Update: 2016-02-23 08:18 PM -0500


Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary


by Franklin Edgerton (1885–1963), Sterling Professor of Sanskrit and Comparative Philology, Yale University, Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Ltd., Delhi, 1st ed. New Haven, 1953. ISBN: 81 208-0998-x (Vol. 1), ISBN: 81 208-0997 (Set of 2 books. Bought from Amazon - CDN$62.37)

Scanned from the original book by Dr. Zin Tun, up to p009, and digitized by Daw Khin Wutyi. From p010 onwards, Daw Khin Wutyi has typed from the original book which I (U Kyaw Tun) have brought with me on my trip from DeepRiver to Yangon where Daw Khin Wutyi is based. This TIL edition is edited, with additions from other sources, by U Kyaw Tun (UKT) (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of Tun Institute of Learning (TIL) . Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone. Prepared for students and staff of TIL Research Station, Yangon, MYANMAR :  http://www.tuninst.net , www.romabama.blogspot.com

UKT 140315: I am finding Edgerton's Vol. 1, to be a very useful introduction. The small print was too much for my eyes until my able assistant Daw KhinWutyi started to digitize them from my research station in Yangon. The pages were scanned from the ink-on-paper book by my son Dr. Zin Tun. They are sent via email to Yangon to Wutyi who digitized them into html. Back they came to me in Canada to be checked, edited and included in this work.

UKT 140118, 160120: I am using vol.2 as a bridge between Classical Sanskrit of Panini (different from Vedic), and Pali as spoken in Myanmarpré (Pal-Myan). I contend that Pal-Myan is directly related to Magadhi the speech of King Asoka and Gautama Buddha. Based on the opinion of Rev. F. Mason, author of A Pali grammar on the basis of Kaccayano {rhïn kic~sæÑ:}, 1868, - PEG-indx.htm(link chk 160120), I intend to use, whenever appropriate, the term Mag-Myan (Magadhi speech written in Myanmar script) which I hope will replace the term Pal-Myan.

In reading through BHS Grammar and Dictionary, please keep in mind that my interest in Indic languages is purely linguistic. I have no wish to be involved in religious, and geo-politically issues which have existed throughout the pre- and the modern-history of the human race. Please also remember that the original indigenous peoples of the Indian subcontinent and SEAsia spoke Tib-Bur languages.


index.htm | Top

Contents of this page

i01. Languages used in early Buddhism -- i01early.htm
i02. An 'original language' of Buddhism -- i02original.htm
i03. Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit -- i03BHS.htm
i04. Changes in the course of tradition -- i04changes.htm
i05. Plan and methods of this work -- i05plan-methods.htm
i06. Sanskrit vs Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit -- i06Skt-vs-BHS.htm
i07. The Prakrit underlying BHS -- i07Prakrit-BHS.htm 
i08. BHS lexicon -- i08BHS-lex.htm

Be careful of the numbering of pages, sections and paragraphs. Because of lengthy footnotes, p006 for example has only paragraph 1.39, and 1.40 short of two last lines. The following page p007, begins with two last lines of paragraph 1.40, and continues with 1.41, 1.42, 1.43, 1.44, 1.45, the first two lines of 1.46. Page p007 has no footnote.  
Edgerton's footnotes are continuously numbered without any reference to pages.
  In a way, I have made the numbering more complex by using sub-headings such as "Languages used in early Buddhism", "An 'original language' of Buddhism", "Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit", and "Changes in the course of tradition".

p01. (begins on p015)

Indic scripts : the derivatives of Asokan - indic.indx.htm (link chk 160223)
- by UKT, from Unicode Standard Version 4 by Unicode Consortium , and other sources
The scripts and languages to be studied for comparison to Bur-Myan & Mon-Myan:
1. Devanagari, for comparison to Pal-Myan
2. Bengali, for comparison to Bur-Myan
3. Tamil, for comparison to Mon-Myan
4. Néwari aka Nepal-Bhasa of Katmandu valley of Nepal where
  the remnants of Gautama Buddha's blood-relatives still survive -
  See: A comparative and etymological dictionary of the Nepali language.
  - by Sir. R. L. Turner, 1931 -
http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/turner/ 160120

UKT notes
BEPS consonants
BEPS vowels
Doggie's Tale


UKT 160120: People, individuals as well as in sizable groups, have been travelling overland through the mountain passes of the north. Magadhi speakers of Magadha Mahajanapada (which has been curved out into geo-polical units of Kosala kingdom, Magadha kingdom, Republic of Shakyas, etc. in Ancient times, and India, Nepal, etc. in modern times) have been moving in and out of northern Myanmarpré from thousands of years before the the time of Gautama Buddha. Magadha speech would have been well known in northern Myanmarpré. Since Magadha script on the Asokan pillars (which is now unwitting called the "Brahmi" even though the Bramin-Poannars could not decipher it when called upon by their Muslim emperor in the 13th century) has survived in the form of Myanmar script, the correct term for "Pali as spoken in Myanmarpré" is no other than Mag-Myan.

Bur-Myan and Mag-Myan (Pal-Myan) both belong to the Tib-Bur linguistic group. On the other hand, Pali spoken in Sri Lanka on which the International Pali is based is mixed with Austro-Asiatic languages and Indo-European (IE) linguistic group. This Pal-Lanka was then brought to the Mons of southern Myanmarpré, and then taken to north. Thus, Pal-Lanka and Pal-Myan are not the same. And therefore Mag-Myan is more appropriate than Pal-Myan. Now what I would like to dearly see is Old Magadhi - spoken by Gautama Buddha and King Asoka - reconstructed from the related Tib-Bur languages. A very fitting language to be studied is the present speech of the Néwars (नेवार) of the Kathmandu Valley. See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newar_people 160120
and, - http://worldpubliclibrary.org/articles/newar_/_nepal_bhasa_language 160118

Contents of this page

UKT notes

BEPS consonants

- UKT 140610
The following table does not include additional aksharas for Mon-Myan. It is to be used mainly for Romabama which is based on Bur-Myan phonology. Mon-Myan belonging to Austro-Asiatic linguistic group has a different phonology, and speaker of one language cannot comprehend the language of the other. Yet, he or she can get some idea from the spellings of many words especially those of Buddhist and other common folk beliefs. It is the basis of my motto

Speech (spoken language) divides:
Script (written language) unites.

Myanmar akshara, based on circularly rounded script is the unifying bridge of many ethnics ("races" - no longer politically correct) of peoples living for centuries in the fair land known as Myanmarpré. All peoples are Myanmars: whether they be Bama, Karen, Mon or Shan, etc. They are all Myanmars and they all use the Myanmar akshara to write their languages. There are a few exceptions. It is my genuine desire to bring them back.

See the positions of BEPS consonants in the IPA table below.

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BEPS vowels

- UKT 140409

Unless you realized that Magadhi and its descendant Pali are not Indo-European languages you will never  understand the root of the problem of what Edgerton has described as: "in Pali the notorious substitution of e  {É} for o  {AW} a {än} " on page 4 footnote 11 of his Introduction -- i02original.htm  

In order to understand it we have to go at least into:

¤ 1. the phonology of Bur-Myan in the BEPS (Burmese, English, Pali, &Sanskrit speeches written in Myanmar, IPA-English, & Devanagari scripts).

¤ 2. The paucity of nasals in English and Sanskrit (IE languages).

¤ 3. The differentiation between vow-let (vowel-letters) and vow-sign (vowel-signs) in Devanagari and Myanmar aksharas.

Go back BEPS-vow-note-b

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Doggie's Tale

-- UKT 130613

Mnemonic The Doggie Tale: 
Little doggie cringe in fear -- ŋ (velar),
  Seeing Ella's flapping ears -- ɲ (palatal)
  And, the Shepard's hanging rear -- ɳ (retroflex).
Doggie so sad he can't get it out
  What's that Kasha क्ष when there's a Kha ख ?
  And when there's Jana ज्ञ what I am to do with Jha झ?
On top of all there're hissers, Sha श /ʃ/ and Ssa ष /s/,
  when I am stuck with Theta स /θ/ !" 

Note to digitizer: you can copy and paste the following:
Ā ā Ē ē Ī ī Ō ō Ū ū
Ḍ ḍ Ḥ ḥ Ḷ ḷ Ḹ ḹ Ṁ ṁ Ṃ ṃ
Ṅ ṅ Ñ ñ Ṇ ṇ Ṛ ṛ Ṝ ṝ Ś ś Ṣ ṣ Ṭ ṭ ɕ ʂ
• Instead of Skt-Dev ः {wic~sa.} use "colon" :
• Avagraha ऽ use apostrophe
• Root sign √ ; approx ≅
• Dev: च «ca» छ «cha»  श ś [ɕ] /ʃ/ ; ष ṣ [ʂ] /s/; स s [s] /θ/ ; ऋ {iRi.} & ॠ {iRi},
  viram ् , rhotic ऋ ृ
• Skt-Dev special phonemes: Ksa
• Undertie in Dev transcription: ‿ U203F
• IPA-, Pali- & Sanskrit nasals: ŋ ṅ ṅ ,  ñ ñ , ɳ ṇ ṇ, n n n , m m m
  Pali- & Skt {þé:þé:ting}: aṁ , aṃ 
  BHS - Ṃ ṃ Ṇ ṇ
• IPA symbols: ɑ ɒ ə ɛ ɪ ɯ ʌ ʊ ʃ ʧ ʤ θ ŋ ɲ ɳ ɴ ɔ ɹ ʔ /kʰ/ /ː/
  <church> /ʧɜːʧ/ (DJPD16-097)
  <success> /sək'ses/ (DJPD16-515)
  <thin> /θɪn/ (DJPD16-535), <thorn> /θɔːn/ (DJPD16-535)
  circumflex-acute :
  ấ U+1EA5 , ế U+1EBF
  upsilon-vrachy  ῠ 
  small-u-breve  ῠ ŭ

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End of TIL file