Update: 2016-09-18 10:44 PM -0400


Burmese Grammar 1899 :
Accidence and syntax


by U Kyaw Tun (UKT), Tun Institute of Learning, http://www.tuninst.net
From Burmese Grammar and Grammatical Analysis by A. W. Lonsdale, Education Department, Burma, British Burma Press, Rangoon, 1899. Copied by UKT and staff of TIL . Start: 2008 Aug.

indx-E4MS.htm | Top

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Accidence and Syntax (fn01)
The Parts of Speech -- ch201.htm
Nouns -- ch202.htm

UKT: Britain a colonial power in the guise of a trading company, the East India Company, was expanding in the East. The armed forces of the East India Company met the Royal Burmese forces of the Burmese kings, who themselves were expansionists, on the Indian soil in Bengal in the late 18th century. The British realized the fighting ability of the Burmese, and with a looming crisis in North America, made peace with the Burmese and turned their attention to the War of 1812 with the Americans who invaded Canada. The Americans burned down York which was later rebuilt as Toronto, and the British-Canadians made a lightning strike on Washing D.C. and the President's house. The American president about to have dinner had to flee. The British-Canadians ate the dinner, dank the wine and retreated to their ships after burning down his house. The Americans later came back and white-washed their blackened President's house from which time onwards it has been known as the White House. After making peace with the Americans who had failed to "liberate" Canada, the British transferred their generals to the East and picked up the quarrel with the Burmese again. The First Anglo-Burmese War was started by the East India Company from Bengal under Governor Amherst (the nephew of Lord (General) Amherst who had earlier "defeated" the North American natives, the so-called Red Indians, by generously supplying them with small-pox-infected blankets for which he was made a lord, and his nephew a governor). Because of the superiority of arms and the lightning strike against Yangon and occupation of the Shwedagon pagoda which was immediately turned into a fort, the Burmese had to retreat and made peace with the British after paying them damages. Later, the British (no longer hiding under the name of the East India Company) started two more wars with the Burmese kings, and eventually made the whole country their colony. The flag of 1937 shown here is that of British-occupied-Burma after separation from the British-occupied-India. (Historical facts to be checked.)

Author's footnotes

UKT notes
accidenceKoanbaung Dynasty flag (1700-1885)

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Author's footnotes

fn01 It is usual to deal with these under separated heads, but in Burmese the accidence is of more importance and syntax is so simple that it readily admits of being treated of along with the accidence. fn01b

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UKT notes


accidence n. Grammar 1. The section of morphology that deals with the inflections of words. [Middle English from Late Latin accidentia from Latin accidēns accident-accident; See accident ]

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Koanbaung Dynasty flag (1700-1885)

From: http://flagspot.net/flags/mm-hist.html#hist 081109

White, a peacock [generally on a red disk or inside a red ring]. Based on a source at http://www.myanmars.net/myanmar/admin.htm. The earliest records shows that this flag was hoisted in Yangon when the Myanmar King bought Yangon back from the British for 10 million kyats in silver coins (360,000 pounds or 163,293.25 kg of silver). This flag was also hoisted on top of the Myanmar ship when minister U Kaung (Kinwun Mingyee) went to Britain during 1800s.

It has a white background, with a red peacock biting a branch of flowers. It was hoisted with a golden tip at the top of the pole. This original flag was defined as 18 feet high and 27 feet wide. -- Dov Gutterman, 30 July 2000

 The pre-British flags are not known with certainty. Legras (1858) showed a peacock in natural on a white field for the 'Burmese Empire'. Other sources showed the red ring mentioned above. -- Ivan Sache, 28 January 2001

Three wars allowed the progressive colonization of Burma by the British. The flag shown in Album des Pavillons, Laurie's Flag Chart and travellers' notebooks was the blue peacock 'rouant vert et miraillé or' (with a golden wheel 'fimbriated' in gold) on a white field. [My comment: This is the same design shown here, in contradiction to the description "White, a peacock on a red disk or inside a red ring." 'Grand Larousse du XXe siecle' shows a white peacock, outlined in black, on a white disc, surrounded by a red ring, the main field being white.] But: Franciae Vexilla #20/66, December 2000 says the *arms* showed a peacock on a red disk, with four flags with a red disk in saltire. -- Ivan Sache, 28 January 2001

UKT: During the Second World War, some nationalists helped Japan which had promised Greater Co-Prosperity Sphere for all the nations under European occupation: Burma, India and Malaysia from the British, Indochina (Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam) from the French, Indonesia from the Dutch, and Philippines from the Americans. Germany, Italy and Japan known as the Axis Powers were at war against America, Britain and French, the so-called Allies (it should be noted that these colonial powers were not "allies" of the colonies). To the Asians, the Second World War was not the War of Liberation as is known in Canada and America, but the "War of Grab-Colonies". The Allies had promised their colonies further colonization whereas Japan had promised them liberation, and naturally a lot of nationalists from the colonies helped Japan, whom the "Allies" conveniently dubbed "traitors". Japan granted independence to Burma during the year. This independent Burma was dubbed the "puppet regime", which the Axis instantly recognized. Independent Burma and the Japan exchanged ambassadors. There was the Independent Day during which the whole country rejoiced, and we as young school children were instilled with a strong love for our country, culture and language, while still retaining a respect towards other cultures and languages, such as English and Japanese.

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End of TIL file