Mon-Myanmar salutation<))
We start with a salutation to our teacher, Siddhartha Gautama,
whose First Four Laws, and Anatta Principle are the earliest
scientific observations in the history of mankind.

Published: 2021-February
2021-02-11 04:03 PM -0500
Published at the end of every month

TIL (Tun Institute of Learning)
A subsidiary of Tun Investment Limited, incorporated in Ontario, CANADA
Founders: U Kyaw Tun and Daw Thanthan Tun
Contacts at TIL Research centre, Yangon, MYANMAR:
- Office: 01-752-7388
- Daw Mar Mar Oo : 09-501-4015
- Daw Khin Wutyi : 09-511-3477
- Daw Zinthiri Han : 09-250-533846

TIL website originated as a family website of the Tun Family whose members are now spread out in Canada, Myanmarpr, and Singapore. Please visit the Tun's - Family website - update 2019Dec

Contents of this page

Contents of this page : Sections

UKT 201019: Because of my interest in many subjects, sometimes deep and sometimes cursory, I need sections (folder names in CAPITAL letters) and subsections (folder names either in capital letters, small letters, and mixed). But my overwhelming interest is in my beloved Myanmar script, and all other interests go to further my knowledge of Burmese speech in Myanmar script or Bur-Myan.
UKT 201028: TIL Editor has failed to update the files in folders regularly. This reason is because there are many text-files on different subjects in primary folders (name in capital letters). Now, he will have to see that no files are left being unedited for a long time stretching into years. His present task is to consolidate the AK files into AK-BNKs. See TIL Editor's index.
See also: Gifts for Theravada Buddhists and Bur-Myan calendar (UKT 210116: Because of Covid restrictions the calendar issued by Abhidhamma Association is not available because of which TIL Bur-Myan calendar presentation will be discontinued indefinitely.)

Section 1:
1.01. What is BEPS or Binpathak {ba.n~pa-ak} / {bn~pa-ak} BEPS and Romabama (Abugida-Syllable representation)
1.02. Mathematics - the sister of Linguistics. Episodic History of Mathematics Boolian Law of Thought Mathematical analysis of Law of Karma
1.03. Quantum theory Mathematical Language of Quantum Theory
1.04. Ye'dhamma - the famous summation of Buddhism Doctrine of Salvation - a Christian idea

See also Appendix and Material from old files

Contents of this page

Section 2:

2.01. Human voice and Voice-sound production Human sound production Alphabet-Letter representation of human voice voice-quality (Ledefoged's Burmese vl nasals)

2.02. Phonetics for Myanmar
English pronunciation guide
English Pronouncing Dictionary
English Phonetics and Phonology,
Westerner's view of Surd and Sonants
English idioms of native-speakers 
Phonetics for Myanmar: Univ. of Lausanne in China (UNIL-China)

2.03. English for Myanmar
Grammar Glossary ,
TIL Grammar Glossary - GramGloss-indx.htm,
English Grammar in Plain Language

See also Appendix and Material from old

Contents of this page

Section 3:

Language acquisition and teaching by E. D. Brown Language Acquisition and Teaching English for Myanmar (E4M) Computer Assisted Teaching of ENGLISH (CATE) including: Stories from Canada, TriplePlay for Grade 1 to 4 Learn to Speak English (LSE): for Grade 5 and above, including chapters 1-15 and 16-30 Burmese for Foreign Friends (BUR4FF) Computer Assisted Teaching of Malay (CATE-Malay)

See also Appendix and Material from old

Contents of this page

Section 4:

Language as Script {sa} Language as Writing Language and Meaning Language and Religion Language and Sign Language and Society Language and Thought Buddha's Mother-tongue : Language problem of Primitive Buddhism Dhammapada verses in Bur-Myan
Dissent and Protest Bhagavagita and Ishvaragita Mahayana and Vijrayana Buddhism Paritta and Truth

See also Appendix and Material from old

Contents of this page

Section 5:
Myanmar {mrn~ma} languages and culture

5.1. Romabama {ro:ma.ba.ma}.
5.2. Burmese speech (Tibeto-Burman group).
5.3. Bur-Myan Grammars : A 200 year Odyssey (1814 - to present) - Highlight of 2021 February update  
5.4. Mon-Myan Grammar : Mon (Peguan & Martaban) language speech (Austro-Asiatic group).
5.5. Myanmar Religions : organized and folk,
5.6. Collection of papers .
5.7. Law and Legal perspectives .
5.8. Georgian-Mkhedruli script of Georgian language .,

See also Appendix and Material from old

Contents of this page

Section 6:
Pali {pa-Li.} and the lost languages

Pali Introduction. 6.1. Boadkric {boaD~hka.ric}. 6.2. Dialects of Pali. 6.3. Prakrit 6.4. Old Magadhi. 6.5 Ardha Magadhi. 6.6. Npali and Nwari. 6.7. BMBI index and A Pal-Myan-Engl Dict. of Noble Words of Buddha by U Myat Kyaw and U San Lwin. 
6.8. BMCI index - based on the works of Rev. A. Judson (in prepn).
6.9. UPMT - The Student's Pali-English Dictionary
6.10. UHS and UPMT combined Pali dictionary.
6.11. Pali grammar 

I opine that since both Pali {pa-Li. sa.ka:} and Sanskrit {n-skRRi.ta. sa.ka:} were both descended from Magadhi {ma-ga.Di sa.ka:} the Tib-Bur language, {pa-Li.} & {n-skRRi.ta.} could be integrated.

Contents of this page

Section 7:
Sanskrit {n-skRRi.ta.} - the language used by both Hindus and Buddhists   

Sanskrit Introduction. 7.1. Pronunciation of word Sanskrit   (BEPS: {n-skRRait} --> {Sn-skRc})

Sanskrit Dictionaries
Sanskrit Grammars
There are 16 basic vowels in BEPS to handle all the four speeches. The vowels in Bur-Myan, and Skt-Dev are given by both Vowel-Letter, and Vowel-Sign.

UKT 190802: You'll notice the problem is with the {a.a.wuN} vowels, which probably was noticed by Myanmar monks when they tried to reconcile Pali-Lanka with Bur-Myan (which eventually gives rise to modern Pali-Myan). Lankan language belongs to Aus-Asi group which is different from Burmese the Tib-Bur language, and the vowel-system is quite different. Pali-Lankan has only two tones whereas Bur-Myan has three :

Pali-Myan: {a.}, {a}
Bur-Myan: {a.}, {a}, {a:}.

The artificial group of languages, BEPS {ba.n-pa-ak}, is studied to arrive at a one-to-one transcription/transliteration between Bur-Myan and Eng-Lat based on one-to-one transcription/transliteration between Pal-Myan and Skt-Dev.

UKT 200429: Remember, Bur-Myan is non-rhotic, whereas both Pal-Myan and Skt-Dev are rhotic. I haven't realized how the arrangement of vowels or vowel-order is as important as the consonantal-matrix (showing the arrangement of POAs), until I studied the vowels in my Practical Sanskrit Dictionary for Buddhists and Hindus , a second time beginning in 2020 April. See p006-2.htm (link chk 200429)

Since, I rely on the shapes of the graphemes and their relation to "deeper meaning" to check my work, I need another language with an unrelated script, such as the Bengali script.

The first choice Bengali script was been found unsuitable because of transliteration of vowels /e/ and /au/, which use the split-vowel as in English use of "Magic e" exemplified by <kit> --> <kite>. I'm still looking for another.

Ordinary English (Eng-Lat) cannot be used in my work and I've to use IPA-Latin which does not use "end e".

Telugu is also unsuitable because of the confusing "not perfectly rounded script. A script that I've overlooked is the Gujarati derived from Ardha Magadhi, just as Myanmar had been derived from Old Magadhi. Gujarati is also similar to Devanagari, but free from top-horizontal bar.

UKT 180627: It is not commonly known that Skt-Dev is used for both Hinduism - the Atta religion, and also for Buddhism - the Anatta religion. I'm trying to compare the entries in Skt-Dev entries to Pal-Myan in U Hoke Sein's dictionary. I occasionally check the entries with Skt-Eng Dictionary, by T. Benfey, 1866, in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
 - TBenfey-SktEngDict<> / Bkp<> (link chk 200308)
   UKT: Page numbers from the original book are given: I'm going by PDF pages. There are 1181 pdf pages.
   The first consonant {ka.} क begins from p165.
Edgerton's is from:
- FEdgerton-BHSD<> / Bkp<> (link chk 200308)

Contents of this page

Section 8: Myanmar: what the Earth has to say

Forget the ancient written records on stone, gold and silver sheets, and other writing materials - a lot of them based on the fertile imaginations of the authors - ancient and modern. This section deals with Cosmology, Geology, Geography and Paleoanthropology.

Who were our ancient ancestors, and how did they fared during geological changes from the days when the Earth was formed, continents drifted,  new oceans come into being while old ones dried up and their floors raised to become high mountains? How did the changing geography shaped our ancestors, to make us what we are today? How did the land which we call our country come to have so many minerals and varied fauna and flora? 

Contents of this page

Section 9: Para-medicine
This section includes:
Para-Medicine {pa.ra.hs:}
Plant Taxonomy, Lawrence, 1951

Contents of this page

Appendix :
Rathe or Rishi
Medaw or Mother-goddess
If you are a Theravada Buddhist
Burmese-Myanmar calendar
Note on Sections and Ratings

Contents of this page


Salutations to the Greatest Teacher of All Times

UKT 180916: As a skeptical scientist, I do not pray in the religious sense. I made my salutations to the greatest teacher, Gautama Buddha, in the language of my great grandmother:

{na.mau:boad~Da-ya.aid~Dn} : Mon salutation<))

We start with a salutation to our teacher, Siddhartha Gautama, whose First Four Laws, and Anatta Principle are the earliest scientific observations in the history of mankind.

I keep myself reminded of the fundamental concept of Theravada Buddhism - the Anatta Principle - the ever-changing world including what we deem as our own Self. Change Death is a natural phenomenon - not to be feared: live your Present Life as happily as you can, but expect Change at every turn. Theravada Buddhism - more precisely the first two sermons of Rishi Siddhartha Gautama (formerly the Crown Prince of the Sakka Republic of the Magadha Mahajanapada {ma-ga.Da. ma.ha-za.na.pa.da.}  'foot-hold of Magadhi speakers') who became known as the Buddha (the sage, the teacher) - is an Non-Axiomatic religion.

Theravada Buddhism is Non-Axiomatic, just as Modern Science is. It is a philosophy which had been termed religion. It is for the Living, those still very much alive and kicking. Being Non-Axiomatic, it is not based on "self-proclaimed Truths" such as a Universal Creator and Creation not supported by any modern scientific observation. It is for the Living, not for the Dead. As a scientist, I neither affirm nor deny the existence of a former or a future life.

However, I am finding that most of my friends of my age-group are very much against the very mention of Death. I keep myself reminded of Death - the Maraṇānussati, with a pix from Maraṇānussati Kammatthana from Rev. Jandure Pagngnananda Thero (釋明高),
-- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LWQ9-VaksmI 151005.

Now, a little philosophy of my own:

Why be content sucking your thumb?
Big Toe is the better one!
Inevitably the Hair Cut will surely come!

Out of my consideration for those who are afraid of Death I have replaced the Maraṇānussati pix with a sequential pix on what we have already gone through. We have all started out as Little Ones!  

In the meantime, go on dreaming of becoming a king,
Living on promises of Axiomatic religious teachers
Who themselves have died
Not to be found among the Living on this Earth!

UKT 151018: Zoroaster (fl. between 1700 and 1300 BCE) was the founder of Zoroastrianism  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zoroastrianism 151018
The religious text, Avesta is written in Cuneiform script.

In days before my generation, the Little Ones in Burma - every little boy of age 6 or 7 - not to get wrong ideas of life as promised by of the Axiomatic religious teachers, were sent to the monasteries to be educated by monks.

UKT 160623, 170530: Now those who usually criticize me have come out against me. I have been asked to explain my views on Communications from After-the-Death state (Spiritualism) in particular about Planchette or Ouija-board
See: Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Planchette 160623

As a scientist of early 20th century, I consider the After-the-Death State as an open question. In Myanmarpr, the equivalent of Planchette is {hpya-laip nt} Ma Aung Phyu .
See: Myanmar Times, https://www.mmtimes.com/lifestyle/17285-the-ghost-guide-6-terrifying-ghouls-of-myanmar.html 181005

Now, even the ever-enquiring physical scientist have come out against my early 20th century scientific notions: is it possible that After-the-Death state be a natural phenomenon like Quantum Entanglement.* See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_entanglement 170530

"Quantum entanglement is a physical phenomenon that occurs when pairs or groups of particles are generated or interact in ways such that the quantum state of each particle cannot be described independently of the others, even when the particles are separated by a large distance -- instead, a quantum state must be described ... "

*UKT : See research on Parapsychology conducted by Dr. Stevenson.
See: Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ian_Stevenson 181006.
But always remember, scientific theories can always go the way The Phlogiston Theory did!
See: Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phlogiston_theory 181006

Maybe, it's time for me to lay to rest the 20th century scientist in me, and join Nataraj in his dance! Is it going to be Tandavam or Nadanta ? Go on line and see what I mean.

UKT 130501: TIL website originated as a family website of the Tun Family whose members are now spread out in Canada, Myanmarpr, and Singapore. Prof. U Kyaw Tun (1934- ), and his wife Daw Than Than (1930-2004) both ethnic Bur-Myan, but now naturalized Canadians are the founding members. Daw Than Than has completed her life: it only remains for me, U Kyaw Tun, to complete mine. I am now 86 (on 200319). My physical body is not important for me, but for those who would like to see my likeness, I usually post only a caricature of myself (drawn by a Canadian artist) and my signature with which I sign my work.

Contents of this page

Section 1.


Which is more important: speech or script?

By "language" we usually mean "speech" and not the "script" which records "speech" in writing on paper, palm-leaves, stone, sheets of metallic gold and silver. Those who have studied more than two languages know that if you insist on correct pronunciation - the important aspect of speech, you'll soon lost tract of the message or essence what the original language means.

What I'm doing is the unification of "message" or "meaning" in four speeches - Burmese, English, Pali, and Sanskrit - each written in its own script. The scripts involved is Myanmar script (used all over the country known as Myanmarpr for indigenous speeches including Burmese), the IPA-English (ordinary English is non-phonetic and cannot be used), and Devanagari (used in India for many speeches including Sanskrit and Hindi). But then for inter-translation (neither transcription nor transliteration). The four speeches-scripts are Bur-Myan, Eng-Latin, Pal-Myan, and Skt-Dev. The intermediate language is the international English and for spelling Romabama {ro:ma.bama}.

UKT 180916, 191126: This section will be elaborated on the nested page under the above index. The following is the general introduction to the nested files concerning this section.

Contents of this page

1.01. Binpathak and Romabama - Binpathak-indx.htm 

The ability to communicate with each other of the species by use of Language involving syntax is a human achievement. We Communicate about the worldly affairs and also about philosophical questions. Another human achievement is the ability to count - the basis of Mathematics.

We know very well that other forms of life, such as Apes and Birds - the higher species of Animalia living in air, and on land - also communicate with each other by making Calls . Calls do not have syntax and are therefore are not Language. Language and calls use air as medium to carry sound waves between the speaker (or caller) and the listener.

Other higher forms of Animalia (animals living in water such as Dolphins and Whales) also communicate with each other by making calls. In their case it is water which acts as the medium to carry sound waves. You'll be surprised to know that Dolphins not only communicate with each other using Language (and calls) but also Mathematics. What about philosophy? We simply don't know. Read: Dolphins may be maths geniuses , Jennifer Viegas , Discovery News, 2012Jul18
- https://www.abc.net.au/science/articles/2012/07/18/3548573.htm 201030
But first let's talk about mathematics in the next section.

Contents of this page

1.02. Mathematics: the sister discipline of linguistics - math-indx.htm

Just as language is important for a human to communicate with another, is his ability to count - from which our knowledge of mathematics has evolved. If language is just a skill for communication within one species, what about other species such as apes and dolphins. Since they do communicate with one another, their means of communication must be other than language. If they have the communicative skill, these non-human species might (my emphasis on might) have mathematical skills not like our mathematics.

Whatever the case may be a modern educated person must have some idea of modern mathematics. That might be impossible for many of us. But at least we should know how our human mathematics evolve. Now read Episodic History of Mathematics : by S. G. Krantz, 2006 . Read this as an introduction in the TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries. Be prepared for some surprises, such as one on celebrated Pythagoras Theorem:
- SGKrantz-EpisodicHistMath<> / Bkp<> (link chk 201030)
"Mathematical history is exciting and rewarding, and it is a significant slice of the intellectual pie. A good education consists of learning different methods of discourse, and certainly mathematics is one of the most well-developed and important modes of discourse that we have. - p.roman04.
"And in fact it [Pythagoras Theorem] is one of the most ancient mathematical results. There is evidence that the Babylonians and the Chinese knew this theorem nearly 1000 years before Pythagoras." - p003
Note: Pythagoras, fl 6th century B.C. - AHTD

Mathematics is another tool to study and describe subjects which cannot be described by language.

Contents of this page

1.03.  Quantum theory - Quantum-indx.htm - update 2020Oct

Reality and Quantum Theory , by U Kyaw Tun

Mathematical Language of Quantum Theory, by T. Heinosaari and M. Ziman, Cambridge Univ. Press, 2012

Contents of this page

1.04. 1.05. Ye'dhamma, the famous summation of Buddhism

UKT 200301: Buddhism, at least the first four laws generally known as the Four Noble Truths, the doctrine of Anatta, and the 24 roots of action or Patthāna of Theravada Buddhism do not involving any axiomatic assumptions of God and Salvation. It is acceptable to modern Science in this modern age of the Thermodynamics and Space travel . 

Since the laws of Noble Truth  - Law of Suffering and its derivatives, the Law of the Cause of Suffering, the Law of Freedom from Suffering (Extinction), and the  - are enough for this present Life - from Birth to Death - you need not pay attention to what follows Death and Reincarnation.

You can believe in Previous existences and After-Death existences, or reject these unproven ideas. If you do believe in the Law of Karma, you can be classified as a Karmatic Buddhist. I, for one, is a Nibbanic Buddhist - trying to realize the Law of Freedom (not Extinction) in this very Life.
The famous summation of Buddhism, Ye'dhamma, in Pali & translation, which few Burmese Buddhists (including myself at onetime) know: 

UKT 190129: Interpretations:
"Laws" - natural laws - such as "all sentient beings are not free from mental suffering "
"Cause" - "attachment to material things such as a living person, or one who has died, or a non-living thing such as an object like a building, a stupa, a book, or a stone, or immaterial things such as an axiom, a doctrine, a duty, an episode, or an idea such as an -ism
"Freedom from Mental Suffering" - the human-being (a sentient being) can overcome attachment and become free from suffering : sometimes misinterpreted as Extinction.

Note: The sentient being mentioned above must be human born of a human mother and a human father. Axiomatic beings such as gods (Brahmas, Devas, etc. -- all those who could not be seen), and half-humans such as born of a human mother and a god are excluded. Thus God or gods in spite of their "super-natural powers" cannot overcome attachment and are inferior to human-beings. Also note that Terms such as Nibban {naib~baan}, Samsara {n-a.ra}, Previous life {ya.hkn Ba.wa.}, Next life {nauk Ba.wa.} should be avoided because of certainty of controversy.

Even if you are not a Buddhist -- a scientist may be -- you can accept the first three laws, viz. Law of Suffering, Law of the Cause of Suffering, and Law of Extinction. But can you accept the fourth: a body of eight rules by the practice of which you can make yourself Perfect, and realize the End or Extinction? One of the rules requires that you must hold the Right View.
See Wikipedia: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noble_Eightfold_Path#Right_view 191117, 201017
   "The Eightfold Path consists of eight practices: right view, right resolve, right speech, right conduct, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right samadhi  {a.ma-Di.} ('meditative absorption or union'). [4][UKT ]
   "In early Buddhism, these practices started with understanding that the body-mind works in a corrupted way (right view), followed by entering the Buddhist path of self-observance, self-restraint, and cultivating kindness and compassion; and culminating in dhyana {Za-na.} or samadhi, {a.ma-Di.}, which reinforces these practices for the development of the body-mind.[5] [UKT ]
   "In later Buddhism, insight (prajā) {pi~a} became the central soteriological [the doctrine of salvation*] instrument, leading to a different concept and structure of the path,[5][6] in which the "goal" of the Buddhist path came to be specified as ending ignorance and rebirth. [7] [8] [9] [3] [10]


Doctrine of Salvation : a Christian idea

UKT 201017: The Doctrine of Salvation is a Christian idea, with God salvaging "sinners" from Hell. The Buddhist idea is the Liberation of an individual from the Mental Suffering. The ideas are radically different. In the Christian idea, the reformed "sinner" is taken to Heaven to serve God .
See: Reclaiming the Zayat Ministry: Witness to the Gospel among Burmese Buddhists Buddhists Myanmar, by Lazarus Fish, 2002 :
- LFish-ZayatMissionJudson<> / Bkp<> (link chk 201017)
"Adoniram Judson, the first American Protestant overseas missionary, brought the gospel to Burmese people in 1813. He preached the gospel to them for five years (1813-1818), but no Burmese people were converted to Christianity. During this period, he discovered the importance of the zayat ministry and began to utilize it as a means for communicating the gospel to the Burmese people."


Contents of this page

Section 2


Remember hearing is more important than articulation. It is your ear that will teach you the nearest pronunciation. Even then what is important is the message {Dm~ma.} - not the correct pronunciation {an}.

Gautama Buddha the Wise let his monks pass on his message according to how the local audience could understand. He knew that if he had stipulated that his monks use the correct pronunciation, such as Sanskrit phonology, they would be concentrating more on correct pronunciation, and the message or Buddha dharma {Dm~ma.} would be lost. His disciple monk, Shin Kic'si {kic~s:} was more precise when he came up with his motto:

Contents of this page

2.01. Human voice, Phonetics and Phonology - HV-indx.htm - (link chk 201025)

Human voice and Voice-sound production Human sound production Alphabet-Letter representation of human voice voice-quality (Ledefoged's Burmese vl nasals)

Human sound production - human-snd.htm (link chk 201025) 

Voice quality [former hv7.htm] - voice-qual.htm - update 2018Oct (link chk 201025)
  See also: Peter Ladefogged's Burmese vl nasels, in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libaries:
  - PLadefoged-VowConson<> / Bkp<> (link chk 201018)

Alphabet-Letter representation of human voice - AlphabetLetter.htm - update 2018Oct  (link chk 201025)
  Alphabet-Letter [former hv2.htm] . For Abugida-Akshara see Section 1 in BEPS and Romabama.

Contents of this page

2.02. Phonetics for Myanmar (P4M) (English phonetics) - Eng-phon-indx.htm - update 2017Nov 

English pronunciation guide English Pronouncing Dictionary
English Phonetics and Phonology, Westerner's view of Surd and Sonants English idioms of native-speakers  Phonetics for Myanmar: Univ. of Lausanne in China (UNIL-China)

Online Phonetics Course, Dept. of Linguistics, Univ. of Lausanne (UNIL), Switzerland. - UNIL-indx.htm (link chk 201025)
- http://www.unil.ch/ling/english/phonetique/table-eng.html (no longer working)
- http://www.unil.ch/ling/english/index.html (no longer working)
  UKT 201025: I owe a lot to this online course: my wife and I got our first taste of phonetics from this course.
English pronouncing dictionary - DJPD16-indx.htm (link chk 201025)
English pronunciation guide - EPG-indx.htm - update 2009Jan (link chk 201025)
  Based on Pronunciation Guide, Learn to Speak English Part 1: Consonant, the Learning Company, Foreign Language Division
  - HyperGlot TM, 6493 Kaiser Drive, Fremont, CA 94555
On the Relation of Surd and Sonant, - SurdSonant.htm (link chk 201025)
Sir William Jones, the great scholar and visionary, who came to India as a judge of the Supreme court, and with the help of Charles Wilkins, in 1784 started the Asiatic Society of Bengal and the journal Asiatic Researches.  These two institutions were instrumental in establishing the field of Indology. On 27th April 1794 has passed away because of an inflammation of liver. He was only forty eight years old, and a great progress in the study of India was untimely curtailed. However, Westerners were still interested in India, in her languages and culture to this day. See what an American professor, W. D. Witney had written in 1877, on the Surds and Sonants found in Indian languages.
English idioms of native-speakers -- EIDIOM-TXT-indx.htm
Phonetics for Myanmar: Univ. of Lausanne in China (UNIL-China) - UNIL-indx.htm
(based on online course offered in China by Univ. of Lausanne (UNIL): in TIL format of 2004 used before Unicode. It needs thorough cleaning.). I have come across a book on Bur-Myan Phonetics which I intend to go through some time later:
{d~da.byu-ha kym:} - by Abbot of Taungdwingyi KhinGyiByaw (fl. 1084 BE). I have yet to look for works by those who preceded him: {hsa.ra-tau kyau-an-sn-hta:} and {shn Ok~kn-a.ma-la}.

Contents of this page

2.03. English for Myanmar - E4M.htm

English for Myanmar
English Phonetics and Phonology, Glossary (A Little Encyclopedia of Phonetics),
  by Peter Roach, 2009, in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries, and online 
  - PRoach-Glossary<> / bkp<> (link chk 201025) 
TIL Grammar Glossary - GramGloss-indx.htm,
English Grammar in Plain Language

TIL English Grammar Grammar and Linguistic glossary - GramGloss-indx.htm (now moved out to Bk-Candle index.htm) English phonetics English pronunciation guide English pronouncing dictionary English idioms of native-speakers
English Grammar in Plain Language - EGPE-indx.htm - update 2019Oct
Essays written for TIL -- E-Essays-indx.htm - update 141231
TIL Grammar Glossary, English Grammar in Plain Language
English Grammar in Plain Language - EGPE-indx.htm - update 2019Oct  compared with MLC Bur-Myan grammar

Contents of this page

Section 3:


Principles of Language Learning and Teaching, 4th. ed., by E. D. Brown , 2000 - Brown4-indx (link chk 180602)
Language Accquisition and Teaching , a collection by U Kyaw Tun - lang-acqui-indx.htm - update 2015Dec
- mainly based on H. D. Brown's, Principles of Language Learning and Teaching, 4th. ed. Copyright 2000.
Though concerned with teaching of English to Bur-Myan speakers, this section is applicable for all languages of BEPS. 
The above link will take you to my smaller version which I have rewritten not to infringe on the author's copyright. Now more than 16 years have passed, and new editions have been published: my work which is based on the 4th. ed. for use by my fellow researchers

UKT 170511: Bur-Myan, Engl-Lat, and Skt-Dev, the BEPS each needs some phonemes and new graphemes to be unified, because of which Romabama has to invent new graphemes. I hold that our old linguists had faced the problem in their days, and had adopted a method which I've name Grapheme-shape Hypothesis:
   e.g. in Skt-Dev : व /v/ + diagonal-line --> ब /b/.
- MC-indx.htm > MCc1pp-indx.htm p083.htm (link chk 190930)

ENGLISH for Myanmar (E4M) - E4M-indx.htm - update 2015Nov - (link chk 201011)

Computer Assisted Teaching of ENGLISH  (CATE) :
Stories from Canada - CATE-Canada-indx.htm - update 2016Jan
For Kindergarten and Grade 1: (CATE-Children) (not available on line)
TriplePlay: Grade 1 to 4: - CATE-TriPlay-indx.htm - update 16Sep

Learn to Speak English (LSE) : Grade 5 - above
Ch01-15 - CATE-LSE01-15-indx.htm - (link chk 201018)
Ch16-30 - CATE-LSE16-30-indx.htm - (link chk 201018)

Burmese for Foreign Friends (BUR4FF)- Burmese for English speakers:
(a fictitious love story with voices of U Kyaw Tun and wife Daw Than Than)
- BUR4FF1-indx.htm (link chk 201130) 
Note: I wrote this unfinished story for our own amusement, and I listened to it to hear the voice of my dear departed wife. I have to stop writing this story when she died in 2004, soon after which this TIL webpage went on line.

Computer Assisted Teaching of Malay (CATE-Malay) - CAT-Malay.indx - update 2018Jun
- from Speak Malay like a local by Lissa - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cMBKNnusJG4 180601, 200914
- Origin, vocabulary, and dictionary based on authors such as
  J. Crawfurd (1852), R. J. Wilkiknson (1901), and W. G. Shellabear (1904) 

UKT 180622: Dedicated to my departed cousins, Maung o and Kran Ma, who migrated to Malaysia from Myanmarpr their birth country. Both, husband Maung o, and wife Kyan Ma (daughter of my aunt A'yee Ma Chin), learn to speak Malay in a few months. Yet, with their children, their home language remains Bur-Myan.
I am preparing a series on Malay for use by me and my assistants, based in TIL research station in Yangon.

Why is the Malay language so easy to learn for an indigenous Bur-Myan speaker? My conjecture is that it is derived from Pyu-Bamah before the incursion of Arabic, or even before the incursion of Sanskrit. Or, the Malay language might have been an offshoot the the great language family, the Tibeto-Burman languages.

Maybe a time will come to have a Confederation of Tibeto-Burman Languages through script based on a common scientific-script rather than on speech, where everyone will be able to understand each other through script. Understanding will not come from speech, which depends on how each group uses their vocal muscles to produce their vowels. Understanding will come only through a common script:

I base my conjecture on the travels of the Chinese pilgrim monk Yijing (Chinese: 義淨 ; WadeGiles: I Ching; 635713 CE) was a Tang dynasty Chinese Buddhist monk originally named Zhang Wenming (Chinese: 張文明 ). The written records of his 25-year travels contributed to the world knowledge of the ancient kingdom of Srivijaya, as well as providing information about the other kingdoms lying on the route between China and the Nalanda Buddhist university* in India. See Wikipedia: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yijing_(monk) 181018,  190115.
"In some 19th-century publications, Yijing's name may appear as I Tsing, following an antiquated method of Chinese romanization. "

* UKT 181018: Nalanda University was situated just across the border from the Pyu-Bamah territories of central Burma from Sri Kestra  {a.r hkt~ta.ra} (ancient city of Prome) to Pagan {pu.gn} city to the north. The Chinese pilgrim monk might have heard of the Pyu city-states. By then the Mons have already entered Lower Burma from the east and waging war on peace-loving Pyus finally destroying Sri Kestra which had flourished circa 610-835 AD.

UKT 191118, 200307: Three great Chinese Pilgrim monks had traveled from China to India, and back to China. Yet none visited Burma. Why? For some reason these great travelers shunned Burma. Is it because, Burma was reported to be land of danger - full of ogres, wizards and sorcerers? Or, because the over-land routes through high mountain passes to northern Burma from China and also from India were difficult? Why? See in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
- TSen-TravelsChinesePilgrims<> / Bkp<> (link chk 200307)
(p024) "Faxian, Xuanzang, and Yijing were among hundreds of Chinese monks who made pilgrimages to India during the first millennium CE."
(p025) "Faxian was one of the first and perhaps the oldest Chinese monk to travel to India. In 399, when he embarked on his trip from the ancient Chinese capital Changan (present-day Xian in Shaanxi province), Faxian was more than sixty years old."

In the inset painting from British Library, posted by Daw San San May, Curator for Burmese, on 170523,
- https://blogs.bl.uk/asian-and-african/2017/05/33-burmese-manuscripts-now-digitised.html 181121
shows a scene from the Royal Wizayakari melodrama {wi.za.ya. ka-ri nn:twn: zaat-tau-kri:}, by the Crown Princess "Hlaing Hteik Khan Tin, the Crown Princess (1833-1875) in the reign of King Mindon [Timeline: British colonialists have already grabbed 2/3 of the Burmese kingdom], wrote court dramas such as Vijayakari and Indavamsa, but she earned particular fame for her romantic dramas. In the scene shown above, there is a tree in a magical forest where lovely maidens grow and wait to be plucked. This drama is about Prince Vijayakari, Sakanitum (a princess born from a flower bud), and Adideva of the Ogre Kingdom. These court dramatists wrote delightful romances which are marvels of literary art. Only a few of their works survive to the present day but these are still widely read and studied." - British Library

Contents of this page

Section 4
Linguistics and culture


UKT 180926: I may reorganize this section under:
LINGUISTICS - linguistics-indx.htm - update 15Dec
Scripts, Brahmi, and other topics. 

Language as Script - lang-script-indx.htm - update 20Oct

Language as Writing or speculated spoken language - hist.htm
  (This is a very old file with my old format: it will take time to edit)

Language and Meaning  - lang-mean-indx.htm - update 2015Dec

Language and Religion - lang-relig-indx.htm - update 2015Dec  

Language and Sign - lang-sign.htm - update 15Dec
I plan to include the Sign Language to presenting message of the Buddha to Hearing-Speaking challenged (Deaf-Mutes) eventually.

Language and Society - lang-soc.htm -
UKT 180926: See Language and Society by Raymond Hickey in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
- RHickey-LangSoc<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180926)

Language and Thought - lang-thot-indx.htm - update 15Dec

Language and Buddha's Mother-tongue: Language problem of Primitive Buddhism, by Chi Hisen-lin
  (季羡林 , 1911 2009) - lang-probl.htm - update 15Nov

Dhammapada verses in Bur-Myan - Dhammapada-indx.htm - future update
  Just as remembering Paritta verses is important in learning Pali orally, are the Dhammapada {Dm~ma. pa.da.} verse in learning Theravada Buddhism.

Dissent and protest in the ancient Indian Buddhism - Buddh-sch-indx.htm - update 2018Nov
- by Ven. Tran Dong Nhat (b.1968), Univ. of Delhi, 2008. Ph.D. thesis. The first schism of note in Myanmarpr occurred in 18th century known as {a.ron}-{a.tn} controversy in which the leader of {a.tn} who was a very learned monk and his close associates were disrobed.
UKT 181115: Because of the sensitive nature of the subject, I'm working on this paper only to serve as a reference.

Bhagavagita and Ishvaragita - Gita.htm - update 15Dec 

UKT 191106: The Epic battle described in Mahabharata might be just a fiction, yet it has given us the Bhagavagītā - the Philosopy. It is also a source for ancient Astronomy on the problem of Geographical North pointing at the Pole star. Due to Earth's precession, various stars had been designated as the Pole Star. Read has been recorded. "Maharshi Vyas has recorded in Mahabharat, Vana Parva (Chap.230, Verses 8-11), a dialogue between Indra and Skanda wherein it is stated that: Contesting against Abhijit (Vega) {a.Bi.zi. nak~hkt}, the constellation Krittika (Pleiades) went to Vana the Summer Solstice to heat the summer. Then the star Abhijit slipped down in the sky. At that time, Dhanishta was given the first place in the list of Nakshatras. Rohini was also the first some time back. Now you decide what to do. said Indra." (background: Yajur Veda and Atharvana Veda both mention Abhijit as a Nakshatra after Uttara Ashadha and before Shravana. - https://blog.indianastrologysoftware.com/abhijit-nakshatra/ 191106

UKT 201019: Many Bur-Myan scholars do not know that Hinduism has two major sects: Vaishnavism of northern Hindi-speakers and Shaivism of southern Tamil-Telugu speakers. At one time the two were at each other's throat until Shaivism got the upper hand recently. Bhagavagita belongs to the northern Vaishnavism, and Ishvaragita is of southern Shaivism. I look on both as Gita.

From: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bhagavad_Gita 201019

The Bhagavad Gita, {Ba.ga.wd gi-ta} भगवद् गीता,  lit. "The Song of God", [1] often referred to as the Gita, is a 700-verse Hindu scripture that is part of the epic Mahabharata (chapters 2340 of Bhishma Parva), commonly dated to the second century BCE.

From: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ishvara_Gita 201019

The Ishvara Gita (ईश्वर गीता, IAST: Īśvara Gītā) is a Sanskrit text composed in India. It contains the teachings of the god Shiva, also called Ishvara, and is influenced by the Samkhya and Yoga schools of Indian philosophy. It makes up the first 11 chapters of the second section (uttara vibhaga) of the Kurma Purana.

The Isvara Gita contains many new themes not found in the Bhagavad Gita, such as the worship of the linga and the idea that Shiva, not Krishna, is the ultimate god. The Ishvara Gita also shows the influence of the 8-fold (ashtanga) yoga of Patanjali, and of the Pashupata sect of Shaivism. Several commentaries on this text are available in manuscript form, including one by Vijnanabhiksu, a 16th-century Hindu polymath

Mahayana and Vajrayana Buddhism - future work
To acquaint yourself with my intention, read A Brief Introduction to the Three Yanas [in Tibetan Buddhism] - by Cortland Dahl, of Tergar group, undated. The downloaded paper is in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- CDahl-TibetanThreeYanas<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180327)

Paritta and Truth - ParittaTruth.htm - future update
  - by Sao Htun Hmat Win, Dept. of Religious Affairs, Rangoon, Burma, 1981
  Text in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
  - SaoHtunHmatWin-ElevenParittaPali-1991<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180911)
  - Protection from danger by exoteric power.
(p003) In the daily life of a Burman Buddhist, critically speaking, the outlook is very much religious as in other great world religions.  The following statements may reveal how much Burmese Buddhism is religious.  
   Buddhi is an Ideological System. It is a religion of Explicit Salvation and hence is to be called Nibbanic Buddhism. "
UKT 181012 - {naib~baan ayu wa-da.} which must be viewed as  {hso:kan:lwt ayu wa-da.} 'freedom from both suffering and enjoyment'. It is based on 3 observable facts, and a solution from suffering. It is in fact a scientific philosophy - not based on any Axiomatic beliefs.]
   Kammatic Buddhism
"Again it is a religion of Proximate Salvation and can therefore can be classified  as Kammatic Buddhism." 
UKT 181012: {Ba.wa.kn a.kyo: ayu wa-da.} - an Axiomatic belief.
   Esoteric Buddhism
"It may even be typified as a religion of Chiliastic Expectations, for imminent and immanent salvation, the enjoyment of better world as an event which occurs within history, to be known as Esoteric Buddhism."
UKT 181012: {myak-mhauk a.kyo: ayu wa-da.} - based on life's experience."

UKT 190516, 200304: To the three aspects of Buddhism noted by Sao Htun Hmat Win, I must add my view: Buddhism confined to the first two sermons of Gautama Buddha, is a natural Science just as Thermodynamics is. It is not based on any Axiom. The question of the Creator (YHVH, God, Allah and Maha-Dvas) has no place in it. See the Paritta in Pali-Devanagari for Hindi readers in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries, on 3 suttas: (link chk 200304)
- TriratnaTranslation-05MangalaSutta<> / Bkp<> 
- TriratnaTranslation-06MettaSutta<> / Bkp<>
- TriratnaTranslation-07RatsnaSutta<> / Bkp<>

Contents of this page

Section 5
Myanmar languages & culture


UKT 190329:

From: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hanlin,_Burma#cite_note-Long-5 190329

"At a museum near the archaeological site of Shwegugyi there are exhibits which show archaeological finds from excavations including: human skeletal remains, along with pottery, jewelry, and bronze rattles laid in graves in a series of rows, found below ground. Carbon dating of some of the earliest grave finds indicate that they are almost 5,000 years old. [5] The museum also has exhibits of finds of: silver coins, gold ornaments, bricks with inscriptions of texts, and many antiquities recovered from the Hanlin sites. The Pyu alphabet with links to Sanskrit and the present day Bamar language, inscribed on a tomb stone, is also on display. [4] "


For BEPS work, the IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet) is inadequate, and I have to invent Romabama   {ro:ma.ba.ma} to supplement it.


UKT 190812: It is not only the IPA, but English (in Latin script) alphabet itself that is giving trouble in transliteration and transcription. It is the use of digraphs in Modern English in place of Old English characters. An example is the combination of letters t & h in place of Old English "thorn" character . This has a major affect on column c2. I've been ignoring this problem, but it's time I start modifying Romabama characters. Attempts to completely modify the c2 since in 190719 has failed. I'll have to try sometime later to get away from the digraphs of c2. Meanwhile I'll modify the table of basic consonants, paying attention to the columns. I'll consider the combined c1-c2 as voiceless, c3-c4 as voiced, and c5 as nasal. The c1-c2 voicelessness can be subdivided into c1 tenuis the extreme voiceless, and c2 as ordinary voiceless. The c3-c4 voiced subdivided into c3 ordinary voiced and c4 as deep-voiced (or deep-H). Mon-Myan differs in the extreme from Bur-Myan by assigning the inherent vowel {mw-hkn-a.ra.}  as // instead of /a/ or //. This makes Romabama pronunciations applicable only to Bur-Myan and not to Mon-Myan.

Using Romabama {ro:ma.ba.ma}, I arrived at BEPS {ba.n~pa-ak} basic consonants.
Note: "BEPS" is acronym in English which uses the Basic Latin Alphabet-Latin transcription system, whereas {ba.n~pa-ak} is the acronym in Burmese (Bamah) which uses the Basic Myanmar Abugida-Akshara transcription system. Contrary to what many think - including the Myanmar Language Commission (MLC), Alphabet {al-fa-bak} and Akshara {ak~hka.ra} are not the same.

UKT 190417 - Burmese New Year 1381 BE day: I define a Basic Akshara as one which can be under a Virama   {a.t}.
Because of this stringent definition, I've to expand the Myanmar akshara-matrix to account for phonemes with friction. I can now transcript common English words such as <church> as {chaach} .
UKT 201201: After studying Lonsdale's work on Burmese Grammar and Grammar Analysis, I've come to see that Table of IPA (Pulmonic) given below can be extended to include the {awN}-vowels: see -- ch02.htm 
- Velar-vowels {a.} and {a} / Palatal-vowels {I.} and {I} / Labial-vowels {U.} and  {U}
However assigning {a.awN}-vowels is not decisive: {:} can be both velar and palatal, and {AU} velar and labial.

Don't think that the difficulty of transcription/ transliteration in BEPS is the fault of Eng-Lat alone. Bur-Myan is also partly responsible. We lack the IPA dental fricatives, /ʃ/ श - /s/ ष and /f/ - /v/ pairs. These I have to invent: for /ʃ/ {sha.}, for /s/ {Sa.}, for /f/ {fa.}, and for /v/ {va.}.

Contents of this page

5.1. Romabama {ro:ma.ba.ma} Bamah speech in IPA-Latin alphabet: Bur-Lat

UKT 180401, 190308, 200901, 210117: Romabama {ro:ma.ba.ma} 'the backbone of Bur-Myan language is not Romanized Burmese. Nor is it Burglish. I have to invent Romabama {ro:ma.ba.ma} single-handedly with some help from my wife, Daw Than Than, before she passed away in 2004. It is Burmese speech {ba.ma sa.ka:} in Myanmar script {mrm~ma ak~hka.ra} or {mrn~mak~hka.ra} [which can easily be Sanskritized to Mramakshara or Mranmakshar], transcribed into Burmese speech {ba.ma sa.ka:} in Latin script.

I'm defining Akshara-Syllable Writing system as a form of recording and playback of human speech. Applying my definition narrowly excludes Alphabet-Letter system from "recording and playback", unless you bring in the IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet). In Bur-Myan, we proudly say: writing is correct or true {r:tau.a.mhn), but when read or spoken there are variations because it is mere sound {hpt-tau.a.n}. My endeavor on Romabama {ro:ma.ba.ma} is to prove (or disprove) the motto: {r:tau.a.mhn). With Myanmar Akshara we could write speeches of all indigenous ethnics - Bamah, Karen, Mon, Shan, etc. - and maintain the unity of the country

Romabama on Typewriter (emphasizing ASCII fonts used) - RBM-typewrit-indx.htm - update 20Oct  
Romabama {ro:ma.ba.ma} Rules - RBM-rules-indx.htm - update 20Oct 
   (name changed from Romabama introduction)
Romabama Collection - RBM-collect-indx.htm - update 20Sep 
   (first created on 070724 in London, Ontario, CANADA. Many in the original collection has now been listed in their respective folders, and new ones added.) 

  UKT 191119: Romabama on Typewriter is beyond repair and update. I've decided to rewrite anew beginning 2019Dec. The older files, dating back to 2008Mar13 will be available only in TIL research station in Yangon. At that time in 2008, I was in Deep River, Ontario, CANADA. Now I'm in MYANMARPR having taken Permanent Residence (PR), though keeping my Canadian citizenship and keeping a home in Canada where I live with my son U (Dr.) Zin Tun at 691 Upper Wentworth Street, Hamilton, Ontario L9A 4V6 .

The reason why I am in Myanmarpr, is because I'm now over 85, alone, and no longer able to stand the harsh weather of Canada, but most importantly because of my research into Burmese, Pali and Sanskrit languages written in Myanmar, Latin, and Devanagari script. My rewrite will also focus on my new acquisition the Burmese Spelling Book, by Rev. C. Bennett, 4th edition, published in 1862. It is the oldest book on grammar which has come to my notice. I now have it in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- CBennett-BurmeseSpellingBook-1862<> / Bkp<> (link chk 200824)
It reminds me of my old days as a child in the late 1930s and early 1940s reciting lessons, at the top of our voices, later versions of Spelling Book or ThinBoanGyi : {ka.} {ka} {ki.} {ki} {ku.} {ku} {k} {k:} {kau.} {kau} {kn} {ka:}.
Also look into Vocabulary and Phrase Book , by the same author, 3rd., 1886
- CBennett-VocabPhrase<> / Bkp<> (link chk 200824)

UKT 191006: I regret to say that because of the confusion in pronouncing /my/ & /mr/, a lot of people have come to think that {ba.ma} and {mrn-ma} are the same. I contend that all indigenous ethnics living in Myanmarpr - the country - in virtue of being residents of the land for centuries are all {mrn-ma}, yet they are not {ba.ma}. I strongly object to MLC calling its Burmese Grammar as {mrn-ma d~da}. A way out of the problem may be to change the English spelling of "Myanmar" when it comes to the writing system as {mrm~ma ak~hka.ra}. To avoid such unwanted confusion, I've to devise Romabama {ro:ma.ba.ma}, and improvise a color scheme to help in the pronunciation especially for foreigners. Shall we say the MLC Burmese Grammar is {ba.ma-d~da} in {mrm~ma ak~hka.ra}?

After coming across the drawbacks of IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet) which is not ASCII compatible, and which has been designed primarily for western European languages, and IAST (International Alphabet for Sanskrit Transliteration), I have to invent my own Romabama {ro:ma. ba.ma} "the back-bone of Myanmar script" which is ASCII compatible.

Romabama started out as a Bur-Latin transliteration for writing emails. I've now developed it into a transcription. Romabama is based on Bur-Myan phonology and is not applicable for transcription of Mon-Myan language - which has an entirely different phonology. Bur-Myan belongs to Tib-Bur (Tibeto-Burman) language group, whereas Mon-Myan is Aus-Asi (Austro-Asiatic).

The two languages, Bur-Myan and Mon-Myan, use the same basic Myanmar akshara {mrm~ma ak~hka.ra}. However, the speakers use different sets of vocal muscles to pronounce the vowels and as a result the sounds of vowels are different. The Western human phoneticians of 18th century and their present day disciples, still under the influence of their various mother-tongue, the L1, usually fail to notice the subtle different sounds.  Unless you use machine identification, formants F1 and F2, the vowels, especially the back-vowels, cannot be differentiated.

UKT 210211: I've trouble explaining formants to a layman. As a material scientists - a chemist - the best explanation can be found in Hyperphysics: "The vocal resonances are altered by the articulators to form distinguishable vowel sounds. The peaks in the vowel spectra are called vocal formants. Note the prominent role of the tongue in this process. The jaw position and lips also play a major part." -  http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/Music/vowel.html 210211

However, through thousands of years of the study of phonetics, the Eastern linguists such as Panini पाणिनि {pa-Ni.ni. hsa.ra} who write the Aṣṭādhyāyī {T~HTa.Da-yi d~da kym:}, have differentiated the vowels and consonants by their modes and places of articulation (POA). These are "recorded" in scripts using the Abugida-Akshara system.

The European phoneticians, failing to understand the differences between Abugida-Akshara system and Alphabet-Letter still think the Akshara and Alphabet to be the same, creating a thorough mess when English-Latin is used as an intermediate language.

In the case of Bur-Myan and Mon-Myan, if the subject matter, such as Theravada Buddhism, is the same, you can still know the meaning when Abugida-Akshara system is used. Even when the language pair, e.g. Skt-Dev and Pali-Myan, is studied because of the same culture and customs (of Magadha Mahajanapada {ma-ga.Da. ma.ha-za.na.pa.da.}) you can still "understand" many words by akshara-to-akshara transformation. I am learning Sanskrit vocabulary using this method. See Section 7: Sanskrit dictionaries and grammars.

Contents of this page

5.2. Burmese (Bamah) speech in Myanmar akshara:
Bur-Myan of Tib-Bur (Tibeto-Burman) group

UKT 180401: To know the nature of Tib-Bur group of languages, I've to look into Nwari and Npali speeches written in Devanagari script. In this subsection I've given a short list of Newari words and more of Npali words. A separate folder is still in the works.

UKT 180401, 210107: Why is the Retroflex r3c4 akshara, {a.} ढ as in {~a.} (in Myanmar script) so important? I suspect it represents the Third Eye - the seat of super intelligence - present in Gautama Buddha, and supposedly present in Siva-dva. See Wikipedia:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pineal_gland 180401

A drawback of Bur-Myan and Skt-Dev phrases and sentences is the lack of white-spaces separating one word from another. A "lengthy word" may be separated into smaller pieces, e.g. बुद्धचरितम् Buddhacaritam/buddhacaritam can be separated into two: बुद्ध buddha and  चरितम् caritam.

Romabama collection - a new collection 
- RBM-COLLECT-indx.htm - update 2016May 

Notes on the transliteration of Burmese alphabet into Roman characters, and vocal and consonantal sounds of the Peguan or Talaing language, by R.C. Temple, Rangoon 1876, in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
- RCTemple-Translit-Bur<> / Bkp<> (link chk 200307)

A preliminary study of the PoUDaung inscription of S'inbuyin, 1774 AD, by Taw Sein Ko, in The Indian Antiquity, a Journal of Oriental Research, vol. 22, 1893
- RCTemple-JIndianAntiquVol22<> / Bkp<> (link chk 200307)
  PoUDaung Inscription - by TawSeinKo. Below is an clip from the inscription (modern Burmese characters):

Taw Sein Ko wrote: " Lines 1 - 8 of the obverse face of the stone are in Pli gths and the rest are in Burmese verse. The reverse face of the stone is in Burmese prose." (Note: I've shown only Lines 1 to 3.)

Other articles by other authors are included in the above journal.
- RCTemple-RamannaDesa<> 1894 / Bkp<> (link chk 200307)
See Plate XVIII - Kyaikhtiyo Pagoda - the oldest photograph in TIL libraries.
 I will have to go over the works of R C Temple carefully because it has comparisons to Haswell's Peguan language.

Contents of this page

5.3. Burmese-Myanmar Grammars : A 200 year Odyssey (1814 - to present) 

Burmese Grammar - BG-indx.htm (link chk 210115) - Highlight of 2021 February update 
Keep in mind my present task: BEPS. Anything on Bur-Myan (Tib-Bur) must be compatible to Eng-Lat (IE), Pal-Myan (Tib-Bur) and Skt-Dev (IE), and comparable to Mon-Myan (Aus-Asi).

UKT 210116: Trying to represent the Burmese language sounds in Engl-Latin alphabet is not an easy task. I sympathize with foreigners - particularly the English - who did try without any help from modern Phonetics. The most troublesome are the vowels. I approach the vowels - continuous sounds - by trying to pronounce /a/, /i/ and /u/ with my mouth closed with lips firmly pressed together to eliminate the effects of tongue and lips.

Reflecting on the Vowel triangle, firstly on F2 axis, reminds the chemist in me of the pH scale. Not shown is a line extending up from /a/ > /ɐ/ > /ə/ (schwa) > F2 axis would give me a point corresponding to pH7 where there is H2O, only, dissociating into equal amounts of H+ and OH- ions: the dissociation constant Kw = 1.0x10-14 . The pH, on the logarithmic scale (ignoring the negative sign) gives pH7 to pure water. Now add a little bit of organic carboxylic acid, and the pH starts going down towards pH1. This would correspond to the extreme left end of F2 with the front-vowel /i/. Now go back to pure water with pH7, and add an organic amine, and the pH would climb towards pH14 to a point corresponding to the back-vowel /u/. Now two chemically different organic acid solutions, such as that of Formic acid, and Acetic acid, of the same pH, tastes differently to the taster. Similarly changing the value of F1, would bring up prosodically different vowels to the hearer. I wonder whether F2 could be seen as similar to the musical scale. 

The earliest analysis of Burmese Grammar was in 1814 by F. Carey. Now the question is: can there be another analysis of Burmese language from another angle by another foreigner. The answer is yes. We have to look into Law and Legal matters to trace back to Taungo period, and Pagan period and possibly into the earlier Pyu period, by looking into King Wagaru's Manu Dhammasattham, text, translation, and notes  by E. Forchhammar, 1892
- EForchhammar-Manu<> / Bkp<> (link chk 201217)

From time to time, I need to find the Bur-Myan equivalent for an English word. A useful dictionary of English to Bur-Myan is
Thalun English-Myanmar Dictionary {a-lwn}, 3rd ed., 2003, available in ink-on-paper printed book. From what is given in Thalun, I can derive what I am looking for, e.g. in Bur-Myan & Romabama mixed:
  Letter - n. 1. mya: ko  pru. . //  (with change from to "sound-killed" or "sound-absent")
  Syllable - n. 2. ko  pru.. // (with inclusion of to )
Note how I've emphasize "sound-killed"/ "sound alive"/ "surd, mute", and "sonant, sibilant, pronounceable".

surd - adj. Linguistics . Voiceless, as a sound. -- AHTD
sonant - Linguistics adj. . Voiced, as a speech sound. n. . A syllabic consonant in Indo-European. - AHTD
"sound-killed" & "sound alive" pair, and surd-sonant pair are different.

Burmese Grammar in English
Grammar of the Burman Language by F. Carey, 1814
Bumese Spelling Book {mrm~ma n-pon:kri:} by C. Bennett, 1862
Grammar of the Burmese Language, by A. Judson, 1883
Burmese Grammar and Grammatical Analysis 1899, by A. W. Lonsdale, 1899:
 Part 1. Orthoepy (pronunciation) and orthography (spelling); Part 2. Accidence (inflections) and syntax
Burmese Grammar , by James E. Bridges, 1915

Burmese Grammar in Burmese
MLC Burmese Grammar (in Bur-Myan)
These are prepared for middle schools, high schools, and universities in Myanmarpr

UKT 191215: Preparations for a modern BEPS Grammar, cannot be be initiated unless I can compare Bur-Myan (uninflected language) to English (Eng-Latin: an inflected language). Since Eng-Lat is non-phonetic, I cannot use it as it is, but to use Eng-IPA in which English has been made phonetic. Then, the problem of presentation on the Internet becomes a hurdle, because IPA is non-ASCII. Therefore I have to come up with an intermediate language that is ASCII compatible. I ended inventing Romabama (Bur-Latin) - a one-to-one mapping of Sound to Script.

Most outsiders do not know that Bur-Myan vowels (and BEPS vowels) are represented by two kinds of vowels: Vowel-Letters and Vowel-Signs. On the right are shown; Basic Vowel-Letters:

We must understand that both Burmese and English are modern languages, and English is changing all the time since the time of time of Alfred-the-Great who had used Old English. Alfred's language is not understood by modern English speakers: it has become a foreign language even in England its birth-place.

Contents of this page

5.4. Mon (Peguan & Martaban) language in Myanmar akshara

Mon-Myan Language: Script - MonMyan-indx.htm (link chk 201225)
There are 7x5 = 35 consonants in Mon,  two more than 33 of Bamah. Listen to:
--Approximants of row#6 {y}, {r}, {l}, {w}, {Sa.} - bk-cndl-Mon-row6<))
--Approximants of row#7 {ha.}, {La.}, {a.}, {a.}, {} - bk-cndl-Mon-row7<))

Grammatical notes and Vocabulary of the Peguan Language
by J.M. Haswell, Rangoon, American Mission Press, 1874
    - MV1874-indx (link chk 210104)
    - in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
    - JMHaswell-PeguanGrammVocab<> / Bkp<> (link chk 200308)

Notes on the transliteration of Burmese alphabet into Roman characters, and vocal and consonantal sounds of the Peguan or Talaing language, by R.C. Temple, Rangoon 1876, in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
- RCTemple-Translit-Bur<> 1876 / Bkp<> (link chk 200308) 

A Short Introduction to the Mon (Martaban) language, by Mathias Jenny, The Mon Culture and Literature Survival Project (MCL), Sangkhlaburi, 2001.
 - MJenny-IntroMonLang<> / Bkp<> (link chk 200307)

The Mon language: recipient and donor between Burmese and Thai, by Mathias Jenny, Zurich Open Repository and Archive, University of Zurich, 2013>
 - MJenny-MonReceipientDonor<> / Bkp<> (link chk 200308)
 # Basic Mon-Myanmar (Martaban) Language (in Burmese) by Naing Maung Toe, Rangoon, 2007. See downloaded pages in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
    - NaiMgToe-MonBur<> / Bkp<> (link chk 190210)


Mon-Myan Language: Speech - spk-all-indx.htm (link chk 190325)

UKT 180802: Though the same glyph of Myanmar akshara is used by both Burmese and Mon, the pronunciation is radically different. Now listen to Mon-Myan consonants: for comparison with Skt-Dev, listen to a passage from BhagavaGita in Skt-Dev
- bk-cndl-Gita18-2<))
- first line: श्रीभगवानुवाच śrī-bhagavān uvāca 'the Supreme Personality of Godhead said';
- 2nd line: काम्यानां kāmyānāṁ 'with desire' / 
(the whole passage is given somewhere below)

- bk-cndl-{ka.}-row<)) : , , - Velar plosive-stop
  bk-cndl-{sa.}-row<)) : , , - Palatal affricate

UKT 181122: Mon pronounces the basic akshara {sa.}/ {c} as /{kya.}/ which is how the Bur-Myan {kya.} is pronounced. The problem is {kya.} is a conjunct which cannot be under a virama {a.t}. That would be problematical when Bur-Myan and Mon-Myan scripts are on the same page of the text. I, therefore, have to invent new glyphs for Mon-Myan, which could also be used for Eng-Myan (English-speech in Myanmar akshara):
- Mon r1c1 {sa.} (pronounced as /{kya.}/) absent in English
- Mon r1c2 {hsa.} (pronounced as /{hkya.}/). This immediately solves the pronunciation of Eng-Lat <church> {chaach} or {chuuch}. Remember, it is non-rhotic, and presence of /r/ cannot be tolerated.
- Mon r1c3 {z} (pronounced as /{gy}/.

- bk-cndl-{Ta.}-row<)) 
- bk-cndl-{ta.}-row<)) 
- bk-cndl-{pa.}-row<))
- bk-cndl-{ya.}-row<))
- bk-cndl-{ha.}-row<)) 
Concentrate on the last three consonants {a.}, {aa.}, {}.

Now listen to examples of simple disyllabic words. Mon speech of Aus-Asi language group is radically different from Burmese speech of Tib-Bur language group. Even among the dialects of a language group the pronunciation of a word can be different. If you rely on pronunciations only not paying attention to the script, you will end up dividing the peoples of the same culture which is reflected in language. Remember Speech divides, but Script unites. Those who would like to change the Bur-Myan akshara-matrix, especially the Burmese language teachers, should take note.

- BkCnd-VIDEO: Mon-SpkAll-lesson10-61txt<))

Note 150920, ... , 180918: To help transcription of English into Burmese, I have already introduced Mon-Myan, A'forward-throw {aou} into Basic BEPS vowels for English words such as <now> {nou} & <how> {hou}. Its opposite, A'back-throw {}, is present in Bur-Myan, but absent in Eng-Lat, because of which the English <e> has created a mix-up of {} & {}. Another possible candidate to help in transcription is Mon-Myan A'thawhtotin-chaungnin to be placed side-by-side with Bur-Myan {o} which is called A'loantin-chaungnin. The pronunciation of is not at all similar to {o} - the only difference in shape being the Eng front vowel <e> and English back vowel <o>. See
- MonMyan-indx.htm > spk-all-indx.htm > spk-all03.htm (link chk 180918).
Listen to the pronunciation of in - lesson17-61cap<))
I can only catch the consonant: /m/ , /k/ , /p/ , /n/
UKT 180918: Sad to say, I'm still unfamiliar with Martaban Mon pronunciations.

Contents of this page

5.4. Myanmar Religions : Organized and Folk

UKT 180327: Before I go into this section, which can be misinterpreted as biased (opinionated maybe: but not biased), I must make myself clear. I have never proselytized anyone. I have no wish to belittle any religion - ancient or modern. I do not wish to offend anyone: just as I honour my parents, grandparents and their fore-parents, I view what they have believed to be worshipful - whether these gods and goddesses are axiomatic or not.

This was the position of my father U Tun Pe, who had advised me: "you may or may not believe in a god or nt; but never offend it. Leave it alone." He gave an example - of his friend U Hpo Zan and our family friend - who made a point to offend U Shin Gyi Nt the guardian of waterways of the Delta. In spite of being an expert swimmer, U Hpo Zan - BaBaGyi U Hpo Zan to me - drowned in the Rangoon River after his boat was hit by a river-going oil-tanker carrying crude from Yenangyaung oilfield to Syriam refinery. There were four on the boat - all swimmers, except Dr. U Chit Htw. None of them saw the oil tanker bearing down on them and none heard the shouts from the tanker crew. They simply went straight to the tanker. Dr. Chit Htw was pulled out of water almost immediately by his assistant, Maung Tar, but he was already dead.

U Hpo Zan was last seen swimming, but his body was never recovered. The survivors were Maung Tar, and the Bengali boatman. There was quite a commotion in U Hpo Zan's house in Twant that night - strange noises especially at the front-entrance. Through a Nt-medium, U Shin Gyi Nt told U Hpo Zan's wife, Daw Ma Thar and family that, because of U Hpo Zan's insults, his body would never be given back.

You may or not believe my narrative but my advise to everyone - especially the foreigners - "you may or may not believe in a god or nt; but never offend it. Leave it alone". U Hpo Zan had offended the nt of the folk-religion: he was a Christian - a Methodist. Incidentally, Dr. Chit Htwe was also a Christian - a Baptist. The Bengali boatman was a Sunni Muslim.

The book that has led me the topic of Religion: organized and folk, is Folk Elements in Buddhism by Maung (Dr.) Htin Aung. Printed and published by U Myint Maung, Deputy Director, Regd: No (02405/02527) at the Religious Affairs Dept. Press. Yegu, Kaba-Aye P.O., Rangoon, BURMA. 1981. As a background for this section and for book, read the following articles

Read the following:
Religion: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Religion 180327
Organized religion: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organized_religion 180327
Folk religion: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Folk_religion 180327
Curse tables: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Curse_tablet 190409
"A curse tablet (Latin: tabella defixionis, defixio; Greek: κατάδεσμος katadesmos) is a small tablet with a curse written on it from the Greco-Roman world. The tablets were used to ask the gods, place spirits, or the deceased to perform an action on a person or object, or otherwise compel the subject of the curse." UKT 190409: sounds similar to Myanmar {n:} and Thai "Yantra".

Folk Elements in Buddhism -- flk-ele-indx.htm - update 2020July 
   UKT 180327: The original natives of the of the region centered in the present-day Myanmarpr, had worshipped many Mother-goddesses {m-tau}, thousands of years before the time of Gautama Buddha (a Tib-Bur language speaker). The Buddha based his Buddhism, a non-axiomatic philosophy, on the impermanence of everything in nature. He based his observations on logic (thus scientific in modern sense), on changes in seen entities like humans and animals, of ethnic groups, and even the physical topography of the land, and ideas such as customs and beliefs in axiomatic beings such as gods and devils.

PIX shows Nankareign Mdaw - one of the mother-goddesses of the Mons. She is very likely directly descended from the axiomatic entity of Indus-Sarasvati civilization. See Wikipedia on Pashupati seal:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pashupati_seal 180328
"... name of a steatite seal that was discovered at the Mohenjo-daro archaeological site of the Indus Valley Civilization. The seal depicts a seated figure that is possibly tricephalic (having three heads). It was once thought to be ithyphallic ['having an erect penis' - Google], an interpretation that is now mostly discarded. He has a horned headdress and is surrounded by animals ... . "

UKT 190827: How do the archeologists know the entity to be a he? Since Ancients worshipped mother-goddesses, it could very well be a she. I suggest that it could be the ancient forerunner of Nankareign Mdaw {nn-ka.ren: m-tau} - not related to Shiva-dva {i-wa. nt-mn:}]
UKT 180328: Tricephaly - derived from Polycephaly which is known in current times.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polycephaly 180328

The beliefs in Mother-goddesses changed, and many forms of Buddhism have come into Myanmarpr. Also, many ethnics from areas outside the region with their axiomatic beliefs, such as Christianity, Hinduism, and Islam, had come in. Even non-axiomatic beliefs such as Communism, and modern Science had come in. Religion in Myanmarpr is in plural - hence the topic of my study Myanmar religions: Organized and Folk .

We have at present no way of studying the changes except through language (speech and script). With the change in ethnicity of the speakers, the spoken languages and dialects have also changed. To delay these changes, speech is represented in script in symbols or glyphs for each individual human-speech sound.

The most successful system of recording speech in script is the Abugida-Akshara system. Outside the region, we find another successful system - the Alphabet-Letter system. Abugida-Akshara system (such as Bur-Myan and Skt-Dev) is based on phonetics, whereas the Alphabetic-Letter system (such as English, French, and modern European speeches) are non-phonetic. I'm trying to bring a sense out of the present mess through the study of only four speeches of BEPS (Burmese, English, Pali and Sanskrit) written in three scripts (Myanmar, IPA-Latin, International Pali, and Devanagari.).

See Buddhism in Burma in LANGUAGE AND MEANING ,  based on the  Gazetteer of Upper Burma and Shan States, in 5 volumes, by J G Scott, 1900
- lang-mean-indx.htm > Budd-Myan.htm (in preparation)

Contents of this page

5.5. MYANMAR : a collection of papers

Former collection now split into the following

General -- myn-indx.htm (link chk 180328)
Prehistory -- prehist-indx.htm (link chk 200401)
   A new addition, Burma before Pagan by M. Aung-Thwin, has been added
   -- to be uploaded later. UKT 130305

Legends of Halin -- legend-halin.htm (link chk 201022)

Myanmarpr before the British incursion

  The Burmese Empire a hundred years ago - by Father Sangermano, 1833
   Prefaces, John Jardine's Introduction, TIL-collection
   -- sang-j-indx.htm - update 13Sep (link chk 180328)
   Sangermano's work proper
   -- sang-s-indx.htm - update 13Sep (link chk 180328)

   Gaudama the Buddha of the Burmese, by Bishop Bigandet, 1866
   - BishopBigandet<> / Bkp<> (link chk 200308)
UKT 200308: In the Preface to the first edition, we read "Though based upon capital and revolting errors, Buddhism teaches a surprising number of the finest precepts and purest moral truths. From the abyss of its almost unfathomable darkness it sends forth rays of the brightest hue."
   Take note of the words "capital and revolting errors". What the reverend Bishop had got from the Burmese Theravada Buddhists is the conception of Nibban (not the Hindu version of Nirvana) which is commonly expressed as the Cessation of Death. My understanding of Nibban is the Cessation of Attachment - including the Vanity of Vanities as expressed in the Old Testament of the Christian Bible in Ecclesiastes. My bridge between Theravada Buddhism and Christianity is the Book of Ecclesiastes. My field of study is the Old Testament of King James Bible: see
- https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Bible_(King_James)/Ecclesiastes 200309
"Chapter 1. lines 1, 2, 3 :
. The words of the Preacher, the son of David, king in Jerusalem.
. Vanity of vanities, saith the Preacher, vanity of vanities; all is vanity.
. What profit hath a man of all his labour which he taketh under the sun? "
Vanity to me is Self-conceit {gna-sw:}.

   The Land of the White Elephant - by Frank Vincent, 1873
   in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
   - FVincent-LandOfWhiteEleph<> / Bkp<> (link chk 190528)

Myanmarpr under the British
  in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
Cigar-Girls, and Foresters of Burma, in Asiatic Journal Vol4, no3, NovApr1845, p230, TIL PDF libraries
 - AsiaticJ04-3<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180327)
  The Burman, his life and notions - by Shway Yoe
  J. G. Scott (1851-1935) under penname of Shway Yoe (1882)
  - JGScott-ShwayYoeTheBurman<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180328) 
  See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_George_Scott 170312
  A Civil Servant in Burma - by Herbert White, 1913
  As important as J. Jardine (Judiciary) was Herbert Thirkell White (Civil Service
  His account based on 32 years (18781910) of service in Burma.
  (PDF) in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
  - HTWhite-CivilServBur<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180626)
  (nonPDF) In TIL nonPDF library - HTWhite-CivilServantBur<> / bkp<> (link chk 170312)
  See: - http://www.gutenberg.org/files/43075/43075-h/43075-h.htm 140530
  See also Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herbert_Thirkell_White 140530
Burma under British Rule and before vol.2 , by John Nisbet, 1901 in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
- JNisbet-BurmaUnderBritVol2<> / Bkp<> (link chk 191016)

Contents of this page

5.6. Law and Legal perspectives

UKT 180504: The two English words Law and Legal do not imply the same thing. Law to the Myanmar Buddhists (broadly meaning speakers of Bur-Myan, Karen-Myan, Mon-Myan, and Shan-Myan) means what is compatible with the Theravada Buddhism. On the other hand, Legal perspective means what is sanctioned by the government of the time which can mean the governments of: King of Konbaung dynasty, King of Mons, Sawbwas of the Shans, down to the village level and long-house, the British-Raj of the colonial times, the secular governments of independent countries, and the various native military governments.

Law and Legal perspectives - Law-indx.htm - update 19Mar

Contents of this page

5.7. Georgian-Mkhedruli script of Georgian language

A script that is strangely similar to Myanmar script is the Georgian Alphabet (Georgian-Mkhedruli script). If you take into consideration that the Georgian is an Alphabet-Letter writing system and that Myanmar is an Abugida-Akshara system you can clearly see the connection.

UKT 191006: There pairs of phonemes which are similar yet quite different. The first pair is nasal, and the second fricative. I should be comparing /n/-/m/ {na.}-{ma.} nasal-pair, and /ts/-/dz/ {sa.}- {za.} the fricative-pair in the Palatals. These must be studied in pronunciation of syllables: the influence of both the onset and coda on the nuclear-vowel. This means that I must be able to speak Georgian, or get a close associate who speaks Georgian!

Georgian scripts: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georgian_scripts 190609
Romanization of Georgian: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romanization_of_Georgian 190609
Standard Georgian, by R.K. Shosted & V. Chikovani, 2006
- RKShostedVChikovani-StandGeorgian<> / Bkp<> (link chk 191115)
"There is a one-to-one correspondence between the alphabetic symbols and phonemic sounds of Georgian."

UKT 191105: It is interesting to note that the Georgian script, Mkhedari means 'of horseman'. My friend Dr. Tuan, an ethnic Chin educator, used to interpret the Bur-Myan word {mrn} from the word {mrn-ma} as the fast horse-riders.

UKT 201026: One of the fast horse-riders has become a Nat {nt} "Ma'nes" when he met accidental death showing his horsemanship and the fastness of his horse. He had been one of my ancestral spirit-guardians - worshipped by my great great grandfather Hpo-mintha {hpo:mn:a:} - brother of Hpo-ta'kaung {hpo:ta.kan:}, great grandfather Bo-yan'shin {bo:rn-shin:}, grandmother Daw Choak {dau-hkyoup}, and her son, my father U Tun Pe {U:twun:hp}. I worship him as a representative of my Bur-Myan line. My grandmother Daw Choak recounted how she had heard him and his horse going around their house when she as a young girl was living with her parents. It was a sign of their incoming wealth.
   Another guardian-spirit is the she Buffalo, who had guarded a very young infant who had been abandoned at the gate of the buffalo-pound. The head of the herd the Mother-Buffalo had guarded the young infant who later became the king of Pegu. He was instrumental in driving out the invading Indians from southern Burma. If you are at the research station in Yangon, let's watch the videos from TIL ~~HD-VIDEO/Burma libraries:
- Nat-dance dedicated to Myin'hpru'shin {mrn:hpru-shin} of Bur-Myan line
- MyinHpruShin-dance<>  (link chk 201026)
- Nat-dance dedicated to Mdaw'nan'ka'reing {m-tau nn-ka.ren:} of Mon-Myan line
- NanKaReing<> (link chk 201026)

The {mrn} from the north descended into Burma to marry the Pyu {pyu} women when a sizeable number of Pyu males were abducted by Nanzhao (in modern Yunnan). Eventually, the Pyus disappeared and the population became {mrn-ma}. Of the 7 house-hold guardian spirits of {mrn-ma}, only 2 are {mrn} (Burmese), the rest* are Pyu {pyu}. What a coincidence! 

* The list of 37 Nats (spirits) have undergone changes with time. Old Nats have disappeared and new ones substituted. By whom? The unsophisticated foreigners quoting unreliable local sources is the answer. Thus in the list given in Wikipedia
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nat_(spirit) 191106,
I can identify only 3 Pyu Nats {pyu nt}. But the two who have disappeared still remains in a Bur-Myan saying: {tan-mn: ko mrauk-mn: ma.k-nen} "Lord North cannot save Lord South". Wikipedia editors and foreigners should note!

Contents of this page

Section 6 :
Pali {pa-Li.} and the lost languages

Pali introduction

UKT 201023 : Though it is not realized by outsiders and insiders of Myanmarpr, Pali speech written in Myanmar script (Pal-Myan) is our second language, L2, which we acquire as we grow up in the country. Our days of the week, our Burmese calendar months, and our public holidays are mostly in Pali-Myan. For Buddhists, because our ceremonies from birth, marriage, and death are presided by Buddhist monks and nuns, we are familiar with Pali and Pali-derived words. And even the Christians and Muslims have been to Buddhist pagodas and astrologers: where they would hear and use Pali words whether they like or not. Bur-Myan and Pal-Myan are so intertwined that we easily switch from Burmese of Tib-Bur group to Pali (which is under the influence of Sanskrit of IE group, and Lankan of Aus-Asi group). Just listen to a Bur-Myan song in mp3 and try to find out which word is Bur-Myan and which Pali.
- thanboadde<)) 

Contents of this page

6.1 Boadkric {boaD~hka.ric} or Amensadhu

Just as the children of one parent a Buddhist and the other Christian, become light-hearted in both religions, when you study many subjects together you become a Boadkric {boad~hka.ric} - a term of ridicule. They say Amen in one ceremony and Thadu in the next. And get the best of both worlds: presents at Christmas, and presents from elders when they go to {kn-tau.} their Buddhist elders. Though both my parents are Theravada Buddhists, a very close friend of my mother who had become a widow came to live us for about a year. She was Mrs. Eva Rafael - an Anglican (Church of England - when Burma was a British colony). I, still in my preteen, used to accompany Aunty Eva to Christian churches and Christmas parties. I still remember my first Christmas party for children at St. Michael church, Kemmendine. I was a Boadkric {boad~hka.ric} or Amenthadhu {a-mn a-Dhu.}. Those days made me have a balance views on all religion - including my Theravada Buddhism. I can tolerate my barbs against Buddhism and turn me into a Nibbanic Buddhist - with my sole aim: to be free of Greed, Anger, Sensuality, and Pride. 

Like the {boad~hka.ric}, Pali scholars in Myanmarpr are not sure how to pronounce the Bur-Myan {a.} (thibilant) as in Pal-Myan as /θ/ or as in Pal-Lankan (International Pali) (sibilant) as /s/, we are unsure of what to do.

Contents of this page

6.2 Dialects of Pali

UKT 200620: There are two dialects of Pali: Pali as spoken in Myanmarpr (Pali-Myan), and Pali as spoken in SriLanka from which the International Pali is derived (Pali-Latin). Most of us in Myanmarpr are familiar with Pali-Myan, but only a few who have studied Pali in the universities are familiar with Pali-Latin. If you could not study in a university, you can take courses from Bodhi University website:
- https://bodhimonastery.org/a-course-in-the-pali-language.html 200620
accompanied by A New Course in Reading Pali, by J. W. Gair and W. S. Karunatillake, 1998
- JWGairEtAl-ReadingPali<> / Bkp<> (lin chk 201020)

UKT 200912: Above I have generalized Pal-Myan as rather uniform. It may not be so given that though the majority of Pali speakers - mostly monks and nuns, and a few lay persons - have Bur-Myan as their L1 (mother-tongue), there are also those whose L1 is not Bur-Myan. Of them some have their L1 as Karen-Myan, Mon-Myan, PaO-Myan, Shan-Myan, etc. Their pronunciations of Pali words are bound to be different.

Pali speakers usually take official Pali examinations either based on Bur-Myan (Tib-Bur language group) or Mon-Myan (Aus-Asi language group). Since Bur-Myan pronounce their Palatals as stops, and Mon-Myan as affricates, we must recognize the Pali-Myan of Burmese as one sub-dialect, and that of Mons as a different one. The result of such diversity must be considered in interpreting Pali into Burmese, Mon or other indigenous groups. To get a unified interpretation we must rely on script rather than on speech.

Now we have come to my quest of Old Magadhi. Is it Tib-Bur or IE? We cannot think of it being related to Aus-Asi. Yet, we must note that Mon-Myan through affricates is related to Skt-Dev, whilst Bur-Myan through semi-nasals is related to Newari and Nepali and ultimately to Old Magadhi. In other words we will have to study the Indic languages, including Vedic, particularly the first stratum Gayatri-Vedic. The second strum the Brahmanic-Vedic need not be considered.
See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vedic_Sanskrit 200912
See Indic languages - Indic-indx.htm (link chk 200912)

Pix on right shows Mdaw Thurathati {u-ra~a.ti m-tau}, the anthropomorphised human-knowledge, known and yet to be known. She is not a Dvi: not a female dva. She is just a Mother {m-tau}, an anthropomorphic form of something such as a country, or even the terrestrial Earth on which the humans and animals live. Unless you are always thinking of sexual-intercourse - a sex-maniac, you don't have to marry her to anyone - not even to Mahabrahma-dva.

On the other extreme, I worship Gautama Buddha as the wisest of all out of respect for his "wisdom". Likewise, Mdaw Thurathati {u-ra~a.ti m-tau} representing the whole body of human-knowledge, including the "knowledge of Buddha's wisdom is worshipped. But remember, Gautama Buddha was a human-being - a real person, whereas the Mdaw is an axiomatic entity - a figment of imagination. Both are worshipfuls or {nt}. We call the Mdaw as {u-ra~a.ti m-tau nt a.mi:}. Unlike YHVH, God, and Allah, they cannot fulfill your prayers.

The worship of the Buddha and Mdaw amounts to paying respect. Many Myanmar Theravada Buddhists, wishing someone to grant their wishes, worship the Nats {nt} of the Folk-religion. I personally know many Burmese Theravada-Buddhists married to Burmese Christian spouses, worshipping in Christian churches. Many of their off-springs, who may become either Buddhists or Christians, following both religions have earned themselves the name of Boadkric {boaD~hka.ric} from "Buddha", and "Christ", and they are expected to say at the end of their chants Amensadhu {a-mn a-Dhu.} from a combination of "Amen" and "Tha-du". 

See also Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Style_(manner_of_address) 180312
" The Worshipful all other Mayors or other municipal governors
His/Her Worship (oral address Your Worship) municipal leaders in Commonwealth realms."


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6.3 Prakrit - original language

UKT 201021: I did not intend to devote a section to Prakrit, until I began to study Sanskrit. Sanskritists look down on Prakrit as "unrefined or vulgar" used by women and slaves, whilst Sanskrit is the "refined and polished" language. However, Prakrit can be looked on as the "first, original, aboriginal or native" just as how we term the natives of the Americas before the settlement of the Europeans who had looked down on them. In fact the Europeans were the invaders who were encroaching on the land of the original natives. The invaders had termed the natives as "Indians" because Christopher Columbus, with his primitive Geography had thought he had reached India-in-Asia.

At present, we in Canada are calling them the First Nations. The situation is the same with Prakrits - the languages of the First Nations of India-in-Asia. The Sanskrit-speakers were the invaders robbing the natives of their heritage and making them slaves or Sudras. The natives, though numerous, had only bronze-weapons to defend themselves, whilst the invaders - few in number - had iron-weapons. In a way it was a blessing for all: the Sanskrit speakers had ushered the Iron-Age into India.

From the language-family point of view, at least, the Prakrits of northern India, stretching from the area of present day Afghanistan to the east and then south into Burma, along the foot-hills of the Himalayas, were of the Tib-Bur languages whilst that of the Sanskrit-speakers were IE (Indo-European) allied to modern-English.

From: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prakrit 201021

The Prakrits , प्राकृत prākṛta, Shauraseni: pāuda; Jain Prakrit: pāua; Kannada: pāgada) are a group of vernacular Middle Indo-Aryan languages used in India from around the 3rd century BCE to the 8th century CE. [4] [5] The term Prakrit is usually applied to the middle period of Middle Indo-Aryan languages, excluding earlier inscriptions and the later Pali. [6] [UKT ]

The Prakrits were used contemporaneously with the prestigious Classical Sanskrit [of Panini] of higher social classes. [7] Prākṛta literally means "natural", as opposed to saṃskṛta, which literally means "constructed" or "refined". [6]

American scholar Andrew Ollett points out that ... not actually called Prakrit in ancient India, such as: [12]

Ashokan Prakrit: the language of Ashoka's inscriptions
the language of later inscriptions of India, labeled "Monumental Prakrit", "Lena Prakrit", or "Stupa dialect"
the language of inscriptions of Sri Lanka, labeled "Sinhalese Prakrit"
Pali, the language of the Theravada Buddhist canon
the Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit
Gandhari, the language of birch-bark scrolls discovered in the region stretching from northwestern India to western China

The languages that have been labeled "Prakrit" in modern times include the following:
  Apabhraṃśa / Ardhamagadhi / Dramili / Elu
  Gandhari / Kamarupi / Magadhi / Maharashtri
  Paishachi / Pali / Shauraseni
Not all of these languages were actually called "Prakrit" in the ancient period. [12]

Mirza Khan's Tuhfat al-hind (1676) characterizes Prakrit as the language of "the lowest of the low", stating that the language was known as Patal-bani ("Language of the underground") or Nag-bani ("Language of the snakes"). [23]

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6.4 Old Magadhi - a lost language

The Old Magadhi or Magadhi Prakrit {ma-ga.Di pRa.kRit} - the Tib-Bur (Tibeto-Burman) language, heavily under the influence of Sanskrit, still survives mainly in Kathmandu valley in Nepal [ Lumbini लुम्बिनी lumbinī was Gautama Buddha's birthplace.]. The language known as Nwari is still spoken by the blood relatives of the Buddha. My interest is in the Nwari language neither politics nor religions. Nwari (short: New) was written in Asokan Brahmi script at one time, but now written in Devanagari script. It still retains its Tib-Bur characteristics which I identify by the more numerous presence of the aksharas, ख {hka.}, घ {Ga.}, and झ {Za.}. Note: I will use only Romabama transliteration, neither IAST nor IPA, to avoid unnecessary confusion.

UKT 180226, 181203: I've been developing a Lakkwak on Magadhi-Asokan since 160416. Based on the shapes of r1c1 {ka.} and r4c1 {ta.}, the basic form of is both square and triangle. How to attach the vowel-diacritic to the consonant, and how to form the vertical conjuncts are clues to shapes of every akshara in the matrix. I need to standardize the forms to study, Shin Kic'si Pali Grammar.
  - Francis Mason & Eisel Mazard (馬大影) version of Shin Kicsi Pali Grammar, 1st distribution in 2015
  - FMasonMazard-PalGramm<> / Bkp<> (link chk 200309)
UKT 190417: Remember for writing Kagyi-khakwe I had to come up with the scheme w7xh7. There is nothing wrong with it: it has been used for 20 yrs. However, I still need a scheme for Latin alphabet whenever I am unable to use regular English fonts.


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6.5 Ardha Magadhi

UKT 201021:  {~a. ma.ga.Di} (for transcription of Pali {~a.} "half', see UHS PMD0076c2)

From: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ardhamagadhi_Prakrit 201021

Ardhamagadhi Prakrit  {pRa.kaRic} was a Middle Indo-Aryan language and a Dramatic Prakrit thought to have been spoken in modern-day Uttar Pradesh and used in some early Buddhist and Jain drama. It was likely a Central Indo-Aryan language, related to Pali and the later Sauraseni Prakrit. [3]

It was originally thought to be a predecessor of the vernacular Magadhi Prakrit, hence the name (literally "half-Magadhi").

From: https://www.jstor.org/stable/593543?seq=3#metadata_info_tab_contents 201021
Mgadh and Ardhamgadh , by Walter Eugene Clark, Univ. of Chicago, Journal of the American Oriental Society , vol.44, 1924, pp81-121 (41 pages)
UKT 201021: The following are edited excerpts from the above 41 pages.

(p081) 1. Statement of the Problem : Lassen (fn081-01) tried to prove that the Prkrit dialect spoken in the Prabodhacandrodaya by the Digambara Jain mon, by the Pupil of Crvka, and by the Messenger from Orissa (fn081-02) is Ardhamgadh. [UKT ]

According to Pischel (fn081-03) the dialect spoken by these is Mgadh and there is no trace of Ardhamgadh here or in any other Sanskrit drama. Pischel's statement has met with almost universal acceptance.

(p082) 2. The Mgadh Dialect in Vararuci, Hemacandra, Kramadiśvara, and Mrkaṇḍeya : Vararuci (fn082-09) describes only four Prkrit dialects: Mhṣṭr, Paiśc, Mgadh, and Śaurasen. He states that Mgadh is the language of the Mgadhas and that its original is Śaurasen. This statement does not imply that Vararuci thought that Mgadh was derived linguistically from Śaurasen. It is made only for the practical purposes of grammatical description, ...

(p085) Note especially that Vararuci gives no rule for the change of r to l . And yet the presence of  l  is universally regarded as one of the surest indications of Mgadh. ...

(p087) No literature has been preserved in Śaurasen and Mgadh, but the traditions concerning the old Buddhist books prove that there was a literature in Mgadh at least. ...

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6.6. Npali and Nwari

UKT 160119:

Though the present official language of the country of Nepal is Nepali , there is confusion due to the presence of the former official language known as Nepalbhasa नेपाल भाष {n-pa-la. Ba-a.}, as can be seen from the different spellings of the Kathmandu Valley (Gau: काठमाडौं उपत्यका, New: स्वनिगः, नेपाः गाः).
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kathmandu_Valley 170704
See also: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newar_language 160119

To avoid further confusion, I will use the word Gorkhali {gau} derived from the ethnic group whose kings had overran the area, as an alternate name for the present official language. I base my usage on:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gorkha_Kingdom 170704

Since, Nwari (New) had been written in Asokan Brahmi it was probably the same as Pali-Myan. The Buddhist faith as well as the language, Nwari (Tib-Bur), were almost wiped out by the Shaivite-Hindus in Nepal. Note: The Vaishnavite-Hindus were more friendly towards Buddhism, because they take the Buddha to be one of the reincarnations of their administrator-god Vishnu-dva, one of the Timurti headed by: Mahabrahma (creator), Vishnu (administrator), and Shiva (police). Shaivite-Hindus were not friendly towards either Buddhists and Vaishnavites, because they take their god Shiva-dva to be the Supreme God (creator, administrator, destroyer - all in one), and had viewed at one time the Buddhists and Vaishnavites as heretics. With this short background I will study the languages and cultures based on the following dictionaries.

Nepali-IE aka Gorkhali in Akshara order:
A Comparative and Etymological Dictionary of Nepali Language
by R L Turner
  - http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/turner/ (link chk 160119)
  Files from Univ. Chicago in TIL HD-nonPDF and SD-nonPDF libraries:
  - Turn-NepalDict<> / Bkp<> (link chk 200328) 
  To refer to this dictionary use: Turnxxxx
  Downloaded files from Govt. College in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
  - RLTurner-NepalDict<> / Bkp<> (link chk 200309)
  This dictionary does not allow copy-paste. Use it only as a quick reference.

Nepali-IE aka Gorkhali in Alphabetical order:
Npali-English Dictionary
by Karl-Heinz Krmer, 2007.
  Downloaded files in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
  - KHKramer-NepalDict<> / Bkp<> (link chk 200309)

Newari-TibBur aka Nepal-Bhasa in Alphabetical order: 
English to Nepal Bhasa Dictionary
(Tib-Bur) by Sabin Bhuju सबिन भुजु , 2005
Downloaded files in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
  - SBhuju-NewarDict<> / Bkp<> (link chk 200309)

It is my conjecture that Newari (Tib-Bur) directly descended from Old Magadhi (Tib-Bur) - the mother tongue  of Gautama Buddha, and Pali-Myan (Tib-Bur) speech written in Myanmar script - probably the forerunner of Asokan Brahmi script - are closely related. The most interfering language is Skt-Dev (IE), and through Skt-Dev I expect either to prove or disprove my conjecture. It is one of my main reasons why I am going through Macdonell's A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary. For the political background see: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nepal_Bhasa_movement 170705

In both languages, Gorkhali and Newari, you will find words beginning with {gna.} ङ.
  from non-nasal r1c5, which in Bur-Myan: {gna.}/ {ng}, {gna}, {gna:}
In Newari you will find <fish> न्या ; ङा - the same as in Bur-Myan, except for the length of the vowel.

UKT 140209: Burmese, and Pali (mostly on Buddhism), and Sanskrit (mostly on Astrology) are so interwoven that you cannot learn one without learning some words of the other two. Listen and watch a video on Theravada Buddhism explained in a classical song known as TBoamma {t:Boam~ma}, a favorite of my father U Tun Pe :
Online video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yzqEGnn4tfY 140209 
And in TIL HD-VIDEO & SD-VIDEO, Burma section:
- t:Boam~ma<)) 191006

Remember there are many disciplines under the name of Astrology. The discipline in which Bur-Myan and Skt-Dev was known as Hindu Astrology aka Vedic Astrology. Again there are quite a few systems which may be differentiated by the charts used.

We, in Myanmarpr use a square divided into 12 sections for Rasi or Zodaic as shown. The names can be found on TIL version of Macdonell's Sanskrit Dictionary
- MC-indx.htm > MC101.htm (link chk 200706)
and look into my notes on: Vedic names of Astrological houses 
"01. Bhava Lagna, Kalpa, Tanu, Udaya, Vilagna
       Tanu {ta.nu.} = kalpa - atmasthana : body, personality
"02. Artha, Dhana, Nyana, Swa, Vak, Vitta
      dhana = kuṭumba {ku.Toam~ba.} -sva - vitta - vaksthana - koza : wealth, knowledge
"03. ... ... ...

UKT 190228: For a standard work on Astrology, see Brihat Jataka  बृहज्जातक = ब ृ ह ज ् ज ा त क (from बृह् bṛhat adj. - big, great, large).
Brihat Jataka of Varaha Mihira, transl. by N. Chidambaram Iyer, 1885, in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- NCIyer-BrihatJataka<> / Bkp<> (link chk 200309)
"There is probably not one subject which is so ill-understood, which so many people pretend to know, and on which so many are prepared to express an opinion, as the subject of Astrology." - Introduction.
I, UKT, fully support this opinion of N. C. Iyer. In Chapter 09, p092-109, you'll read something on Astakavaga - my specialty when I was a part-time astrologer. In the chapter, on p103 to the end you'll find Sarvashtaka Varga by which I sum up as an illustration of a person's life.

UKT 200723: I'm intrigued by the shape of
of the word  {k~a.ta.} kaḍḍhati - v. (√kaḍḍh) to draw, drag; ana, n. dragging, resigning. - UPMT063.
Why is the akshara {a.} getting prominence?

Foreigners beware: never think lightly of Buddhism and Astrology when you are dealing with a native of Burma, especially in the country Myanmarpr. Whenever, you visit a Myanmar pagoda pay attention to Planet Posts at cardinal points. They are the basis of the Burmese Mahaboat Astrology {ma.ha-Boat}. There is probably no relationship between Hindu astrology and Myanmar astrology.

Furthermore, the shapes of the Akshara-glyphs seem to suggest ideas. I've interpreted the SaDaBaWa Inn - a 2x2 matrix - as a guide to Perfection. Now, compare the Planet Posts of Mahaboat Astrology to the 3x3 matrix of the single-circle Akshara. At the center is the Buddha representing Perfection, the cardinal points with benign animals, and the corner points with ferocious animals. In the 3x3 matrix, the center is the Perfect circle, and the cardinal-points with open-circles looking forward to Perfection. The corner-points with dented-circles look away from Perfection. Based on this comparison, I maintain that the Myanmar akshara is of esoteric nature. On the other-hand, the Alphabet with its Alef (Ox), and Bet (Stable) is the product of simple farmers and cattle breeders. Note: These ideas are my own which I've derived from my study of Astrology, Buddhism, Hinduism, and Abugida-Akshara & Alphabet-Letter writing systems.

Pali is an artificial language invented to serve the Theravada Buddhists who had taken a firm foothold in Ceylon now known as Sri Lanka or simply Lanka. It is derived from Old Magadhi (the mother tongue of Gautama Buddha spoken in Magadha Mahajanapada {ma-ga.Da. ma.ha.za.na.pa.da.} now split up into India and Nepal) and Lankan speech. Pali was not known in Buddha's lifetime: it was only invented a couple of centuries after his time. Buddha never spoke Pali - what he spoke was Old Magadhi.

It is my conjecture that Old Magadhi was known in northern Myanmarpr being brought in thousands of years ago by King Abhiraza {a.B.ra-za mn:}. The king was  probably a participant (and loser) in the Battle of Ten Kings दाशराज्ञ युद्ध - a war mentioned in the Rig Vda. The second time the language was brought in, was by Buddha's own relatives. They were fleeing the wrath of Prince Viḍūḍabha {Viḍūḍabha } of Kosala kingdom who dethroned his father King Pasenadi in the life time of Gautama Buddha.

UKT: The spelling of the notorious prince who dethroned his father and cause the father's death is not certain. See Wikipedia articles with different spellings:
Viḍūḍabha - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pasenadi 180929
Virūḍhaka - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virudhaka 180929

Pali now spoken in Myanmarpr - Pal-Myan (BP) is the Old Magadhi - is heavily influenced by Lankan Pali (Pal-Lanka) - the artificial language. Since the so-called International Pali (IP) is derived from Lankan Pali written in Latin script or to be exact in IAST, I am calling it Pal-Lat.

Since Buddhism rests firmly on the Principle of Anatta the opposite of the Principle of Atta aka Immutable Soul, the Bur-Myan non-nasal word {gna} /ŋ/ 'I, my, me' referring to Atta is the principle obstacle to all attempts in transcribing the Bur-Myan speech. Listen the song {t:Bon-ma} and keep a look out for the word {gnaa.} - the word with only half eye-blink vowel duration. Hindi and Sanskrit speakers cannot pronounce this sound and they had to substitute it with {na:.} नः //.

Ancient peoples in the Indian subcontinent extending into South-East Asia - including Ancient Pyus in the mainland of Myanmarpr - had worshipped the Mother-Goddess(es) (Maa or Mdaw) during the Brass Age. (Note: Brass, an alloy of Zinc and Copper, is softer than Bronze, the alloy of Tin and Copper. It is not suitable for making weapons of war. It was treated as a Metal of Peace by Ancient Jews, and used in the construction of articles and altars of worship.) .

UKT 180108: From time to time bits of long forgotten info came back to my mind. One such info was about an ancient people of Burma who were named "Ticul" by the Arabs. This info might simply be wrong. But I have to check first. I came across the name Eudoxus of Cyzicus in 2 pdf papers which are now in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
#1. PKeyser-EudoxusAstronomerPg344to346<> / Bkp<> (link chk 200309)
#2. MALinton-HistNavigat<> / Bkp<> (link chk 200309)
From #2: "Greek navigator Eudoxus of Cyzicus explored the Arabian Sea for Ptolemy VIII, king of the Hellenistic Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt. According to Poseidonius, later reported in Strabo's Geography, the monsoon wind system of the Indian Ocean was first sailed by Eudoxus of Cyzicus in 118 or 116 BC. [14]"
Again from #2: "The earliest known reference to an organization devoted to ships in ancient India is to the Mauryan Empire from the 4th century BCE. The Arthashastra of Emperor Chandragupta Maurya's prime minister, Kautilya, devotes a full chapter on the state department of waterways under a navadhyaksha (Sanskrit for "superintendent of ships"). The term, nava dvipantaragamanam (Sanskrit for sailing to other lands by ships) appears in this book in addition to appearing in the Buddhist text Baudhayana Dharmasastra."

UKT 190824: My interest in the Pyus {pyu lu-myo:} "Pyu ethnics" of ancient Myanmarpr has made me go further into antiquity, to the time of the Indus-Saraswati civilization and its connection to the sea. Remember that time was, before the elevation of land in central Burma which eventually led to eruption of Mt. Popa {poap~pa: tan} around 444 BC

Note: I remember this important date because of a mnemonic, , which I've come across a long time ago.  I've asked my friend Ko (Dr.) U Tun Tint. He does not remember coming across it. Since there is a mix-up of a Burmese event and the Christian era, I was probably its author because I'm fond of mnemonics and coined them from time to time.

and the cutting up of the proto-Irrawaddy into two: the northern half becoming   the Samoan River {sa.moan hkyan:} and the southern into the Sittang River {sic-tan: mric}. At that time there was no Irrawaddy Delta and the Indian Ocean reached into land as far north as the present day city of Prome {pr mro.} - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_maritime_history 190824
"The region around the Indus river began to show visible increase in both the length and the frequency of maritime voyages by 3000 BCE. | [14] Optimum conditions for viable long-distance voyages existed in this region by 2900 BCE. [15] Mesopotamian inscriptions indicate that Indian traders from the Indus valley carrying copper, hardwoods, ivory, pearls, carnelian, and goldwere active in Mesopotamia during the reign of Sargon of Akkad (c. 2300 BCE). [1] Gosch & Stearns write on the Indus Valley's pre-modern maritime travel: [16] Evidence exists that Harappans were bulk-shipping timber and special woods to Sumer on ships and luxury items such as lapis lazuli. The trade in lapis lazuli was carried out from northern Afghanistan over eastern Iran to Sumer but during the Mature Harappan period an Indus colony was established at Shortugai in Central Asia near the Badakshan mines and the lapis stones were brought overland to Lothal in Gujarat and shipped to Oman, Bahrain and Mesopotamia.

The cutting up of rivers, such as the proto-Irrawaddy has had happened before, in geologic time, when the Himalayas were (and are still) building up. See Section 08: Myanmar: what the Earth has to say
- earth-indx > geol-indx (link chk 190824)
and go to: Large rivers and orogens: The evolution of the Yarlung TsangpoIrrawaddy system and the eastern Himalayan syntaxis
- https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1342937X13002281 180530, 190824
See: Large rivers and orogens: The evolution of the Yarlung Tsangpo Irrawaddy system and the eastern Himalayan syntaxis, by Ruth A.J. Robinson, et. al., 2014, in TIL HD-PDF &  SD-PDF libraries:
- RAJRobinsonEtAl-LargeRiversOrogens<> / Bkp<> (link chk 191231)
"Abstract: ... Yarlung Tsangpo formerly drained into the Irrawaddy River in Myanmar through the eastern syntaxis, and that this ancient river system was established by (at least) the MiddleLate Eocene. The Yarlung TsangpoIrrawaddy river disconnected in the Early Miocene driven by increased deformation in the eastern syntaxis and headward erosion by tributaries of the Brahmaputra. ..."

It is accepted that in the distant past, IE speakers such as the those speaking Sanskrit started filtering into the areas of the Mother-Goddess (Maa or Mdaw {m-tau) worshippers. They brought with them weapons made of Iron and defeated those with Bronze weapons bringing the Bronze-age to an end. They brought with them male-gods and "made" the goddesses of the Bronze-age, consorts of their male-gods. The conquered were made to serve them and their male-kings and their priests as servants and slaves. Time-line in India: 1200 BC - 200 BC: About 1000 years before the Time of Gautama Buddha or Buddhist Era
See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iron_Age 151110

UKT 160516, 170710: Mother-Goddesses (Maa or Mdaw {m-tau) need not be of the category of Dva-Dvi of the Hindu Pantheon. They are the anthropomorphic names for the native  country. They have no need for husbands nor sex. They are being "created" by the natives or worshippers even to this day. The most recent entity is Bharat-Mata aka Mother-India comparable to {a.mi. mrn-ma}. As she is the mother to all peoples of the land including Buddhists, Christians, Hindus, Islams, etc. (in alphabetical order), I hope no self-styled religionist authority would come forward and claimed that Bharat-Mata is the wife of his foremost god.

Now what is the Buddhist Era (shortened to BE, to be compared to CE the Gregorian calendar of the West)? See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buddhist_calendar 170427
"Burmese system has followed a variation of the Metonic cycle. It is unclear from where, when or how the Metonic system was introduced."

To understand fully the Burmese Buddhist Era (used all over SEAsia thanks to Burmese Empire-builders like King Anawratha and King Bayinnaung who had influenced the whole area), you must know the Metonic cyle (of Greek astronomer Meton of Athens, ca. 5th century BC, who probably got it from the Babylonian astronomers)
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metonic_cycle 170427

Burmese calendar-ists (Arigyis of northern Myanmarpr - the brethren of Tibetan monks. One of the latter invented an Abugida-Akshara language - the Phagspa script - for use by Chinese on behest of Kublai Khan). The Burmese probably based their astronomical calculations on the Babylonians rather than on the Indians.

How was the Metonic cycle introduced into northern Myanmarpr is of the same genre of the question of Myanmar თ {ta.} getting to Georgia:
თ (U10D7: consonant "Tan"), and ი (U10D8: vowel "In")
See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%27Phags-pa_script 170427

The difference between BE and CE to be 543 or 544 depending on the month of the Buddhist Era.

However, it is probable that the invading Sanskrit speakers adopted the more ancient ideas of the indigenous people and took up the study of the Vedas. I base my conjecture on the difference between Vedic language and Classical Sanskrit of Panini. Using the idea of "renunciation" to bring an end to "desire", they have given us the Bhagavad Gita.

Contents of this page

6.7. Burmese-Myanmar Buddhist (Bambi) Index 

Burmese-Myanmar Buddhist (Bambi Index) - BMBI-indx.htm - update 2020Oct 
In honour of the Deer Park where Gaudama Buddha declared his Non-Axiomatic Scientific Buddhist Religion comprising of the First Four Principles, and Annata Principle - by Seindamani U Chit Maung. The original printed index presented "teachings" {ta.ra:} in groups of 1, 2, 3, etc.

A Pal-Myan-Engl Dict. of Noble Words of Buddha , by U Myat Kyaw (UMK) & U San Lwin (USL), - ref. as UMK-USLxxxx - PED-MK-indx.htm - update 140630

A helpful Wikipedia article for BMBI index is:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buddhist_cosmology_of_the_Theravada_school 151102
My edited version is in the BMBI folder: Thirty-One Planes of Existence - Thirty1-indx<> (link chk 170508)

Contents of this page

6.8. Burmese-Myanmar Christian Index 

In honour of my Christian friends and relatives, I hope to compile a similar index - BMCI-indx.htm.
It will be based on the work of Rev. Adoniram Judson (1788-1850) work on translating the Christian Bible into Burmese, and other works, which will be useful in my work. See:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adoniram_Judson 160706, 201022
"Adoniram Judson, Jr. (1788 - 1850) was an American Congregationalist and later Particular Baptist [1] missionary, who served in Burma for almost forty years."
See: Grammar of the Burmese Language, by A. Judson, 1883 in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- AJudson-GramBur-Lang<> / Bkp<> (link chk 201022)


Contents of this page

6.9. UPMT - The Student's Pali-English Dictionary

UKT 210102: I started out with a high ambition - to bring into one work, the Pali dictionaries in Pali-Myan and International Pali, and Sanskrit dictionaries. Now, I realize that it will take many years and I'm no longer young. I'm now 86 and have may be 10 more years with an active brain. Now I must plan just to start with one: International Pali in Student's Pali-English Dictionary, by Maung Tin, Rangoon College, 1920 (31st August 1920 just a few months before Rangoon College became Rangoon University on 1st December 1920)
- PED-UPMT-indx.htm (link chk 210115) 
includes one and gives some entries in Pali-Myan.

Contents of this page

6.10. UHS and UPMT combined Pali dictionary

UKT 200514: The following is the first project in which 2 similar dictionaries are presented with similar entries side by side: BP vs. IP .The first is U Hoke Sein's Pali Myanar dictionary (BP - UHS-PMD), with my English translations aided by U Pe Maung Tin's Student's Pali English dictionary (IP).
Downloaded copies in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- UPMT-PaliDict1920<> / Bkp<> (link chk 201022) 
UHS and UPMT combined Pali dictionary - PED-TIL-indx.htm - update 20Aug 
Note: From time to time, I've to consult U Hoke Sein, The Universal Burmese-English-Pali Dictionary, (UHS-BEPD)

UKT 180331, 200512: There are two dialects of Pali (or Old Magadhi). The first is the language brought over by King Abhiraza {a.Bi.ra.za mn:} and again during life-time of the Buddha, by the relatives of the Buddha fleeing the wrath of Prince Widudipa {wi.u-a.Ba. mn:a:} to Tagaung kingdom in northern Burma. This should be called Burmese Pali (BP).

The second dialect is the Old Magadhi (this link will take you to 6.4 Old Magadhi: you'll have to find your way back) brought into Ceylon (Sri Lanka) by the Buddhist missionaries of King Asoka. It eventually merged with the Lankan language which is a Dravidian language - probably linked to Aus-Asi (Austro-Asiatic group) influenced by Sanskrit mainly used by the Buddhist converts of Lanka. When the Westerners started learning Buddhism, it is this Lankan Pali that was written in European Alphabet. This dialect is the International Pali (IP).

After the British had colonized Burma, it is IP (Pali-Latin) that is taught in the Myanmar universities, led by persons like U Pe Maung Tin, however it is the Burmese Pali (BP or Pali-Myan) that is still taught in Buddhist institutions, by monks, nuns, and lay persons. It is Burmese Pali that is written by U Hoke Sein in his Myanmar Pali dictionary (in Bur-Myan).

Unfortunately, U Hoke Sein's Bur-Myan is slightly out of date. Things have changed, and so has the word usage. Because of these changes I've to rely on another Pali-Myanmar dictionary which is in tune with modern times. I'm relying on the one written by Ashin Dhammaththami Biwuntha {a.shin dm~m~a-mi. Bi.wn-a.} (born in 1296 BE - 3 months before, I, UKT, was born). I do not know him personally. Because of his very long Pali name, he would most probably be referred to by his contemporaries as U Dhamma {U:Dm~ma.}, by which I will refer to his dictionary as UDD's dictionary.

UKT 180701, 201022: The Pali dictionaries that I intend to use as a bridge from Sanskrit (Skt-Dev) to Pali (Pal-Myan) are:
Buddhist Dictionary of Pali Proper Names (mostly from PTS Dictionary of Pali Names  by G P Malalasekara (1899-1973))
- http://www.palikanon.com/english/pali_names/dic_idx.html 171213
PTS Pali-English dictionary, 1921, PTS-indx.htm - vowels complete
PTS Pali-English dictionary, by T. W. RhysDavids, reprint 1952 
  - TWRhysDavids-PTSDict58MB<> / Bkp<> (link chk 171224) 
PTS dictionary version from Abhidhamma.com stored in Bk-candl PED-PTS folder
  - TWRhysDavids-PTSDictAbidhama9MBԻ / Bkp<> (link chk 171224)
Pali suffixes and derivations,
  - http://www.buddha-vacana.org/toolbox/suf.html  190108
A Dictionary of the Pali Language, by R.C. Childers, reprint 2007 available in TIL library in Research Center in Yangon.
The above as downloaded text from 1875 ed. in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
  - RCChilders-PaliLangDict<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180701)
Buddhist Dictionary of Pali Proper Names, by G. P. Malalasekera (1899-1973)
  - http://www.palikanon.com/english/pali_names/dic_idx.html 170410
Note: To use this dictionary, go on line, and click on the above link.

UKT 181217: When I first learn Skt-Dev, I had first planned to begin with what I'd called TIL-SED from
Online Sanskrit Dictionary , February 12, 2003 -
Glossary - https://sanskritdocuments.org/dict/dictall.html 110810, 140805, 190701
Note: The online html version of the above allows me to copy and paste the words into my work. Unfortunately, the English transliteration is in ITRANS, because of which I'm giving my rendition in Bur-Myan and Romabama transcription. My ref. to this source is - SktDoc Glossary. Downloaded files in TIL HD-PDF & SD-PDF libraries
- SktDoc-OnlineSktDict<> / Bkp<> (link chk 200316)
It has been suspended to concentrate on Macdonell's. I'll be merge the two eventually. The link to my suspended work is:
- SED-indx.htm (link chk 181217)

Contents of this page

6.11. Pali Grammars

An Elementary Pali Grammar course (in English) - previous update: 070211
  - Ven. Narada Thera (1898-1983), online : www.buddhanet.net
  - downloaded 234pdf-pp file in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries: 
  - NaradaLanka-Pali<> / Bkp<> (link chk 171224)
I had been learning Pali grammar from the above: half way through I've temporarily stopped to learn Sanskrit.
  - NaradaLanka-indx.htm - update 160930

A Pali grammar on the basis of Kaccayano aka Shin Kic'si {shin kic~s:} [alternate title: Kaccayana Vyakarana]
  - PEG-indx.htm - update 150630
  - by Rev. F. Mason, 1868 
  - on line: http://archive.org/details/apaligrammar... 180411
  Downloaded versions of 251 pdf pages are available in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
  - FMason-KicsiPalGramm<> / Bkp<> * (link chk 200309)
  - FMason-KicsiPalGramm-German<> / Bkp<> (link chk 200309)
  - Francis Mason & Eisel Mazard (馬大影) version of Shin Kicsi Pali Grammar, 1st distribution in 2015
  -  FMasonMazard-PalGramm<> / Bkp<> (link chk 200309)
Kicsi Pali Grammar from Burmese point of view, 1872.
  - FMason-PaliLangBurView<> / Bkp<> (link chk 200309)
  "THERE are two schools of Pali. One takes for its basis the Pali derived from the oldest Burmese manuscripts
[UKT: I hold that this Pali-Myan is "Old Magadhi"] , and the other the language as it now exists in books and manuscripts in Ceylon, [UKT: Pal-Lanka is the corrupt version] condemning everything as irregular which differs from Singalese standards."
Rev. Mason quoting Gautama Buddha: "Monks Priests, from among my clerical disciples who are able to amplify in detail that which is spoken in epitome, the most eminent is the Great Kachchayano." 

Lately, 200316, I've come to notice that Shin Kicsi grammar has been edited by Shin Thitzana, a Burmese monk residing in Myanmarpr.

* UKT 171204: Rev. U Zawtika of Zya'thuhka monastery of Sanchaung has presented me with his own copies of Shin Kicsi's Grammar when he realizes that I am very serious of my study of Pali and Sanskrit. The first book is entirely in Pali and the other the Bur-Myan version by Sayadaw U Za'nakabi'wuntha of Amarapura.

 We find Shin Kicsi's interpretation of Buddha's teachings: the Bur-Myan version p003 is the exact equivalent of FMason-KicsiPalGramm<> "The First Pali Grammar" p036. "The signification is known by akshara letter". Because of this interpretation by Shin Kicsi, Buddha declared to his disciples that Shin Kicsi is the most eminent.

Saw-tooth linear writing : problem of {a.we-hto:}

UKT 191206, 200617: The vowel // {a.we-hto:} is very common in Bur-Myan which uses Visible-virama {a.t} as well as conjuncts where the Virama is hidden. In this instance it is similar to Skt-Dev. However, Pali-Myan forbids the use of Visible-virama, and uses Conjuncts only, both vertical and horizontal. It is probably because of southern-Indian languages of Pallava. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pallava_script 200617.

Though both Bur-Myan and Pali-Myan write from left-to-right linearly, Myanmar script uses 3 levels instead of a single level. We find the single level in English-Lat. Because of the three levels, I am calling the Myanmar writing-style as the "saw-tooth linear writing". Now, the vowel // {a.we-hto:} is written on the left-side of the consonant it is acting on. And it becomes a problem for first learners of the languages using Myanmar script. For the first learners, trying to pick out {a.we-hto:}-sign, // (written on the left-hand side of the consonant), from written script especially in long-sentences is troublesome. It becomes acute for the for first-learners of Pali-Myan, with stacked conjuncts {paaHT.hsn.}. Learning Bur-Myan is easier because it uses Visible-virama {a.t}. To lessen this problem for the first learners, I've invented what may be called Super-thawehto.

You'll the Super-thawetho In the TIL rendition of Shin Kicsi's motto, It has been made into a diacritic. You'll see this for {a.we-hto:} in the middle of a syllable. But the second {a.we-hto:} is left in the main level. In another example, found in the Paritta in samatā  cakkavāḷesu, the {a.we-hto:} is in the middle of a phrase.

Introduction to Kaccayana Pali Grammar - by J dAlwis, 1863, in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
  (there are two copies downloaded in different years: the following is the latest)
  - JdAlwis-KaccayanaGramm<> / Bkp<> (link chk 200316)
Practical Grammar of the Pali Language (in English) in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
  - Charles Duroiselle, 1906, 3rd ed 1915. 3rd ed in 1997 by U Dhamminda, 4th ed in 2008 by E. Mazard
- CDuroiselle-PaliGramm1997<> / Bkp<>  (link chk 200605)
- CDuroiselleMazard-PaliGramm2008<> / Bkp<> (link chk 200605)
Pali Grammar (in Burmese) by James Gray, British Burma Press, 1918 is in TIL SD-Library.
  Unfortunately, the pdf version was not properly done, and it is not worth referring to.
Pali Grammar by Rev. B. Clough, Wesleyan Press, Colombo, 1824. It is the oldest book I have
  so far. It is not suitable as a reference because the Pali words are in Lanka script which I could not read.

Eastern Monachism by Rev. R. Spence Hardy, the Wesleyan missionary from Ceylon, 1860, is a well written book on Buddhism. Though a lengthy book, pp444 pdf pp464, Preface alone, is well worth reading. He opened his chapter 01: Gotama Budha : "About two thousand years before the thunders of Wycliffe [John Wycliffe (c. mid-1320  - 1384), - English reformer - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Wycliffe 170313] were rolled against the mendicant orders of the west, Gtama Budha commenced his career as a mendicant in the east, and established a religious system that has exercised a mightier influence upon the world than the doctrines of any other uninspired teacher, in any age or country. ..."
Downloaded papers in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
- RSHardy-EasternMonachism<> / Bkp<> (link chk 200309)
"... Gotama Budha commenced his career as a mendicant in the east, and established a religious system that has exercised a mightier influence upon the world than the doctrines of any other uninspired teacher, in any age or country."

Contents of this page

Section 7:
Sanskrit {n-SkRRi.ta.} dictionaries, and grammars

Sanskrit Introduction

UKT 201023: I had no intention of studying Skt-Dev (Sanskrit speech in Devanagari script) until my good friend, U (Ko) Tun Tint from MLC suggested I study Sanskrit instead of Pali. Maybe he suggested as a jest or even a challenge when he told me in Toronto, Canada, when I told him of my varied interests: "show me at least one which you have accomplished". At that time, I was trading in stocks (on the stock exchange). I and my wife Daw Than Than had gone down from Deep River to Toronto to meet him and his delegation attending a Unicode meeting.

In 2004, I and my wife, who knew in advance that her death was approaching, came back to our old home in Yangon. We met Ko Tun Tint again. I told him of the beginning of my Pali study. He suggested that I study Skt-Dev. Little did I know that I would have to study not only Skt-Dev, but Pal-Myan, Mon-Myan, and other languages. Little did I realized that I would have to invent a new intermediate language. I'd already started on Romabama just for emails. Now I must turn it into a transcription - not just a transliteration - and sculpt thousands and thousands of akshara glyphs to handle the pronunciation using a color-scheme: because there is no available font!

Contents of this page

Sanskrit Dictionaries

UKT 151114, ... , 180818, 200114   {Sn-skRic} <-- {pRa.hkaRic}

A Practical Sanskrikt Dictionary, by A. A. Macdonell (Mac), 1893, - MC-indx.htm - update 2020July
BEPS Sanskrit-English Dictionary - SED-indx.htm - update 2019Aug 

My aim is to bring out the relationship in script {sa}, between Skt-Dev (Sanskrit-Devanagari), and Pal-Myan (Pali-Myanmar). There is very little relation in speech {sa.ka:}, and if we were to include raw speech - colloquial spoken language - we came under the Curse of Babel. My work, therefore, is based on the phonetic-script of King Asoka the Great - Asokan-Brahmi - the forerunner of both Skt-Dev and Pali-Myan.

Practical Sanskrit Dictionary for Buddhists and Hindus: - MCpp-indx.htm - update 2020July 

The above are selected compilations from:
1. A Practical Sanskrikt Dictionary, by A. A. Macdonell (Mac), 1893, http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MDScan/index.php?sfx=jpg; 1929.
Nataraj ed., 1st in 2006, 2012.
- https://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/macdonell/ 190516
  link: uchicago
Skt-Doc Glossary online:
- https://sanskritdocuments.org/dict/dictall.html 190701
  Downloaded (unedited) in TIL non-PDF & non-SD libraries,
  Web-Archive section.
2. The Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary, BHS, vol.2, by F. Edgerton, pp. 627.
- FEdgerton-BHSD<> / Bkp<> (link chk 200501) 
3. Student's Pali-English Dictionary, by Maung Tin (U Pe Maung Tin), (UPMT-PED) in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
- UPMT-PaliDict1920<> / bkp<> (link chk 190113)
4. Pali-Myanmar Dictionary (in Pal-Myan) (UHS-PMD), by U Hoke Sein, 1954, with English translation by U Kyaw Tun (UKT)
This dictionary in ink-on-paper form is in TIL research library at 35 Thantada St., Sanchaung, Yangon, Myanmar.

UKT 200503:
The individual entries from all the above are being cut, and stored under a directory named CUTS, which will not be uploaded to the Internet. Because of this Internet version of this dictionary will have empty spaces.

The TOC of this dictionary follows the Sonority Scale, from Consonants to Vowels

I've a sneaky suspicion that BHS, Nepali, and Burmese speeches are closely associated. I'll enter words from all the three into my dictionary to either reject or confirm my suspicion. I'll first concentrate on Nepali with words in Devanagari from:
A Comparative and Etymological Dictionary of Nepali Language by R L Turner (ref: Turn-Nepxxx ) - http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/turner/ (link chk 160119)
Files from Univ. Chicago in TIL HD-nonPDF and SD-nonPDF libraries:
- Turn-NepalDict<> / Bkp<> (link chk 200328) 
Turner's dictionary will be added to: Edgerton's Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary, TIL edition .
See BHS2-indx.htm - future update
I hope to include Latin into my compilation. But I may not live that long: I'm already a very old man, aged 86. However, I'm pinning my hope on the work of my assistants.
Downloaded LINGVA LATINA, by Hans H. rberg, 1998 in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries: - HHOrberg-LingvaLatinaVocab<> / Bko<>

My main source (corpus) of Skt-Dev is:
A Practical Sanskrit dictionary (in Skt-Dev) by A. A. Macdonell, 1893. The present TIL expanded version is based on the complete 384 pages of the ink-on-paper book, and its online versions.
Sanskrit as a language is also used by Buddhists of northern India, and from it translated into languages of China, Korea, and Japan.

The first step is to bridge Skt-Dev by A. A. Macdonell (Mac) to International Pali (or Pal-Lat) by U Pe Maung Tin (UPMT-PED) and then to Pal-Myan by U Hoke Sein (UHS-PMD) with English translation by me. The question remaining is the reason why International Pali is different from Pali-Myan.
I will have to seek my answer by looking into Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit (in International Sanskrit), by F. Edgerton, 1953: 

UKT 190624, 190805, 200309: My ultimate aim is to include Latin, and name my dictionary as Practical Sanskrit Dictionary for Buddhists, Christians and Hindus. I need Latin to come up with a transcription of Burmese into English, and back.
Latin-English Vocabulary II, by Hans H rberg, 1998
- HHOrberg-LinguaLatina<> / Bkp<> (link chk 200309)

UKT 200309: We must first note that Latin and English use the Alphabet-Letter system of recording speech-to-script, different from Pali, Sanskrit and Burmese which use the Abugida-Akshara system. Since vowels are very protean, we will have to begin with consonants. We would like to start our comparison with q which without the u has the {ka.} क /k/ sound, but since rberg has mostly qu which is equal to {kwa.} कव् , there are bound to be some difficulties. Let's take the first few entries, and look into p060-3.htm (link chk 200309)

Sanskrit Glossary for Buddhists and Hindus
  - primary source: Sanskrit Documents ||संस्कृत शब्दार्थ || sanskrit@cheerful.com . 12/22/2018
Downloaded txt is in TIL HD-nonPDF and SD-nonPDF libraries, Webarchive section
- Anon-GlossarySktTerms<> / Bkp<> (link chk 200223)
The downloaded txt is in format not suitable for our use. It has been converted to TIL format:
  - SktGloss-indx.htm - update 2019Aug 

The present work is in sections with the TOC as in Bur-Myan dictionaries which is in accordance with the Sonority scale: Consonants are easiest to compare, whilst the vowels are the most difficult. TIL sub-headings are in the form: {ka.ka.sa.} कक (Pali-Romabama-Sanskrit). 

My work on this comparison of International Pali (a discipline in Myanmar secular universities) and Pali-Myan (used by Theravada Buddhist monks and layman - the majority of the people of Myanmarpr) brings out some interesting points which the historians and academics have totally ignored.

Inclusion of Myanmar-Pali glyphs makes the files difficult to edit which forces me to split up consonants as r1c1, r1c2, r1c3, ...
  - Consonants,
---- p061 - p081-1 - UPMT-PEDr1c1.htm - update 2019Sep 
---- p080-2 - p175 - UPMT-PEDc.htm (to be split further)
  - Approximants, p175-251 - UPMT-PEDa.htm
  - Vowels, p001-061 - UPMT-PEDv.htm
UKT 190805: The above dictionary and glossary are in the same folder, uploading SED-MC folder to the internet will cover both.

UKT 190828: An observation which I haven't made before is on the Similar vowels: that {I.} is a front-vowel and {U.} is back-vowel. Both uses single-circles. However in the present Dissimilar vowels, {} is a single-circle, but {AU} is a double-circle.

I've arrived at this observation only after the study of Student's Pali-English Dictionary, by Maung Tin (U Pe Maung Tin)
- Consonants, p061-175

UKT 181126: Burmese speech in Devanagari script:  Since both Myanmar and Devanagari are phonetic scripts, we should be able to transcribe - or at least transliterate - Burmese speech and BPali speech, in Devanagari akshara.

My idea is not entirely new, since Sanskrit has been written in Myanmar script. You can see it in U Hoke Sein's Pali-Myanmar dictionary. After coming across Shin Kicsi's "motto", I've started implementing my idea into practice, because of which don't be surprised to find a few BPal-Myan (and Bur-Myan) words written in Bur-Dev. Only remember that in reading Bur-Dev, you must follow the Bur-Myan phonology. Even if you do not know Bur-Myan phonology, which is the same as BPal-Myan phonology you would know what the message is especially if it is on Buddhism.

My bridges between Skt-Dev and Pal-Myan are:
A Comparative and Etymological Dictionary of Nepali Language , by R. L. Turner, to be a bridge to Pal-Myan.
TIL libraries have 2 different versions: non-PDF and PDF version. The PDF version would not allow you to copy individual entries and is thus not suitable for my use.
Downloaded files from Govt. College in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
  - RLTurner-NepalDict<> / Bkp<> (link chk 200329)
Downloaded from: - http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/turner/ (link chk 200329)
(and changed into TIL format) in TIL non-PDF libraries.
  - TurnNepalDicIndx<> / Bkp<> - update 2020Apr (link chk 200329)
Note: Turner's dictionary will not be uploaded to TIL website. The above link is only for researchers at TIL Research Station in Yangon.

Bur-Myan Orthography, by U (Dr.) Tun Tint, MLC, 1986

The BHS-Lat (Buddhist-Hybrid-Sanskrit transliterated in Latin-script), and the Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary, by F. Edgerton.
Vol. 1. Grammar - BHS-vol01-indx.htm - update 2020Oct 
Vol. 2. Dictionary - BHS-vol02-indx.htm - Edger-indx.htm
- FEdgerton-BHSD<> / Bkp<> (link chk 200416)

Student's Pali-English Dictionary, by Maung Tin (U Pe Maung Tin), in TIL PDF libraries
(UPMT-SPED) - UPMT-PaliDict1920<> / Bkp<> (link chk 200310)
Since UPMT has based his work mostly on 
 A Dictionary of the Pali Language, by R.C. Childers, 1875 ed. in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
  - RCChilders-PaliLangDict<> / Bkp<> (link chk 200310)
in alphabetical order.

Buddhist Dictionary of Pali Proper Names, by G. P. Malalasekera (1899-1973)
  - http://www.palikanon.com/english/pali_names/dic_idx.html 170410
Note: To use this dictionary, go on line, and click on the above link.

Roots and Verb-forms in Sanskrit, by W. D. Whitney, 1885.
Downloaded txt in TIL PDF libraries:
Single-page format - WDWhitney-RootsVerbFormS<> / Bkp<> (link chk 200310)
Double-page format - WDWhitney-RootsVerbFormD<> / Bkp<> (link chk 200310)
You'll need both above to check to accuracy of what you've copied.
Note: U Hoke Sein's Pali-Myanmar Dictionary, on p1089-1110, has an appendix on Pali roots .

Sanskrit Verbal Roots List with English Translation , by Yoga Vidya, in TIL non-PDF , webarchive section:
 - YogaWiki-SktVerbRoots<> (link chk 200310)

Student's English Sanskrit Dictionary, by V. S. Apte, 1893:
  Being a dictionary by one of the natives, it is one of those I would like to refer to. Unfortunately,
  it is in alphabetical order. It is in TIL PDF libraries:
  - VSApte-StudentSktEngDict<> / Bkp<> (link chk 200310)

Lexicon of Names, Essential terms and Sanskrit words:
  - http://bhagavata.org/glossary/index.html 171222, 200310

The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary, by V. S. Apte, 1890. It has about
  a thousand pages and my attempt to download a PDF version have failed.
  Instead, you can use, Univ. Chicago : http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/apte/ 171120
  Searching the above is the same as for A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary, by A A Macdonell

Indian Buddhism by A. K. Warder, 1970
Downloaded txt in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- AKWarder-IndianBuddhism<> / Bkp<> (link chk 200310)

Aśvaghoṣa's Buddha Carita "Life of Buddha" by E. B. Cowell, 1894
UKT 200310: There are 4 versions of Buddha Carita in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries.
I've given downloads from two: . transcription and translation, . in Devanagari script. You can combine the two by the stanza numbers in English numerals and Skt-Dev numbers:  0-9:  ०  १  २  ३  ४  ५  ६  ७  ८  ९ 
. - EBCowell-BuddphaCarita<> / Bkp<> (link chk 200310)
Example: Book 01, p07, Bhagavatprasūtiḥ "The Birth of the Holy One" :
mahībṛtāṁ mūrdhni kṛtābhiṣekaḥ śuddhodano nāma nṛpo 'rkabaṁdhuḥ |
adhyāśayo vā sphuṭapudarīkaṁ purādhirājaṁ tadalaṁcakāra || 1.9
9. A king, by name Śuddhodana, of the kindred of the Sun, anointed to stand at the head of earth monarchs, -- ruling over the city, adorned it, as a bee-inmate a full-blown lotus.
- EBCowell-BuddhaKaritaDev<> / Bkp<>
The above is in Devanagari script, and each stanza is numbered with Dev numbers, which
you'll have to know.

Glossary of Sanskrit Terms ||संस्कृत शब्दार्थ || from https://sanskritdocuments.org/dict/dictall.html 200316
If you go online, you'll get it on a colored background. You can copy-paste Devanagari script from it, e.g. संस्कृत शब्दार्थ
I'm preparing what I'm calling Sanskrit Glossary for Buddhists and Hindus based on the above.
TOC is according to rows: row#1, velar C1; row#2, palatal C2; row#3, retroflex C3; row#4, dental C4; ...
- SktGloss-indx.htm (link chk 200316)

Other references which I use occasionally:
H. H. Wilson, 3rd ed. translation of Kalidasa's Megha-Duta (Cloud Messenger), 1867,
   containing a Vocabulary by Francis Johnson, p089-179 (downloaded PDF in TIL SD-library) -- for future work
Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English dictionary, 1899. MW-indx.htm - complete
TIL Sanskrit-English dictionary - SED-indx.htm
   downloaded pdf file in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
   - dictall-SktGlos<>2003 / Bkp<> (link chk 171224)
   (main links checked, and temp. suspended while working on Macdonell)
   A baby learns a language by listening to conversations without knowing the meaning. Listen to
   Sanskrit conversations, संवागमाला - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h1_3TnyHmBE 140821
Goddesses (or Mothers) in Ancient India - by P K Agrawala - mei-tau-indx.htm 
   UKT 140806: The book which I bought in Canada through Amazon is in TIL library.
   It is an important source of info for BEPS work, and will be part of this website.


UKT 190630: Now that I have renamed my work on A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary by A. A. Macdonell as
Practical Sanskrit Dictionary for Buddhists and Hindus , after including entries from BHS and Pali, I'd thought of merging Section 6 into Section 7, leaving a section for work on Quantum Mechanics which would include, chemistry, mathematics and physics.

This is based on my hunch that the Jhanic states {Zaan}, a favorite of the Gautama Buddha into which he went just prior to his physical death at age 80. Prince Siddhartha before he became enlightened as the buddha -- the Gautama Buddha -- as a grownup, had gone into the First Jhanic State even as a child of 6 or 8. It seems he was born with extraordinary intelligence, whereas most of us was born with ordinary intelligence {aaN}.

Pix shows Prince Siddhartha, as a very young child going into the First Jhanic State. He saw a worm that had been exposed by plough during the Royal Plowing Ceremony picked by a bird for food. The bird was not interested in killing the worm - it was only picking up food. Even if the worm had been killed by the plough, the bird would have picked it up for food. The small bird flying skyward might be grabbed by a larger bird of prey for food. The small bird would die and so would its nestlings. Even such an innocent activity such as seeking food can cause death and destruction to others. Why it has to be so? Is it the Law of Nature? Jhanic State is deep and analytical thinking.


Sanskrit Grammars

To bring out the relationship between languages, I will need to know Grammar and Linguistics in general. Ever since from the beginning of my study I have been compiling a glossary of terms, which will have to be updated from time to time.
Grammar and Linguistic glossary - GramGloss-indx.htm - update 15Nov
Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary, by F. Edgerton.
Vol. 1. Grammar - BHS-vol01-indx.htm - update 2020Oct 

I am learning Skt-Dev (Sanskrit-Devanagari pronunciation from online sources, fully realizing that Sanskrit is a dead-language and the original pronunciation is lost. The speech that I could get online is mainly of Hindi-speakers of IE and Tamil-Telugu speakers of Aus-Asi language-groups.

The online grammars with video and audio content are not uploaded to Internet and are stored in TIL CD-VIDEO libraries, and will be available to you only in my research station:
1. Sanskrit Grammar by Dr. Pankaja Rajagopal - SktGramRajagopal<> (link chk 200310)
However, for those who cannot come to the research station, I plan to present a copy of the index page of the above in later monthly-editions of the TIL website.

The above grammar belongs to the Panini school and it meant for IE speakers. But even before or contemporary with Panini's ‎Aṣṭādhyāyī were grammars for non-IE speakers. One such is Aindra Grammar for Telugu speakers. Read:
- ACBurnell-AindraGrammarians<> / Bkp<> (link chk 200212)
Mentions: Shin Kic'si, F.Mason, and Burmese and Pali grammars.
- ACWooler-IntroPrakrit<> / Bkp<> (lin chk 200212)
p05. "Māgadhī is the Prākrit of the East. Its geographical centre was in the ancient Magadha not far from the land of modern Māgahī, a dialect of Bihārī . In the plays Māgadhī is spoken by low people. Dialects of Māgadhī also occur, e.g. , Ḍhakkī in the Mṛcchakaṭikam. This Prakrit differs conspicuously from the others in its phonetics . स is replaced by श , and र by ल . "


We must realize that Eng-Lat (IE), Skt-Dev (IE), Mon-Myan (Aus-Asi) have have no Palatal plosive-stops. They have Palatal affricates. On the opposite end Bur-Myan (Tib-Bur) has no lisping endings. To handle Skt-Dev and Bur-Myan and other similar languages, I have to include Dental-fricative hisser {Sa.} ष / {S} ष् into Romabama. The Dental-fricative hisser is different from Palatal-plosive stop {sa.} च /{c} च् . Now we can come up with a class of vl-consonants such as: {Spa.}, {Sta.}, {Ska.}, {Sma.}, {Sna.}, etc. - all derived from {Sa.} ष / {S} ष् .

UKT 181007: For BEPS words in Myanmar script, remember to differentiate:

Palatal {sa.} / {c}
Dental {Sa.} ष / {S} ष्

TIL editors should take note of how I differentiate them in bookmarks.

The Eng-Lat words, <sp>, <st>, <sk>, <sm>, <sn>, etc. are actually spelled with Dental {Sa.} ष / {S} ष् . It is useful to remember this in transcription (different from transliteration) of Eng-Lat into Bur-Myan and Pal-Myan. 

UKT 200309: Notice how I am avoiding the IPA and IAST transcriptions, because they are non-ASCII (i.e. not suitable for email and internet). They are based on foreign-phonologies. Romabama {ro:ma.ba-ma} - the back-bone of Bur-Myan language has a unique phonology which is even different from Mon-Myan, a language of Aus-Asi (Austro-Asiatic aka {mwun-hka.ma} group). Just for education, listen to Roman-Latin and then to Sanskrit-Devanagari.

For Roman-Latin, listen and watch the script in John01 in Latin Vulgate in TIL HD-VIDEO Library, Christ section,
- John01LatinVulgate<> (link chk 200309)
Or, go on line and watch and listen to: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1HgSOKU6m54 200309

For Skt-Devanagari, listen to a SND clip of recitation of Bhagava Gita
- bk-cndl-Gita18-2<)) (link chk 200309)

श्रीभगवानुवाच śrī-bhagavān uvāca 'the Supreme Personality of Godhead said';
काम्यानां kāmyānāṁ 'with desire' /
  कर्मणां karmaṇāṁ 'of activities'
न्यासं nyāsaṁ 'renunciation' /
  सन्न्यासं sannyāsaṁ 'the renounced order of life'
कवयो kavayaḥ 'the learned' /
  विदु: viduḥ 'know'
सर्वकर्मफलत्यागं sarva 'of all'
------------------karma 'activities'
------------------phala 'of results'
------------------tyāgam 'renunciation'
प्राहुस्त्यागं prāhuḥ 'call'
------------tyāgam 'renunciation' /
  विचक्षणा: vicakṣaṇāḥ 'the experienced'

The above script, Bg18.2, is from a video clip. You can also get it, with translation and purport from: Bhativedanta VedaBase - https://www.vedabase.com/en/bg 170327

Listen carefully, such as to bhagavān which is clearly related to the word bhagavā. The two words are clearly related to each other by having a common root and stem.

Remember: A root is the part of a word that cannot be changed, and when added to creates different forms of the word, e.g. <walk> from which we get <walks>, <walked>, and <walking>, and new words like <sidewalk>.

Such a change is found in both nouns and verbs which is utterly foreign to Bur-Myan. Dictionaries only give one form of the word, which means to understand inflexional languages, I must study the roots and stems. I have included Roots and Verb-forms in Sanskrit, by W. D. Whitney, 1885, (ref. as Whitxxx) in my A. A. Macdonell A Practical Sanskrit dictionary (in Skt-Dev) 1893, given below . See  W. D. Whitney, Roots and Verb-forms in Sanskrit, 1885. Downloaded files in TIL HD-PDF & SD-PDF libraries
 - WDWhitney-RootsVerbFormsS<> / Bkp<> (link chk 200310)

See also https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bhagavad_Gita 151112 
See also a cartoon clip in TIL SD-Library from Meghaduta मेघदूत meghadūta 'Cloud Messenger' by Kālidāsa in downloaded files in TIL HD-VIDEO and SD-VIDEO libraries:
- Meghaduta-cartoon<> / Bkp<> (link chk 200310)

UKT 170417: Today, 170417, is Bur-Myan New Year day of 1379 BE. I was born in 1296 BE, and I'm now 83 years old. We have just ended the 4 days of Thin'gyan 'hair washing' which is commonly called 'Water Festival', marking the Sun's transit from the last the 12th Rasi of the Luni-solar calendar to the first Rasi. I celebrate the New Year day by giving the link to a series of spoken grammar lessons from: Shaale.com: School of Traditional  Indian Arts and Literature
- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mAbHLSL4kFs&list=PLZ83joYJYmWSFgcg-r0nOwnWPEqmvoaN4 151120
Watch and listen to downloaded files in TIL HD-VIDEO libraries
- SktDevGramLect-indx.htm (link chk 170611) 
Start from the very beginning - Lesson101<> (link chk 181109)
The problem for Bur-Myan speakers is for {a.} /θ/: Skt-Dev has 3: {sa.}, {Sa.}/{S} and {sha.} /ʃ/
and listen to 109. GuNitakshara गुणिताक्षराणि guṇita akshara 'augmented akshara' in Sanskrit
- Lesson109<> - Lesson109<)) (link chk 171224)

Skt-Dev grammars that have been brought to my notice:
A Sanskrit Grammar, including both the classical language and the older dialects, of Veda and Brahmana - by W. D. Whitney, Leipzig, 1897 in TIL PDF libraries
- WDWhitney-SktGramm<> / Bkp<> (link chk 200310)
- WDWhitney-SktRootsVerbForms<> / Bkp<> (link chk 200310)
Sanskrit Grammar, Part 1 & 2, by Dr. P Rajagopal, Shaale.com: School of Traditional   Indian Arts and Literature,
- https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL-ZRhg4pEMrNHVgVUKqpqKJ2FWBbusosK 170520
- downloaded by rewritten for Bur-Myan speakers by U Kyaw Tun (primarily for self-learning as a student)
- MC-indx.htm > MCspeech-indx.htm > SktDevGramLect-indx.htm
> SktGrammPt1.htm & SktGrammPt2.htm (link chk 170908)
  http://sanskritdocuments.org/learning_tutorial_wikner/ 130517
  - http://sanskritdocuments.org/learning_tutorial_wikner/wikner-rm.pdf 130517(suspended work)
learnsanskrit.org http://learnsanskrit.org/ 130911


Contents of this page

Section 8. Myanmar: what the Earth has to say

- UKT 190508: While working on Pali and Sanskrit dictionaries, I got so sick of unseen entities such as gods & goddesses, devas and devis, and all the authoritative ancient texts on stone and on paper written by humans aka Homo sapiens , that I have to turn to natural sciences now and then. I want to know about my birth country, Myanmarpr, not from human mouths, but from the Earth itself.

Although our species has the scientific name Homo sapiens, thinking human, an even more appropriate name would be Homo loquens, or speaking human. (McMahon, 2002, p. 1) - McMahon, A. (1999). Understanding language change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. - quoted by Gabriela Markov in her Master thesis submitted to Masaryk University, 2017. Downloaded paper in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries: - GMarkova-Schwa<> / Bkp<> (link chk 200927
UKT remark: We think less, but talk more: the humans deserve to be called Homo loquens .

Earth Sciences is the topic of this section. - earth-indx - update 2019Jun

The following and others generally included in Earth Sciences are in this section.
Cosmology - to trace the beginnings Geology - {Bu-mi.b-Da.} Geography {pa.hta.wi-wn} Paleoanthropology {sh:ma.noa~a.b-da.}

Contents of this page

Section 9 : Para-Medicine

UKT 141026: The word "Para-Medicine" is my coined word from Bur-Myan {pa.ra.hs:} - MLC MED2006-252
The word {pa.ra.hs:} is probably derived from the name of an ancient pioneer, Parāśara (3100 BCE?).
This section was under the name MYANMAR MEDICINAL PLANTS , and it needs a thorough review, and I am going through it very slowly because of other works and also because of its large size.

UKT 200605: Now that I've mentioned the name of Parāśara of the Ancient East (fl. thousands of year before Gautama Buddha), I must mention the names of the pioneers of the Ancient West, such as Pedanius Dioscorides (Greek c. 4090 AD), and Galen of Pergamon (Roman 129 AD c. 200/c. 216), and the name of the Science under which traditional medicine is included: Pharmacognosy  - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pharmacognosy 200605

UKT 170308: Bk-cndl-indx.htm has 6 main folders:

1.MP-KS, 2.MP-LSR, 3.MP-PARA, 4.TAXON, 5.MP-VR, and MMPD, which alone is separated from the rest. Consequently, I have renamed it as 6.MP-MMPD.
Of the 6 folders, 2.MP-LSR and 6.MP-MMPD are very old folders and have nested folders.
TIL editor must be careful in sorting them out.

2.MP-LSR has nestlings-child: Agri2000 & LSR, which themselves have nestling-grandchild.
  Agri2000 has: FAMILY; GENUS-SPECIES; r1c1ka, r1c2hka, r1c2nga, r2c1sa, r2c2hsa, ... , r7c4a'

6.MP-MMPD, the oldest main folder of the lot, also has nestlings which need to be checked
  and deleted if redundant.
They need to be realigned to get rid of the nesting.

I am splitting the above into the following:

  Para-Medicine {pa.ra.hs:} - MP-Para-indx.htm - update 141130 (link chk 200222)  
A Checklist of Botanical Names of Myanmar Plants of Importance
- Planning section, Agricultural Dept, Govt. of Union of Myanmar, 2000.
A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs, and Climbers of Myanmar
- H.G. Hundley and U Chit Ko Ko, et.al. 
Botanical Names of Myanmar Plants of Importance
- LSeikShin 
Medicinal Plants of Myanmar
- Dr. Kyaw Soe & Daw Tin Myo Ngw -
Plant Taxonomy
- George H. M. Lawrence
MMPD Bur-Myan Akshara index
- U Kyaw Tun, U Pe Than, and staff of TIL. 
Vṛkṣāyurveda (Plant Science)
- Parāśara (3100 BCE?)
Myanmar Herbal Pharmacopeia v.2, 2018 - TradMed-MHerbalPhamaco<> / Bkp<> (link chk 200530)
: Plant of interest - Orthosiphon aristatus {i.kra:ma.keiT} - treatment of inflammatory disorders and ailments of urogenital tract.

UKT 180609: I need to find more info on a plant, planted as a gift by U Tin Thein, an indigenous medicine practitioner: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vernonia_amygdalina 180609
Bur-Myan name given by him: {da.h~a.ken:}.

Contents of this page


Rathe or Rishis

Could the Rath be the Rishis following the footsteps of the Ancient Vedic rishis? There are about 10 rishis acceptable to Gautama Buddha. In one of my numerous notes, one of which is on the Language Problem of Primitive Buddhism, based on the presentation of Ji Xianlin (former spelling Chi Hisen-lin) to Burma Research Soc., JBRS, XLIII, i, June 1960, I've written:
- lang-relig-indx.htm > lang-probl.htm - update 15Nov , (link chk 201017)

UKT 170516: Vishvamitra {wai~a mait~ta. ra..}, Bhagu {Ba.gu. ra..}, and Yamataggi {ya.ma.tag~gi ra..} * are among the ancient Vedic rishis revered by Gautama Buddha. "In the Buddhist Vinaya Pitaka of the Mahavagga (I.245) [14] section the Buddha pays respect to these rishis by declaring that the Veda in its true form* was became known declared to them (UKT: became due to the yogic practice - not by grace of any axiomatic god)  "Atthako (either Ashtavakra or Atri), Vmako, Vmadevo, Vessmitto (Visvamitra),  Yamataggi, Angiras, Bhradvjo, Vsettho (Vshistha {wa-T~HTa.})**, Kassapo (Kashyapa), and Bhagu (Bhrigu) " [15] and because that true Veda was altered by some priests he refused to pay homage to the altered version. [16]
[equivalents of Pali to Skt names by Maurice Walshe (2005) translation of Digha Nikaya - see note in
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angiras_(sage) 170618 ]

*UKT 180326: What does Vda in its true form means? The Poannar {poaN~Na:} who believe in Axiomatic beings portray the Veda {w-da.} 'knowledge' to be like a main body (head and torso) with 6 subordinate branches (limbs). The most important part, the head (plus the torso) wholly made up of prayers and incantations to the various Axiomatic beings, headed by a Creator (just an idea - not accepted by Theravada Myanmar-Buddhists.) The limbs described as Vdinga {w-dn~ga.} aka वेदाङ्ग vedāṅga, "limbs of the Veda")

Read: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vedanga 180326
and Dictionary of Pali-derived Myanmar words (in Bur-Myan) - UTM-PDMD by U Tun Myint, Univ. of Rangoon Press, 1968, p302. One of the 6 limbs is #1. Shiksha, शिक्षा śikṣā : phonetics, phonology, pronunciation = {aik~hka}, the study of which is more important than useless prayers.

Anyone, not only the Poannar {poaN~Na:} who profess to be the mouthpiece of the Creator, can acquire knowledge - the Vda - through steadfast study with a concentrated mind (acquired by self-training using Yogic {a.ma.hta.} methods.). Ideas that come into his mind must be logical before they can be accepted as knowledge. The ancient Vedic rishis, were the very ones who had acquired the Vda in its true form. They were self-achievers, not just weaklings who were nothing but self-made servants of the gods. Such a self-achiever was Siddhartha Rishi {aid~Dt~hta. ra..} who acquired the ultimate knowledge or wisdom. He finally declared himself to be the Buddha. No wonder he would pay respect to the ancient rishis such as Vishvamitra {wai~a mait~ta. ra..}.

[I base my corrections to the fact that Rishi Siddhartha (before he attained Buddha-hood) was highly learned in these Yogic practices cumulating in starvation which he had practiced for six long years.]
* {wai~a mait~ta. ra..} - UHS PMD0925
  {Ba.gu. ra.e.} - UHS PMD0720 .
  {ya.ma.tag~gi ra..} - not found in UHS.
** I cannot find Pal-Myan spelling of the name so far. Skt-Myan equivalent of the name is {wa.i.S~HTa.} from link to Vsettho in Wikipedia - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vashistha 151125.

UKT 170501: Of the lot, Bhagu aka Bhrigu rishi (a human) chastised all the three Trimurti, for failing in their duties to look after the humans on earth: Mahabrahma (with a curse that no one on earth would worship him), Vishnu-dva (with a kick in the chest) and Shiva-dva (with a curse that he be represented by Lingam the male sex-organ stuck in Yoni the female sex-organ) - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bhrigu 170501
See videos in the TIL HD-VIDEO and SD-VIDEO libraries
- Hindu-BhriguLaxmiVishnu<> / Bkp<> (link chk 190530)
- Hindu-BhriguParvatiShiva<> / Bkp<> (link chk 190530)


Contents of this page

Medaw or Mother-goddess

UKT 170405: Who are the two females shown? I venture to say that they are the modern presentations of ancient religions - the Mother-Goddess religions of the copper to bronze ages of the Indian sub-continent extending into modern Myanmarpr. See my note: Maa Sakti of the Left-hand Path in my work on
A. A. Macdonell A Practical Sanskrit dictionary (in Skt-Dev) 1893,
- MC-indx.htm > MCc1pp-indx.htm > p075.htm (link chk 170405)

See also - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mehrgarh 180830
" Mehrgarh (Balochi: Mehrgaŕh;  sometimes anglicized as Mehergarh or Mehrgar,) is a Neolithic (7000 BCE to c. 2500/2000 BCE) site located near the Bolan Pass on the Kacchi Plain of Balochistan, Pakistan, to the west of the Indus River valley.[1] ... The earliest settlement ... was inhabited from circa 6500 BCE ... is now seen as a precursor to the Indus Valley Civilization, ..."
Some human figurines including a "mother-goddess" was discovered.


Contents of this page

If you are a Theravada Buddhist

UKT 150624, 181014:

For Theravada Buddhists, you may start your day by taking the Five Precepts from a Sri Lanka monk : - bk-cndl-LankaPali<))

I've been asked by my niece, why I haven't chosen taking the Five Precepts from a Bur-Myan monk. To her and others, I must answer:

This is not a website on religion: it is on the correspondence between four languages of BEPS aka Binpathak. {ba.n-pa-ak}.

However, we will come across references to religions, such as Christianity and Hinduism.

Mainland of Myanmarpr at one time was populated by Pyu ethnics, who were Tib-Bur speakers. I hold that they were closely associated with the Ancient Indus-Saraswati civilization. Even in early Pagan period when the Pyus had intermarried the Bamahs, they had worshipped the Naga or Nag - the crested serpent-like mythical creatures equated to the Dva-gods. Most of us may not love ordinary serpents, but most of us do have a respect for Naga, the lord of the snakes.

Even today there are a number of Buddhist pagodas in which the wild pythons have found sanctuary. And also there are still a few hermitages with hermits with unshaven heads and beards, and wearing hats.

The Hermits are not Rahans and are not bounded by Viniya Rules. They are probably the descendants of the ancient Vdic Ii (which in Sanskrit would be Rishi - the same word with Pali "Ii" but spelled with very Rhotic Sanskrit Vowel ऋ ). In Bur-Myan they are called {ra..}. A Rishi to a Hindu is quite different from a Burmese-Buddhist Rishi. A Hindu-Rishi has a family and sing songs, whereas a Buddhist-Rishi is celibate and does not sing songs - the difference can be seen in the case of Narada Rishi. In Hinduism, he is reduced to the status of singer singing praises to Vishnu. To the Buddhist he was a Buddha-to-be and his story is told in the Ten Major Birth stories.
Go back Theravada-Buddhit-note-b

Contents of this page

Burmese-Myanmar calendar

- UKT 181017 : Bur-Myan calendars are from
  Abhidhamma Propagation Association, Yangon, phones, 01-378457, 01-8604424.
UKT 210116: Because of Covid restrictions the calendar issued by Abhidhamma Association is not available because of which TIL Bur-Myan calendar presentation will be discontinued indefinitely.

See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burmese_calendar 181014

Make your plans for the next month. In all probability you (and I) do not know that the present year 2018 AD corresponds to Bur-Myan (Burmese-Myanmar) Luni-solar year of 1379-1380 BE.

Being an educational website it is deemed proper to open with a recitation of Mora Sutta Paritta
by Rev. Jandure Pagngnananda Thero (釋明高) from www.youtube.com - bk-cndl-Chinese<))
by a Sri Lanka monk of Theravada {ht-ra.wa-da.}, Skt: Sthaviravada - bk-cndl-Lanka<))
by a noted Bur-Myan monk, Mingun Sayadaw
- bk-cndl-Mingun<))
Gayatri Mantra aka Sāvitri Mantra of Hinduism directed to Rising Sun (equiv. to Mora Sutta) by Anuradha Paudwal 
 - bk-cndl-gayatri<))

Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gayatri_Mantra 170702
quotes, Shutts, Brett (May 2014) in J. of the Oxford Centre for Buddhist Studies, 6, 119:
"In Samyutta Nikaya 111, Majjhima Nikaya 92 and Vinaya i 246 of the Pali Canon, the Buddha refers to the Agnihotra as the foremost sacrifice and the Gayatri mantra as the foremost meter:

'aggihuttamukhā yaā sāvittī chandaso mukham.
Sacrifices have the agnihotra as foremost; of meter the foremost is the Sāvitrī. [6] ' "

UKT 170702, 200310: Noting that the mantra is recited by the Brahmins {poaN~Na:} to the rising Sun in the morning, "Sāvitrī" aka "sāvittī" can simply mean the Sun - the source of Energy implying Knowledge.

Since the highest Knowledge is the Baudhi-knowledge {bau:Di.aaN}, the Sun (which you can see with your eyes), and any other Hindu Creator-god (which you cannot see but which you think exists) cannot impart the Supreme Knowledge to the worshippers.

The Supreme Knowledge has to be achieved by the individual himself. Gautama Buddha tells us how to do it in his Fourth Noble Truth. It is said that the pre-Buddha as a peacock had prayed to the Sun in the morning and in the evening for protection and also for knowledge in the Mora (peacock) Sutta. Buddhists can accept it. Because of this fact, I maintain "Gayatri Mantra" and "Mora Sutta" are equivalents.

Click to see calendars for intervening years:

UKT171113: September (Roman month) (from Latin septem, "seven") was originally the seventh of ten months on the oldest known Roman calendar, with March (Latin Martius) the first month of the year until perhaps as late as 153 BC. [2]. - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/September 171113.
The word "September" is {t~ta.ma.} 'seventh' where Bur-Myan {a.} /θ/ has been changed into IE /s/. "October" - {T~HTa.ma.}, "November" {na.wa.ma.}, "December" {da.a.ma.}.

Outside Myanmarpr, only few knows what a modern Burmese calendar looks like. As I (U Kyaw Tun) grow more aged, I am returning to my roots - Burmese traditional customs and draw on the latent energies of my forefathers - both Burmese & Mon, and I for one need a Burmese calendar, even on my trips outside Myanmarpr, to observe the customary holidays of my childhood. What I am giving below is intended only for those outside the Motherland and who have no income such as monks, nuns, and aged men and women who are literally living on charity. If you are a Buddhist, you can uphold Sila {i-la.} - at least the Five Precepts on traditional Sabbath days: Full-moon, New-moon, and the 8th day after.
- Five Precepts by a Sri Lanka monk - bk-cndl-LankaPali<))


The Bur-Myan Luni-solar calendar is quite unique, and is different from that of Indians, because of the Burmese use of Metonic cycle of 19 years (nearly a common multiple of the solar year and the synodic (lunar) month, first discovered by Babylonian astromers long before the Greeks), although both the Indians and Burmese use calculations based on SuryaSiddhanta
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Babylonian_astronomy 170515
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surya_Siddhanta 170428
Downloaded translation SuryaSiddhanta by E. Burgess, 1860 in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- EBurgess-SuryaSiddhata<> / Bkp<> (link chk 171218)
See also: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burmese_calendar 170428
"One key difference from Indian systems was that the Burmese system followed a 19-year intercalation schedule (Metonic cycle). It is unclear from where, when or how the Metonic system was introduced".
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metonic_cycle 170428
Named after Greek astronomer Meton of Athens (5th century BC):
Go back Bur-Myan-calendar-note-b

Contents of this page

Note on Sections and Ratings

UKT 180413, 180501, 180712, 180801, 180912, 180930

UKT to TIL-editor 1706025: Check the folders under Bk-cndl index.htm .
There seems to be a redundant folder named: TIL-DVD (61.6 KB). [ PTS dictionary version from Abhidhamma.com stored in Bk-candl PED-PTS folder - RhysDavids-PTSDictAbidhama9MBԻ (link chk 170603)]. If it is redundant, delete it.

UKT 180413, 180501, ..., 191210: Important Notice to Users: The Akshara-Banks (AK-BNK) I'm using now, stand for Bur-Myan {n-poan:kri:} 'the orthography', as a substitute of a font for Romabama {ro:ma.ba.ma}. This is an ongoing experiment with AK-BNKs. I just want to see its feasibility on the web. So far, I'm finding that, of the 3 phonemes, /p/, /t/, /k/, that we use to compare languages, the use of /k/ in Bur-Myan far exceeds that of other two. However, in Eng-Latin, the /k/ is unknown. What is known is /kʰ/. Unfortunately, /k/ is {ka.} and  /kʰ/ is {hka.} in Bur-Myan, creating a lot of confusion when ordinary English is used to transcribe Burmese. What I am trying to use when transcribing Burmese names is IPA-English. Another unfortunate incident: IPA-English is non-ASCII, and I've to resort to Romabama which is the equivalent of IPA-English and which is ASCII compatible.

The website still uses akshara, pix, and video from BkCnd indexes: BkCnd-LIB, BkCnd-PIX, BkCnd-VIDEO.  Example: Shin Kicsi's motto (BEPS-Myanmar) "The meaning is known by akshara" is quoted many times throughout the website, including nested-files. It is identified by the tag-label <>bk-cndl indx .

The only font necessary to go through my work is: Arial Unicode MS font 180413

I've been asked again and again, why I'm working on this not-for-money and simply money-losing educational program. My answer is: primarily for my aging self which is being discarded slowly and evermore by the on-going younger and younger society. I still need some company around me and reached out to old friends across the world, and make new friends.

From time to time I re-organize my work and everyday life-style, primarily changing my everyday diet - sometimes drastically - to help my aging brain be young as ever - I'm just 84 years old! Those at the Research station can watch a video on Super Agers, in Section on Aging, in TIL HD-VIDEO and SD-VIDEO:
- SuperAgers<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180506)

URLMetrics 171107 : Tuninst is ranked 3,417,073 in the United States. 'index-TIL.'
3,247,149 Worldwide rank. The majority of visitors come from India.
The domain is 13 years and 10 months old.
On average 1.60 pages are viewed each, by the estimated 105 daily visitors.

URLMetrics 180422 : Tuninst is ranked 4,356,198 in the United States. 'index-TIL.'
3,247,149 Worldwide rank. The majority of visitors come from India.
The domain is 14 years and 3 months old.
On average 1.60 pages are viewed each, by the estimated 105 daily visitors.

UKT 180402: I am not used to Internet ratings. I simply copy what I find on the net today:
- https://tldanalysis.com/tuninst.net 180402
UKT comments: The above site, tldanalysis, gives many facts on my website.
- from: http://webpageanalyse.stream/www/tuninst.net 180402
Rehash: The website's index page has 18 out-going links. . Date of registry for this domain: 03/12/20. . Alexa Global rank for tuninst.net is 965 891 at this time. The location for tuninst.net server is in CA; Canada; BC; British Columbia; Vancouver; V6H; America/Vancouver; 49.25000000; - 123.13330000, and the IP used is . tuninst.net registry was last updated on 17/424. . This domain is registered until 17/12/20. . Global Alexa rank for tuninst.net has increased/decrease by +29 294 over the past 3 months.

Go back to Note on Sections-Ratings-note-b

Contents of this page

Material from old files which are to be edited
and moved into relevant sections above

Romabama {ro:ma.ba.ma} transcriptions are based on Bur-Myan phonology -- not on that of any other Myanmar languages. And, if the subject matter - such as Buddhism in Pal-Myan or modern Science -- is familiar to the reader, by reading the script, and by careful listening, you can still understand some words.

Pay attention to brackets used:
- Bur-Myan (Burmese speech in Myanmar script) : {...}
  Mon-Myan (Mon speech in Myan script) using 3-number keystrokes: Alt529... Alt528: ◄...►
- BPal-Myan (Pali speech in Myanmar script)  {...}
- Skt-Dev (Sanskrit speech in Devanagari script) & IPal-Lat (Pali speech in Latin script: ... . Alt0171...A0187
- Eng-Lat (English speech in Latin script) : <...>
- Special brackets: 〈...〉 U+2329. U+122A

The basis of the AK-BNKs is on my observation that many Bur-Myan words represented in script (not necessarily in speech) is disyllabic. I have once written on this subject from Canada, in 2012, in a paper titled "Romabama on Typewriter".
- https://www.tuninst.net/RBM-TYPEWRITER/RBM-TYPEWRITER/intro2/intro2.htm#Cont-this-pg 200703
UKT 200701: Leaving the dictionary project for a while in the hands of my capable assistants, Daw Zinthiri Han and Daw Khin Wutyi, I'm turning my attention to Section 5 >
> 5.1. Romabama {ro:ma.ba.ma} 'Bur-Latin'

   UKT 200809: The subject of Romabama transcription system - my own invention - has been in my brain since my early teens. It is has been slowly evolving, changing, revising, and so even coming up with the name Romabama was a problem.   It is the spoken Burmese language {ba.ma.sa.ka:} in English script {n~ga.laip sa} no doubt.   But, is it transliteration or transcription? Is it {ro:ma.ba.ma} or {rau:ma.ba.ma}? It must be easy enough to write on an English typewriter, or in modern times be easy to write on an English computer keyboard. In other words it must be ASCII compatible. 

> 5.4. Myanmar Religions: Organized and Folk > Folk Elements in Buddhism - flk-ele-indx.htm - update 2020July
However, during all these years from 2012 to 2020, many of my views have changed, showing that I'm willing to change my views in the face of new evidence.

After posting 2020March update on the Internet, I'm doing a second round of A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary for Buddhists and Hindus, beginning from Consonants. - Section 7
UKT 200514: I've also started work on a dictionary project in which 2 similar dictionaries will be presented with similar entries side by side:
#1. U Hoke Sein's Pali Myanar dictionary (BP), with my English translations aided by U Pe Maung Tin's Student's Pali English dictionary (IP). See Section 6. - update 2020Aug 
#2. F. Edgerton's Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary (BHS), and R. L. Turner's A Comparative and Etymological Dictionary of Nepali Language (Nep). I expect that will present more problems. See Section 7. - update 2020July
- FEdgerton-BHSD<> / Bkp<> (link chk 200416) 
- Turn-NepalDict<> / Bkp<> (link chk 200328)

UKT 180801: See my Note on Sections and Ratings

UKT to TIL editor: Go to Material from old files which are to be edited

Burmese (Bur-Myan) speech has 5+1 nasals: English-Latin has only two, /n/ & /m/. The paucity of nasals in English is just one of the obstacles of transcription from Burmese to English. 

Mnemonic: The Doggie Tale
Little doggie cringe in fear -- ŋ (velar),
  Seeing Ella's flapping ears -- ɲ (palatal)
  And, the Shepard's hanging rear -- ɳ (retroflex).
Doggie's so sad he can't get it out
  What's that Kasha क्ष when there's a Kha ख ?
  And when there's Jana ज्ञ what am I to do with Jha झ?
On top of all there're the husher Sha श /ʃ/, and hisser Ssa ष /s/,
  when I am stuck with Theta स /θ/ !" 
Little Doggie don't be sad,
  You are no worse than the Celtic Gnome
  Losing G in his name, he is just a Nome!

UKT 180627: In addition to ŋ (velar), ɲ (palatal), ɳ (retroflex), Bur-Myan has {n} /n/ - a nasal without a definite POA, because of which I specify the shortage as 3+1. English-speakers cannot pronounce the velar ŋ properly, and what they could not do, they simply silence it, and pronounce <gnome> as /nəʊm/ US /noʊm/. There are others such as <gnat> /nt/, <knee> /niː/ and <knight> /naɪt/.

See: a compilation by Julie Peters in HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
- JPeters-SilentLetters<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180924)
" ... many words in English [are] challenging ... English words have silent letters in them -- an estimated 60% ... (British Council). ... letters that appear in the spelling of words, but dont make a sound - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silent_letter 180924

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TIL Editor's index

Task for 21Jan. :
1. Take out the AK files from folders below and deposit them in AK-BNKs
2. Rename 2 folders: Delete old and Form new - BHS to BudHS, BHS-TIL to BudHS-TIL, Binpathak to BurEPS 

Points to consider:
1. I'm in a quandary with AK-BNK5 for vow-letters: AK-BNK5II , AK-BNK5UU , AK-BNK5EE , AK-BNK5AAUU
2. Some AK-BNK are getting large: a possibility to use Dot-double, Dot-below, Dot above, Recha1, Recha2, Recha3
   + -->
   + -->  
  But some may not be suitable with Dot-above: compare  + --> ( & - too far apart)


Folder-name / Link / update date

01. BudHS - BHS1-indx.htm  -  2020Oct
  move by deleting and forming new to BudHS
02. BHS-TIL - BHS2-TILindx.htm -
  move by deleting and forming new to BudHS-TIL

03. BMBI - BMBI-indx.htm - 2020Oct

04. BUDDH-SCH - Buddh-sch-indx.htm -

05. BUR4FF - B4FF1-indx.htm - 2020Nov
06. BurEPS - Binpathak-indx.htm - 2020Oct

07. BUR-GRAM - BurGram-indx.htm - 2021Jan
08. BUR-GRAM1899 - BG1899-indx.htm - 2021Jan

09. BUR-MYAN - BurMyan-indx.htm -
10. BUR-ORTHO - BO-MLC-indx.htm -

12. CATE-LSE1 -
13. CATE-LSE2 -

16. DJPD16 -

17. DKMC -

18. EGPE -


21. ENG-PHON -

23. FAM-WEB -

24. FLK-ELE -


26. HUMAN-VOICE - HV-indx.htm - 2018Oct

27. INDIC -


33. LAW -



Folder-name / Link / update date

35. MATH -

36. MON1874 -
37. MON-MYAN -
38. MON-SPK -

39. MP-KS -
40. MP-KS -
41. MP-LSR -
42. MP-MMPD -
43. MP-PARA -
44. MP-TAXON -
45. MP-VR -

46. MYN -
48. MYN-GEOG -
49. MYN-GEOL -

52. NINI -

53. PED-MK -
54. PED-PTS -
55. PED-TIL -

58. QUANTUM-TH - Quantum-indx.htm - 2020Oct


62. SANGER-J -
63. SANGER-S -

64. SCH-NET -

65. SED-MC -
66. SED-MCPP -
68. SED-MW -
69. SED-TIL -

70. SKT-GLOSS - 

71. UKT -

72. ZIN -



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Family website

Please respect the copy rights of the authors and publishers.
The moral rights of the author to be identified as author of the material are asserted in accordance with .77 and 78 of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. This material may be reproduced without the consent of the author, in part or in whole in any manner and in any medium subject only to the two following conditions: (a) no charge shall be made for the copy containing the work or the excerpt, (b) a copy of this notice shall precede the work or the excerpt. --- Based on:

Please visit my family - fam-web-indx.htm - update 2019Dec 
TIL Paritta is included in the above at present - paritta.htm - update 2019Dec 

Immediate family

U Kyaw Tun (father) and Daw Than Than (mother)
Founder and president of Tun Investment Limited, incorporated in Ontario, CANADA
Retired Professor of Chemistry
Daw Than Than (1931-2004)
Co-founder of TIL Retired Instructor in Chemistry Painter : see her work

Dr. Zin Tun (son)
National Research Council Canada
Interests: Physics. Neutron scattering
See a list of publications by Dr. Zin Tun from 1982 to the present (2012) is included.

Daw Nini Tun (daughter)
Technical Manager, TIL Research Station, Yangon, Myanmar
Interests: Sample of webpages designed by TIL team in Yangon.
   Teaching of Biology at high school level

Maung Kan Tun (son of Dr. Zin Tun and Daw Kay Thw Win)

Maung Thit Tun (son of Dr. Zin Tun and Daw Thw Win)

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Extended Family & Friends

U Khin Maung Latt and Daw Khin Myo Chit
Author - See Biographical sketch by her son Dr. Khin Maung Win

U Aye Maung and Daw Than Yin
Author -
Some publications: Buddha and Buddhism


Update: 2021-02-11 04:03 PM -0500
tunzinni@gmail.com - Yangon office

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