Update: 2016-02-02 06:18 AM -0500


Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary


by Franklin Edgerton (1885–1963), Sterling Professor of Sanskrit and Comparative Philology, Yale University, Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Ltd., Delhi, 1st ed. New Haven, 1953. ISBN: 81 208-0998-x (Vol. 1), ISBN: 81 208-0997. (Set of 2 books).

Digitized by Daw Khin Wutyi from the original book. This TIL edition is edited, with additions from other sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

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BHS Lexicon


Edgerton notes
Edgerton's footnotes are continuously numbered without any reference to pages. However for this TIL edition, I have given the page numbers as well. Thus fn001-02 means, it is footnote #02 found on p001, and fn003-07 is footnote #07 found on p003.


UKT notes 


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The BHS Lexicon

1.106. The non-Sanskrit words used in BHS, aside from proper names, correspond to Pali words in the over-whelming majority of cases. Many even of the proper names have Pali correspondents. Naturally, certain linguistic alterations are more or less regularly involved, and sometimes the meaning varies. But in the great mass of cases the meaning is the same, and the changes in form are self-explanatory; so e.g. āimabhāva, 'body', = Pali attabhāva. It may, however, be worth while to cite from the Dictionary, which should be consulted for the facts regarding each word, a few Pali-BHS correspondences which are not quite so simple, either formally or semantically; anyātaka, (a-) sāṃpreya (= Pali [a-] sappāya; both forms obscure), kilāsin, kisara, kusīda and kausīdya, prahāṇa, etc.; see the Index at the end of the Dictionary. Not infrequently a BHS form is helpful on doubtful, or at least disputed, points of Pali lexicography. So, e.g., BHS praśreṣṭha, 'very superior', supports Pali paseṭṭha  ( p013c2end-p014c1begin) (Pv ii.9.75) against the PTSD emendation pasaṭṭa (for which the proper Pali form is pasattha = Skt. praśasta).

1.107. As stated above (§ 1.63), when a BHS word has a Pali correspondent known to me, my Dictionary cites that; and as a rule it cites no other. In the rare cases where corresponding words in other dialects give additional help towards understanding the BHS word, such words are also cited. When, however, I have found no correspondent in Pali, I have always tried to find one in some other M Indic source. In quite a few such cases a correspondent has been found in Prakrit, especially Ardha-Māgadhī, the canonical language of the Jains, and the vehicle of the oldest extensive literature preserved to us in any Prakrit dialect.

1.108. The following BHS words, on which see my Dictionary, have (more or less close) correspondents at least in A Mg., often also in other Prakrits, but not in Pali: (UKT ¶: I've rearranged BHS words in akshara order)
¤ agārastha, anavarāgra (closer to A Mg. than to Pali correspondent), anurāgataṃ, andhāra (Skt., Pali andhakāra), anvādiśati 'commands', aparśdhyati 'disappears', abhyaṅgeti, alinda, avaśya (osa), asita 'inauspicious, offensive',
¤ īṣi (t),
¤ utkrośayati 'exalts', uttaka(?), uttima, utthala, upapeta, urasa, ulla, ūrmi,
¤ ekāhatya, ettiya (also ettaka = Pali id.), em (for Skt. evam), eluka,
¤ kaṇṭheguṇa, kaṇḍita, kalāva, kallavāla, kaṣaṭṭa, kīrtika (hyper-Skt., cf. A Mg. kittiā = Skt. kṛttikā), korpara and kaurpara, kośikāra, khaṭṭika, khu and hu (Skt. khalu; Pali kho, before vowels khv-), -khuttaṃ or -khutto,
¤ gomukhī, goṣṭhika, gaura-khara,
¤ carpaṭaka (?), choḍayati or chor⁰,
¤ tāyin, tiriccha, tuṇa, trehika,
¤ tharatharāyate,
¤ diśi, daumya,
¤ nakula (a musical instrument), nandī (-mukhā), nayuta, niśṛṇoti, niṣkuṭa,
¤ parisāmanta, pāṇa (= caṇḍāla), pāri, puṣkarasārī, phalikha,
¤ bhukṣa (and congeners), bhramarikā,
¤ miṇḍha, murava, mohaṃ,
¤ vallarī, vāsīcandanakalpa, vidhūna, veṣṭ, vaiśramaṇa,
¤ śaniścara,
¤ haḍi, hastala.
The list does not claim to be complete, but is thought to contain a good proportion of the clear and important cases. Cf. the Index at the end of the Dictionary.

1.109. There are also words not found in Skt., Pali, or A Mg., but with correspondents, more or less close, in some other Prakrit, Ap., or the Deśīnāmamālā: (UKT ¶: I've rearranged BHS words in akshara order)
¤ avidhaṃ or avidhā, ārāgayati, āvārī,
¤ upalagna,
¤ edānīm,
¤ kāhala, kṣaṇika,
¤ guhmita,
¤ cakoraka,
¤ tīmayati, ¤ daṇḍavāsika, dūṣika, 1 dvīpika,
¤ nirviśiṣṭa,
¤ palāna, paligodha, popphala,
¤ muṣaṇa,
¤ viparokṇa, vella.

1.110. Finally, there are quite a good many words ( p014c1end-p014c2begin) recorded nowhere else than in BHS. Many of these are proper names, mostly of transparent formation. Many others are equally transparent and simple in formation; the lack of record of them elsewhere may often be accidental. Not a few, on the contrary, are completely obscure in formation, and sometimes of uncertain meaning; even the reading may frequently be questioned. The mss. of the Mahāvastu, especially, contain many dubious forms, which are extensively emended by Senart, often successfully, but I fear often unsuccessfully. It has not seemed to me profitable to list such problematic or obscure forms at this point. Nor, on the other hand, shall I present here formations which are made with elements and in ways normal to either Sanskrit or Middle Indic, so that the fact that I have failed to find them elsewhere may be only an accident.

1.111. I shall, however, mention a few samples of specific BHS vocabulary, tending to prove my thesis that we are dealing with a real language, not a modification or corruption of any other dialect on record, and as individual in its lexicon as it has been shown to be in its grammar. (UKT ¶)

UKT 160201: If BHS were a real language, then, what is the language. At this point of my understanding of Skt-Dev and Pal-Myan, I venture to suggest that it is Old Magadhi which has been Sanskritized somewhat and has its script changed from Asokan Brahmi to scripts resembling Devanagari . Because of this position, I have intended to use it to bridge Pal-Myan of U Hoke Seing to Skt-Dev of A. A. Macdonell.

These words seem textually reliable, not mere corruptions. For the most part they are not wholly obscure in etymology. And I have found no record of them elsewhere. One of the most interesting is parindāmi, or parīndāmi (also anu-pa⁰), 'I hand over, present, deliver'. It seems clearly related to Skt. paridadāti, of like meaning; BHS has anuparītta, 'handed over' (but I find no anupari-dā in Skt., Pali, or Pkt.). Others, on which see the Dict., are: 1 akhila 'ungentle, harsh' a ṇvati, 'goes'; 2 adhyālambati, 'grasps'; anyatra (1), 'on the contrary;' apak ṣāla, 'fault'; abhich ādayati, 'presents'; abhis āra, 'gift, honorarium'; utpl āvayati, 'leads astray', also utpl āvaka; ṛg-iti, rig-iti, ṛṭ-iti, 'instantly'; ṛlla (ka), 'prizefighter;' kākhorda, an evil spirit (Iranian loan?); chāri (y) a,⁰yā); jitam, interj. of astonishment; jihma in the meanings 'obscure, deprived of light dull' and 'disappointed, depressed', with derivatives; nirmādayati, 'washes'; palikuńc (ik)a, ⁰cikā, '(thatched) hut (of straw)'; puḍinī, 'pool'; pūri, pūri, 'fulfilling, full measure'; prativahati, 'opposes, rejects, disobeys', and n. act. prativahana; prativibudhyate, 'wakes up', especially common in the ppp. prativibuddha; bhit (t)- vara; yad uta; viḍaṅgikā; sukhila, 'happy', and duḥkhila, 'unhappy'; sumbhaka, 'bowl', and sumbhalikā. This list could be considerably extended. (p014c2end)

UKT: End of Introduction

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Edgerton Footnote

Edgerton's footnotes are continuously numbered without any reference to pages. However for this TIL edition, I have given the page numbers as well. Thus fn001-02 means, it is footnote #02 found on p001, and fn003-07 is footnote #07 found on p003.

UKT: No Edgerton footnotes on p014.

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UKT notes



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End of TIL file