Update: 2016-09-23 10:27 PM -0400


English Grammar in Plain Language


by U Kyaw Tun (UKT), M.S. (I.P.S.T., U.S.A.), and staff of TIL (Tun Institute of Learning).
Based on Barrons Educational Series, Grammar In Plain English, by Diamond, H. and Dutwin, P., Barrons Educational Series, Inc., Woodbury, New York. Copyright 1977. Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR : 
http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

index.htm |Top

Contents of this page

The Simplest Complete Thought
01. What You've Always Known :
     Syntax {wa-kya.hpw.hkrn:} --> {wa-kya.s:}
  Subject and Predicate : Exercise 0101
02. Recognizing Complete and Incomplete Thoughts
     Exercise 0201
04. Action Words: Special Problems: Tense
     Exercise 0401

UKT notes 
change choir
Lewis Carroll
Sign language star cleaners


Contents of this page

The Simplest Complete Thought

We can make some sense of a complete sentence even though we may not know the meaning of the words which make up the sentence. Thus, when Lewis Carrol wrote " Jabberwocky" the most famous nonsense poem ever written, it could still be read and "understood" at various levels of understanding.

sa.ka: a.su. mha {a.Daip~p} shi. hkyn mha. rhi. m// o.au: :. sa.ka:su. r. a.Daip~p ko ma.i. p m. Ba a.kraung: l: hso ta ko tau. na:l nen pa t//

a.Daip~p ma.shi. t. <words> tw n. ka.bya tic poad ko <Lewis Carrol> lo. hkau-t. sa-r: hsa-ra ta.U: ka r: hk. t// <Lewis Carrol> (1832-1898) hso-t. na-m ha ka.lan na-m hpric t// na-m a.rn: ka. <Charles Lutwidge Dodgson> hpric t// u-ka. <Oxford University> ka. n~hkya hsa.ra ta.U: hpric t//


Contents of this page

01. What Youve Always Known: Syntax

p001. Lets take a sentence {wa-kya.} that would have pleased Lewis Carrol:

TIL-editor 160914: 1. Use size10 for the main sentence. I'm in need of a Lakkwak of under-size10 of English letters. Until I can use the under-size10 letters in sign-boards, I will not be able to color the background.
2. Notice how the English word <flink> looks like in Myanmar script. Looks like Mon-Myan

Of the three words which make up the sentence, the only word we know is T-H-E, The. The other two are nonsense words and have no meaning in plain English. Yet we know that something or someone <flink> is the doer, and that it or he had done something <glopped>. The action had taken place in the past, and that flink is probably singular.

<sentence> {wa-kya.} hso ta {a.Daip~p} shi. t. sa.ka: ko hso lo t// {a.Daip~p} a.pr a.son ma.i. au-l: Ba a.kran: l: hso-ta na:l rn <sentence> {wa-kya.} hpric pa-t//

a.ti. hta: ra. mha ka. <script> {sa} n.  <speech> {sa.ka:} ko hkw:hkra: i. Bo. lo t//

What you read is <script> {sa}. It represents <speech> {sa.ka:} . Never trust what you "hear" for it depends on your ears - "hearing".

<script> {sa} is enduring; <speech> {sa.ka:} is transitory and is lost as soon as it is uttered. Moreover, what we can "hear" in our ears is always subjective:  which is curtailed by our L1 and culture. See Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis: we are prisoners of our own culture. See Wikipedia:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linguistic_relativity 160616

Thus we can say, {r: tau. a.mhn} {prau: tau. a. n}.

(sa} hso ta // {sa.ka:a.n} ko ka.kri: hka.hkw: lo. hkau t. a.mht-a.a: l: tw n. mht hta: ta hpric t// o.ma.hoat <A> <B> <C> <D> n. r: hta: ta hpric t// ba.ma sa.ka: ko ka.kri: hka.hkw: Akshara  {ak~hka.ra} n. r: t/ n~ga.laip sa.ka: ko <A B C D> Letter n. r: t //

UKT 160912: ka.kri: hka.hkw: n. r: t. n: ko Abugida-Akshara r: n: lo. hkau t// <A> <B> <C> <D> r: n: ko tau. Alphabet-Letter r: n: lo. hkau t// Akshara ha Alphabet ma. hoat Bu://

MLC Myanmar-English dictionary, on p.619, gives misleading meanings:
{ak~hka.ra} - n. character, letter of an alphabet, alphabet. - MLC PED2006-619

In BEPS, every speech is written in a particular script. Thus, Burmese speech is written in Myanmar script. English speech is written in Latin script, Pali in Myanmar, and Sanskrit in Devanagari.

Bur-Myan / Skt-Dev
-- {ka.} --- क ka
-- {hka.} -- ख kha

<Hindi> sa.ka: kya. tau. <Devanagari akshara> क ka ख kha n. r: t//
hto n: a.tu <Mon> sa.ka: ko <Myanmar akshara> n. r: t//

mrn-ma a.mya: ma.i. kra. ta ka. <Myanmar akshara> n. <Devanagari akshara> to. ha a.au:ka. mn:kri: r. kyauk-sa-ten-tw pau ka. , ya.hku. hkt a.hkau <Brahmi akshara> ka. hsn:ak-t hso t. a.hkyak hpric t//

For two persons to talk they need a common spoken language or speech made more colourful by tone and body language. Day-to-day speech - not lectures in a classroom - is uttered in short sentences with pauses in between. We even use incomplete sentences - phrases and exclamations. However when we write we use punctuation marks in place of pauses, and complete sentences.

When we write English-Latin we use <comma> and <full-stop> as punctuation {poad} marks. Similarly when we write Bur-Myan we use {poad-hprt} and {poad-ma.}. However when we speak, we pause (short pause & long pause) now and then to indicate the phrase and sentence.

sa r: tau. poad-ma. poad-hprt <comma> <full-stop> sa. lo. <punctuation> tw ht. r: t// sa.ka: prau: tau. a.n ko hprt prau: ra. t/ na: na: pri: prau: ra. t//

<the flink glopped> hso t. <sentence> {wa-kya.} ko tic-lon:hkrn: pi-pi-a.a. prau: kr. pa// <monosyllabic> a.n on: n pa t//

<T-H-E the> ko hp leik pa// ba.ma sa.ka: mha ma.lo-Bu:// da-mha. ma.hoat <flink> n. tw: leik pa// -tau. <the flink> hpric wa: t//

<the flink> ha loap hsan u {kt~ta:} hpric t// <the flink> r. a.Daip~p ko i. r. la:// i. sa.ra ma.lo Bu://

<the flink> hso t. a.kan ta.kan/ lu-ta.yauk ha ta.hku.hku. ko pru. loap t// Ba-loap a. l:// ma.i.Bu://

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Subject and Predicate

Let us analyse the sentence.

{loap-hsan u} {kt~ta:} ko <Performer, Subject S> lo. hkau t//

We know "The flink" or "flink" to be the Subject, {kt~ta:}, {loap-hsan u}. What about the "glopped". The other part of the sentence is the Predicate. I cannot as of today (160920) find the definition in Bur-Myan dictionaries and grammar, because of which I will have to give a dedicated term for it .

It seems there is no word for Predicate. In its place it is said there are two parts in a sentence: one is {kt~ta:} and the other {kri.ya} aka Verb.. This is downright misleading. The counterpart of Subject is Predicate, and the counterpart of Verb is Noun. We can say: "Subject & Predicate" and "Noun & Verb" - not "Subject & Verb". I am coining a term for Predicate - {loap-hsaung-hkyak_hpic-rp}.

<noun, N> lo. hkau t// ba.ma mha {naam} lo. hkau t// {naam} ha ba.ma sa.ka: ma.hoat Bu:/ pa-Li. hpric t// <noun, N> n. {naam} sa-lon: nhic lon: mht Bo. ma.lo Bu:// tic-lon: mht rn tau-rau pau.//

loap-ta-ka. <glop> loap ta t.// <glop> loap ta ha <sleep> aip-ta-la: / <eat> sa:ta-la: hso ta ma.i.Bu:// ta.hku.hku.tau. loap ta a.mhn B://

loap-ta-ka. <verb, V> hpric t// ba.ma mha {kri.ya} lo. hkau t// {kri.ya} hso-t. sa-lon: ko <r> {ra.} a.n ht. hso ra. m// ta.hkyo. ka. ra.hken n lo. prau: laim. m//

rn-koan n. mn~ta.l: ka. lu-tw sa.ka: prau: rn <r> {ra.} a.n ma.pa-Bu:// da-ko <non-rhotic accent> lo. hkau t//

 n~ga.ln n~ga.laip sa.ka: mha <r> ra. a.n n:n: B: pa l// <IPA International Phonetic Alphabet> n. pra. rn /ɹ/ n. pra. t// a.m-ri.kn n~ga.laip sa.ka: a.n tw mha tau. <r> {ra.} a.n po mya: lo. /r/ n. pra. t// :da ko <rhotic accent> lo. hkau t// Skt-Dev (Sanskrit-Devanagari) ka. tau. <rhotic> a.hpric hson: hpric t//

<the flink glopped> ko hsak prau: ra. an//

B-ton: ka. loap a.l:/ a.hku. la:// ma.hoat-Bu:/ a.rn ka. loap hk. ta hpric t// B-lo-loap i. ta l:// <glop> mha <-ed> pa lo.//

<-ed> pa-la tau. a.hkyan ka-la. pa la pri// :da ko <tense> {ka-la.} lo. hkau t//

<tense> ko ta.hku. t: prau: lo. ma. ra. Bu:// <TAM (Tense-Aspect-Mood)> on: hku. lon: tw: prau: ra. t//

See my note on TAM in - ch002.htm (link chk 160923)
and proceed to tense.

<flink> B-nh-yauk loap-kra.ta-l:// tic.yauk ht: hpric m htn t// B-lo i. a. l:// <flink> nauk-mha <-s> ma.pa-Bu://

n~ga.laip mha sa-lon: tw ko nauk-tw: <suffix> {wi.Bt} tt p: t//


<glop>  -->  <glopped
<flink>  -->  <flinks

ba.ma mha tau. <suffix> ma.on: Bu:// i:n. sa-lon: tw lo p rn lo p a. lo ht. p: t// U.pa.ma

{han } 'bark' --> {han hk. } 'barked'
{hkw:} 'dog' -->  {hkw: mya:} 'dogs'

:-tau. <the flink glopped> hso t. sa.ka: n ko kra: leik ta n. a.Daip~p a.pr. tau. ma.i. p m./ Ba-a.kran: prau: n ta l: tau. i. leik t//

a.ti. ta.hku. hta: mi. r. la:// <the flink> loap-u ka. a.rn la t/ nauk-mha <glopped> loap.t. a.kran: la-t// <doer> <action> a.si-a.si ha n~ga.laip sa.ka: r. <syntax> hpric t// sa-kran: r. a.Di.ka. sa-lon: ko <subject, S> lo. hkau t// <doer> ha <subject, S> B:// <action> ko tau. <verb, V> lo. hkau t// <sentence> ta.hku. mha a.n: hson: <verb, V> pa ra. m// <the flink glopped > mha <subject, S> rau: <verb, V> rau: pa t// <syntax> a.si-a.si ka. (SV) hpric t// :di. <syntax> kran. <The flink glopped.> hso-t. <sentence> ko na:l ta hpric t//

na.mu-na a.n n. <flink> ko <dog> {hkw:} n. a.sa: hto: pa/ <glopped> ko <barked> n. a.sa: hto: pa// <The dog barked> hpric wa: t//

The dog barked.

{hkw: han }

The Burmese word {} had been a puzzle for me. In the above, it is a sentence ending. However, it has been described as a post-positional marker . It is easily confused with particle.
See - ch002.htm  and proceed to particle .

Note that the above sentence tells us what the <dog> is doing. And therefore, {} is the post-positional marker for a predicate.

a.si-a.si ko pran: leik pa// <barked the dog> hpric wa: lo. na: ma.l tau.Bu:// ba.ma sa.ka: n. ta.lon:hkyn: a.sa: hto: kr. pa//

{hkw: han } a.si-a.si ka.
{han th hkw:} hpric wa: pri: mha: wa: tau. t//

Remember Burmese and English are two separate languages. Their syntaxes are different. Their word-orders are different.

"There are six theoretically possible basic word orders for the transitive sentence: subjectverbobject (SVO), subjectobjectverb (SOV), verbsubjectobject (VSO), verbobjectsubject (VOS), objectsubjectverb (OSV) and objectverbsubject (OVS).
"The overwhelming majority of the world's languages are either SVO or SOV, with a much smaller but still significant portion using VSO word order."
From Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Word_order 160919

The point we would like to make here is: In day-to-day speech, we do not have to hear let alone understand every word. Knowing the syntax of a language is enough for one to understand it. This knowledge is an inborn characteristic of the humans: a characteristic that distinguishes us from even the most advanced of all animals -- the chimpanzee one of the great apes. We communicate with each other using a language -- something that has syntax. Of course, the chimpanzees do communicate with each other. But what they use is sound signaling lacking syntax. And so we can say that they do not communicate using a language.

Then a logical question arises. What about the sign languages used in various parts of the world? The sign language is a language in its own right. It has syntax. Note that the sign language is not what we understand by the "body-language".

<sentence> {wa-kya.} hso ta r:hta:t. sa.peid a-ma.ka./ prau: leik t. sa.ka: ko l: hso lo t// sa-r:t. a.hka mha <capital letter> to. <full stop> to. ko ht. r: lo. ra. t/
sa.ka: prau: t. a.hka kya. tau. <capital letter> to. <full stop> to. ko ht. prau: lo. ma. ra. tau. Bu://
a.n ko hprt prau: ra. t//

UKT 160917
In traditional grammar, the verb <sleeps> in "The dog sleeps" is described as an intransitive verb as opposed to "The dog bites a man". In the latter sentence, the verb is a transitive verb .

Note that <The dog bites a man> is a complete thought. However, <The dog bites> may or may not convey a complete thought. If you are describing a habit of the dog -- that he is likely to bite -- it is a complete thought. On the other hand if you are describing what the dog has done, it is an incomplete thought because you have not indicated what the dog has bitten. However, the sentence <The dog sleeps> is always a complete thought. You will note that in <The flink glopped>, the action verb is meant to be an intransitive verb.

See TIL Grammar Glossary, in ENGLISH for Myanmar
- E4M-indx.htm > GramGloss-indx.htm > I01.htm (intransitive verb) / T01.htm (transitive verb)
Remember: In English syntax, SVO (Subject-Verb-Object), a transitive verb is a verb that requires both a subject (S) and one or more objects (O). The intransitive verb is a verb in a sentence with canonical structure SV (Subject-Verb) - there is no object (O).

Whenever a verb is mentioned, you must not forget its three attributes: Tense, T; Aspect, A; and, Mood, M. Taken together, they are known as TAM.

Now, I will have to look in Burmese Grammar for each Tense, Aspect, and Mood. I can only get the equivalent of Tense {ka-la.}. As for the other two, all I can get is Asperity 'sharpness & roughness of sound', and Mood 'intention': my translations from Thalun-EMD2003-0050 & 0696, resptly.

Excerpt from Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grammatical_tense   080526
The distinction between grammatical tense, aspect, and mood is fuzzy and at times controversial.

The English continuous temporal constructions express an aspect as well as a tense, and some therefore consider that aspect to be separate from tense in English.

In Spanish the traditional verb tenses are also combinations of aspectual and temporal information.

See TIL Grammar Glossary individually on Tense, Aspect and Mood. Unless you are familiar with them you will have difficulty in translating Burmese into English and vice versa.

Bur-Myan speakers usually have difficulty understanding English tenses {ka-la.}. English has only two basic tense: the non-past (present) and the past. The so-called "future-tense" is actually present tense used with the future marker <will> which is a modal auxiliary. The future marker will cannot occur with other modals, like can, may, and must. "Grammarians and linguists typically consider will to be a future marker and give English two non-inflected tenses, a future tense and a future-in-past tense, marked by will and would respectively. In general parlance, all combinations of aspects, moods, and tenses are often referred to as 'tenses'."

For more information see tense in my notes in - ch002.htm (link chk 160923),
and proceed to tense .

It should be remembered that "tenses cannot always be translated from one language to another. While verbs in all languages have typical forms by which they are identified and indexed in dictionaries, usually the most common present tense or an infinitive, their meanings vary among languages". (Quotes from Wikipedia  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grammatical_tense 080526)

You should remember that, even though your tenses are wrong, as long as your syntax is correct, the hearer will understand you. This is the most important thing to remember in learning to speak another language.

Contents of this page

Ex 0101 

TIL sample Question Q {m:hkwun:}: In the following sentences {wa-kya.} (i) indicate the Subject S {kt~ta:}, and Predicate P {loap-hsan-hkyak_hpic-rp}. (ii) Does the Predicate has only a Verb V {kri.ya} or does it also has an Object O {kn}? (iii) What type of verb is Verb V : transitive or intransitive? Why? (iv) Does the Predicate has other attributes such as Time T (past, present, future)?

Note: Grammatical {kn} 'object' and {km~ma.} 'action' are different.
See MLC MED2006-012.
See also Thalun English-Myan dictionary, 2003, p0737, which gives 'object' as {kn-poad}.

Question Q given in original EGPE: 
Question Q {m:hkwun:}: In the following sentences {wa-kya.} indicate the performer (S) {kt~ta:}, the action (V) {kri.ya}, and time (past, present, future) (T) {ka-la.}. Use the given format for your answer.

Answer A {a.hpr}:
<Performer, Subject S> loap-hsaung-thu =
<Action, Verb V>  Ba-loap ta-l: =
<Time, Tense, T>  ka-la. / loap-hsan-t. a.hkyain =

m:khwun: hpr hso ra mha si:sa:n.. a.hkyak// //
<The flink glopped.> ko <performer> S n. <action> V hkw:hkra: l.la s ka. <The> ko hp pri: s:sa: lo. ra.t lo. prau:hk. t// :di a.ten: lt-ta.lau: ma.lo t. sa.ka:lon: sa.ka:su. tw ko hp pri: si:sa: tt an l.kyn. pa//


Q1. The law student completed the difficult exam.


The law student completed the difficult exam.
  ko nhic-pen: pen:kr. pa//

(The law student) (completed the difficult exam.)
  hkt~ta. hp ra.m. sa.ka:lon: tw ko hp-leik pa//

(student) (completed)

Performer, Subject S  = <student>
Action, Verb V = <completed>
Time, Tense T = past

Q2. Mrs. Smith sings in the church choir each Sunday.

<Mrs. Smith sings in the church choir each Sunday.>
<(Mrs. Smith) (sings in the church choir each Sunday.)>
<(Mrs. Smith) (sings)

Performer, Subject S = <Mrs. Smith>
Action, Verb V = <sings>
Time, Tense T = present

<sing> a.n-mha ga.n ma.pa-Bu://
IPA n. r: rn <sing> ko /sɪŋ/ lo. r:t -- DJEPD16-490
Romabama n. r: rn {hsn:}.
Therefore, the correct pronunciation for one who sings <singer> is ,
whereas that of the brand name of the Singer sewing machine is .

Q3. The plane raced across the sky.

<The plane raced across the sky.>
<(The plane) (raced across the sky.)>
<(plane) (raced)>

Performer, Subject S = <plane> / <the plane>
Action, Verb V = <raced>
Time, Tense T = past ({<ed> pa-t. a.twak loap-pri: kran: i.ra.t})

Q4. They will speak at the November meeting.

<They will speak at the November meeting.>
<(They) (will speak at the November meeting.)>
<(They) (speak)>

Subject S = <they>
Verb V  = <speak> / <will speak>
Tense T = future : <will> pa-t. a.twak ma.loap ra. :Bu: lo. i.ra.t //

Q5. The interviewer listened attentively.

<The interviewer listened attentively.>
<(The interviewer) (listened attentively.)>
<(interviewer) (listened)>

S = <inteviewer>
V  = <listened>
T = past

Q6. A cashier always counts the change.

<A cashier always counts the change.>
<(A cashier) (always counts the change.)>

S = <cashier>
V  = <counts>
T = present

<change> hso-t. sa.ka: r. a.Daip~p ko mha: yu mi. m/ a.ti. hta: pa//

Q7. Star Cleaners picks up and delivers cleaning.

<Star Cleaners picks up and delivers cleaning.>
<(Star Cleaners) (picks up and delivers cleaning.)>
<(Star Cleaners) ((picks) (delivers))>

S = <Star Cleaners>
V  = <picks> <delivers>
T  = present

mrn-ma-sa r:pon ha n~ga.laip-sa r:ta n. ma.tu Bu:// n~ga.laip a.r: mha <capital letter> n. <sentence> ko sa. r: t// lu-nn-m n. loap-ngn:a.m tw ko <capital letter> n. sa. ra. t// mrn-ma a.r: mha <capital> ma.on: Bu:// da-kran. <Romabama sentence> tw mha n. nn-m tw mha <capital> ma.on: Bu:// <Myanmar consonant> mrn-ma by: n. <vowel> a.ra. ak~hka.ra sa-lon: tw ka <English-Latin alphabet-letter> 26 lon: htak mya: tau. <Romabama> a.twak ma.lon-lauk Bu:// da.kran. <Romabama> r: nen Bo. <small letter> 26 lon: n. <capital letter> 26 lon: a.prn a.hkra: <Latin letters> tw ko pa ht. on: hta: pa t//

Q8. The woman and her children crossed the street.

<The woman and her children crossed the street.>
<(The woman and her children) (crossed the street.)>
<((woman) (children)) (crossed)>

S = <woman> <children>
V  = <crossed>
T  = past

Q9. The gardener rakes the leaves and cuts the grass.

<The gardener rakes the leaves and cuts the grass.>
<(The gardener) (rakes the leaves and cuts the grass.)>
<(gardener) ((rakes) (cuts))>

S = <gardener>
V  = <rakes> <cuts>
T  = present

Q10. Diane and Joe dined at the tavern and attended the theater.

<Dian and Joe dined at the tavern and attended the theater.>
<(Dian and Joe) (dined at the tavern and attended the theater.)>
<((Dian) (Joe)) ((dined) (attended))>

S = <Diane> <Joe>
V  = <dined> <attended>
T  = past

Contents of this page

02. Recognizing Complete and Incomplete Thoughts

p005. A complete sentence conveys a complete thought. And therefore incomplete sentences and thoughts are very recognizable. Incomplete sentences can be described simply as phrases.
See my note in ch002.htm (link chk 160923)
and proceed to phrase

From Lonsdale 1899 p003 for bilingual readers:
Clause {wa-kya. kN~a.}. A group of words containing a noun or a word or words equivalent to a noun, and a verb, may make sense. But it could still be an incomplete sentence. Such a group of words is called Clause or {wa-kya. kaN~a.}. (A footnote adds: {kN~a.} means 'a part', 'a portion'; {wa-kya. kN~a.} = 'a part of a sentence'.). The following is the example given by Lonsdale:

The sentence


is made up of two clauses: and
See my note on  dependent clause and independent clause in ch002.htm 
and proceed to clause in :

UKT: note the example chosen by Lonsdale. Written a decade after the deposition of King Thibaw who had mercilessly killed many of his own half brothers and sisters, Lonsdale had chosen as an example of a sentence which had reflected the sentiment of the times.

You will notice that {mn:toan: Bu.rn lwun-tau-mu-lhyn} 'after King Mindon passed away' makes some sense, but it does not convey a complete thought. However, {i-Bau: nn:hsak-hkn-i.} 'Thibaw acquired the throne' makes sense, and is a complete sentence. It can stand by itself and is known as independent clause. However 'after King Mindon passed away' cannot stand alone and is known as dependent clause.

Let us consider the following illustrations.

Illustration 1.
p005. A sentence which begins with words such as when, after, because, as soon as, before, or since needs to have a completing thought.

The following examples are not sentences because they do not convey complete thought. If you have been asked whether a group of words given is a complete sentence or not, you can translate it into Bur-Myan, and then you will know the answer.

* When you arrive at work.
* Because you are dutiful.

kyaung:a: tw ka. mht l. shi. kra. t//
<capital letter> n. sa. pri: <full stop> n. hsoan: rn <sentence> hpric rau: t.//
a.htak ka. sa.ka:su. nhic-hku. ha <sentence> ma. hoat Bu:// :da myo: ko a.tu. ma.yu mi. Bo. * (asterisk aka star) n. pra. hta: t//

* When you arrive at work.

sa.ka:su. ha ma.pr.son Bu:// Ba hpric-lo. ma.pr.son a. l: i. ra. an ba.ma sa.ka: n. shn: pra. m// :. sa.ka:su. hso n ta ka.

* mn: a.loap. sa.hkm: ko. rauk t. a.hka 

hpric t// kra: leik t. lu ka. hsak Ba prau: on: ma. l: lo. na:htan n p m. hsak prau: n ma.kra: tau. Ba loap ra. mhn: ma.i. tau. Bu://

* Because you are dutiful.

Ba-a prn leik tau.

* mn: ta-wun kr t. a.twak

hsak ma.prau: rn na: ma.l-Bu://

di-lo m:hkwun:myo: ko hpr Bo. mrn-ma lo a.Daip~p prn kr. pa//

Solution: Possible thought completions for When you arrive are:

When you arrive, relax.
When you arrive, call me.
When you arrive, I will leave.

Caveat a.ti. pru. rn//
<When you arrive> nauk mha <comma> pa t//

<when> <after> <as soon as> <before> to. ha <time> {a.hkyain) ko prau: t. sa.ka:lon:tw hpric-t//

<because> <since> to. ka. tau. a.kran:pra.hkyak <reason> ko hpau-pra. t. sa.ka:lon:mya: hpric-kra.t//

Solution: Possible thought completions for Because you are dutiful. are:

Because you are dutiful, I will give you a promotion.
Because you are dutiful, you deserve a holiday.
Because you are dutiful, I am happy.

Remember, even when a statement is grammatically correct, it can be logically wrong. For example:

Because you are dutiful, you must be punished.

<grammatically correct - logically wrong> Ba-hpric-lo. l:// a.Daip~p prn kr. pa//
 (mn: ta-wn-ky t. a.twak/ mn: ko dn p: ra. m//)

UKT 160922: I've checked Romabama transcription for the previous paragraphs.


Illustration 2.
A sentence can be incomplete because of the wrong use of the action or verb (V).

Thus, the following phrase does not convey a complete thought.

*The dog barking all night.

<*The dog barking all night.> ha <grammatically> mha: t// <bark> mha <ing> pa n lo. a.Daip~p ma. pr. son B: mha: n ta hpric t// a.la:tu U.pa.ma tic hku. ka. {tic-a. lon: hkw: han n tau.} hpric t// {n tau.} pa lo. mha: ta hpric t//

<Bur-Myan> mha <verb, V> ko {kri.ya-poad} lo. hkau t// <English-Latin> <verb> tw n. <Bur-Myan> <verb> tw hkra:na: ta ko i.rn shing: pra. ra. ta lw ku t//

<bark> n. u. a.sa: mrn-ma kri.ya {han } on: pon hkrn: ma.tu-Bu:// o.au <bark> ko {han} tic-lon: t: n. a.sa: hto: leik pa// da-hso rn <barking> ko {han-n} n. a.sa: hto: lo. ra. la ta ko tw. ra. laim. m// a.la: tu {han} nauk mha {hk.} ht. kr. pa// <barked> n. tu wa: ta tw. ra. laim. m//

<bark> ko nauk-tw lo. hkau: t. <suffix> ht. on: ra. t// <suffix> 2 myo: on: nen t/ Ba-tw-l hso-tau. <-ing> n. <-ed> pric-kra. t// da-kran. <bark> mha. ta.hsn. <barking> n. <barked> hpric-wa: t//

ba.ma sa.ka: {han} mha <after word> tw ht. on: rn {han } {han n hs:} {han hk. } a.sa. shi. ta tw ra. la laim. m//

sa.ka:su. ko prn Bo. <was> lo sa.ka:lon:myo: ko ht. p: ra. t// di-tau.

<The dog was barking all night.>

da-mha. ma.hoat <ing> ko hp <ed> n. a.sa:hto:

<The dog barked all night.>

*The bustling figure walking hurriedly through the park.

mu-la. sa-oap ka. na.mu-na hpric-t. a.htak pa sa.ka:su. ha <grammatically> mha: t// shn: wa: an sa.ka:lon: a.po tw hp leik pa//
   <(figure) (walking)>
pring-Bo. <is> <was> ta.hku. hku. ko ht. pa/
   <The bustling figure is walking hurriedly through the park.>
   <The bustling figure was walking hurriedly through the park.>
da-mha. ma.hoat <ing> ko hp/ <ed> n. a.sa:hto: pa/
   <The bustling figure walked hurriedly through the park.>

Remember, when you correct a sentence grammatically, it can become logically wrong.

sa.ka:su. ta.hku. ko <grammatically> mhan wa: aung prn ta n. <logically> a.lo-lo mhn ma.wa:Bu://


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Exercise 0201

{m:hkwun:}: Are the following sentences complete? If not give a possible correction. Give your answer in the following format:

a.hpr// //
<complete> pr.son / <incomplete> ma.pr.son =
<why?> Ba-hric-lo.l: =

th-lo m:hkwan: myo: ko hp-hso t. a.hka-mha si:sa:pon ka. 01.02. Exercise ton: ka. a.teing: hpric t//

Q1. When Richard called his office.

<why?> :

loap-hsaung-thu (subject, S) ka. <Richard>//
loap-hsaung-thu hso-t. wau:ha-ra. ka. na-m ko hwan-pra. ta hpric t//
loap-hsaung-hkak (verb, V) ka. <called>//
<When> pa.t. a.twak/ ma.pr.son Bu://
pr.son aung <relax> <call me> <I will leave> tho.ma.hoat a.la:tu tic-ku.hku. pa ra. m//

U.pa.ma <call me> ko ht. kr. ra. aung//
<When Richard called his office, call me.> hpric thwa: m/
a.Daip~p ka.// // {<Richard> thu. ron: ko <phone> hsak t. a.hka nga. ko hkau pa}//

Q2. The man in the blue suit and the lady in the tan coat walking.

<why?> :

loap-hsaung thu tw (subject, S) ka. <the man> n. <the lady> hpric kra. t//
ta.n: <the man in the blue suit> n. <the lady in the tan coat> to. hpric kra. t//

Ba-loap n ta l: tau. pa tha: B lo. ma. ngring: pa n./ pa-t-tha hso t ma. pr. son Bu://
<is> <are> <was> <were> ma.pa-B: <walk> nauk-mha <-ing> ma.ht. ra. Bu://

na.mu-na a.n-n. r: kr ra. aung// //
<The man in the blue suit and the lady in the tan coat are walking.>
<*The man in the blue suit and the lady in the tan coat is walking.>
<is> thon: ta mha: t// Ba-hpric-lo.l: hso tau. loap-hsaung thu ka 2 U: hpric lo.//

Q3. The fumbling, bumbling clown dancing.

<why?> :

loap-hsaung thu (subject, S) ka. <clown> tho.ma.hoat <The fumbling, bumbling clown>
loap-hsaung ta (verb, V) ka. <dancing> hpric-t//
<dance> mha. ta. hsing. <dancing> //
<dancing> mha <-ing> pa t// tho.thau a.rh: mha <is> <was> tic-hku. hku. ma. pa lo. ma.pr. son Bu://

Q4. A favorite history question involves the causative factors of the Civil War.

<why?> :

(S) ka. <question> / tho.ma.hoat <history question> / tho.ma.hoat <A favorite history question>//
(V) ta ka. <involves> / tho.ma.hoat <involves the causative factors> / tho.ma.hoat <invoves the causative factors of the Civil War.>
<sentence> ko sic leik t. a. hka -- (question) (involves)

Q5. Flour, sugar, and three eggs blending.

<why?> :

(S) ka. tic-U: ma. ka. Bu:/ 3 U: hpric t// Ba-tw l: hso-tau. <flour> <sugar> n. <eggs>//
(V) ka. <blend> tho.ma.hoat <blending> hpric t//
<-ing> pa n t. a.twak <blending> a.rh. mha <are> tho.ma.hoat <were> pa ra. m//
da-kraung. <Flour, sugar, and three eggs blending.> ha <sentence> ma.hoat Bu://

pring: leik t. a.hka ra.ta ka
<Flour, sugar, and three eggs are blending.>
<Flour, sugar, and three eggs were blending.>

nauk ta.n: ka. <ing> a.sa: <-ed> ht pa
<Flour, sugar, and three eggs blended.>

<flour> hso ta {gyon-mhoan.}/ <sugar> ka. tau. {a.kra:}// <egg> hso ta ka. tau. {krak-U.}// <blending> hso ta ka. th-th-hkya-hkya tha.ma. aung rau:st mhw n ta// Ba-loap n ta l: hso-ring/ mhoan. loap hpo. pring-hsing n ta hpric-t//

:th lo mhoan. loap t. n: ko <recipe> lo. hkau t// <recipe> r. a.n htwak ka. {re-si-pi} hpric t// <recipe> ko <re> <ci> <pe> ta.lon:hkying: a-thn htwak ra.t// {re-si.} lo. a-thn htwak ring mha: t// da-hprn. <cake> kya. tau. kau: lo. m: sa.ra-hpric la-t// <cake> kya. tau. <kaik> lo. a.thn htwak t// <cake> r. a.ra. (vowel) ha <a_e> hpric t// by: ko <a_e> kra: ht. twn ht. p: ra. t// :di lo <e> myo: ko <magic e> lo. hkau t// <IPA vowels> tw mha <magic e> ma. pa Bu:// da-kraung. n~ga.laip sa-lon: paung: a.teing: ma.hso pa n.// <magic e> kraung. a.thn praung: pon tic-hkyo. ka --

<can> {kan} --> <cane> {kain:}
<sin> {hsing:} --> <sine> {hseing:}
<not> {naut} --> <note> {noat}

n~ga.laip sa.ka: ko <Latin alphabet> n. r:hta: t. sa ko sa-lon:paung: a.teing: a.thn htwak-hpat-ring a.mya: a: hpring. mha: laim. m// ba.ma sa.ka: ko mran-ma ak~hka.ra n. r: hta: ta ko sa-lon:paung: a.teing: a.thn htwak hpat ring {ra.hkeing-thn} {yau:thn} {Da.nu.thn} htwak t lo. prau:hkying prau:kra. laim.m/ na: tau. l th: t/ <English-Latin> kya. tau. lon:wa. na: ma.l t. a.hpric rauk thwa: neing t// <Latin alphabet> ka. <phonetic> r:n: ma.hoat-Bu:/ <Myanmar akshara> ka. <phonetic> r:n: hpric-t// sa.ka:thn ko ti.ti.kya.kya. hpau pra. neing t. n ra mha <Myanmar akshara> ha <Latin alphabet> htak tha t// :th. a.kraung: ko a.hkr hkn pri: <Romabama> ko ti-htwing hta: ta hpric t//

tha.ti. hta: ran tic-hku. ka./ <IPA> B: hpric-hpric/ <Myanmar> B: hpric-hpric <phonetic alphabet> hso teing: a.r: n. a.thn tw: mhat neing Bo. <sound recording machine> tho.ma.hoat <computer> ko thon: Bo. lo t// B lo thon: tha.l: ko TIL mha. t htwing hta: t. Learn to Speak English ko kr. pa//

Q6. Leona working harder than any other lawyer in the firm.

<dictionary> ko kr. tat aung kr pa. <computer> pau mha < American Heritage Talking Dictionary (AHTD)> ting hta: pa// <AHTD> ht: mha < firm> hso t. sa lon: ko rha pa//

<why?> :

(S) ka. <Leona> hpric-t// <Leona> hso ta main:ma. na-m hpric t// tha.ti.hta: ra. mha ka. a.hku. prau: n t. loap-hsaung-thu hso ta <grammar> a.thon:a.nhon: hpric-t/ {thu} hso-t. a.thn pa la lo. thak-rhi. thak-m. that~ta.wa lo. ma. hting pa n.//

(verb, V) loap-hsaung-hkyak tho.ma.hoat loap-hsaung-ta sa. t. a.thon:a.nhon: tw ha <grammar> a.thon:a.nhon: tw hpric t// ta.k. a.loap ma.hoat-Bu://
a.hku. prau: n t. sa.ka:su. mha loap-hsaung-hkyak ha <work> tho.ma.hoat <working> hpric t// <-ing> pa n t// da-kraung. <working> a.rh. mha <is> <was> ta.hku. hku. pa ra. m// ma.pa lo. <incomplete> lo. hso ta hpric t//

Q7. The man threw away the garbage.

<why?> :

(S) ka. <man> hpric-pri:/
(V) ka. <threw> hpric t//
<when> lo sa.ka:lon: l: ma.pa-Bu:/ <-ing> l: ma.pa-Bu://
da-kraung. di sa.ka:su. ko <sentence> lo. hkau lo. ra. t//

Q8. The soldiers walked quietly.

<why?> :

(S) ka. <soldiers>/
(V) ka. <walked> hpric t//
<when> lo sa.ka:lon: l: ma.pa-Bu:/ <-ing> l: ma.pa-Bu:// da-kraung. <complete> hpric t//

Q9. When I have finished dusting and vacuuming, and washing, I will relax.

<why?> :

(S) ka. <I>
(V) ka. <finished> hpric t// <when> lo sa.ka:lon: pa p m./ <I will relax> pa ta kraung. <complete> hpric t//

Q10. The mayor commended the members of the local Rescue Squad.

<why?> :

(S) ka. <mayor>
(V) ka. <commanded> hpric t// <when> lo sa.ka:lon: l: ma.pa-Bu:/ <-ing> l: ma.pa-Bu:// da-kraung. <complete> hpric t//


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There are two main parts of a sentence; the subject, which is usually a noun or a pronoun, and the predicate which usually contains a verb or a verb clause. Although predicates contain verbs, they do not exactly mean the same thing.

A verb is a word which indicates an action or a state of being of the subject of the sentence.

Read more: Difference Between Verb and Predicate | Difference Between http://www.differencebetween.net/language/grammar-language/difference-between-verb-and-predicate/#ixzz4KgKayygW

There are two main parts of a sentence; the subject, which is usually a noun or a pronoun, and the predicate which usually contains a verb or a verb clause. Although predicates contain verbs, they do not exactly mean the same thing.

A verb is a word which indicates an action or a state of being of the subject of the sentence.

Read more: Difference Between Verb and Predicate | Difference Between http://www.differencebetween.net/language/grammar-language/difference-between-verb-and-predicate/#ixzz4KgKayygW

There are two main parts of a sentence; the subject, which is usually a noun or a pronoun, and the predicate which usually contains a verb or a verb clause. Although predicates contain verbs, they do not exactly mean the same thing.

A verb is a word which indicates an action or a state of being of the subject of the sentence.

Read more: Difference Between Verb and Predicate | Difference Between http://www.differencebetween.net/language/grammar-language/difference-between-verb-and-predicate/#ixzz4KgKayygW

04. Action Words: Special Problems

Many action words undergo simple changes to show changes in time. Here "time" is used in a special sense to show whether the action is (was/will be) taking place in the present, or past, or even in the future.

n~ga.laip sa.ka: mha {kri.ya} lo. hkau t. <verb> ha loap.hsaung t. {a.hkyaing} tho.ma.hoat {ka-la.} <time> pau mha mu-t t// a.hkyaing ka-la. kw: pra: lhying a.thn htwak n. sa-lon: paung: praung: thwa: ta tw. ra. t//  a.n: hsoan: sa-loan: nauk-tw: <suffix> mha hpric.hpric. praung: kra. t// ba.ma sa.ka: mha :di lo a.praung:a.hl: ma.rhi.Bu:// rhi. pa-t lo. ngring:hso la t. a.hka-myo: kya. ring a.hpr p: Bo. ka. n~ga.laip n. sa-ring a.lwan n: pa t lo. hpr ron B: rhi. t//

loap.hsaung ta-ka. a.hku. la:/ lwan-hk.t. ka-la. ka. la: hso ta ko pra.tha. ra. t//

a.hku tho.ma.hoat ya.n. a.twing: loap ta hso ring <Present action>/ lwan-hk.t. ka-la. ka. loap ta hso ring <Past action> lo. hkau t//

ka-la. pau mu-t ta ko pra. tha. hkring: ko <Tense> lo. hkau-t//
mhat-hkyak// // <tense> n. pat thak pri: <ch02.htm> mha. rhing: pra. mha hpric t. a.twak a.hku. ma. rhing: tau. Bu://

<Present action> ko <Present tense> n. pra. pri: <Past action> ko <Past tense> n. pra. pa-t//

ya.hking ka loap-hsaung-hk.ta pri:mrauk thwa:t hso-ring <Past participle> n. pra. pa-t//

Present action-words (or verbs) can be changed into past action-words, and completed past-action words.

There are two kinds of verbs: regular and irregular verbs. The difference is in the way they change depending on time.

The simplest change is the addition of an -ed ending. However, many action words use entirely different words to show these same time changes.

n~ga.laip <verb> praung:l: ta-myo: ko ba.ma sa.ka: mha ma. tw. ra. Bu:// da-kraung. mran-ma kyaung:tha: mya: doak~hka. a.tw. a.mya: hson: n ra ha <tense> hpric-t// tho.thau pa-Li. <Pali> Ba-tha  tat-kywam: thu a.twak tau. ma.htu: hsan: pa-Bu://

Examples of word changes, in order of present, past, and past participle:

1. Irregular verbs:
     <eat> (present), <ate> (past), <eaten> (past participle)
     <fall> (present), <fell> (past), <fallen> (past participle)
     <go> (present), <went> (past), <gone> (past participle)
     <sleep> (present), <slept> (past), <slept> (past participle)

2. Regular verbs:
     <fell> (present), <felled> (past), <felled> (past participle)
     <jump> (present), <jumped> (past), <jumped> (past participle)
     <look> (present), <looked> (past), <looked> (past participle)
     <talk> (present), <talked> (past), <talked> (past participle)

<verb> tic-hku. mha <past tense> twing <-ed> n. hson: tha.lo <past participle> mha l: <-ed> n. hson: ring <regular verb> lo. tha mhat pa//

a.lw-hson: <verb> praung:l:hkying: ko <regular verbs> tw mha tw. ra. pa t// tho.thau: a.thon: mya: ta ka. <irregular verbs> tw hpric kra. t//

<irregular verb> tw ha pon-sn- a.myo:myo: n. praung:kra.t// B pon-sn n. praung: m ko tht mht hta: hkring: ma.rhi.Bu:// a.lwt kyak mht ron tha hpric t//

<dictionary> tw mha p: hta: t. <verb> ka. <present tense> tha hpric t// <present tense> thi.ron n. <past tense> n. <past participle> ma. thi. neing Bu:// <dictionary> mha pra. t. pon ko <root verb> lo. hkau t//

tho.thau <electronic dictionary> tw n. <computer> pau-mha ting hta: lo. ra. t. <AHTD> ha myo: n. <internet> ka. ta. hsing. ra. t. <online dictionary> tw mha tau. <root verb> a.pring a.hkra: ha tw pa a.pr. a.son pa t//

Past participle words are always preceded by:  <has>, <had> or <have>.

To show that action is still being carried on, the verb is attached with the suffix <-ing>. Thus:

For both irregular and regular verbs:
   <eat>: <eating>
   <go>: <going>
   <sleep>: <sleeping>
   <jump>: <jumping>
   <look>: <looking>
   <talk>: <talking>

A verb ending in <-ing> always has one of the following before it: <is> <are> <was> <were>. There is an exceptional word <am>: it is used only with the subject <I> {nga} in place of <is>. (The groups of verbs <is> <are> <was> <were> etc. are the various forms of the verb 'to be')

<English Grammar> mha tw. ra. t. a.hkak-a.hk ha <verb> pau-mha a.mya:hson: mu-t n-pa-t// <verb> rhoat-htw:pon ko a.hku. a.peid mha sa.tw. ta hpric t// da.kraung. di a. peid-mha  l.kying:hkan: lw-lw B: p:tau.m//

a.keing a.tw ra. a.hkak hson: <English verb> ta.hku. ha <Verb 'to be'> hpric pa t// :th: a.kraung: ko r-wan: hta: t. sa-tam: tic.hku. ko <UKT Notes> mha. p: hta: t// :th mhat-su. tw ha kraung:tha: mya: a. twak ma.hoat Bu:/ hsa.ra mya: a.twak hpric t//


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Exercise 0401

Indicate which of the following verbs are regular and which are irregular. Look up these words in the AHTD.

01. aim aimed aimed

02. begin began begun
  03. blow blew blown 
  04. break broke broken

05. catch caught caught
  06. come came come
  07. cut cut cut

08. dance danced danced
  09. dine dined dined
  10. do did done

11. etch etched etched

12. fall fell fallen
  13. fell felled felled

14. give gave given
  15. gloat gloated gloated

16. hate hated hated
  17. hunt hunted hunted

18. ignore ignored ignored

19. join joined joined

20. kick kicked kicked

21. laugh laughed laughed
  22. lead led led

23. meet met met

24. nip nipped nipped

25. ooze oozed oozed

26. plan planned planned

27. quit quitted quitted

28. ring rang rung
  29. run ran run

30. swear swore sworn
  31. swing swung swung

32. throw threw thrown

33. utter uttered uttered

34. vow vowed vowed

35. wear wore worn
  36. write wrote written

37. yell yelled yelled

38. zip zipped zipped


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UKT notes


n. 1. A star-shaped figure (*) used in printing to indicate an omission or a reference to a footnote. -- AHTD

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n. 6. Abbr. chg. a. Money of smaller denomination given or received in exchange for money of higher denomination. b. The balance of money returned when an amount given is more than what is due. c. Coins: had change jingling in his pocket. -- AHTD

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<choir> hso ta n-son i-hso t. a.hpw. ko hso-lo t// <church choir> lo. r:hta: t. a.twak/ ta.nn~ga.nw-n. mha hka.ric-yn Bu.ra:rhi.hko:kyan: mha Dam~ma. i-hkyn: i-hso-t. a.hpw. ko prau: ta hpric-t//

choir n. 1. An organized company of singers, especially one performing church music or singing in a church. 2. a. The part of a church used by such a company of singers. b. The part of the chancel in a cruciform church that is occupied by this company of singers. 3. Music a. A group of instruments of the same kind: a string choir. b. A division of some pipe organs, containing pipes suitable for accompanying a choir. 4. An organized group: a choir of dancers. 5. One of the orders of angels. v. intr. choired choiring choirs Music 1. To sing in chorus. [Middle English quer, quire from Old French cuer from Medieval Latin chorus from Latin choral dance; See chorus ] -- AHTD

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<exam> ka. sa-m: pw: <examination> ka. la t. sa-lon: hpric t// a.rup thon: sa.ka: a.n n. lak hkan kra. p m. tak~ka.thol sa-tam: mya: twing lak ma.hkan th: Bu:// a.rh-hping. sa-lon: <examination> mha. a.Daip~p 3 myo: rhi. t//

examination n. Abbr. ex. 1. The act of examining or the state of being examined. 2. A set of questions or exercises testing knowledge or skill. 3. A formal interrogation: examination of the witness.  -- AHTD

hto a.Daip~p 3 myo: mha , <2. A set of questions or exercises testing knowledge or skill.> a.twak tha <exam> ko thon: thing. t//
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firm 2 n. 1. A commercial partnership of two or more persons, especially when unincorporated. 2. The name or designation under which a company transacts business. [Italian firma from firmare to ratify by signature from Medieval Latin firmāre from Latin to confirm from firmus firm; See dher- in IE (Indo-European) Roots.]
   Notes: In these days of agribusiness, a farm and a firm are probably closer than they have been since the time before the words farm and firm developed from the same Latin word, firm āre, to strengthen, make fast, confirm, attest, which is derived from Latin firmus, the source of firm, meaning "secure". In Medieval Latin firm āre came to mean "to ratify by signature", from which sense eventually came our word firm, first recorded in 1574 with the meaning "signature". This word firm later added the senses "designation under which a firm transacts business" and "commercial house". Latin firm āre by way of Old French also gave us Middle English ferme, the ancestor of our word farm. -- AHTD

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n. 1. a. Food wastes, as from a kitchen. b. Refuse; trash. 2. a. Worthless or nonsensical matter; rubbish: Their advice turned out to be nothing but garbage. b. Inferior or offensive literary or artistic material. -- AHTD

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by Lewis Carroll in Through the Looking-Glass and What Alice Found There, 1872, 

From: http://www.jabberwocky.com/carroll/jabber/jabberwocky.html 080430

"Beware the Jabberwock, my son!
  The jaws that bite, the claws that catch!
Beware the Jubjub bird, and shun
  The frumious Bandersnatch!"

He took his vorpal sword in hand:
  Long time the manxome foe he sought --
So rested he by the Tumtum tree,
  And stood awhile in thought.

And, as in uffish thought he stood,
  The Jabberwock, with eyes of flame,
Came whiffling through the tulgey wood,
  And burbled as it came!

One, two! One, two! And through and through
  The vorpal blade went snicker-snack!
He left it dead, and with its head
  He went galumphing back.

"And, has thou slain the Jabberwock?
  Come to my arms, my beamish boy!
O frabjous day! Callooh! Callay!'
  He chortled in his joy.

`Twas brillig, and the slithy toves
  Did gyre and gimble in the wabe;
All mimsy were the borogoves,
  And the mome raths outgrabe.

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Lewis Carroll

Dodgson, Charles Lutwidge . Pen name Lewis Carroll. 1832-1898 1. British mathematician and writer. His stories about Alice, invented to amuse the young daughter of a friend, appear in the classics Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1865) and Through the Looking-Glass (1872). -- AHTD

From: Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lewis_Carroll 080430

Rev. Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (IPA: /ˈdɒdsən/) (1832-1898), better known by the pen name Lewis Carroll (/ˈkrəl/), was an English author, mathematician, logician, Anglican clergyman and photographer. His most famous writings are Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and its sequel Through the Looking-Glass as well as the poems "The Hunting of the Snark" and "Jabberwocky", all considered to be within the genre of literary nonsense. His facility at word play, logic, and fantasy has delighted audiences ranging from children to the literary elite, and beyond this his work has become embedded deeply in modern culture, directly influencing many artists.

There are societies dedicated to the enjoyment and promotion of his works and the investigation of his life in many parts of the world including North America, Japan, the United Kingdom, and New Zealand.

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Sign language

UKT 160917
Eventually I intend to pass on the Message of Buddha - Theravada Buddhism - to hearing and speaking challenged (never use the term Deaf-Mute). See:
LANGUAGE AND SIGN - lang-sign.htm > mudra.htm

Excerpt from Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sign_language 080818

A sign language (also signed language) is a language which uses manual communication, body language and lip patterns instead of sound to convey meaningsimultaneously combining hand shapes, orientation and movement of the hands, arms or body, and facial expressions to express fluidly a speaker's thoughts. Sign languages commonly develop in deaf communities, which can include interpreters and friends and families of deaf people as well as people who are deaf or hard of hearing themselves.

Wherever communities of deaf people exist, sign languages develop. In fact, their complex spatial grammars are markedly different from the grammars of spoken languages. Hundreds of sign languages are in use around the world and are at the cores of local Deaf cultures. Some sign languages have obtained some form of legal recognition, while others have no status at all.

In addition to sign languages, various signed codes of spoken languages have been developed, such as Signed English and Warlpiri Sign Language. These are not to be confused with languages, oral or signed; a signed code of an oral language is simply a signed mode of the language it carries, just as a writing system is a written mode. Signed codes of oral languages can be useful for learning oral languages or for expressing and discussing literal quotations from those languages, but they are generally too awkward and unwieldy for normal discourse. For example, a teacher and deaf student of English in the United States might use Signed English to cite examples of English usage, but the discussion of those examples would be in American Sign Language.

Cherology is the study of how distinctly recognisable shapes and patterns function within a given language or across languages. It is functionally equivalent to phonology.

Exemplary of the mature status of sign languages is the growing body of sign language poetry, and other stage performances. The poetic mechanisms available to signing poets are not all available to a speaking poet. This offers new, exciting ways for poems to reach and move the audience.

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In linguistic terms, sign languages are as rich and complex as any oral language, despite the common misconception that they are not "real languages". Professional linguists have studied many sign languages and found them to have every linguistic component required to be classed as true languages.

Sign languages are not pantomime - in other words, signs are conventional, often arbitrary and do not necessarily have a visual relationship to their referent, much as most spoken language is not onomatopoeic. While iconicity is more systematic and wide-spread in sign languages than in spoken ones, the difference is not categorical. Nor are they a visual rendition of an oral language. They have complex grammars of their own, and can be used to discuss any topic, from the simple and concrete to the lofty and abstract.

Sign languages, like oral languages, organize elementary, meaningless units (phonemes; once called cheremes in the case of sign languages) into meaningful semantic units. The elements of a sign are Handshape (or Handform), Orientation (or Palm Orientation), Loccasion (or Place of Articulation), Movement, and Non-manual markers (or Facial Expression), summarised in the acronym HOLME.

Common linguistic features of deaf sign languages are extensive use of classifiers, a high degree of inflection, and a topic-comment syntax. Many unique linguistic features emerge from sign languages' ability to produce meaning in different parts of the visual field simultaneously. For example, the recipient of a signed message can read meanings carried by the hands, the facial expression and the body posture in the same moment. This is in contrast to oral languages, where the sounds that comprise words are mostly sequential (tone being an exception).

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Animals that use sign language: There have been several notable examples of scientists teaching non-human primates basic signs in order to communicate with humans. Notable examples are:
Chimpanzees: Washoe - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Washoe 160920
  and Loulis - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Loulis 160920
Gorillas: Michael - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael 160920
  and Koko. - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Koko 160920

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Star Cleaners

<Star Cleaners> hso ta a.wat-lhau loap-ngan: tis-hku. r. nn-m hpric t//
<capital letter> thon ta ha a.r: a.twak a a.r:kri: p m. a.prau: a.twak lon:wa. a.Dait~p ma.rhi. Bu:// a.hku. n-hkn:sa tw ka. a.r: a.twak a ma.hoat/ a.prau: a.twak l: hpric t hso-ta ma.m. pa n.//

<cleaning> hso-ta lhyau-rn a.wt n. lhyau-pri: a.wat ko hso lo t//

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<tavern> hso ta hta.mn:hsen ko hso lo t//

tavern n. 1. An establishment licensed to sell alcoholic beverages to be consumed on the premises. 2. An inn for travelers. [Middle English taverne from Old French from Latin taberna hut, tavern probably from *traberna from trabs trab-beam; See trave ] -- AHTD

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