Mon salutation<))
We start with a salutation to our teacher, Siddhartha Gautama,
whose First Four Laws, and Anatta Principle are the earliest
scientific observations in the history of mankind.

Published: 2016-April

2016-04-21 03:05 PM -0400

TIL (Tun Institute of Learning)
Contact persons:
- U Han Tun: 01-527388 , 09-4210-98489
- Daw Khin Wutyi : 09-511-3477 
- Daw Thuzar Myint : 09-3154-3240

Being an educational website it is deemed proper to open with a Pali recitation of Mora Sutta Paritta Chant by Rev. Jandure Pagngnananda Thero (釋明高) from www.youtube.com - bk-cndl-Chinese<))
¤ Listen to Mora Sutta by Mingun Sayadaw - bk-cndl-Mingun<))
and Gayatri Mantra in Skt-Dev, the "Hindu equivalent" - bk-cndl-gayatri<))

This website shows the correspondence between four languages of BEPS. Please pay attention to the brackets used:
- Bur-Myan (Burmese speech in Myanmar script) : {...}
  Mon-Myan (Mon speech in Myan script) using 3-number keystrokes: Alt529... Alt528: ◄...►
    Bur-Myan phonology is quite different from that of Mon. Romabama transcriptions are based on
  Bur-Myan not on Mon-Myan. Don't pronounce pure Mon-Myan words in Romabama transcriptions. However,
  you can get a fair pronunciation of Pali words included in Mon-Myan sentences.
- Pal-Myan (Pali speech in Myanmar script), and
- Skt-Dev (Sanskrit speech in Devanagari script) : «...» .
- Eng-Lat (English speech in Latin script) : <...>


What is BEPS

BEPS is the acronym for BURMESE, ENGLISH, PALI, SANSKRIT  LANGUAGES or speeches in four scripts: Myanmar, IPA-Latin, Pali-Myan, and Devanagari.

Notice: The video and sound marks, <Ô> & <)) , in TIL files will help you to go through BEPS languages. The sign <)) will let you hear the sound whether you are on your own computer or on a TIL research computer. But the sign <Ô> will only let you see the video in TIL SD-Library (Secure Digital Library) when you are on a TIL research computer. As an example, watch downloaded pdf in TIL SD-Library
- Cunningham-Asoka-inscrip<Ô> / bkp<Ô> (link chk 160124)
in which you will see a map of the extent of Magadha Empire ruled by King Asoka - the Great, where there are the inscriptions. The writing system (script) is the Asokan (erroneously dubbed Brahmi). Asokan script is a phonetic script and could transcribed many speeches of various linguistic groups of India: Tibeto-Burman (Tib-Bur), Austro-Asiatic (Aus-Asi) and Indo-European (IE). It predates the International Phonetic Alphabet by thousands of years.
See: Indic languages - indic-indx.htm - update 160331

The IE speakers were concentrated in the the north-western areas to which they had entered from the highlands of Iran. They are the harbingers of Iron Age, and with their iron implements of war they overwhelmed the original indigenous Brass Age peoples. The IE speakers worship male-gods, primarily Vishnu. The Tib-Burs worshipped mother-goddess. Their bronze-weapons could not stand the iron-weapons and were eventually turned into Shudras 'the slaves and servants' of the conquerors and denied learning the Vedas 'the body of knowledge' which had been their own. The Aus-Asia speakers also worshipped another male-god, Shiva. At present I take them as inventors of instruments and forms of various arts such as singing and dancing. They can make use of both brass and iron.

Since there are bound to different indigenous ethnics who are mostly Tib-Bur (Tibeto-Burman) speakers and Aus-Asi (Austro-Asiatic) speakers, and a few IE (Indo-European) speakers, they use different sets of vocal muscles to produce the vowel sounds, and their speeches would be radically different as in the case of Bur-Myan, Karen-Myan, Mon-Myan and Shan-Myan. The only commonality is the phonetic script between them.

The oldest writing system found in the Indian subcontinent is that on Asoka inscriptions, primarily found throughout the Magadha Empire of the Indian subcontinent. Its direct descendant, according to Rev. F. Mason, is the circularly rounded Myanmar script still used for writing Pali-Myan (Pali speech in Myanmar akshara). See:
¤ A Pali grammar on the basis of Kaccayano {rhïn kic~sæÑ:} in Bur-Myan),
  - by Rev. F. Mason, 1867 - PEG-indx.htm - (link chk 160108) 
  - (on line) http://archive.org/details/apaligrammar... 130517

If we were to go along with Rev. Mason's argument, then, what we are using in Myanmarpré is NOT "Pali" - an artificial language invented in Sri Lanka centuries after the time of the Gautama Buddha, but the old "Magadhi" - the language used by the Gautama Buddha and the Buddhist Emperor Asoka. I therefore venture to write Mag-Myan (Magadhi speech in Myanmar script) whenever possible instead of Pal-Myan (Pali speech in Myanmar script).

It is interesting to note that the circularly rounded forms in scripts are not only unique to Myanmarpré. They are also found in the country of Georgia. With the background knowledge that King Asoka's Buddhist missionaries went even to Rome in Europe, I suggest that among them might have been monks from Tagaung of northern Myanmarpré. And the Myanmar script might have traveled with them to Central Asia. I base my conjecture  on the presence of the circularly rounded script in Georgia, bordered by Russia in the north, and Turkey in the south. In the Georgian letters, there are definitely two from the Myanmar script: the  თ (U10D7: consonant "Tan"), and ი (U10D8: vowel "In").

The consonants

It is to be noted that the IPA, in spite of its usefulness for European Alphabet-Letter languages, such as English and French has failed when applied to the Asokan derived Abugida-Akshara languages such as Bur-Myan and Skt-Dev because it has missed the consonants of columns c2, c4, and c5.

The above inset has been prepared while going through A. A. Macdonell's A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary. See:
- MC-indx.htm > MCc1pp-indx.htm > p081.htm (link chk 151228)

The vowels


Daniel Jones, (1881 – 1967), was the first Western phonetician to describe the vowels using a highly stylized quadrilateral. However, the vowel-space shows that the back vowels are so close to each other that, they all become mixed up in transcriptions in various languages.

Vowels are all voiced. However, since many of our words and syllables end in vowels, they have been mistaken for basic vowels even by the eminent phonetician and linguist Peter Ladefoged. He claims that Burmese has voiceless vowels.
See: http://hctv.humnet.ucla.edu/departments/linguistics/VowelsandConsonants/vowels/chapter12/burmese.html

Vowels are very tricky, transcriptions of the lower back vowels may have to be changed as I become more familiar with Mon-Myan and Skt-Dev pronunciations. The table presented above is tentative.

Romabama (Burmese speech in Latin script) is compatible with ASCII (American Standard Code for Info Interchange), and is suitable for writing emails & on the Internet. Myanmar fonts are not used, and individual words are sculpted according to a Lakkwak -- lakkwak.gif (link chk 151227). Keep in mind the color code: red, green, brown, and black as default. It will help you to pronounce the Bur-Myan and Pal-Myan words. However, Mon language belonging to a different linguistic group, the Austro-Asiatic, cannot be pronounced from Romabama. Secondly, being in need a Glossary of a one-to-one Burmese-to-English terms for my BEPS in Romabama, I have to define my own terms as given on the right. Please note that these terms are not approved by Myanmar Language Commission (MLC), and I may have to redefine and extend them whenever the need arise.

I keep myself reminded of the fundamental concept of Theravada Buddhism - the Anatta Principle - the ever-changing world including what we deem as our own Self. Change Death is a natural phenomenon - not to be feared: live your Present Life as happily as you can, but expect Change at every turn. Theravada Buddhism - more precisely the first two sermons of Rishi Siddhartha Gautama (formerly the Crown Prince of the Sakka Republic of the Magadha Mahajanapada 'foot-hold of Magadhi speakers') who became known as the Buddha (the sage, the teacher) - is an Non-Axiomatic religion. Non-Axiomatic, just as Modern Science is. It is a philosophy which had been termed religion. It is for the Living, those still very much alive and kicking. Being Non-Axiomatic, it is not based on "self-proclaimed Truths" such as a Universal Creator and Creation not supported by any modern scientific observation. It is for the Living, not for the Dead.

However, I am finding that most of my friends of my age-group are very much against the very mention of Death. I keep myself reminded of Death - the Maraṇānussati, with a pix from Maraṇānussati Kammatthana from Rev. Jandure Pagngnananda Thero (釋明高),
-- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LWQ9-VaksmI 151005.

Why be content sucking your thumb?
Big Toe is the better one!
Inevitably the Hair Cut will surely come!

Out of my consideration for those who are afraid of Death I have replaced the Maraṇānussati pix with a sequential pix on what we have already gone through. We have all started out as Little Ones!  

In the meantime, go on dreaming of becoming a king,
Living on promises of Axiomatic religious teachers
Who themselves have died
Not to be found among the Living on this Earth!

UKT 151018: Zoroaster (fl. between 1700 and 1300 BCE) was the founder of Zoroastrianism  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zoroastrianism 151018
The religious text, Avesta is written in Cuneiform script.

UKT 130501: TIL website originated as a family website of the Tun Family whose members are now spread out in Canada, Myanmarpré, and Singapore. Prof. U Kyaw Tun (1934- ), and his wife Daw Than Than (1930-2004) both ethnic Bur-Myan, but now naturalized Canadians are the founding members. Daw Than Than has completed her life: it only remains for me, U Kyaw Tun, to complete mine. I am now 82 (on 160319). My physical body is not important for me, but for those who would like to see my likeness, I am posting only a caricature of myself and my signature with which I sign my work.


Section 1 : Human voice and languages

Burmese-Myanmar speech has 5 nasals: English-Latin has only two, /n/ & /m/.
The paucity of nasals in English is just one of the obstacles of transcription from Burmese to English.

Mnemonic: The Doggie Tale
Little doggie cringe in fear -- ŋ (velar),
  Seeing Ella's flapping ears -- ɲ (palatal)
  And, the Shepard's hanging rear -- ɳ (retroflex).
Doggie so sad he can't get it out
  What's that Kasha क्ष when there's a Kha ख ?
  And when there's Jana ज्ञ what am I to do with Jha झ?
On top of all there're the husher Sha श /ʃ/, and hisser Ssa ष /s/,
  when I am stuck with Theta स /θ/ !" 
Little Doggie don't be sad,
  You are no worse than a Celtic Gnome
  Losing G in his name, he is just a Nome!

English phonetics - Eng-phon-indx.htm
   Remember hearing is more important than articulation.
  It is your ear that will teach you the correct pronunciation:
English pronunciation guide - EPG-indx.htm - update 090125
English pronouncing dictionary - DJPD16-indx.htm
  See also http://www.cambridge.org/ 150405
English Phonetics and Phonology, Glossary (A Little Encyclopedia of Phonetics),
  by Peter Roach, 2009, in TIL SD-library - PRoach-Glossary<Ô> / bkp<Ô> (link chk 160124)
English idioms of native-speakers -- EIDIOM-TXT-indx.htm
English Grammar in Plain Language - EGPE-indx.htm - update 150731
Human voice, Phonetics and Phonology - HV-indx.htm - update 160229
Phonetics for Myanmar - UNIL-indx.htm
(based on online course offered in China by Univ. of Lausanne (UNIL): in TIL format of 2004 used before Unicode. It needs thorough cleaning.). I have come across a book on Bur-Myan Phonetics which I intend to go through some time later:
¤ {þûd~da.byu-ha kyûm:} - by Abbot of Taungdwingyi KhinGyiByaw (fl. 1084 BE). I have yet to look for works by those who preceded him: Abbot {kyau-aung-sän-hta:} and Shin Ok~kän-þa.ma-la}.


Section 2: Second Language (L2) Acquisition

UKT 141030: By L2 is meant a language acquired by a human being well passed puberty when that person has full knowledge of the Mother Tongue, aka First Language (L1). L1 is also known as Home Language.

ENGLISH for Myanmar - the medium of teaching - E4M-indx.htm - update 151130

Stories from Canada - CATE-Canada-indx.htm - update 160131
Learn to Speak English (CATE-LSE) - by UKT
Chapters  1 to 15 - CATE-LSE1-indx.htm (not available on line)
Chapters 16 to 30 - CATE-LSE2-indx.htm (not available on line)
Note: Burmese for Foreign Friends, a Computer Assisted Teaching of Burmese (CATB),
can be reached: - BurMyan-indx.htm > B4FF1-indx.htm (link chk 160103)



LANGUAGE ACQUISITION AND TEACHING - lang-acqui-indx.htm - update 151231
Though concerned with teaching of English to Bur-Myan speakers, this section is applicable for all languages of BEPS. 
LANGUAGE AND MEANING  - lang-mean-indx.htm - update 151231
LANGUAGE AND RELIGION - lang-relig-indx.htm - update 151230
  Language problem of primitive Buddhism
, by Chi Hisen-lin (季羡林 , 1911 – 2009)
  - lang-probl.htm (update 151130)
  Dissent and protest in the ancient Indian Buddhism - Buddh-sch-indx.htm - update ?
  - by Ven. Tran Dong Nhat (b.1968), Univ. of Delhi, 2008. Ph.D. thesis,
  See downloaded Ch. 5 file in TIL SD-Library
  -- Dissent-Protest<Ô> / bkp<Ô> (link chk 160124)
  - Gita.htm (update 151130)
  and others such as ¤ Mahabharata, ¤ Bhagavagītā, ¤ Early Buddhism and Bhagavagītā
  ¤ Mahayana Buddhism and Vajrayana Buddhism
LANGUAGE AND SIGN - lang-sign.htm - update 151231
  I plan to include the Sign Language to presenting message of the Buddha
  to Hearing-Speaking challenged (Deaf-Mutes) eventually.
LANGUAGE AND THOUGHT - lang-thot-indx.htm - update 151231

LINGUISTICS - indx-linguistics.htm - update 151231
Scripts, Brahmi, and other topics.
See: Wikipedia definition of Linguistics 141224


Section 4 : Myanmar languages

¤ Romabama: introduction - RBM-intro-indx.htm - update 151231 
  - A short list of Newari phrases and words included.

¤ Romabama on Typewriter (emphasizing ASCII fonts used)
- RBM-typewrit-indx.htm
¤ Romabama collection  (an older folder that has been left unattended for a long time)
- RBM-COLLECT-indx.htm - update 160430
¤ Notes on the transliteration of Burmese alphabet into Roman characters, and vocal and consonantal sounds of the Peguan or Talaing language, by R.C. Temple, Rangoon 1876, in TIL SD-Library
- RCTemple-translit-Bur<Ô> / bkp<Ô> (link chk 160124)
I will have to go over this carefully because it has comparisons to Haswell's Peguan language.

¤ - Burmese Grammar and Grammatical Analysis 1899 - BG1899-indx.htm - update 160430
  by A. W. Lonsdale, Rangoon: British Burma Press, 1899 xii, 461, in two parts. 
  Part 1. Orthoepy and orthography; Part 2. Accidence and syntax
¤ Bur-Myan Language: Speech and Script *- BurMyan-indx.htm - update 121212 (?)
  includes the following:  
- The Grammaticalization of Nominalizers in Burmese, by Andrew Simpson,
  Prof. of Linguistics & East Asian Languages and Cultures,
  Univ. of Southern California.
- Burmese for Foreign Friends
   A teaching program by U Kyaw Tun and Daw Than Than, ver01, 1991, new ed. with sound files
- MLC Burmese Orthography , MLC, 1st ed 1986, ed. U Tun Tint (in Bur-Myan)
   Precursor of MLC Myanmar English Dictionaries, 2006 - the standard edition used in my work
- Dictionary of Pali-derived Myanmar words (in Bur-Myan) - UTM-PDMD.htm
   by U Tun Myint, Univ. of Rangoon Press, 1968, pp 627.
   My older ref. was UTM-PDD. Under consideration.
- MLC Burmese Grammar (in Bur-Myan) - BG-MLC-indx.htm
  Vol 1. For Middle school; Vol 2. For High school; Vol 3. For University
  Available online from Wordpress.com.
  See downloaded pdf files in TIL SD-Library MLC-BurGramm<Ô> / bkp<Ô> (lin chk 160409)
  UKT 160408: Cited definitions from BG-MLC are stored in respective DEF subfolder of TIL files.

¤ Mon-Myan Language: Speech and Script - MonMyan-indx.htm - update 151031
Note 150920: There is some confusion in my work on Mon-Myan because I am still learning the language.


MYANMAR : a collection of papers now split into the following five
¤ Folk Elements in Buddhism -- flk-ele-indx.htm
¤ General -- myn-indx.htm
¤ Geography, Geology, Fossils -- geo-indx.htm
¤ Prehistory -- prehist-indx.htm
   A new addition, Burma before Pagan by M. Aung-Thwin, has been added
   -- to be uploaded later. UKT 130305
¤ Myanmarpré before the British incursion
  The Burmese Empire a hundred years ago - by Father Sangermano, 1833 
   • Prefaces, John Jardine's Introduction, TIL-collection -- sang-j-indx.htm - update 130925
   • Sangermano's work proper -- sang-s-indx.htm - update 130925
   • As important as J. Jardine (Judiciary) was Herbert White (Civil Service - Lt. Governor ((1905–1910) )). His account based on 32 years (1878–1910) of service in Burma A Civil Servant in Burma, 1913, from
http://www.gutenberg.org/files/43075/43075-h/43075-h.htm 140530
has been downloaded and is in TIL SD-library html file
- HTWhite-CivilServantBur<Ô> / bkp<Ô> (link chk 160221)
See also Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herbert_Thirkell_White 140530


Section 5 : Pali grammars, and dictionaries

• BEPS Pali-English dictionary (in akshara-order) -- PED-indx.htm 
UKT 140209: Burmese and Pali (and to some extent Sanskrit) are so interwoven that you cannot learn one without learning some words of the other. Listen and watch a video on Theravada Buddhism explained in a classical song known as {té:Boän-mha.}, a favorite song of my father U Tun Pe :
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yzqEGnn4tfY 140209

Pali is an artificial language invented to serve the Theravada Buddhists who had taken a firm foothold in Ceylon now known as Sri Lanka. It is derived from Old Magadhi (the mother tongue of Gautama Buddha spoken in Magadha Mahajanapada now split up into India and Nepal) and Lankan speech. It is my conjecture that Old Magadhi was known in northern Myanmarpré being brought in thousands of years ago by King Abhiraza probably a participant (and loser) in the Battle of Ten Kings दाशराज्ञ युद्ध - a war mentioned in the Rig Véda, and by Buddha's relatives fleeing the wrath of Prince Vidudabha of Kosala kingdom who dethroned his father King Pasenadi. The second flush of immigrants occurred in the life time of Gautama Buddha. Pali now spoken in Myanmarpré is the Old Magadhi heavily influenced by Lankan Pali - the artificial language. It is my belief that the Old Magadhi heavily under the influence of Sanskrit still survives in Nepal and is spoken by the Newars the blood relatives of the Buddha. So my interest has turned to Néwari (Tib-Bur language group), which is different from Nepali (IE language group). Since, Néwari had been written in Asokan Brahmi it was probably the same as "Pali" now current in Myanmarpré. The Buddhist faith as well as the language were almost wiped out by the Shaivite-Hindus, in Nepal. Caveat: There is confusion between Néwari (Tib-Bur) and Nepali (IE), because Néwari (Tib-Bur) was aka Nepali-Bhasa (नेपाल भाष {né-pa-la. Ba-þa.}).
See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newar_language 160119
My sources on Nepali Language aka Néwari - the Tib-Bur:
#1. A Comparative and Etymological Dictionary of Nepali Language by R L Turner
- http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/turner/ (link chk 160119)
  Downloaded pages in TIL SD-Library Turner-Néwari<Ô> / bkp<Ô> (link chk 160405)
On downloaded Turner-Nepali-Lang-Dictionary, p159, there are a few words beginning with {nga.}
#2. English to Nepal Bhasa Dictionary by Sabin Bhuju सबिन भुजु , 2005
- SBhuju-NewarDict<Ô> / bkp<Ô> (link chk 160221)
Being both Tib-Bur languages Bur-Myan and Newa-Dev have words beginning with {nga.} ङ,
e.g. for <fish> न्या ; ङा

Since Buddhism rests firmly on the Principle of Anatta the opposite of the Principle of Atta aka Immutable Soul, the Bur-Myan word {nga} /ŋ/ 'I, my, me' referring to Atta is the principle obstacle to all attempts in transcribing the Bur-Myan speech. Listen the song {té:Boän-mha.} and keep a look out for the word {ngaa.} - the word with only half eye-blink vowel duration. Hindi and Sanskrit speakers cannot pronounce this sound and they had to substitute it with {na:.} नः //.

Ancient peoples in the Indian subcontinent extending into South-East Asia - including Ancient Pyus in the mainland of Myanmarpré - had worshipped the Mother-Goddess(es) during the Brass Age. (Note: Brass, an alloy of Zinc and Copper, is softer than Bronze, the alloy of Tin and Copper. It is not suitable for making weapons of war. It was treated as a Metal of Peace by Ancient Jews, and used in the construction of articles and altars of worship.) .

It is accepted that in the distant past, IE speakers such as the those speaking Sanskrit started filtering into the areas of the Mother-Goddess worshippers. They brought with them weapons made of Iron and defeated those with Bronze weapons bringing the Bronze-age to an end. They brought with them male-gods and "made" the goddesses of the Bronze-age, consorts of their male-gods. The conquered were made to serve them and their male-kings and their priests as servants and slaves. Time-line in India: 1200 BC - 200 BC:
See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iron_Age 151110

However, it is probable - I emphasize the word "probable" because it is just my conjecture - that the Sanskrit speakers adopted the more ancient ideas of the indigenous people and took up the study of the Vedas. I base my conjecture on the difference between Vedic language and Classical Sanskrit of Panini. Using the idea of "renunciation" to bring an end to "desire", they have given us the Bhagavad Gita.


Pali Dictionaries

¤ Buddhist Myanmar Burmese Index (Bambi Index) - BMBI-indx.htm - update 151231
   in honour of the Deer Park where Gaudama Buddha declared his Non-Axiomatic
   Scientific Buddhist Religion comprising of the First Four Principles, and
   Annata Principle - by Seindamani U Chit Maung.
   The original printed index presented "teachings" {ta.ra:} in groups of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 etc.
   However TIL will present only some from groups of 2, 3, 4, and 5, as a testing ground
   for writing exclusively in Romabama and English on email.
   A helpful Wikipedia article for BMBI index is:
   - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buddhist_cosmology_of_the_Theravada_school 151102
   My edited version in BMBI folder: Thirty-One Planes of Existence - Thirty1-indx.htm (update ?)
¤ The principal Pal-Myan dictionaries I use are:
  - U Hoke Sein, Pali-Myanmar Dictionary (in Pal-Myan) (UHS-PMD) ,
  - U Hoke Sein, The Universal Burmese-English-Pali Dictionary, (UHS-BEPD)
¤ U Myat Kyaw (UMK) & U San Lwin (USL), A Pal-Myan-Engl Dict. of Noble Words of Buddha
- PED-MK-indx.htm - update 140630
   The Student's Pali English dictionary , by U Pe Maung Tin, 1920.
¤ PTS Pali-English dictionary, 1921, PTS-indx.htm - vowels complete
¤ PTS dictionary reprint 1952,  - palitextsocietys00pali.pdf<Ô>  (link chk 151118) 
¤ PTS dictionary version from Abhidhamma.com, pdf pp1358 - PTS-Dict-1925-Abidhama-com.pdf<Ô> (link chk 151118)
Note: PTS dictionary reprints of different years give different page numbers for the same entry. They should be checked with
¤ A Dictionary of the Pali Language, by R.C. Childers, reprint 2007 available in TIL library in Research Center in Yangon.


Pali Grammars

  Rev. Mason quoting Gautama Buddha,
  "Monks Priests, from among my clerical disciples who are able to amplify in detail
  that which is spoken in epitome, the most eminent is the Great Kachchayano."

¤ A Pali grammar on the basis of Kaccayano {kic~sæÑ:} - PEG-indx.htm - update 150630
  - by Rev. F. Mason, 1868 
  - on line: http://archive.org/details/apaligrammar... 130517
  Downloaded versions of 251 pdf pages are available in TIL SD-Library
  - Mason-Kicsi<Ô> / bkp<Ô> (link chk 151022) / - PDF (link chk151022)
  - Kicsi-PEG-German<Ô>  (German version link chk 151022)
  - Mazard's Version of Mason's Pali Grammar,
  - Francis Mason & Eisel Mazard (馬大影), 1st distribution in 2015
  downloaded - PaliGrammar-Mason-Mazard.pdf / PalGram-Mason-Mazard<Ô> / bkp<Ô> (link chk 160413)

¤ Read also Eastern Monachism by Rev. R. Spence Hardy, the Wesleyan missionary from Ceylon, 1860, is a well written book on Buddhism. Though a very lengthy book, pp444 pdf pp464, Preface alone, is well worth reading. Downloaded pdf is in TIL SD-Library - Hardy-EasternMonachism<Ô> / bkp<Ô> (link chk 151206)

¤ An Elementary Pali Grammar course (in English)
  - Narada-indx.htm (link chk 160215)
  - Narada-pal-indx.htm (link chk 160215)
  (the above old files are to be merged)
  - Ven. Narada Thera (1898-1983)
  - online : www.buddhanet.net
  - downloaded 234pdf-pp file in TIL SD-Library - Narada-Pali<Ô> / bkp<Ô> (link chk 160215)

¤ Practical Grammar of the Pali Language (in English)
  - Charles Duroiselle, 1906, 3rd ed 1915. Latest ed in 1997 by U Dhamminda, Buddha Dharma Edu. Asc. Inc.
  - online www.buddhanet.net .
  - downloaded 182pdf-pp file in TIL SD-Library - Duroiselle-PaliGramm<Ô> / bkp<Ô>  (link chk 160412)


Section 6 : Sanskrit grammars, and dictionaries

UKT 151114: Now that I am getting more familiar with Skt-Dev, especially after listening to the Sanskrit recitations of Bhagavad Gita, I will be splitting this section #4 into Pali-Myanmar and Sanskrit-Devanagari sometime in the future. Now just look into Bg18.2 in
- lang-relig-indx.htm > Gita.htm - update 151130 

For the present, just listen to a SND clip bk-cndl-Gita18-2<))
: keeping in mind the rhythm to help you to memorise the text:

श्रीभगवानुवाच «śrī-bhagavān uvāca» 'the Supreme Personality of Godhead said';
काम्यानां «kāmyānāṁ» 'with desire' /
  कर्मणां «karmaṇāṁ» 'of activities'
न्यासं «nyāsaṁ» 'renunciation' /
  सन्न्यासं «sannyāsaṁ» 'the renounced order of life'
कवयो «kavayaḥ» 'the learned' /
  विदु: «viduḥ» 'know'
सर्वकर्मफलत्यागं «sarva» 'of all' «karma» 'activities' «phala» 'of results' «tyāgam» 'renunciation'
प्राहुस्त्यागं «prāhuḥ» 'call' «tyāgam» 'renunciation' /
  विचक्षणा: «vicakṣaṇāḥ» 'the experienced'

See also https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bhagavad_Gita 151112 
See also a cartoon clip in TIL SD-Library from Meghaduta मेघदूत «meghadūta» 'Cloud Messenger' by Kālidāsa 
- Meghaduta-cartoon<Ô> / bkp<Ô> (link chk 160212)


Sanskrit Dictionaries

¤ A. A. Macdonell A Practical Sanskrit dictionary (in Skt-Dev) 1893, TIL versions in 1+3 parts, and by 384 pages of the original printed ink-on-paper book
- MC-indx.htm - update 160430
The TOC is based on Abugida-Akshara order. It is the major Sanskrit Dictionary on this website, and is augmented with entries from F. Edgerton, Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary,
- BHS-indx.htm - update 160229
Note: I will refer to FE BHSDxxxx (acronym for F. Edgertgon BHS Dictionary page).
And also from Pali sources such as
- R.C. Childers, A Dictionary of the Pali Language (in Pal-Dev) 1874,
- U Hoke Sein, Pali-Myanmar Dictionary (in Pal-Myan) (UHS-PMD) . 

¤ Vaman Shivaram Apte  (1858-1892),. The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary,
http://dsal.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/getobject.pl?p.0:0.apte 130222 -- under consideration
¤ H. H. Wilson, 3rd ed. translation of Kalidasa's Megha-Duta (Cloud Messenger), 1867,
   containing a Vocabulary by Francis Johnson, p089-179 (downloaded PDF in TIL SD-library) -- for future work
¤ Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English dictionary, 1899. MW-indx.htm - complete
¤ TIL Sanskrit-English dictionary - SED-indx.htm
   (main links checked, and temp. suspended while working on Macdonell)
   A baby learns a language by listening to conversations without knowing the meaning. Listen to
   Sanskrit conversations, संवागमाला - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h1_3TnyHmBE 140821
¤ F. Edgerton, Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary ,
  1885-1963, vol. 1 scanned pages, (FE-BHS) - BHS-indx.htm - update 140630
   vol. 2 online, http://doc.thanhsiang.org/Online_Dic/BHS_Dictionary/orgpage2.html?page=1 140319
    (I've shortened some words in above, the next link will take to another format which I am not using)
    -  http://doc.thanhsiang.org/Online_Dic/BHS_Dictionary/index1.html 131115
¤ Goddesses (or Mothers) in Ancient India - by P K Agrawala - mei-tau-indx.htm 
   UKT 140806: The book which I bought in Canada through Amazon is in TIL library.
   It is an important source of info for BEPS work, and will be part of this website.
¤ Structure of Indic scripts in Unicode-4 , included under BHS vol. 1 - indic-indx.htm
¤ Reverse Sanskrit Dictionary : Rückläufiges Sanskrit-Wörterbuch
to search for Sanskrit words ending with a certain word or ending
-- http://www.sanskritweb.net/sansdocs/reverse1.pdf 1211223
A downloaded copy of this dictionary is in TIL SD-library: 

Sanskrit Grammars :

¤  http://sanskritdocuments.org/learning_tutorial_wikner/ 130517
  - http://sanskritdocuments.org/learning_tutorial_wikner/wikner-rm.pdf 130517 (suspended work)
¤ learnsanskrit.org http://learnsanskrit.org/ 130911


Section 7 : Para-Medicine

UKT 141026: The word "Para-Medicine" is my coined word from
Bur-Myan {pa.ra.hsé:} - MLC MED2006-252
The word is probably derived from the name of an ancient pioneer, Parāśara (3100 BCE?).
This section was under the name MYANMAR MEDICINAL PLANTS , and it needs a thorough review, and I am going through it very slowly because of other works and also because of its large size. I am splitting it into the following:

Para-Medicine -- MP-Para-indx.htm - update 141130
  ¤ MMPD Bur-Myan Akshara index -- MMPD-indx.htm - update 141130
     A compilation by U Kyaw Tun, U Pe Than, and staff of TIL. 
  ¤ Botanical Names of Myanmar Plants of Importance -- MP-LSR-indx.htm - update 141130
  ¤ Medicinal Plants of Myanmar - MP-KS-indx.htm - update 141130
     by Dr. Kyaw Soe & Daw Tin Myo Ngwé -
  ¤ Vṛkṣāyurveda (Plant Science) - MP-VR-indx.htm - update 141130
     by Parāśara (3100 BCE?)
  ¤ Plant Taxonomy -- MP-taxon-indx.htm - update 141130
     by George H. M. Lawrence, Cornell University, 1951.


Section 8: Offline Publications

The following with sound tracks on DVD are available at cost. Buy one and reproduce as many as you want.
Contact persons in Yangon:
1. U Han Tun
2. Daw Khin Wutyi
3. Daw Thuzar Myint

1. Sounds of Buddhism
Marananosati chant by Rev. Jandure Pagngnananda Thero
• The Eleven Paritta chants by Mingun Sayadaw
Paritta & other related chants by Rev. Jandure Pagngnananda Thero and other Non-Burmese monks
Téboan'mar - a traditional Bur-Myan religious song

2. Sounds of English
A teaching programme with sound tracks for Bur-Myan speakers.


UKT 150624: Mainland of Myanmarpré at one time was populated by Tib-Bur speakers - the Pyus - closely associated with the Ancient Indus-Saraswati civilization. At one time the people had worshipped the Naga or Nag - the crested serpent-like mythical creatures equated to the Déva-gods. Most of us may not love ordinary serpents, but most of us do have a respect for them. There are a number of Buddhist pagodas in which the wild pythons have found sanctuary. There are still a few hermitages with hermits with unshaven heads and beards, and wearing hats. They are not Rahans and are not bounded by Viniya Rules. They are probably the descendants of the ancient Védic Iþi (which in Sanskrit would be Rishi - the same word with Pali "Iþi" but spelled with very Rhotic Sanskrit Vowel ऋ ). In Bur-Myan they are called {ra.þé.}. A Rishi to a Hindu is quite different from a Burmese-Buddhist Rishi. A Hindu-Rishi has a family and sing songs, whereas a Buddhist-Rishi is celibate - the difference can be seen in the case of Narada Rishi. In Hinduism, he is reduced to the status of singer singing praises to Vishnu. To the Buddhist he was a Buddha-to-be and his story is told in the Ten Major Birth stories.


• Outside Myanmarpré, only few knows what a modern Burmese calendar looks like. As I (U Kyaw Tun) grow more aged, I am returning to my roots - Burmese traditional customs and draw on the latent energies of my forefathers - both Burmese & Mon, and I for one need a Burmese calendar, even on my trips outside Myanmarpré, to observe the customary holidays of my childhood. What I am giving below is intended only for those outside the Motherland and who have no income such as monks, nuns, and aged men and women who are literally living on charity. See below:

Click to see:
• 2015 Jan, Feb, Mar, Apr, May, Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct, Nov, Dec
• 2016 Jan, Feb, Mar, Apr, May, Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct, Nov, Dec

Please respect the copy rights of the authors and publishers.
The moral rights of the author to be identified as author of the material are asserted in accordance with §§.77 and 78 of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. This material may be reproduced without the consent of the author, in part or in whole in any manner and in any medium subject only to the two following conditions: (a) no charge shall be made for the copy containing the work or the excerpt, (b) a copy of this notice shall precede the work or the excerpt. --- Based on:


Immediate Family

U Kyaw Tun and Daw Than Than - update 130928
• Founder of TIL
• Retired Professor of Chemistry
• Interests: Linguistics. Chemistry and Chemical Technology.
  Computer and Internet Tech
Daw Than Than (1931-2004)
• Co-founder of TIL
• Retired Instructor in Chemistry
• Painter
• Interests: Than's Gallery: Room 1 | Room 2 | Room 3
[UKT 130928: Daw Than Than's home page moved into UKT folder. ]
Who we are : more about the family and
read a poem by Daw Than Than: the Mother's wish
who knew she was going to die shortly.
[UKT 130928: moved into UKT folder.]

Dr. Zin Tun
• National Research Council Canada
• Interests: Physics. Neutron scattering
See a list of publications by Dr. Zin Tun from 1982 to the present (2012) is included.

Daw Nini Tun
• Technical Manager, TIL Computing and Language Centre, Yangon, Myanmar
• Interests: Sample of webpages designed by TIL team in Yangon.
   Teaching of Biology at high school level
Distance Education -- Daw Nini Tun, Daw Thetthet Theinthan
  Sample of teaching biology on Internet 

Maung Kan Tun

Maung Thit Tun
Tun family home in Canada


Extended Family & Friends

U Khin Maung Latt
• Lecturer and author

Daw Khin Myo Chit
• Author - See Biographical sketch by her son Dr. Khin Maung Win
• Some publications:
  Her Infinite Variety and other stories - preface
  Stories and Sketches of Myanmar - preface
  Thirteen Carat Diamond and other stories - preface
  Electra Triumphs
  - Electra-triumphs.htm (link chk 141031)
  Facets of Life at Shwedagon Pagoda
Facets_at_Shwedagon.htm (link chk 141031)

See: Tun family home in Canada
Update: 2016-04-21 03:05 PM -0400
jtun@bell.net - Canada home
tunzinni@gmail.com - Yangon office
jtun@sympatico.ca - no longer working

End of TIL file