜː ((US)) ɝː/  <colonel>  /ˈkɜːnəl/  (US)  /ˈkɝː-/

And, exceptionally:

/ɪ/  <women>  /ˈwɪm.ɪn/

In weak syllables

The vowel letter [o] is realised with the vowel /ə/ in weak syllables, /ɚ/ in American English when followed by an [r], and may also be elided in British English, due to compression or realisation as a syllabic consonant, e.g.:

<observe>  /əbˈzɜːv/  (US)  /-ˈzɝːv/
<forget>  /fəˈget/  (US)  /fɚ-/
<factory>  /ˈfæk.tər.i/ , /-tri/

Contents of this page

letters OA

From DJPD16-374

UKT: It is interesting to note that this two-letter combination is referred to  as diagraph -- not diphthong. You will see this usage in most of the cases which I take it to be DJPD16's indication that they can be either monophthong or diphthong. -- 080207

p374. The vowel digraph [oa] has two main strong pronunciations: /əʊ (US) oʊ/ and /ɔː (US) ɑː/, e.g.:

<road>  /rəʊd/  (US)  /roʊd/
<broad>  /brɔːd/  (US)  /brɑːd/

When the digraph is followed by an [r] in the spelling, the strong pronunciation is /ɔː ((US)) ɔːr/, e.g.:

<board>  /bɔːd/  (US)  /bɔːrd/
<soar>  /sɔːʳ/  (US)  /sɔːr/

In addition

Another vowel sound associated with the digraph [oa] is /əʊə ((US)) oʊə/, e.g.:

<coalescence>  /kəʊəˈles.ənts/  (US)  /koʊə-/

In weak syllables

The vowel digraph [oa] is realised with the vowel /ə/ in weak syllables and with /ɚ/ in American English when followed by an [r], e.g.:

<cupboard>  /ˈkʌb.əd/  (US)  /-ɚd/

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letters OEU

From DJPD16-377

p377. The vowel letter combination [oeu] (a chiefly British spelling) has two possible pronunciations /uː/ and /ɜː/, e.g.:

<manoeuvre>  /məˈnuː.vəʳ/  (US)  /-vɚ/
<oeuvre>  /ˈɜː.vrə/

It should be noted that more recent borrowings from French, like <oeuvre> above, usually have the latter pronunciation (see, for example, <cri de coeur>, <hors dóeuvre>).

<cri de coeur>  /ˌkriː.deˈkɜːʳ/  (US)  /-ˈkɝː/  -- DJPD16-128
<hors d'oeuvre>  /ˌɔːˈdɜːv , -ˈdɜːv.rə/  (US)  /ˌɔːrˈdɝː , -ˈdɝːv.rə/  -- DJPD16-259

  Contents of this page

letters OI, OY

From DJPD16-378

UKT: It is interesting to note that this two-letter combination is referred to  as diagraph -- not diphthong. You will see this usage in most of the cases which I take it to be DJPD16's indication that they can be either monophthong or diphthong. -- 080207

p378. The vowel letter digraphs [oi] and [oy] are similar in that their most common pronunciation is /ɔɪ/, e.g.:

<boy>  /bɔɪ/
<boil>  /bɔɪl/

When followed by an [r] in the spelling, [oi] is pronounced as /waɪə (US) waɪɚ/ or /wɑː (US) wɑːr/, e.g.:

<choir>  /kwaɪəʳ/  (US)  /kwaɪɚ/
<reservoir>  /ˈrez.əv.wɑːʳ/  (US)  /-ɚv.wɑːr/

In addition

There are other vowel sounds associated with the digraph [oi]. In the following examples, the pronunciation is due to the addition of the inflection [-ing] to words ending in [o], e.g.:

/əʊ.ɪ (US) oʊ.ɪ/  <going>  /ˈgəʊ.ɪŋ/  (US)  /ˈgoʊ-/
/uː.ɪ/  <doing>  /ˈduːɪŋ/

In words borrowed from French, the pronunciation of [oi] may be /wɑː/, e.g.:

<Bois>  /bɔɪs , bwɑː/
<foie gras>  /ˌfwɑːˈgrɑː/

In weak syllables

The vowel digraph [oi] is realised with the vowel /ə/ in weak syllables, e.g.:

<tortoise>  /ˈtɔː.təs/  (US)  /ˈtɔːr.t̬əs/
<connoisseur>  /ˌkɒn.əˈsɜːʳ/  (US)  /ˌkɑː.nəˈɝ/

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letters OO

From DJPD16-381

UKT: It is interesting to note that this two-letter combination is referred to  as diagraph -- not diphthong. You will see this usage in most of the cases which I take it to be DJPD16's indication that they can be either monophthong or diphthong. -- 080207

p381. The most common pronunciation for the vowel digraph [oo] is /uː/, e.g.:

<boom>  /buːm/

The realisation /ʊ/ is also quite common, e.g.:

<book>  /bʊk/
<stood>  /stʊd/

When followed by an [r] in the spelling, [oo] is pronounced as either /ɔː (US) ɔːr/ or /ʊə (US) ʊr/ e.g.:

<door>  /dɔːʳ/  (US)  /dɔːr/
<moor>  /mɔːʳ , mʊəʳ/  (US)  /mʊr/

It should be noted that, for many speakers, the form /mʊəʳ/ has dropped out of use in favour of /mɔːʳ/.

In addition

There are other vowel sounds associated with the digraph [oo], e.g.:

/ʌ/  <blood>  /blʌd/
/əʊ (US) oʊ/  <brooch>  /brəʊʧ/  (US)  /broʊʧ/

 

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letters OU

From DJPD16-385

UKT: It is interesting to note that this two-letter combination is referred to  as diagraph -- not diphthong. You will see this usage in most of the cases which I take it to be DJPD16's indication that they can be either monophthong or diphthong. -- 080207

p385. There are several pronunciation possibilities for the strong pronunciation of the vowel digraph [ou], e.g.:

/aʊ/  <cloud>  /klaʊd/
/əʊ (US) oʊ/  <though>  /ðəʊ/  (US)  /ðoʊ/
/ʌ/  <country>  /ˈkʌn.tri/
/ɔː (US) ɑː/  <bought>  /bɔːt/  (US)  /bɑːt/
/uː/  <soup>  /suːp/
/ʊ/  <could>  /kʊd/

When followed by a [gh] in the spelling which is realised as /f/, it is usually pronounced /ɒ ((US)) ɑː/ or /ʌ/, e.g.:

<cough>  /kɒf/  (US)  /kɑːf/
<enough>  /ɪˈnʌf/

When followed by an [r] in the spelling, [ou] is pronounced as /ɔː (US) ɔːr/ , /aʊə (US) aʊɚ/ , /ɜː (US) ɝː/ , /ʌ (US) ɝː/ , and /ʊə (US) ʊr/, e.g.:

<four>  /fɔːʳ/  (US)  /fɔːr/
<flour>  /flaʊəʳ/  (US)  /flaʊɚ/
<journey>  /ˈʤɜː.ni/  (US)  /ˈʤɝː-/
<flourish>  /ˈflʌr.ɪʃ/  (US)  /ˈflɝː-/
<tour>  /tʊəʳ , stɔːʳ/  (US)  /tʊr/

In weak syllables

The vowel digraph [ou] is realised with the vowel /ə/ in weak syllables, and may also not be pronounced at all in British English, due to compression, e.g.:

<famous>  /ˈfeɪ.məs/
<favourite>  /ˈfeɪ.vər.ɪt , ˈfeɪv.rɪt/

 

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letters OW

From DJPD16-390

UKT: It is interesting to note that this two-letter combination is referred to  as diagraph -- not diphthong. You will see this usage in most of the cases which I take it to be DJPD16's indication that they can be either monophthong or diphthong. -- 080207

UKT: Since <w> is consonant, its equivalent in Burmese-Myanmar {wa.} is a killed consonant in the rime <aw>. See Pronunciation <w>.

p390. There are two common pronunciations of the vowel digraph <ow> : /əʊ (US) oʊ/  and  /aʊ/, e.g.:

<blow>  /bləʊ/  (US)  /bloʊ/
<brown>  /braʊn/

In addition
A less common realisation is /ɒ (US) ɑː/ , e.g.:

<knowledge>  /ˈnɒl.ɪʤ/  (US)  /ˈnɑːlɪʤ/

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1.02.5 Vowel Sounds with "U"

Original program: Click on Uu

cup - /kʌp/ {kûtp}
love - /lʌv/
ago - /əˡgəʊ/ (US) /ˡgoʊ/
bug - /bʌg/

suck - /sʌk/ {hsûtK}
bun - /bʌn/
rug - /rʌg/
hug - /hʌg/

UKT: duck - /dʌk/ {dûtK}

vowel /ʌ/

The following are to be confirmed
• V1_11_01 cup • V1_11_02 love • V1_11_03 ago • V1_11_04 bug
• V1_11_05 suck • V1_11_06 bun • V1_11_07 rug • V1_11_08 hug • V1_11_09 u?

Contents of this page

letter U

From: DJPD16-555

p555. The vowel letter [u] has several strong pronunciations linked to spelling. 'Short' pronunciations include /ʌ/ and /ʊ/.

UKT: One of the first problem faced by a Myanmar ESL learner is pronouncing the letters [ut] in <put> /pʊt/ and <but> /bʌt/. The corresponding sounds in Burmese-Myanmar are {awt} /ʊt/ and {bût}/{bat}  /ʌt/. The problem in Romabama is to represent /ʊt/ and /ʌt/. My suggestion is to represent /ʊ/ with /uu/ or /u/, and /ʌ/ with /û/ (080121):
this would allow me to write English <but> as {bût}, <cut> as {cût}
and English <put> as {pwut}/{pwat}, <Tun> as {htun:}/{htuun:}/{htwan:}.

'Long' pronunciations include /uː/ and /juː/. In 'short' pronounced /ʌ/, the [u] is generally followed by a consonant letter which ends the word, or a double consonant before another vowel. Words containing /ʊ/  which end with a consonant sound often have two consonant letters finally, a notable exception being <put> /pʊt/, e.g.:

<tub>  /tʌb/  {tûpb} or {tûb} 
<tubby>  /ˈtʌb.i/  {tûp-bi}
<bull>  /bʊl/  {bu:l}
<bully>  /ˈbʊl.i/ {bu:li}

UKT: (see also pronunciation of letter <a>)
• Because ʌ is not an ASCII letter, but û is, I am proposing to use the latter in Romabama -- 080206
• This would amount to saying that û is a checked vowel and is followed by a killed {wag}-akshara. On the other hand, u is a free vowel which is not followed by a consonant, though it may be followed by an {a.wag}-akshara, {ya. ra. la. wa. þa. ha.}
• While keeping in mind that there are no spellings with {ba.thût}-glyph and {la.thût}-glyph in Burmese-Myanmar, if we are to transcript <tub> and <bull> to Burmese-Myanmar, we would get {tûb} and {bu:l}

The 'long' pronunciations usually mean the [u] is followed by a single consonant letter and then a vowel, e.g.:

<tube>  /tjuːb/  (US)  /tuːb/
<tubing>  /ˈtjuː.bɪŋ/  (US)  /ˈtuː-/
<supervise>  /ˈsuː.pə.vaɪz/  (US)  /-pɚ-/

UKT: It is interesting to note that in British English, <u> influences both the onset-consonant and coda-consonant. The "influence" on the onset, amounts to {ya.ping.}-medial formation. As an example, in Myanmar, the English word <new> is pronounced as {nyu:} following the British English instead of {nu:} if we were to follow the US English.

In word initial position, the 'long' pronunciation is almost always pronounced /juː/, e.g.:

<unique>  /juːˈniːk/
<useful>  /ˈjuːs.fəl/

However, there are exceptions to these guidelines, e.g.:

<study>  /ˈstʌd.i/
<sugar>  /ˈʃʊg.əʳ/  (US)  /-ɚ/
<truth>  /truːθ/

When [u] is followed by [r], the strong pronunciation is one of several possibilities:
/jʊə , jɔː (US) jʊr/ ,
/ʊə , ɔː (US) ʊr/ ,
/ɜː (US) ɝː/ , or
/ʌ (US) ɝː/ , e.g.:

<cure>  /kjʊəʳ , kjɔːʳ/  (US) /kjʊr/
<plural>  /ˈplʊə.rəl , ˈplɔː-/  (US)  /ˈplʊr.əl/
<burn>  /bɜːn/  (US)  /bɝːn/
<hurry>  /ˈhʌr.i/  (US)  /ˈhɝː.i/

In weak syllables

The vowel letter [u] is realised as one of /jə/, /jʊ/, /ə/ or /ʊ/ in weak syllables, e.g.:

<failure>  /ˈfeɪ.ljəʳ/  (US)  /ˈfeɪl.jɚ/
<accurate>  /ˈæk.jə.rət , -jʊ/  (US)  /-jɚ.ət, -jʊ.rət/
<status>  /ˈsteɪ.təs/  (US)  /-stæt̬əs/
<July>  /ʤʊˈlaɪ/

It may also result in a syllabic consonant, e.g.:

<hopeful>  /ˈhəʊp.fəl , -fʊl/  (US)  /ˈhoʊp-/

Contents of this page

letters UE

From DJPD16-556

UKT: It is interesting to note that this two-letter combination is referred to  as diagraph -- not diphthong. You will see this usage in most of the cases which I take it to be DJPD16's indication that they can be either monophthong or diphthong. -- 080207

p556. The vowel digraph [ue] is most commonly pronounced as /juː/ or /uː/. The /j/ sound is not always present in US English where it is found in British English. In general, the /j/ is dropped in US English where it appears in British English following an alveolar consonant such as /t/, /d/ or /n/ (UKT note: IPA /t/, /d/ , /n/ correspond to Myanmar alphasyllabary row 4 {ta.} {da.} {na.}), e.g.:

<cue>  /kjuː/
<due>  /djuː/  (US)  /duː/

UKT: Compare the pronunciation of <due> with:
• <Tuesday> /ˈʧuːz.deɪ/ -- Refer to T
Note that from IPA representation [Tue] of /ˈʧuː-/, <Tuesday> in Burmese-Myanmar would be   beginning with /ʧ/ {hkya.} using the usual <ch> of <church> /ʧɜːʧ/ (US) /ʧɝːʧ/ DJPD16-097. Since {hkya.} does not involve any /t/ sound, a better transcription for <Tuesday> /ˈhkyuːz.deɪ/ which transcripted to Burmese-Myanmar would be {tyu:z dé:}.

Another possible pronunciation is /juː.ə/ or /jʊə/, e.g.:

<dual> /ˈdjuː.əl , djʊəl/  (US) /ˈduː.əl/

In addition

Other sounds are associated with the digraph [ue], e.g.:

/weɪ/  <suede>  /sweɪd/
/e/  <guess>  /ges/
/uː.ɪ/  <suet>, <bluest>  /ˈsuː.ɪt/ , /ˈbluː.ɪst/
(silent)  <league>  /liːg/

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letters UI

From DJPD16-556

UKT: It is interesting to note that this two-letter combination is referred to  as diagraph -- not diphthong. You will see this usage in most of the cases which I take it to be DJPD16's indication that they can be either monophthong or diphthong. -- 080207

p556. There are several pronunciation possibilities for the vowel digraph [ui]. The most common is likely to be /uː/, e.g.:

<fruit>  /fruːt/

A similar pronunciation is /juː/ in British English, realised as /uː/ in US English, e.g.:

<nuisance>  /ˈnjuː.sənts/  (US)  /ˈnuː-/
<suit>  /sjuːt , suːt/  (US)  /suːt/

In addition

Other sounds are associated with the digraph [ui], e.g.:

/wiː/  <suite>  /swiːt/
/wɪ/  <linguist>  /ˈlɪŋ.gwɪst/
/ɪ/  <build>  /bɪld/
/aɪ/  <guide>  /gaɪd/
/u.ɪ/  <fruition>  /fruˈɪʃ.ən/
/uː.ɪ/  <ruin>  /ˈruː.ɪn/

It should also be noted that [ui] may follow [q], producing the sound /kwɪ/ or /kwaɪ/.

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letters UOU

From DJPD16-570

p570. The vowel letter combination [uou] has only one possible pronunciation: /ju.ə/ , e.g.:

<ambiguous>  /æmˈbɪg.ju.əs/

 

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letters UY

From DJPD16-572

UKT: It is interesting to note that this two-letter combination is referred to  as diagraph -- not diphthong. You will see this usage in most of the cases which I take it to be DJPD16's indication that they can be either monophthong or diphthong. -- 080207

p572. The vowel digraph [uy] has two possible pronunciations /aɪ/ and, at the end of words where it is usually preceded by the letter [q], /wi/, e.g.:

<buy>  /baɪ/
<soliloquy>  /səˈlɪl.ə.kwi/

An exceptional case is the word <Gruyère>, borrowed from French.

<Gruyère>  /ˈgruː.jeəʳ , gruˈjeəʳ/  (US)  /gruˈjer/

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1.02.6 Vowel Sounds with IPA "schwa"

The central neutral vowel is present in Burmese-Myanmar as {a.} of words such as {a.ni}. Notice how we pronounce {a.ni} -- we do not pronounce {a.} and then {ni}. {a.} is not stressed and therefore not prominently pronounced. That type of vowel is called schwa /ə/ . This vowel is represented in English by a in <banana>, o in <tomato>, i in <horrible>.

Original program: Click on schwa /ə/

banana - /bəˡnɑː.nə/ (US) /ˡnæn.ə/
tomato - /təˡmɑː.təʊ/ (US) /ˡmeɪ.t̬oʊ/
an onion - /ænˡʌn.jən/ , /ənˡʌn.jən/
question - /ˡkwes.tʃən, ˡkweʃ/ (US) /ˡkwes.tʃən/

chocolate - /ˡtʃɒk.l.ət, -ɪt, ˡ-lət, -lɪt/ (US) /ˡtʃɑːk.lət, ˡtʃɔːk-, ˡtʃɑːkl.ət, ˡtʃɔː/
excellent - /ek.səl.ənt/
horrible - /ˡhɒr.ə.bl/ (US) /ˡhɔːr/
loveable - /ˡlʌv.ə.bl/

vowel /ə/

The following needs to be confirmed
• V1_12_01 banana • V1_12_02 tomato • V1_12_03 an onion • V1_12_04 question
• V1_12_05 chocolate • V1_12_06 excellent • V1_12_07 horrible • V1_12_08 loveable • V1_12_09 er

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1.02.07 Sounds with IPA /iː/ and /ɪ/

UKT: I am writing this section to find the correspondence between /iː/ and /ɪ/ on one hand, and {i.}, {i}, {i:}, {il}, {ait}, {ain}, {aim} on the other. Readers should note that English diphthongs are troublesome for Burmese-speakers, and we should expect the Romabama transcriptions to be unsatisfactory. I am taking examples from other sections in this file. -- 090613.

Since digraphs are misleading in transcription, I am substituting Romabama {ng} with {ŋ} for this section.

/iː/ :

/tiː/ <tea> -> {ti:}

/aɪ/ :

/aɪ/ <eye> <I> -> {eiŋl}
Killed {la.} is completely silent: Romabama transcript not satisfactory. In the following killed {la.} is not silent.
   Compare with IPA transcript for
/aɪl/ <aisle>  - {eiŋl}  
/laɪ/ lie  - {leiŋl}

 

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1.03. Diphthongs

UKT: Diphthongs or glides as they are sometimes called start with one vowel sound and ends in another. Since, we are not used to them, listen carefully how the vowel glide from one sound into the next.

Original program: Click on ai

I  - /aɪ/
eye  - /aɪ/
my  - /maɪ/
die - /daɪ/

aisle  - /aɪl/
lie  - /laɪ/
bright - /braɪt/
time - /taɪm/

The following are confirmed - ready to be erased
• D1_1_01 I • D1_1_02 eye • D1_1_03 my • D1_1_04 die
• D1_1_05 isle • D1_1_06 lie • D1_1_07 bright • D1_1_08 time

Original program: Click on ou

our - /aʊəʳ, ɑːʳ/ (US) /aʊɚ/
house - /haʊs/
cow - /kaʊ/
brown - /braʊn/

loud - /laʊd/
allow - /əˡlaʊ/
town - /taʊn/
cloud -  /klaʊd/

The following are confirmed
• D1_2_01 our • D1_2_02 house • D1_2_03 cow • D1_2_04 brown
• D1_2_05 loud • D1_2_06 allow • D1_2_07 town • D1_2_08 cloud

Original program: Click on oy

boy - /bɔɪ/
employ - /ɪmˡplɔɪ/
oil - /ɔɪ/
royal - /ˡrɔɪəl/

point - /pɔɪnt/
boil - /bɔɪl/
voice - /vɔɪs/
voyage - /ˡvɔɪ.ɪʤ/

The following are confirmed
• D1_3_01 boy • D1_3_02 employ • D1_3_03 oil • D1_3_04 royal
• D1_3_05 point • D1_3_06 boil • D1_3_07 voice • D1_3_08 voyage

 

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----- Note to myself: UKT -----

Index of Sound .WAV files

I cannot open the original program on Vista computer, and hence the following sound files (.WAV)
became unknown. I have only one option left: to listen to each one and guess where it should go in the above text. What I
could hear is marked out in plain English immediately following the name of the sound file. I am in luck because the
authors of the original CDs have given very systematic names to the sound files based on phonemics rather than
the regular English spellings. -- UKT 090125

File name A

• A1_1_01 A • A1_1_02 B • A1_1_03 C • A1_1_04 D • A1_1_05 E • A1 1 06 F • A1 1 07 G • A1 1 08 H • A1 1 09 I

• A1_2_01 J • A1_2_02 K • A1_2_03 L • A1_2_04 M • A1 2 05 N • A1 2 06 O • A1 2 07 P • A1 2 08 Q • A1 2 09 R

• A1_3_01 S • A1_3_02 T • A1_3_03 U • A1_3_04 V • A1 3 05 W • A1 3 06 X • A1 3 07 Y • A1 3 08 Z

Contents of this page

File name C

• C1_1_01 where • C1_1_02 when • C1_1_03 why • C1_1_04 what • C1_1_05 whisper • C1_1_06 somewhere • C1_1_07 white • C1_1_08 whistle
UKT: the above series seems to be a comparison of <WH> sounds / {wha.} -- 090125

• C1_2_01 thin • C1_2_02 breath • C1_2_03 author • C1_2_04 through • C1_2_05 thumb • C1_2_06 theater • C1_2_07 earth • C1_2_08 thirty
UKT: the above series seems to be a comparison of <TH> (voiceless) IPA [θ] sounds / as in {tha.} of {thing:} -- 090125

• C1_3_01 the • C1_3_02 those • C1_3_03 then • C1_3_04 father • C1_3_05 either • C1_3_06 other • C1_3_07 rather • C1_3_08 mother
UKT: the above series seems to be a comparison of <TH> (voiced) IPA [ð] sounds / as in {tha.} of {nan.tha} -- 090125

• C1_4_01 shall • C1_4_02 ocean • C1_4_03 delicious • C1_4_04 action • C1_4_05 push • C1_4_06 shine • C1_4_07 depression • C1_4_08 shop
UKT: the above series seems to be a comparison of <SH> IPA [ ʃ ] sounds / {rha.} or {thhya.} -- 090125

• C2_1_01 usual • C2_1_02 leisure • C2_1_03 rouge (red) • C2_1_04 garage • C2_1_05 division • C2_1_06 casual • C2_1_07 excursion • C2_1_08 collision
UKT: the above series seems to be a comparison of <ZH> sounds. I am certain of IPA transcripts. Absent in Burmese -- 090125

• C2_2_01 chair • C2_2_02 lunch • C2_2_03 reached • C2_2_04 chicken • C2_2_05 hatch • C2_2_06 adventure • C2_2_07 picture • C2_2_08 feature
UKT: the above series seems to be a comparison of <CH> IPA [ ʧ ] sounds. In Burmese-Myanmar it is {hkya.}

• C2_3_01 jail • C2_3_02 joy • C2_3_03 joke • C2_3_04 jeep • C2_3_05 magic • C2_3_06 image • C2_3_07 cordial • C2_3_08 frigid
UKT: the above series seems to be a comparison of <J> IPA [ ʤ ] sounds. In Burmese-Myanmar it is {gya.} .

• C2_4_01 tongue /tʌŋ / • C2_4_02 king /kɪŋ/ • C2_4_03 sank /sæŋk/ • C2_4_04 ring /rɪŋ/ • C2_4_05 language /læŋ.gwɪdʒ/ • C2_4_06 English /ɪŋ.glɪʃ/ • C2_4_07 wing /wɪŋ/ • C2_4_08 long /lɒŋ/
UKT: the above series seems to be a comparison of <NG> [ ŋ ] sounds. Because of the IPA character ŋ , the sounds should be that of Burmese-Myanmar {nga.thût}, however at least to my ears, there is an element of {ga.thût} sound. I am waiting input from my peers.

• C3_1_01 year • C3_1_02 yes • C3_1_03 yet • C3_1_04 you
• C3_1_05 million /mɪl.jən/ • C3_1_06 amuse /əˡmjuːz/
• C3_1_07 Italian /ɪˡtæl.i.ən/ • C3 _1_08 opinion /əˡpɪn.jən/

• C3_2_01 quite • C3_2_02 quit • C3_2_03 queen • C3_2_04 queer • C3_2_05 quote • C3_2_06 question • C3_2_07 quizz • C3_2_08 quell

• C3_3_01 through /ɵruː/ • C3_3_02 cough /kɒf/ • C3_3_03 tough /tʌf/ • C3_3_04 though /ðəʊ/ • C3_3_05 thorough /ˡɵʌr.ə/ • C3_3_06 rough /rʌf/ • C3_3_07 ghost /gəʊst/ • C3_3_08 slough /slaʊ/ /slʌf/ slew /sluː/

Contents of this page

File name D

• D1_1_01 I  • D1_1_02 aye • D1_1_03 my • D1_1_04 dye • D1_1_05 isle • D1_1_06 lie • D1_1_07 bright • D1_1_08 time ?

• D1_2_01 hour • D1_2_02 house • D1_2_03 cow • D1_2_04 brown • D1_2_05 loud • D1_2_06 allow • D1_2_07 town • D1_2_08 cloud

• D1_3_01 boy • D1_3_02 employ • D1_3_03 oil • D1_3_04 royal • D1_3_05 point? • D1_3_06 boil • D1_3_07 voice • D1_3_08 voyage

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File name L

• L1_1_01 pie • L1_1_02 pat • L1_1_03 puppy • L1_1_04 postcard • L1_1_05 pear • L1_1_06 pet • L1_1_07 apple • L1_1_08 please ?

• L1_2_01 robe • L1_2_02 bell • L1_2_03 buy • L1_2_04 rubber • L1_2_05 bread • L1_2_06 behind • L1_2_07 cab • L1_2_08 Bob

• L1_3_01 mother • L1_3_02 summer • L1_3_03 mouth • L1_3_04 mouse • L1_3_05 home • L1_3_06 market • L1_3_07 make • L1_3_08 come

• L1_4_01 water • L1_4_02 we • L1_4_03 windmill • L1_4_04 worn • L1_4_05 • L1_4_06 watch • L1_4_07 wheel • L1_4_08 white

 

• L2_1_01 office • L2_1_02 laugh • L2_1_03 photo • L2_1_04 feel ? • L2_1_05 cough • L2_1_06 rough • L2_1_07 th ? • L2_1_08 refreshment • L2_1_09 front

• L2_2_01 movies • L2_2_02 vest • L2_2_03 o ? • L2_2_04 never • L2_2_05 have • L2_2_06 verse • L2_2_07 leave • L2_2_08 there are ?

 

• L2_3_01 dog • L2_3_02 admire • L2_3_03 desk • L2_3_04 don't • L2_3_05 could • L2_3_06 need • L2_3_07 drive • L2_3_08 graves ?

 

• L2_4_01 chin • L2_4_02 talk • L2_4_03 table • L2_4_04 irate • L2_4_05 return • L2_4_06 bet • L2_4_07 haven't • L2_4_08 matter

 

• L3_1_01 news • L3_1_02 November • L3_1_03 never • L3_1_04 no • L3_1_05 nine • L3_1_06 down • L3_1_07 window • L3_1_08 no ?

• L3_2_01 large • L3_2_02 mile ? • L3_2_03 lamp • L3_2_04 allow • L3_2_05 long • L3_2_06 below • L3_2_07 well

• L3_3_01 read • L3_3_02 correct • L3_3_03 river • L3_3_04 right • L3_3_05 right • L3_3_06 Richard • L3_3_07 read • L3_3_08 price

• L3_4_01 sick • L3_4_02 seen • L3_4_03 city • L3_4_04 send • L3_4_05 seen ? • L3_4_06 has • L3_4_07 lesson • L3_4_08 cyan

 

• L4_1_01 zoo • L4_1_02 xylophone • L4_1_03 Xerox • L4_1_04 loose • L4_1_05 place • L4_1_06 prize • L4_1_07 quizz • L4_1_08 dozen

• L4_2_01 yet • L4_2_02 yes • L4_2_03 million • L4_2_04 senior • L4_2_05 familiar • L4_2_06 year • L4_2_07 yellow • L4_2_08 younger

• L4_3_01 keep • L4_3_02 look • L4_3_03 cat • L4_3_04 escape • L4_3_05 thank • L4_3_06 character • L4_3_07 king • L4_3_08 kitten

 

• L5_1_01 good • L5_1_02 go • L5_1_03 egg • L5_1_04 bag • L5_1_05 dame • L5_1_06 rag • L5_1_07 goat • L5_1_08 gold

• L5_2_01 hat • L5_2_02 hall • L5_2_03 who • L5_2_04 higher • L5_2_05 have • L5_2_06 perhaps • L5_2_07 hello • L5_2_08 home

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File name S - Stress

• S1_1_01 English • S1_1_02 second • S1_1_03 photo • S1_1_04 upper
• S1_1_05 produce • S1_1_06 produce
• S1_1_07 subject • S1_1_08 subject
• S1_1_09 object • S1_1_10 object
• S1_1_11 love • S1_1_12 lovely • S1_1_13 lovable • S1_1_14 loveliness • S1_1_15 loveableness
• S1_1_16 photograph • S1_1_17 photography • S1_1_18 photographic
• S1_1_19 equal • S1_1_20 equality • S1_1_21 equalization • S1_1_22 equalitarian

Contents of this page

File name V - Vowels

• V1_1_01 cat • V1_1_02 sat • V1_1_03 sad • V1_1_04 bag • V1_1_05 man • V1_1_06 pan • V1_1_07 ax • V1_1_08 laugh • V1_1_09 /æ/

• V1_2_01 all • V1_2_02 cough • V1_2_03 loss • V1_2_04 caught • V1_2_05 dawn • V1_2_06 aw?

• V1_3_01 army • V1_3_02 father • V1_3_03 star • V1_3_04 shop • V1_3_05 shop • V1_3_06 ar?

• V1_4_01 me • V1_4_02 tea • V1_4_03 teal • V1_4_04 sheep • V1_4_05 beat • V1_4_06 beet • V1_4_07 people • V1_4_08 leave • V1_4_09 pea • V1_4_10 e?

• V1_5_01 end • V1_5_02 bell • V1_5_03 can • V1_5_04 check • V1_5_05 rest • V1_5_06 fell • V1_5_07 any • V1_5_08 guess • V1_5_09 in?

• V1_6_01 they • V1_6_02 pain • V1_6_03 wait • V1_6_04 tail • V1_6_05 taste • V1_6_06 paper • V1_6_07 air?

• V1_7_01 it • V1_7_02 kill • V1_7_03 sit • V1_7_04 chick • V1_7_05 fill • V1_7_06 build • V1_7_07 ? • V1_7_08 ?

• V1_8_01 old • V1_8_02 so • V1_8_03 moat • V1_8_04 hole • V1_8_05 phone • V1_8_06 no • V1_8_07 • V1_8_08 • V1_8_09

• V1_9_01 book • V1_9_02 full • V1_9_03 cook • V1_9_04 crook • V1_9_05 should • V1_9_06 could • V1_9_07 would • V1_9_08

• V1_10_01 two • V1_10_02 boot • V1_10_03 soot • V1_10_04 fool • V1_10_05 truth • V1_10_06 sue • V1_10_07 do

• V1_11_01 cup • V1_11_02 love • V1_11_03 ago • V1_11_04 verb • V1_11_05 suck • V1_11_06 bun • V1_11_07 rug • V1_11_08 hug • V1_11_09 ug

• V1_12_01 banana • V1_12_02 tomato • V1_12_03 an onion • V1_12_04 question • V1_12_05 chocolate • V1_12_06 excellent • V1_12_07 horrible • V1_12_08 loveable • V1_12_09 er

• W1_1_01 lad - lade • W1_1_02 hik - hike • W1_1_03 bill - bile • W1_1_04 sharp - share
• W1_1_05 shall - shale • W1_1_06 lit - lite • W1_1_07 sit - site • W1_1_08 don - done

• W1_2_01 dinner - diner • W1_2_02 heard - hear • W1_2_03 curd - cure • W1_2_04 till - tile
• W1_2_05 • W1_2_06 • W1_2_07 • W1_2_08

• W1_3_01 • W1_3_02 • W1_3_03 • W1_3_04 • W1_3_05 • W1_3_06 • W1_3_07 • W1_3_08

• W1_4_01 • W1_4_02 • W1_4_03 • W1_4_04 • W1_4_05 • W1_4_06 • W1_4_07 • W1_4_08

• W2_1_01 • W2_1_02 • W2_1_03 • W2_1_04 • W2_1_05  • W2_1_06 • W2_1_07

• W2_2_01 • W2_2_02 • W2_2_03 • W2_2_04 • W2_2_05 • W2_2_06 • W2_2_07 • W2_2_08

• W2_3_01 • W2_3_02 • W2_3_03 • W2_3_04 • W2_3_05 • W2_3_06 • W2_3_07 • W2_3_08

• W2_4_01 • W2_4_02 • W2_4_03 • W2_4_04 • W2_4_05 • W2_4_06 • W2_4_07 • W2_4_08

• W2_5_01 • W2_5_02 • W2_5_03 • W2_5_04 • W2_5_05 • W2_5_06 • W2_5_07 • W2_5_08

• W2_6_01 • W2_6_02 • W2_6_03 • W2_6_04 • W2_6_05 • W2_6_06 • W2_6_07 • W2_6_08

• W2_7_01 • W2_7_02 • W2_7_03 • W2_7_04 • W2_7_05 • W2_7_06 • W2_7_07 • W2_7_08

• W2_8_01 • W2_8_02 • W2_8_03 • W2_8_04 • W2_8_05 • W2_8_06 • W2_8_07 • W2_8_08

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UKT notes

Lateral

From DJPD16-308 www.unil.ch/.../IntroPhonEnglish/LangueLat.GIF 090206

p308. A lateral consonant consonant is one where there is obstruction to the passage of air in the centere (mid-line) of the air-passage and the air flows to the side of the obstruction.

Examples for English

In English the /l/ phoneme is lateral both in its "clear" and its "dark" allophones (see CLEAR L and DARK L); the blade of the tongue is in contact with the alveolar ridge as for /t d n/ but the sides of the tongue are lowered to allow the passage of air, e.g.:

lip - /lɪp/
pill - /pɪl/

When an alveolar plosive precedes a lateral consonant in English it is usual for it to have a 'lateral release'. This means that to go from /t/or /d/to /l/ we simply lower the sides of the tongue to release the compressed air, rather than lowering and then raising the tongue blade. A syllabic /l/ is the usual result of this in word final position (see SYLLABIC CONSONANT), e.g.:

bottle - /ˈbɒt.ḷ/
puddle - /ˈpʌd.ḷ/

Most laterals are produced with the air passage to both sides of the obstruction (they are 'bilateral'}, but sometimes we find air passing to one side only ('unilateral').

In languages other than English

Other lateral consonants are found in other languages; the Welsh <ll> sound is a voiceless lateral fricative [ɬ] (U026C). Xhosa and Zulu have a voiced lateral fricative [ɮ] (U026E). Several South African languages have lateral clicks (where the plosive occlusion is released laterally) and at least one language (of Papua New Guinea) has a contrast between alveolar and lateral.

UKT: Burmese-Myanmar has a voiceless lateral {lha.} which my wife, ThanThan Tun, and I have identified as [ɬ].

Go back lateral-note-b

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rhotic

From Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhotic_and_non-rhotic_accents 090205

English pronunciation is divided into two main accent groups: A rhotic (pronounced /ˈroʊtɪk/) speaker pronounces the letter R in hard or water. A non-rhotic speaker does not. In other words, rhotic speakers pronounce written /r/ in all positions, while non-rhotic speakers pronounce /r/ only if it is followed by a vowel sound in the same syllable (see " linking and intrusive R").

In linguistic terms, non-rhotic accents are said to exclude the phoneme /r/ from the syllable coda. This is commonly referred to as the post-vocalic R, although that term can be misleading because not all Rs that occur after vowels are excluded in non-rhotic English. Pre-vocalic and post-vocalic rules only hold true at the syllable level. If, within a syllable, an R occurs post-vocalically, it is dropped from pronunciation in non-rhotic speech.

UKT: more in the Wikipedia article

Go back rhotic-note-b

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End of TIL file