Mon-Myanmar salutation<))
We start with a salutation to our teacher, Siddhartha Gautama,
whose First Four Laws, and Anatta Principle are the earliest
scientific observations in the history of mankind.

Published: 2019-September
2019-09-27 04:02 AM -0400
Published at the end of every month

TIL (Tun Institute of Learning)
A subsidiary of Tun Investment Limited, incorporated in Ontario, CANADA
Contacts at TIL Research centre, Yangon, MYANMAR:
- Office: 01-527388
- Daw Mar Mar Oo : 09-501-4015
- Daw Khin Wutyi : 09-511-3477
- Daw Zinthiri Han : 09-250-533846

Romabama transcriptions are based on Bur-Myan phonology -- not on that of any other Myanmar languages. And, if the subject matter - such as Buddhism in Pal-Myan or modern Science -- is familiar to the reader, by reading the script, and by careful listening, you can still understand some words.

If you are a Buddhist, moreover a Theravada Bamah-Myanmar Buddhist, you might be interested in:
- Theravada Buddhist
- Bur-Myan calendar
and the famous summation of Buddhism, Ye'dhamma, in Pali & translation, which few Burmese Buddhists (including myself at onetime) know: 
UKT 190129: Interpretations:
"Laws" - natural laws - such as "all sentient beings are not free from mental suffering "
"Cause" - "attachment to material things such as a living person, or one who has died, or a non-living thing such as an object like a building, a stupa, a book, or a stone, or immaterial things such as an axiom, a doctrine, a duty, an episode, or an idea such as an -ism
"Extinction" - the human-being (a sentient being) can overcome attachment and become free of suffering .
Note: The sentient being mentioned above must be human born of a human mother and a human father. Axiomatic beings such as gods (Brahmas, Devas, etc. -- all those who could not be seen), and half-humans such as born of a human mother and a god are excluded. Thus God or gods in spite of their "super-natural powers" cannot overcome attachment and are inferior to human-beings. Also note that Terms such as Nibban {naib~baan}, Samsara {n-a.ra}, Previous life {ya.hkn Ba.wa.}, Next life {nauk Ba.wa.} should be avoided because of certainty of controversy.

Pay attention to brackets used:
- Bur-Myan (Burmese speech in Myanmar script) : {...}
  Mon-Myan (Mon speech in Myan script) using 3-number keystrokes: Alt529... Alt528: ◄...►
- BPal-Myan (Pali speech in Myanmar script) & InPal-Lat (Pali speech in Latin script): {...}
- Skt-Dev (Sanskrit speech in Devanagari script) : ... . Alt0171...A0187
- Eng-Lat (English speech in Latin script) : <...>
- Special brackets: 〈...〉 U+2329. U+122A

UKT 190625, 190730: Inavailability of Myanmar font that is suitable to my use has led me to the system of Akshara Banks (AK-BNK) based on syllables. It is found that the AK-BNK5 for disyllables has increased beyond 1000 pixes, because of which it is necessary to branch it out to AK-BNK5k, AK-BNK5t, AK-BNK5p, and AK-BNK5 (for remainder).

Contents of this page

Contents of this page : Sections

UKT 180801: See my Note on Sections and Ratings below.

Section 1: BEPS or Binpathak {ba.n~pa-ak} and its motto adapted from Shin Kic'si {shin kic~s:}/ {rhin kic~s} 

 Binpathak / / is the acronym in Burmese equivalent to the acronym in English. I've no option but to use the Burmese acronym after finding that the group of 4 letters B-E-P-S has been used on the Internet to mean many things. The Burmese acronym may be shortened to {bn~pa-ak}.

Contents of this page

Section 2: Human voice and Voice-sound production

Covers: Human sound production voice-quality Ledefoged's Phonation types Vowel theory - Tongue constriction POA-consonants   Vowel production - what the ancients could not see Graphical representation of human sound - Abugida-Akshara, Alphabet-Letter Modal voice (normal voice) Fricatives Interior Wave nature of sound How sound is produced and heard

Burmese (Bur-Myan) speech has 5+1 nasals: English-Latin has only two, /n/ & /m/. The paucity of nasals in English is just one of the obstacles of transcription from Burmese to English. 

Mnemonic: The Doggie Tale
Little doggie cringe in fear -- ŋ (velar),
  Seeing Ella's flapping ears -- ɲ (palatal)
  And, the Shepard's hanging rear -- ɳ (retroflex).
Doggie's so sad he can't get it out
  What's that Kasha क्ष when there's a Kha ख ?
  And when there's Jana ज्ञ what am I to do with Jha झ?
On top of all there're the husher Sha श /ʃ/, and hisser Ssa ष /s/,
  when I am stuck with Theta स /θ/ !" 
Little Doggie don't be sad,
  You are no worse than a Celtic Gnome
  Losing G in his name, he is just a Nome!

UKT 180627: In addition to ŋ (velar), ɲ (palatal), ɳ (retroflex), Bur-Myan has {n} /n/ - a nasal without a definite POA, because of which I specify the shortage as 3+1. English-speakers cannot pronounce the velar ŋ properly, and what they could not do, they simply silence it, and pronounce <gnome> as /nəʊm/ US /noʊm/. There are others such as <gnat> /nt/, <knee> /niː/ and <knight> /naɪt/.

See: a compilation by Julie Peters in HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
- JPeters-SilentLetters<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180924)
" ... many words in English [are] challenging ... English words have silent letters in them -- an estimated 60% ... (British Council). ... letters that appear in the spelling of words, but dont make a sound - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silent_letter 180924


Contents of this page

Section 3: Second language (L2) acquisition of living languages
using English-Latin, and Burmese-Latin (Romabama) as medium of instruction.
Note: "Grades" stands for the equivalent of grades aka classes of present-day students in Myanmarpr
UKT 180710: I've moved 5 folders from Section 2 to Section 3.

ENGLISH for Myanmar (E4M) - E4M-indx.htm - update 15Nov
  Ref: English for Myanmar (E4M), by U Kyaw Tun and Daw Khin Htwe Than, secretaries: Darli Khin and Ei Mon Thit, 2006.
English phonetics - Eng-phon-indx.htm - update 2017Nov 
English pronunciation guide - EPG-indx.htm - update 2009Jan
English pronouncing dictionary - DJPD16-indx.htm
English idioms of native-speakers -- EIDIOM-TXT-indx.htm
English Grammar in Plain Language - EGPE-indx.htm - update 16Sep

ROMABAMA for English speakers in Myanmarpr - Romabama-indx.htm

COMPUTER ASSISTED TEACHING of ENGLISH - CATE-English.indx - in preparation
Stories from Canada - CATE-Canada-indx.htm - update 16Jan
For Kindergarten and Grade 1: (CATE-Children) (not available on line)
TriplePlay: Grade 1 to 4: - CATE-TriPlay-indx.htm - update 16Sep
Learn to Speak English: Grade 5 - upwards (LSE by Chapters not available on line):
  Ch01-15 - CATE-LSE01-15-indx.htm (link chk 180728)
  Ch16-30 - CATE-LSE16-30-indx.htm (link chk 180728)
Burmese for Foreign Friends - Burmese for English speakers:
  (a fictitious love story with voices of U Kyaw Tun and wife Daw Than Than)
- BurMyan-indx.htm > B4FF1-indx.htm (link chk 180728)

COMPUTER ASSISTED TEACHING of MALAY - CAT-Malay.indx - update 2018Jun
- Origin, vocabulary, and dictionary based on authors such as
  J. Crawfurd (1852), R. J. Wilkiknson (1901), and W. G. Shellabear (1904)
- from Speak Malay like a local by Lissa - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cMBKNnusJG4 180601

UKT 180622: Dedicated to my departed cousins, Maung o and Kran Ma, who migrated to Malaysia from Myanmarpr their birth country. Both, husband Maung o, and wife Kyan Ma (daughter of my aunt A'yee Ma Chin), learn to speak Malay in a few months. Yet, with their children, their home language remains Bur-Myan.
I am preparing a series for use by me and my assistants, based in TIL research station in Yangon.

Why is the Malay language so easy to learn for an indigenous Bur-Myan speaker? My conjecture is that it is derived from Pyu-Bamah before the incursion of Arabic, or even before the incursion of Sanskrit. I base my conjecture on the travels of the Chinese pilgrim monk Yijing (Chinese: 義淨 ; WadeGiles: I Ching; 635713 CE) was a Tang dynasty Chinese Buddhist monk originally named Zhang Wenming (Chinese: 張文明 ). [UKT]

The written records of his 25-year travels contributed to the world knowledge of the ancient kingdom of Srivijaya, as well as providing information about the other kingdoms lying on the route between China and the Nalanda Buddhist university in India. See Wikipedia: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yijing_(monk) 181018,  190115.
"In some 19th-century publications, Yijing's name may appear as I Tsing, following an antiquated method of Chinese romanization. "

UKT 181018: Nalanda University was situated just across the border from the Pyu-Bamah territories of central Burma from Sri Kestra (ancient city of Prome) to Pagan city to the north. The Chinese pilgrim monk might have heard of the Pyu city-states. By then the Mons have already entered Lower Burma from the east and waging war on peace-loving Pyus finally destroying Sri Kestra which had flourished circa 610-835 AD.

In the inset painting from British Library, posted by Daw San San May, Curator for Burmese, on 170523,
- https://blogs.bl.uk/asian-and-african/2017/05/33-burmese-manuscripts-now-digitised.html 181121
shows a scene from the Royal Wizayakari melodrama {wi.za.ya. ka-ri nn:twn: zaat-tau-kri:}, by the Crown Princess "Hlaing Hteik Khaung Tin, the Crown Princess (1833-1875) in the reign of King Mindon [Timeline: British colonialists have already grabbed 2/3 of the Burmese kingdom], wrote court dramas such as Vijayakari and Indavamsa, but she earned particular fame for her romantic dramas. In the scene shown above, there is a tree in a magical forest where lovely maidens grow and wait to be plucked. This drama is about Prince Vijayakari, Sakanitum (a princess born from a flower bud), and Adideva of the Ogre Kingdom. These court dramatists wrote delightful romances which are marvels of literary art. Only a few of their works survive to the present day but these are still widely read and studied." - British Library

Contents of this page

Section 4: Language (speech {sa.ka:} and script {sa}), meaning, religion & thought

This section includes:

 Language problem of primitive Buddhism lang-probl.htm - update 2015Nov
  - by Chi Hisen-lin (季羡林 , 19112009)

Paritta and Truth - ParittaTruth.htm - future update
  - by Sao Htun Hmat Win, Dept. of Religious Affairs, Rangoon, Burma, 1981
  Text in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
  - SaoHtunHmatWin-ElevenParittaPali-1991<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180911)
  - Protection from danger by exoteric power.
(p003) In the daily life of a Burman Buddhist, critically speaking, the outlook is very much religious as in other great world religions.  The following statements may reveal how much Burmese Buddhism is religious.  
Buddhi is an Ideological System. It is a religion of Explicit Salvation and hence is to be called Nibbanic Buddhism. "

UKT 181012 - {naib~baan ayu wa-da.} which must be viewed as  {hso:kan:lwt ayu wa-da.} 'freedom from both suffering and enjoyment'. It is based on 3 observable facts, and a solution from suffering. It is in fact a scientific philosophy - not based on any Axiomatic beliefs.]

"Again it is a religion of Proximate Salvation and can therefore can be classified  as Kammatic Buddhism." 

UKT 181012: {Ba.wa.kn a.kyo: ayu wa-da.} - an Axiomatic belief.

"It may even be typified as a religion of Chiliastic Expectations, for imminent and immanent salvation, the enjoyment of better world as an event which occurs within history, to be known as Esoteric Buddhism."

UKT 181012: {myak-mhauk a.kyo: ayu wa-da.} - based on life's experience."

UKT 190516: To the three aspects of Buddhism noted by Sao Htun Hmat Win, I must add my view: Buddhism confined to the first two sermons of Gautama Buddha, is a natural Science just as Thermodynamics is. It is not based on any Axiom. The question of the Creator (YHVH, God, Allah and Maha-Dvas) has no place in it.

This section also includes:
Language Acquisition and Teaching
Language and Meaning
Language and Religion
Language and Sign
Language and Thought


Contents of this page

Section 5: Myanmar languages and culture 
Covers: 5.1. Romabama {ro:ma.ba.ma}, 5.2. Burmese speech (Tibeto-Burman group), 5.3. Mon speech (Austro-Asiatic group), 5.4. Myanmar Religions, 5.5. Collection of papers, 5.6 Law and Legal perspectives,

For BEPS work, the IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet) is inadequate, and I have to invent Romabama {ro:ma.ba.ma} to supplement it.


UKT 190812: It is not only the IPA, but English (in Latin script) alphabet itself that is giving trouble in transliteration and transcription. It is the use of digraphs in Modern English in place of Old English characters. An example is the combination of letters t & h in place of Old English English "thorn" character . This has a major affect on column c2. I've been ignoring this problem, but it's time I start modifying Romabama characters. Attempts to completely modifying the c2 since in 190719 has failed. I'll have to try sometime later to get away from the digraphs of c2. Meanwhile I'll modify the table of basic consonants, paying attention to the columns. I'll consider the combined c1-c2 as voiceless, c3-c4 as voiced, and c5 as nasal. The c1-c2 voicelessness can be subdivided into c1 tenuis the extreme voiceless, and c2 as ordinary voiceless. The c3-c4 voiced subdivided into c3 ordinary voiced and c4 as deep-voiced (or deep-H). Mon-Myan differs in the extreme from Bur-Myan by assigning the intrinsic vowel as // instead of /a/ or //. This makes Romabama pronunciations applicable only to Bur-Myan and not to Mon-Myan.

Using Romabama {ro:ma.ba.ma}, I arrived at BEPS {ba.n~pa-ak} basic consonants.
Note: "BEPS" is acronym in English which uses the Basic Latin Alphabet-Latin transcription system, whereas {ba.n~pa-ak} is the acronym in Burmese (Bamah) which uses the Basic Myanmar Abugida-Akshara transcription system. Contrary to what many think - including the Myanmar Language Commission (MLC), "Alphabet" and "Akshara {ak~hka.ra}" are not the same.

UKT 190417 - Burmese New Year 1381 BE day: I define a Basic Akshara as one which can be under a Virama {a.t}.
Because of this stringent definition, I've to expand the Myanmar akshara-matrix to account for phonemes with friction. I can now transcript common English words such as <church> as {chaach} .

Don't think that the difficulty of transcription/transliteration in BEPS is the fault of Eng-Lat alone. Bur-Myan is also partly responsible. We lack the IPA dental fricatives, /ʃ/ श - /s/ ष and /f/ - /v/ pairs. These I have to invent: for /ʃ/ {sha.}, for /s/ {Sa.}, for /f/ {fa.}, and for /v/ {va.}.

Contents of this page

Section 6: Parli dictionaries and grammars
UKT 090711: Some contents of Section 6 will be merged into Section 7 eventually.
  Boadkric {boaD~hka.ric}
  Pali dictionaries, - I've started moving UPMT-PED to Section 7 - 190810
  Pali grammar 
I opine that since both Pali and Sanskrit were both descended from Magadhi, the Tib-Bur language, they could be integrated. I'll study them both as unified vocabulary in the form of glossaries and dictionaries, and as unified grammars. The intermediary language is Romabama which is ASCII compatible. The IPA, which has been developed for Alphabet-Letter system of transliteration and transcription of European languages fails miserably when used for Abugida-Akshara system used by Pali and Sanskrit. Moreover, IPA is non-ASCII and is not suitable for the Internet.

Contents of this page

Section 7: Sanskrit dictionaries and grammars
There are 16 basic vowels in BEPS to handle all the four speeches. The vowels in Bur-Myan, and Skt-Dev are given by both Vowel-Letter, and Vowel-Sign.

UKT 190802: You'll notice the problem is with the {a.a.wuN} vowels, which probably was noticed by Myanmar monks when they tried to reconcile Pali-Lanka with Bur-Myan (which eventually gives rise to modern Pali-Myan). Lankan language belongs to Aus-Asi group which is different from Burmese the Tib-Bur language, and the vowel-system is quite different. Pali-Lankan has only two tones whereas Bur-Myan has three :

Pali-Myan: {a.}, {a}
Bur-Myan: {a.}, {a}, {a:}.

The artificial group of languages, BEPS {ba.n-pa-ak}, is studied to arrive at a one-to-one transcription/transliteration between Bur-Myan and Eng-Lat based on one-to-one transcription/transliteration between Pal-Myan and Skt-Dev.

Since, I rely on the shapes of the graphemes and their relation to "deeper meaning" to check my work, I need another language with an unrelated script, such as the Bengali script.

The first choice Bengali script was been found unsuitable because of transliteration of vowels /e/ and /au/, which use the split-vowel as in English use of "Magic e" exemplified by <kit> --> <kite>. I'm still looking for another.

Ordinary English (Eng-Lat) cannot be used in my work and I've to use IPA-Latin which does not use "end e".

Telugu is also unsuitable because of the confusing "not perfectly rounded script. A script that I've overlooked is the Gujarati derived from Ardha Magadhi, just as Myanmar had been derived from Old Magadhi. Gujarati is also similar to Devanagari, but free from top-horizontal bar.

UKT 180627: It is not commonly known that Skt-Dev is used for both Hinduism - the Atta religion, and for Buddhism - the Anatta religion. I'm trying to compare the entries in Skt-Dev entries to Pal-Myan in U Hoke Sein's dictionary. I occasionally check the entries with Skt-Eng Dictionary, by T. Benfey, 1866, in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
 - TBenfey-SktEngDict<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180524)
Edgerton's is from:
- FEdgerton-BHSD<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180627)


Section 8: Myanmar: what the Earth has to say

Forget the ancient written records on stone, gold and silver sheets, and other writing materials - a lot of them based on the fertile imaginations of the authors - ancient and modern. This section deals with Cosmology, Geology, Geography and Paleoanthropology.

Who were our ancient ancestors, and how did they fared during geological changes from the days when the Earth was formed, continents drifted,  new oceans come into being while old ones dried up and their floors raised to become high mountains? How did the changing geography shaped our ancestors, to make us what we are today? How did the land which we call our country come to have so many minerals and varied fauna and flora? 


Section 9: Para-medicine

Para-Medicine {pa.ra.hs:} - MP-Para-indx.htm - update 2014Nov
Plant Taxonomy, Lawrence, 1951 - taxon-indx.htm - update 2014Nov


Contents of this page

Note on Sections and Ratings

UKT 180413, 180501, 180712, 180801, 180912, 180930

UKT to TIL-editor 1706025: Check the folders under Bk-cndl index.htm .
There seems to be a redundant folder named: TIL-DVD (61.6 KB). [ PTS dictionary version from Abhidhamma.com stored in Bk-candl PED-PTS folder - RhysDavids-PTSDictAbidhama9MBԻ (link chk 170603)]. If it is redundant, delete it.

UKT 180413, 180501, ..., 180910: Important Notice to Users: The whole website now uses what I'm calling Akshara-banks, AK-BNK1 monosyllables with triplets, AK-BNK2 monosyllables with doublets, AK-BNK3 monosyllables with singlets, AK-BNK4 with proper nouns,  AK-BNK5 disyllabic words, AK-BNK6 trisyllabic, and AK-BNK7 polysyllabic words. The ak-banks stand for Bur-Myan {n-poan:kri:} 'the orthography', as a substitute of a font for Romabama {ro:ma.ba.ma}. This is an ongoing experiment with Akshara-banks. I just want to see its feasibility on the web.

The website still uses akshara, pix, and video from BkCnd indexes: BkCnd-LIB, BkCnd-PIX, BkCnd-VIDEO.  Example: Shin Kicsi's motto (BEPS-Myanmar) "The meaning is known by akshara" is quoted many times throughout the website, including nested-files. It is identified by the tag-label <>bk-cndl indx .

The only font necessary to go through my work is: Arial Unicode MS font 180413

I've been asked again and again, why I'm working on this not-for-money and simply money-losing educational program. My answer is: primarily for my aging self which is being discarded slowly and evermore by the on-going younger and younger society. I still need some company around me and reached out to old friends across the world, and make new friends.

From time to time I re-organize my work and everyday life-style, primarily changing my everyday diet - sometimes drastically - to help my aging brain be young as ever - I'm just 84 years old! Those at the Research station can watch a video on Super Agers, in Section on Aging, in TIL HD-VIDEO and SD-VIDEO:
- SuperAgers<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180506)

URLMetrics 171107 : Tuninst is ranked 3,417,073 in the United States. 'index-TIL.'
3,247,149 Worldwide rank. The majority of visitors come from India.
The domain is 13 years and 10 months old.
On average 1.60 pages are viewed each, by the estimated 105 daily visitors.

URLMetrics 180422 : Tuninst is ranked 4,356,198 in the United States. 'index-TIL.'
3,247,149 Worldwide rank. The majority of visitors come from India.
The domain is 14 years and 3 months old.
On average 1.60 pages are viewed each, by the estimated 105 daily visitors.

UKT 180402: I am not used to Internet ratings. I simply copy what I find on the net today:
- https://tldanalysis.com/tuninst.net 180402
UKT comments: The above site, tldanalysis, gives many facts on my website.
- from: http://webpageanalyse.stream/www/tuninst.net 180402
Rehash: The website's index page has 18 out-going links. . Date of registry for this domain: 03/12/20. . Alexa Global rank for tuninst.net is 965 891 at this time. The location for tuninst.net server is in CA; Canada; BC; British Columbia; Vancouver; V6H; America/Vancouver; 49.25000000; - 123.13330000, and the IP used is . tuninst.net registry was last updated on 17/424. . This domain is registered until 17/12/20. . Global Alexa rank for tuninst.net has increased/decrease by +29 294 over the past 3 months.

Go back to Note on Sections and Ratings


Contents of this page

Salutations to the Greatest Teacher of All Times

UKT 180916: As a skeptical scientist, I do not pray in the religious sense. I made my salutations to the greatest teacher, Gautama Buddha, in the language of my great grandmother:

{na.mau:boad~Da-ya.aid~Dn} : Mon salutation<))

We start with a salutation to our teacher, Siddhartha Gautama, whose First Four Laws, and Anatta Principle are the earliest scientific observations in the history of mankind.

I keep myself reminded of the fundamental concept of Theravada Buddhism - the Anatta Principle - the ever-changing world including what we deem as our own Self. Change Death is a natural phenomenon - not to be feared: live your Present Life as happily as you can, but expect Change at every turn. Theravada Buddhism - more precisely the first two sermons of Rishi Siddhartha Gautama (formerly the Crown Prince of the Sakka Republic of the Magadha Mahajanapada 'foot-hold of Magadhi speakers') who became known as the Buddha (the sage, the teacher) - is an Non-Axiomatic religion. Non-Axiomatic, just as Modern Science is. It is a philosophy which had been termed religion. It is for the Living, those still very much alive and kicking. Being Non-Axiomatic, it is not based on "self-proclaimed Truths" such as a Universal Creator and Creation not supported by any modern scientific observation. It is for the Living, not for the Dead. As a scientist, I neither affirm nor deny the existence of a former or a future life.

However, I am finding that most of my friends of my age-group are very much against the very mention of Death. I keep myself reminded of Death - the Maraṇānussati, with a pix from Maraṇānussati Kammatthana from Rev. Jandure Pagngnananda Thero (釋明高),
-- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LWQ9-VaksmI 151005.

Now, a little philosophy of my own:

Why be content sucking your thumb?
Big Toe is the better one!
Inevitably the Hair Cut will surely come!

Out of my consideration for those who are afraid of Death I have replaced the Maraṇānussati pix with a sequential pix on what we have already gone through. We have all started out as Little Ones!  

In the meantime, go on dreaming of becoming a king,
Living on promises of Axiomatic religious teachers
Who themselves have died
Not to be found among the Living on this Earth!

UKT 151018: Zoroaster (fl. between 1700 and 1300 BCE) was the founder of Zoroastrianism  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zoroastrianism 151018
The religious text, Avesta is written in Cuneiform script.

In days before my generation, the Little Ones in Burma - every little boy of age 6 or 7 - not to get wrong ideas of life as promised by of the Axiomatic religious teachers, were sent to the monasteries to be educated by monks.

UKT 160623, 170530: Now those who usually criticize me have come out against me. I have been asked to explain my views on Communications from After-the-Death state (Spiritualism) in particular about Planchette or Ouija-board
See: Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Planchette 160623

As a scientist of early 20th century, I consider the After-the-Death State as an open question. In Myanmarpr, the equivalent of Planchette is {hpya-laip nt} Ma Aung Phyu .
See: Myanmar Times, https://www.mmtimes.com/lifestyle/17285-the-ghost-guide-6-terrifying-ghouls-of-myanmar.html 181005

Now, even the ever-enquiring physical scientist have come out against my early 20th century scientific notions: is it possible that After-the-Death state be a natural phenomenon like Quantum Entanglement.* See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_entanglement 170530

"Quantum entanglement is a physical phenomenon that occurs when pairs or groups of particles are generated or interact in ways such that the quantum state of each particle cannot be described independently of the others, even when the particles are separated by a large distance -- instead, a quantum state must be described ... "

*UKT : See research on Parapsychology conducted by Dr. Stevenson.
See: Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ian_Stevenson 181006.
But always remember, scientific theories can always go the way The Phlogiston Theory did!
See: Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phlogiston_theory 181006

Maybe, it's time for me to lay to rest the 20th century scientist in me, and join Nataraj in his dance! Is it going to be Tandavam or Nadanta ? Go on line and see what I mean.

UKT 130501: TIL website originated as a family website of the Tun Family whose members are now spread out in Canada, Myanmarpr, and Singapore. Prof. U Kyaw Tun (1934- ), and his wife Daw Than Than (1930-2004) both ethnic Bur-Myan, but now naturalized Canadians are the founding members. Daw Than Than has completed her life: it only remains for me, U Kyaw Tun, to complete mine. I am now 85 (on 190319). My physical body is not important for me, but for those who would like to see my likeness, I usually post only a caricature of myself and my signature with which I sign my work.


Contents of this page

Section 1. What is BEPS or Binpathak

UKT 180916:

Bnpathak / / is the acronym in Burmese equivalent to the acronym BEPS in English. I've no option but to use the Burmese acronym after finding that the group of 4 letters B-E-P-S has been used on the Internet to mean many things. The Burmese acronym may be shortened to {bn~pa-ak}.

The acronyms stand for
- B {ba.} = Burmese speech {ba.ma sa.ka:}
- E {n} = English speech {n~ga.lait sa.ka:}
- P {pa} = Pali speech {pa-li. sa.ka:}
- S {ak} = Sanskrit speech = {ak~ka.ta. sa.ka:}

Binpathak and Romabama - BEPS-indx.htm  - update 2019Aug 

I've used the Myanmar akshara {ba.} to show the relationship, according to a legend, to the group of four Brahmas {brah~ma} who landed from Space soon after the Earth was formed. See the legend inside. Note that the legend of Brahmas has nothing to do with what is given as history in Burmese chronicles but which is taken as legend of: Legendary four races of ancient Burma: Pyu, Kanyan, Thak (also spelled as Thet), Myanmar.

Binpathak (BEPS) has to deal with three language groups {sa.ka:oap-su.}: Tibeto-Burman (Tib-Bur) , Indo-European (IE) {n-do U.rau:pa.}, and Austro-Asiatic (Aus-Asi) {au-aa-si} (formerly as {mwun-hka.ma}) with 3 different phonologies. Because of different phonologies, BEPS and its inter-transcription language, {ro:ma.ba.ma}, cannot hope for a unified spoken language, but only as a tool for understanding among different speakers. There are 16 basic vowels in BEPS to handle all the four speeches, and more than 35 basic consonants. For BEPS-Myan, I need to invent at least 9 basic consonants derived from {Sa.} ष/ {S} ष् .

Invention of new glyphs to represent unknown sounds

- UKT 190410: The invention of new glyphs or letters is not new when one has to cope with various aksharas. The British had been faced with this problem in India in the 19th century:
"It is sufficiently obvious, that if an alphabet of twenty-four letters is to express one of fifty or more, some contrivance must be had recourse to, to extend the elasticity of the former. If the sounds are wholly and radically strange, new symbols must be invented ..."
wrote H. H. Wilson, East-India Company, in his , in Glossary of Judicial and Revenue Terms, for British India in 1885, Preface, p.roman-008. See downloaded text in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
- HHWilson-JudicialRevenueTerms<> / Bkp<> (link chk 190410)
H. H. Wilson writing in 1855, after Second Anglo-Burmese War (1852-1853) has only a few lines on Bur-Myan language in Preface, p.roman024.

I agree with the view of Mr. Wilson, but must add there must be a guidance in shaping new symbols. Any haphazard way putting a dot here, a vertical, a horizontal, or a diagonal line over there, will not do. Remember Myanmar akshara uses the circle as its basic shape, with openings, and dents on the left-over-right-under the circle. One circle can rollover, but two could not. To add stability a second circle is added to the first. The first double circle you should concentrate is Bur-Myan r4c2 {hta.}. It's immediate relation is presumably the Asokan r3c4, the single circle, signifying perfection. I've arrived at this assumption on the study of Esoteric Buddhist Sa-Da-Ba-Wa magic square.
What I've come to realize is that there is a system of showing the relation between sound (what you hear) and shape (of the symbol or glyph).

The Bur-Myan r4c2 {hta.} can be modified in a number of ways by opening up the circles:
{ta.}, {ka.}, {a.} , {ya.},  {ha.} , {la.}. Letting my imagination run wild, I've come up with the question: Is it possible that the word {tak~ka.ol } "the university or centre of learning" and its  acronym {ta.ka.a.} show how it is easy it is to play with glyphs to arrive at new words? e.g.:
  {ki~zi.ka.} & {ki~zi.ya.} , n. vinegar, [UHS-PMD0278c1 ] .

I've started writing an essay on this in MC-indx.htm captioned "Sounds and Shapes" in my notes.

Mathematics: the sister discipline of linguistics.

Just as language is important for a human to communicate with another, is his ability to count. A modern educated person must have some idea of modern mathematics. As an introduction you can read Episodic History of Mathematics by S. G. Krantz, 2006, in the TIL PDF libraries. Be prepared for some surprises, such as one on celebrated Pythagoras Theorem:
- SGKrantz-EpisodicHistMath<> / Bkp<> (link chk 190530)
"Mathematical history is exciting and rewarding, and it is a significant slice of the intellectual pie. A good education consists of learning different methods of discourse, and certainly mathematics is one of the most well-developed and important modes of discourse that we have. - p.roman04.
"And in fact it [Pythagoras Theorem] is one of the most ancient mathematical results. There is evidence that the Babylonians and the Chinese knew this theorem nearly 1000 years before Pythagoras." - p003
Note: Pythagoras, fl 6th century B.C. - AHTD

A recent book, The Mathematical Language of Quantum Theory: from Uncertainty to Entanglement, by T. Heinosaari and M. Ziman, Cambridge Univ. Press, 2012, has come to my notice. I'm sorry to say though I'm interested, I'm too old to stand the rigors of studying it. Moreover, my knowledge of Quantum Mechanics of 1960 vintage. I can only quote some (edited by me) excerpts from it.

Preface (p.roman09begin)
"Quantum theory is not any easy subject to master. Trained in the everyday world of macroscopic objects like locomotives, elephants and water melons, we are insensitive to the beauty of quantum world. Many quantum phenomena are revealed only in carefully planned experiments in a sophisticated laboratory. Some features of quantum theory may seem contradictory and inconceivable in the framework set by our experience. Rescue comes from the language of mathematics. Its mighty power extends the limits of our appreciation and gives us tools to reason systematically even if our practical knowledge [of daily experience and reason] fails. Mastering the relevant mathematical language helps us to avoid unnecessary quantum controversies. 
   Quantum theory, as we understand it in this book, is a general framework. It is not so much about what is out there, but, rather, determines constraints on what is possible and what is impossible. This type of constraint is familiar from the theory of relativity and from thermodynamics. We will see that quantum theory is also a framework, and one of great interest, where these kinds of question can be studied. 
   What are the main lessons that quantum theory has taught us? The answer, of course depends on who you ask.  Two general themes in this book reflect our answer: uncertainty and entanglement
   Uncertainty. Quantum theory is a statistical theory and there seems to be no way to escape its probabilistic nature. The intrinsic randomness of quantum events is the seed of this uncertainty.*  There are various different ways in which it is manifested in quantum theory. We will discuss many of these aspects, including the non-unique decomposition of a mixed state into pure states, Gleason's theorem, the no-cloning theorem, the impossibility of discriminating non-orthogonal states and the unavoidable disturbance cause by the quantum measurement process."

   "Entanglement. The phenomenon of entanglement provides composite quantum systems with a very puzzling and counterintuitive flavour. Many of its consequences dramatically contradict our classical experience. Measurement outcomes (p.roman09end-p.roman10begin) violation of local realism or the teleportation of quantum states. It is fair to say that entanglement is the key resource for quantum information-processing tasks.
   It should be noted that both these themes, uncertainty and entanglement, have puzzled quantum theorists since the beginning of the quantum age. Uncertainty can be traced back to Werner Heisenberg, while the word 'entanglement' was coined by Erwin Schrdinger. After many decades uncertainty and entanglement are still under active research, probably more so than ever before."

*UKT : Just as the results of Parapsychology conducted by Dr. Stevenson.
See: Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ian_Stevenson 181006.
But always remember, scientific theories can always go the way The Phlogiston Theory did!
See: Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phlogiston_theory 181006

If you want to get more involved, see Quantum Theory for Mathematicians, by B. C. Hall, 2013, in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- BCHall-QuantumTh<> / Bkp<> (link chk 190530)


Contents of this page

Section 2 : Human voice and languages

Remember hearing is more important than articulation. It is your ear that will teach you the nearest pronunciation. Even then what is important is the message - not the correct pronunciation. Gautama Buddha the Wise let his monks pass on his message according to how the local audience could understand.

Human voice, Phonetics and Phonology
  - HV-indx.htm - update 2018Oct
  Human sound production
 - human-snd.htm - update 2018Oct  
Graphical representations of human voice - AlphabetLetter.htm - update 2018Oct 
  Alphabet-Letter [former hv2.htm] . For Abugida-Akshara see Section 1.
Voice quality [former hv7.htm] - voice-qual.htm - update 2018Oct

1. Phonetics for Myanmar (English phonetics)
  - Eng-phon-indx.htm - update 17Nov 
  - UNIL-indx.htm

2. English pronunciation guide
  - EPG-indx.htm - update 09Jan

3. English pronouncing dictionary
  - DJPD16-indx.htm
  See also http://www.cambridge.org/ 150405
English Phonetics and Phonology, Glossary (A Little Encyclopedia of Phonetics),
  by Peter Roach, 2009, in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
  - PRoach-Glossary<> / bkp<> (link chk 190530)

4. English idioms of native-speakers
  -- EIDIOM-TXT-indx.htm

5. English Grammar in Plain Language - EGPE-indx.htm update 16Sep
  compared with MLC Bur-Myan grammar

6. Phonetics for Myanmar - UNIL-indx.htm
(based on online course offered in China by Univ. of Lausanne (UNIL): in TIL format of 2004 used before Unicode. It needs thorough cleaning.). I have come across a book on Bur-Myan Phonetics which I intend to go through some time later:
{d~da.byu-ha kym:} - by Abbot of Taungdwingyi KhinGyiByaw (fl. 1084 BE). I have yet to look for works by those who preceded him: {hsa.ra-tau kyau-an-sn-hta:} and {shn Ok~kn-a.ma-la}.

Contents of this page

Section 3: Second Language (L2) Acquisition
of living languages

UKT 141030, 180602: This section is on learning a living language using the ideas given by H. D. Brown in Principles of Language Learning and Teaching, 4th. ed. Copyright 2000.
- Brown4-indx (link chk 180602)
Note: By L2 is meant a language acquired by a human being well passed puberty when that person has full knowledge of the Mother Tongue, aka First Language (L1). L1 is also known as Home Language. The medium of instruction is Latin script. Both English and Burmese (Romabama) are used. "Grade" stands for schools in present-day Myanmarpr based on my work in TIL research station in Yangon.

ENGLISH for Myanmar - E4M-indx.htm - update 15Nov
ROMABAMA for English speakers in Myanmarpr - Romabama-indx.htm

COMPUTER ASSISTED TEACHING of ENGLISH - CATE-English.indx - in preparation
Stories from Canada - CATE-Canada-indx.htm - update 16Jan
For Kindergarten and Grade 1: (CATE-Children) (not available on line)
TriplePlay: Grade 1 to 4: - CATE-TriPlay-indx.htm - update 16Sep
Learn to Speak English: Grade 5 - upwards (LSE by Chapters not available on line):
Ch01-15 - CATE-LSE01-15-indx.htm / Ch16-30 - CATE-LSE16-30-indx.htm
Burmese for Foreign Friends - Burmese for English speakers:
(a fictitious love story with voices of U Kyaw Tun and wife Daw Than Than)
- BurMyan-indx.htm > B4FF1-indx.htm (link chk 180602)
Note: I wrote this unfinished story for our own amusement, and I listened to it to hear the voice of my dear departed wife. I have to stop writing this story when she died in 2004, soon after which this TIL webpage went on line.

COMPUTER ASSISTED TEACHING of MALAY - CATE-Malay.indx - in preparation
- from Speak Malay like a local by Lissa - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cMBKNnusJG4 180601
Note: I am preparing a series for use by me and my assistants, based in TIL research station in Yangon.

Stories from Canada - CATE-Canada-indx.htm - update 16Jan
English for Kindergarten and Grade 1: (CATE-Children) - by UKT
TriplePlay - CATE-TriPlay-indx.htm ( not available on line) - update 16Sep 
Learn to Speak English (CATE-LSE) - by UKT
Chapters  1 to 15 - CATE-LSE1-indx.htm ( not available on line)
Chapters 16 to 30 - CATE-LSE2-indx.htm (not available on line)
Note: Burmese for Foreign Friends, a Computer Assisted Teaching of Burmese (CATB),
can be reached: - BurMyan-indx.htm > B4FF1-indx.htm (link chk 160913)

Contents of this page


UKT 180926: I may reorganize this section under:
LINGUISTICS - linguistics-indx.htm - update 15Dec
Scripts, Brahmi, and other topics. 

Could the Rath be the Rishis following the footsteps of the Ancient Vedic rishis? There are about 10 rishis acceptable to Gautama Buddha. In one of my numerous notes, one of which is on the Language Problem of Primitive Buddhism, based on the presentation of Ji Xianlin (former spelling Chi Hisen-lin) to Burma Research Soc., JBRS, XLIII, i, June 1960, I've written:
- lang-relig-indx.htm > lang-probl.htm - update 15Nov , (link chk 181122)

UKT 170516: Vishvamitra {wai~a mait~ta. ra..}, Bhagu {Ba.gu. ra..}, and Yamataggi {ya.ma.tag~gi ra..} * are among the ancient Vedic rishis revered by Gautama Buddha. "In the Buddhist Vinaya Pitaka of the Mahavagga (I.245) [14] section the Buddha pays respect to these rishis by declaring that the Veda in its true form* was became known declared to them (UKT: became due to the yogic practice - not by grace of any axiomatic god)  "Atthako (either Ashtavakra or Atri), Vmako, Vmadevo, Vessmitto (Visvamitra),  Yamataggi, Angiras, Bhradvjo, Vsettho (Vashistha) Vsettho**, Kassapo (Kashyapa), and Bhagu (Bhrigu) " [15] and because that true Veda was altered by some priests he refused to pay homage to the altered version. [16]
[equivalents of Pali to Skt names by Maurice Walshe (2005) translation of Digha Nikaya - see note in
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angiras_(sage) 170618 ]

*UKT 180326: What does Vda in its true form means? The Poannar {poaN~Na:} who believe in Axiomatic beings portray the Veda {w-da.} 'knowledge' to be like a main body (head and torso) with 6 subordinate branches (limbs). The most important part, the head (plus the torso) is the most important and is wholly made up of prayers and incantations to the various Axiomatic beings, headed by a Creator (just an idea - not accepted by Theravada Myanmar-Buddhists.) The limbs described as Vdinga {w-dn~ga.} aka वेदाङ्ग vedāṅga, "limbs of the Veda")

Read: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vedanga 180326
and Dictionary of Pali-derived Myanmar words (in Bur-Myan) - UTM-PDMD by U Tun Myint, Univ. of Rangoon Press, 1968, p302. One of the 6 limbs is #1. Shiksha, शिक्षा śikṣā : phonetics, phonology, pronunciation = {aik~hka}, the study of which is more important than useless prayers.

Anyone, not only the Poannar {poaN~Na:} who profess to be the mouthpiece of the Creator, can acquire knowledge - the Vda - through steadfast study with a concentrated mind (acquired by self-training using Yogic {a.ma.hta.} methods.) using strict logic. The ancient Vedic rishis, were the very ones who had acquired the Vda in its true form. They were self-achievers, not just weaklings who were nothing but self-made servants of the gods. Such a self-achiever is Siddhartha Rishi who acquire the ultimate knowledge or wisdom who finally declared himself to be the Buddha. No wonder he would pay respect to the ancient rishis such as Vishvamitra {wai~a mait~ta. ra..}.

[I base my corrections to the fact that Rishi Siddhartha (before he attained Buddha-hood) was highly learned in these Yogic practices cumulating in starvation which he had practiced for six long years.]
* {wai~a mait~ta. ra..} - UHS PMD0925
  {Ba.gu. ra.e.} - UHS PMD0720 .
  {ya.ma.tag~gi ra..} - not found in UHS.
** I cannot find Pal-Myan spelling of the name so far. Skt-Myan equivalent of the name is {wa.i.S~HTa.} from link to Vsettho in Wikipedia - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vashistha 151125.

UKT 170501: Of the lot, Bhagu aka Bhrigu rishi (a human) chastised all the three Trimurti, for failing in their duties to look after the humans on earth: Mahabrahma (with a curse that no one on earth would worship him), Vishnu-dva (with a kick in the chest) and Shiva-dva (with a curse that he be represented by Lingam the male sex-organ stuck in Yoni the female sex-organ) - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bhrigu 170501
See videos in the TIL HD-VIDEO and SD-VIDEO libraries
- Hindu-BhriguLaxmiVishnu<> / Bkp<> (link chk 190530)
- Hindu-BhriguParvatiShiva<> / Bkp<> (link chk 190530)

UKT 170405: Who are the two females shown? I venture to say that they are the modern presentations of ancient religions - the Mother-Goddess religions of the copper to bronze ages of the Indian sub-continent extending into modern Myanmarpr. See my note: Maa Sakti of the Left-hand Path in my work on
A. A. Macdonell A Practical Sanskrit dictionary (in Skt-Dev) 1893,
- MC-indx.htm > MCc1pp-indx.htm > p075.htm (link chk 170405)

See also - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mehrgarh 180830
" Mehrgarh (Balochi: Mehrgaŕh;  sometimes anglicized as Mehergarh or Mehrgar,) is a Neolithic (7000 BCE to c. 2500/2000 BCE) site located near the Bolan Pass on the Kacchi Plain of Balochistan, Pakistan, to the west of the Indus River valley.[1] ... The earliest settlement ... was inhabited from circa 6500 BCE ... is now seen as a precursor to the Indus Valley Civilization, ..."
Some human figurines including a "mother-goddess" was discovered.


Contents of this page

LANGUAGE ACQUISITION AND TEACHING - lang-acqui-indx.htm - update 15Dec
- mainly based on H. D. Brown's, Principles of Language Learning and Teaching, 4th. ed. Copyright 2000.
Though concerned with teaching of English to Bur-Myan speakers, this section is applicable for all languages of BEPS. 
The above link will take you to my smaller version which I have rewritten not to infringe on the author's copyright. Now more than 16 years have passed, and new editions have been published: my work which is based on the 4th. ed. for use by my fellow researchers ~~LAT4M-CD080807 > LibLAT4M > Brown_Princip4 >
- Brown4-indx (link chk 180326)

UKT 170511: Bur-Myan, Engl-Lat, and Skt-Dev, the BEPS each needs some phonemes and new graphemes to be unified, because of which Romabama has to invent new graphemes. I hold that our old linguists had faced the problem in their days, and had adopted a method which I've name Grapheme-shape Hypothesis:
   e.g. in Skt-Dev : व /v/ + diagonal-line --> ब /b/.
- MC-indx.htm > MCc1pp-indx.htm p083.htm 


Contents of this page

LANGUAGE AND MEANING  - lang-mean-indx.htm - update 15Dec

LANGUAGE AND RELIGION - lang-relig-indx.htm - update 15Dec  
  Language problem of primitive Buddhism
, by Chi Hisen-lin
(季羡林 , 1911 2009) - lang-probl.htm - update 15Nov
  Dhammapada verses - Dhammapada.htm - future update
Just as remembering Paritta verses is important in learning Pali orally, are the Dhammapada verse in learning Theravada Buddhism.

  Dissent and protest in the ancient Indian Buddhism - Buddh-sch-indx.htm - update 2018Nov  
- by Ven. Tran Dong Nhat (b.1968), Univ. of Delhi, 2008. Ph.D. thesis. The first schism of note in Myanmarpr occurred in 18th century known as {a.ron}-{a.tn} controversy in which the leader of {a.tn} who was a very learned monk and his close associates were disrobed.
UKT 181115: Because of the sensitive nature of the subject, I'm working on this paper only to serve as a reference.

  Bhagavagītā - Gita.htm - update 15Dec 
and others such as Mahabharata, Bhagavagītā, Early Buddhism and Bhagavagītā
  Mahayana Buddhism and Vajrayana Buddhism - future work
To acquaint yourself with my intention, read A Brief Introduction to the Three Yanas [in Tibetan Buddhism] - by Cortland Dahl, of Tergar group, undated. The downloaded paper is in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- CDahl-TibetanTHreeYanas<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180327)

LANGUAGE AND SIGN - lang-sign.htm - update 15Dec
I plan to include the Sign Language to presenting message of the Buddha to Hearing-Speaking challenged (Deaf-Mutes) eventually.

LANGUAGE AND SOCIETY - lang-soc.htm -
UKT 180926: See Language and Society by Raymond Hickey in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
- RHickey-LangSoc<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180926)

LANGUAGE AND THOUGHT - lang-thot-indx.htm - update 15Dec

Contents of this page

Section 5 : Myanmar languages & culture

5.1. Romabama {ro:ma.ba.ma} 'Bur-Latin' - update 2018Apr
5.2. Burmese speech  (Tib-Bur - Tibeto-Burman group)
5.3. Mon (Peguan & Martaban) language (Aus-Asi - Austro-Asiatic group}:
------ There are 7x5 = 35 consonants in Mon,  two more than 33 of Bamah. Listen to:
------ Approximants of row#6 {y}, {r}, {l}, {w}, {Sa.} - bk-cndl-Mon-row6<))
------ Approximants of row#7 {ha.}, {La.}, {a.}, {a.}, {} - bk-cndl-Mon-row7<))
5.4. Myanmar Religions : TOC changed to TIL format
------ Folk Elements in Buddhism - Maung (Dr.) Htin Aung -
5.5. Collection of papers
------ A Civil Servant in Burma - Herbert T. White
5.6. Law and Legal perspectives : A collection from various writers

UKT 190329: From: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hanlin,_Burma#cite_note-Long-5 190329
"At a museum near the archaeological site of Shwegugyi there are exhibits which show archaeological finds from excavations including: human skeletal remains, along with pottery, jewelry, and bronze rattles laid in graves in a series of rows, found below ground. Carbon dating of some of the earliest grave finds indicate that they are almost 5,000 years old. [5] The museum also has exhibits of finds of: silver coins, gold ornaments, bricks with inscriptions of texts, and many antiquities recovered from the Hanlin sites. The Pyu alphabet with links to Sanskrit and the present day Bamar language, inscribed on a tomb stone, is also on display. [4] "

A script that is strangely similar to Myanmar script is the Georgian Alphabet. If you take into consideration that the Georgian is an Alphabet-Letter writing system and that Myanmar is an Abugida-Akshara system you can clearly see the connection.

Georgian scripts: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georgian_scripts 190609
Romanization of Georgian: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romanization_of_Georgian 190609

Contents of this page

5.1. Romabama {ro:ma.ba.ma} Bamah speech in IPA-Latin alphabet: Bur-Lat

Romabama {ro:ma.ba.ma} introduction - RBM-intro-indx.htm - prev.15Dec, 17Jun - update 18Apr
Romabama on Typewriter (emphasizing ASCII fonts used) - RBM-typewrit-indx.htm - update long overdue

UKT 180401, 190308: Romabama {ro:ma.ba.ma} 'the backbone of Bur-Myan language is not Romanized Burmese. Nor is it Burglish. I have to invent Romabama {ro:ma.ba.ma} single-handedly with some help from my wife, Daw Than Than, before she passed away in 2004. It is Burmese speech {ba.ma sa.ka:} in Myanmar script {mrn-ma ak~hka.ra}.

After coming across the drawbacks of IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet) which is not ASCII compatible, and which has designed primarily for western European languages, and IAST (International Alphabet for Sanskrit Transliteration), I have to invent my own Romabama which is ASCII compatible.

Romabama started out as a Bur-Latin transliteration for writing emails. I've now developed it into a transcription. Romabama is based on Bur-Myan phonology and is not applicable for transcription of Mon-Myan language - which has an entirely different phonology. Bur-Myan belongs to Tib-Bur (Tibeto-Burman) language group, whereas Mon-Myan is Aus-Asi (Austro-Asiatic).

The two languages, Bur-Myan and Mon-Myan, use the same basic Myanmar akshara. However, the speakers use different sets of vocal muscles to pronounce the vowels and as a result the sounds of vowels are different. The Western human phoneticians of 18th century and their present day disciples, still under the influence of their various mother-tongue, the L1, usually fail to notice the subtle different sounds.  Unless you use machine identification, formants F1 and F2, the vowels, especially the back-vowels, cannot be differentiated.

However, through thousands of years of the study of phonetics, the Eastern linguists such as Panini पाणिनि {pa-Ni.ni. hsa.ra} who write the Aṣṭādhyāyī {T~HTa.Da-yi d~da kym:}, have differentiated the vowels and consonants by their modes and places of articulation (POA). These are "recorded" in scripts using the Abugida-Akshara system.

The European phoneticians, failing to understand the differences between Abugida-Akshara system and Alphabet-Letter still think the Akshara and Alphabet to be the same, creating a thorough mess when English-Latin is used as an intermediate language.

In the case of Bur-Myan and Mon-Myan, if the subject matter, such as Theravada Buddhism, is the same, you can still know the meaning when Abugida-Akshara system is used. Even when the language pair, e.g. Skt-Dev and Pali-Myan, is studied because of the same culture and customs (of Magadha Mahajanapada) you can still "understand" many words by akshara-to-akshara transformation. I am learning Sanskrit vocabulary using this method. See Section 7: Sanskrit dictionaries and grammars.

Contents of this page

5.2. Burmese (Bamah) speech in Myanmar akshara:
Bur-Myan of Tib-Bur (Tibeto-Burman groupP

UKT 180401: To know the nature of Tib-Bur group of languages, I've to look into Nwari and Npali speeches written in Devanagari script. In this subsection I've given a short list of Newari words and more of Npali words. A separate folder is still in the works.

UKT 180401: Why is the r3c4 akshara, ढ (in Devanagari) and {a.} (in Myanmar script) so important? I suspect it represents the Third Eye - the seat of super intelligence - present in Gautama Buddha, and supposedly present in Siva-dva. See Wikipedia:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pineal_gland 180401

A drawback of Bur-Myan and Skt-Dev phrases and sentences is the lack of white-spaces separating one word from another. A "lengthy word" may be separated into smaller pieces, e.g. बुद्धचरितम् Buddhacaritam/buddhacaritam can be separated into two: बुद्ध buddha and  चरितम् caritam.

Romabama collection - a new collection 
- RBM-COLLECT-indx.htm - update 16May

Notes on the transliteration of Burmese alphabet into Roman characters, and vocal and consonantal sounds of the Peguan or Talaing language, by R.C. Temple, Rangoon 1876, in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
- RCTemple-Translit-Bur<> 1876 / Bkp<> (link chk 180801)

A preliminary study of the PoUDaung inscription of S'inbuyin, 1774 AD, by Taw Sein Ko, in The Indian Antiquity, a Journal of Oriental Research, vol. 22, 1893
- RCTemple-JIndianAntiquVol22<> 1893 / Bkp<> (link chk 180327)
  PoUDaung Inscription - by TawSeinKo. Below is an clip from the inscription (modern Burmese characters):

Taw Sein Ko wrote: " Lines 1 - 8 of the obverse face of the stone are in Pli gths and the rest are in Burmese verse. The reverse face of the stone is in Burmese prose." (Note: I've shown only Lines 1 to 3.)

Other articles by other authors are included in the above journal.
- RCTemple-RamannaDesa<> 1894 / Bkp<> (link chk 180327)
See Plate XVIII - Kyaikhtiyo Pagoda - the oldest photograph in TIL libraries.
I will have to go over the works of R C Temple carefully because it has comparisons to Haswell's Peguan language.


Burmese Grammar and Grammatical Analysis 1899 - BG1899-indx.htm - update 16Sep
  by A. W. Lonsdale, Rangoon: British Burma Press, 1899 xii, 461, in two parts. 
  Part 1. Orthoepy (pronunciation) and orthography (spelling); Part 2. Accidence and syntax
Bur-Myan Language: Speech and Script *- BurMyan-indx.htm - update 16Sep
  includes the following:  
- The Grammaticalization of Nominalizers in Burmese, by Andrew Simpson,
  Prof. of Linguistics & East Asian Languages and Cultures, Univ. of Southern California.


Building up words from consonants and vowels

UKT 161005: Bur-Myan language has a very simple grammar. It can afford to be simple - without tense, gender, number and inflexion - because it uses a class of suffixes known as {wi.bt} to build up words. These suffixes are named \ "Nominalizers" by Andrew Simpson in his The Grammaticalization of Nominalizers in Burmese, 2008.

The Grammaticalization of Nominalizers in Burmese, 2008
-- BurMyan-indx.htm > Normalizer.htm (link chk 170309)
Downloaded paper in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
- ASimpson-NormalizerBurmese<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180801)

Burmese Grammar and Grammatical Analysis in 2 Parts, A. W. Lonsdale, Rangoon 1899 - BG1899-indx.htm (link chk 181009)

UKT 181221: I wonder if A. W. Lonsdale had looked into Burmese Spelling Book, by C. Bennett, published in 1862. It is the oldest book on grammar which has come to my notice. I regret to say, I haven't got a copy of it.

I still need to learn formal Bur-Myan grammar before I can proceed with this topic. With regard to Bur-Myan grammar, A. W. Lonsdale, in his Burmese Grammar and Grammatical Analysis , Rangoon 1899, wrote:
"The Burmese language is constructed on scientific principles, and there is no reason why its grammar should not be dealt with also from a scientific standpoint. But it may be safely said that Burmese grammar as a science has not received that attention it deserves.
"With regard to the grammatical treatises by native writers, ... not content with merely borrowing the grammatical nomenclature of the Pali language, ... assimilate the grammatical principles of the uninflected Burmese to those of the inflected Pali; so that they produced, not Burmese grammars, but modified Pali grammars in Burmese dress."

Burmese for Foreign Friends
   A teaching program by U Kyaw Tun and Daw Than Than, ver01, 1991, new ed. with sound files
- MLC Burmese Orthography , MLC, 1st ed 1986, ed. U Tun Tint (in Bur-Myan)

  Precursor of MLC Myanmar English Dictionaries, 2006 - the standard edition used in my work
- Dictionary of Pali-derived Myanmar words (in Bur-Myan) - UTM-PDMD
   by U Tun Myint, Univ. of Rangoon Press, 1968, pp 627. My older ref. was UTM-PDD. 
- MLC Burmese Grammar (in Bur-Myan)
  Vol 1. For Middle school; Vol 2. For High school; Vol 3. For University
- Thalun English-Myanmar Dictionary - Thalun-EMD2003-xxxx

Contents of this page

5.3. Mon (Peguan & Martaban) language in Myanmar akshara

Mon-Myan Language: Script - MonMyan-indx.htm (link chk 180403)
  # Grammatical notes and Vocabulary of the Peguan Language
by J.M. Haswell, Rangoon, American Mission Press, 1874
    - MV1874-indx (link chk 180327)
    - in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
    - JMHaswell-PeguanGrammVocab<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180327)
  # Notes on the transliteration of Burmese alphabet into Roman characters, and vocal and consonantal sounds of the Peguan or Talaing language, by R.C. Temple, Rangoon 1876, in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
- RCTemple-Translit-Bur<> 1876 / Bkp<> (link chk 180327) 

  # A Short Introduction to the Mon (Martaban) language, by Mathias Jenny, The Mon Culture and Literature Survival Project (MCL), Sangkhlaburi, 2001.
    - MJenny-IntroMonLang<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180327)
 # Basic Mon-Myanmar (Martaban) Language (in Burmese) by Naing Maung Toe, Rangoon, 2007. See downloaded pages in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
    - NaiMgToe-MonBur<> / Bkp<> (link chk 190210)


UKT 180403: Peguan dialect of Mon-Myan, the language of my great grandmother Daw Mma as speech, is now extinct. What J.M. Haswell and R.C. Temple have written is on the Peguan dialect.

What is still extant is the Martaban dialect about which is written by modern authors like M. Jenny and Nai Maung Toe.

Be sure you differentiate the two dialects when you study the now "threatened" the Mon language. A difference is in the pronunciation of r1c1-r1c2 {ka.}-{hka.} and r1c3-r1c4.

Peguan: {k}-{hk} - emphasized by Haswell and Temple
Martaban: {g}-{hk} 

Contents of this page

Mon-Myan Language: Speech - spk-all-indx.htm (link chk 190325) 

UKT 180802: Though the same glyph of Myanmar akshara is used by both Burmese and Mon, the pronunciation is radically different. Now listen to Mon-Myan consonants: for comparison with Skt-Dev, listen to a passage from BhagavaGita in Skt-Dev
- bk-cndl-Gita18-2<))
- first line: श्रीभगवानुवाच śrī-bhagavān uvāca 'the Supreme Personality of Godhead said';
- 2nd line: काम्यानां kāmyānāṁ 'with desire' / 
(the whole passage is given somewhere below)

- bk-cndl-{ka.}-row<)) : , , - Velar plosive-stop
  bk-cndl-{sa.}-row<)) : , , - Palatal affricate

UKT 181122: Mon pronounces the basic akshara {sa.}/ {c} as /{kya.}/ which is how the Bur-Myan {kya.} is pronounced. The problem is {kya.} is a conjunct which cannot be under a virama {a.t}. That would be problematical when Bur-Myan and Mon-Myan scripts are on the same page of the text. I, therefore, have to invent new glyphs for Mon-Myan, which could also be used for Eng-Myan (English-speech in Myanmar akshara):
- Mon r1c1 {sa.} (pronounced as /{kya.}/) absent in English
- Mon r1c2 {hsa.} (pronounced as /{hkya.}/). This immediately solves the pronunciation of Eng-Lat <church> {chaach} or {chuuch}. Remember, it is non-rhotic, and presence of /r/ cannot be tolerated.
- Mon r1c3 {z} (pronounced as /{gy}/.

- bk-cndl-{Ta.}-row<)) 
- bk-cndl-{ta.}-row<)) 
- bk-cndl-{pa.}-row<))
- bk-cndl-{ya.}-row<))
- bk-cndl-{ha.}-row<)) 
Concentrate on the last three consonants {a.}, {aa.}, {}.

Now listen to examples of simple disyllabic words. Mon speech of Aus-Asi language group is radically different from Burmese speech of Tib-Bur language group. Even among the dialects of a language group the pronunciation of a word can be different. If you rely on pronunciations only not paying attention to the script, you will end up dividing the peoples of the same culture which is reflected in language. Remember Speech divides, but Script unites. Those who would like to change the Bur-Myan akshara-matrix, especially the Burmese language teachers, should take note.

- BkCnd-VIDEO: Mon-SpkAll-lesson10-61txt<))

Note 150920, 160817, 161022, 180918: To help transcription of English into Burmese, I have already introduced Mon-Myan, A'forward-throw {aou} into Basic BEPS vowels for English words such as <now> {nou} & <how> {hou}. Its opposite, A'back-throw {}, is present in Bur-Myan, but absent in Eng-Lat, because of which the English <e> has created a mix-up of {} & {}. Another possible candidate to help in transcription is Mon-Myan A'thawhtotin-chaungnin to be placed side-by-side with Bur-Myan {o} which is called A'loantin-chaungnin. The pronunciation of is not at all similar to {o} - the only difference in shape being the Eng front vowel <e> and English back vowel <o>. See
- MonMyan-indx.htm > spk-all-indx.htm > spk-all03.htm (link chk 180918).
Listen to the pronunciation of in - lesson17-61cap<))
I can only catch the consonant: /m/ , /k/ , /p/ , /n/
UKT 180918: Sad to say, I'm still unfamiliar with Martaban Mon pronunciations.

Contents of this page

5.4. Myanmar Religions : Organized and Folk

UKT 180327: Before I go into this section, which can be misinterpreted as biased (opinionated maybe: but not biased), I must make myself clear. I have never proselytized anyone. I have no wish to belittle any religion - ancient or modern. I do not wish to offend anyone: just as I honour my parents, grandparents and their fore-parents, I view what they have believed to be worshipful - whether these gods and goddesses are axiomatic or not.

This was the position of my father U Tun Pe, who had advised me: "you may or may not believe in a god or nt; but never offend it. Leave it alone." He gave an example - of his friend U Hpo Zan and our family friend - who made a point to offend U Shin Gyi Nt the guardian of waterways of the Delta. In spite of being an expert swimmer, U Hpo Zan - BaBaGyi U Hpo Zan to me - drowned in the Rangoon River after his boat was hit by a river-going oil-tanker carrying crude from Yenangyaung oilfield to Syriam refinery. There were four on the boat - all swimmers, except Dr. U Chit Htw. None of them saw the oil tanker bearing down on them and none heard the shouts from the tanker crew. They simply went straight to the tanker. Dr. Chit Htw was pulled out of water almost immediately by his assistant, Maung Tar, but he was already dead.

U Hpo Zan was last seen swimming, but his body was never recovered. The survivors were Maung Tar, and the Bengali boatman. There was quite a commotion in U Hpo Zan's house in Twant that night - strange noises especially at the front-entrance. Through a Nt-medium, U Shin Gyi Nt told U Hpo Zan's wife, Daw Ma Thar and family that, because of U Hpo Zan's insults, his body would never be given back.

You may or not believe my narrative but my advise to everyone - especially the foreigners - "you may or may not believe in a god or nt; but never offend it. Leave it alone". U Hpo Zan had offended the nt of the folk-religion: he was a Christian - a Methodist. Incidentally, Dr. Chit Htwe was also a Christian - a Baptist. The Bengali boatman was a Sunni Muslim.

The book that has led me the topic of Religion: organized and folk, is Folk Elements in Buddhism by Maung (Dr.) Htin Aung. Printed and published by U Myint Maung, Deputy Director, Regd: No (02405/02527) at the Religious Affairs Dept. Press. Yegu, Kaba-Aye P.O., Rangoon, BURMA. 1981. As a background for this section and for book, read the following articles

Read the following:
Religion: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Religion 180327
Organized religion: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organized_religion 180327
Folk religion: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Folk_religion 180327
Curse tables: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Curse_tablet 190409
"A curse tablet (Latin: tabella defixionis, defixio; Greek: κατάδεσμος katadesmos) is a small tablet with a curse written on it from the Greco-Roman world. The tablets were used to ask the gods, place spirits, or the deceased to perform an action on a person or object, or otherwise compel the subject of the curse." UKT 190409: sounds similar to Myanmar {n:} and Thai "Yantra".

Folk Elements in Buddhism -- flk-ele-indx.htm - update 2017Jul
   UKT 180327: The original natives of the of the region centered in the present-day Myanmarpr, had worshipped many Mother-goddesses {m-tau}, thousands of years before the time of Gautama Buddha (a Tib-Bur language speaker). The Buddha based his Buddhism, a non-axiomatic philosophy, on the impermanence of everything in nature. He based his observations on logic (thus scientific in modern sense), on changes in seen entities like humans and animals, of ethnic groups, and even the physical topography of the land, and ideas such as customs and beliefs in axiomatic beings such as gods and devils.

PIX shows Nankareign Mdaw - one of the mother-goddesses of the Mons. She is very likely directly descended from the axiomatic entity of Indus-Sarasvati civilization. See Wikipedia on Pashupati seal:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pashupati_seal 180328
"... name of a steatite seal that was discovered at the Mohenjo-daro archaeological site of the Indus Valley Civilization. The seal depicts a seated figure that is possibly tricephalic (having three heads). It was once thought to be ithyphallic ['having an erect penis' - Google], an interpretation that is now mostly discarded. He has a horned headdress and is surrounded by animals ... . "

UKT 190827: How do the archeologists know the entity to be a he? Since Ancients worshipped mother-goddesses, it could very well be a she. I suggest that it could be the ancient forerunner of Nankareign Mdaw {nn-ka.ren: m-tau} - not related to Shiva-dva {i-wa. nt}]
UKT 180328: Tricephaly - derived from Polycephaly which is known in current times.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polycephaly 180328

The beliefs in Mother-goddesses changed, and many forms of Buddhism have come into Myanmarpr. Also, many ethnics from areas outside the region with their axiomatic beliefs, such as Christianity, Hinduism, and Islam, had come in. Even non-axiomatic beliefs such as Communism, and modern Science had come in. Religion in Myanmarpr is in plural - hence the topic of my study Myanmar religions: Organized and Folk .

We have at present no way of studying the changes except through language (speech and script). With the change in ethnicity of the speakers, the spoken languages and dialects have also changed. To delay these changes, speech is represented in script in symbols or glyphs for each individual human-speech sound.

The most successful system of recording speech in script is the Abugida-Akshara system. Outside the region, we find another successful system - the Alphabet-Letter system. Abugida-Akshara system (such as Bur-Myan and Skt-Dev) is based on phonetics, whereas the Alphabetic-Letter system (such as English, French, and modern European speeches) are non-phonetic. I'm trying to bring a sense out of the present mess through the study of only four speeches of BEPS (Burmese, English, Pali and Sanskrit) written in three scripts (Myanmar, IPA-Latin, International Pali, and Devanagari.).

See Buddhism in Burma in LANGUAGE AND MEANING ,  based on the  Gazetteer of Upper Burma and Shan States, in 5 volumes, by J G Scott, 1900
- lang-mean-indx.htm > Budd-Myan.htm (in preparation)

Contents of this page

5.5. MYANMAR : a collection of papers

Former collection now split into the following

General -- myn-indx.htm (link chk 180328)
Prehistory -- prehist-indx.htm (link chk 180328)
   A new addition, Burma before Pagan by M. Aung-Thwin, has been added
   -- to be uploaded later. UKT 130305

Myanmarpr before the British incursion
  The Burmese Empire a hundred years ago - by Father Sangermano, 1833
   Prefaces, John Jardine's Introduction, TIL-collection
   -- sang-j-indx.htm - update 13Sep (link chk 180328)
   Sangermano's work proper
   -- sang-s-indx.htm - update 13Sep (link chk 180328)
   Gaudama the Buddha of the Burmese, by Bishop Bigandet, 1866
   - BishopBigandet<> / Bkp<> (link chk 190528)
   The Land of the White Elephant - by Frank Vincent, 1873
   in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
   - FVincent-LandOfWhiteEleph<> / Bkp<> (link chk 190528)

Myanmarpr under the British
  in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
Cigar-Girls, and Foresters of Burma, in Asiatic Journal Vol4, no3, NovApr1845, p230, TIL PDF libraries
 - AsiaticJ04-3<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180327)
  The Burman, his life and notions - by Shway Yoe
  J. G. Scott (1851-1935) under penname of Shway Yoe (1882)
  - JGScott-ShwayYoeTheBurman<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180328)
  See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_George_Scott 170312
  A Civil Servant in Burma - by Herbert White, 1913
  As important as J. Jardine (Judiciary) was Herbert Thirkell White (Civil Service
  His account based on 32 years (18781910) of service in Burma.
  (PDF) in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
  - HTWhite-CivilServBur<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180626)
  (nonPDF) In TIL nonPDF library - HTWhite-CivilServantBur<> / bkp<> (link chk 170312)
  See: - http://www.gutenberg.org/files/43075/43075-h/43075-h.htm 140530
  See also Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herbert_Thirkell_White 140530

Contents of this page

5.6. Law and Legal perspectives

UKT 180504: The two English words Law and Legal do not imply the same thing. Law to the Myanmar Buddhists (broadly meaning speakers of Bur-Myan, Karen-Myan, Mon-Myan, and Shan-Myan) means what is compatible with the Theravada Buddhism. On the other hand, Legal perspective means what is sanctioned by the government of the time which can mean the governments of: King of Konbaung dynasty, King of Mons, Sawbwas of the Shans, down to the village level and long-house, the British-Raj of the colonial times, the secular governments of independent countries, and the various native military governments.

Law and Legal perspectives - Law-indx.htm - update 19Mar

Contents of this page

Section 6 : Pali dictionaries, and grammars,
the Old Magadhi - Buddha's mother-tongue

UKT 180331: Whenever I am learning a new language as an adult, I always browse through a dictionary first in order to become familiar the vocabulary. Of course, I had already known the script and spellings of the base language.

I need to differentiate the dialects of Pali, because the so-called International Pali (InPal or IPal) is heavily based on the Lanka version, whereas the Pali used in Myanmarpr (BPal) was based on Old Magadhi which was the mother tongue of Buddha. It was brought into northern Burma long before the time of the Buddha by King Abhiraza {a.Bi.ra.za mn:} and again during life-time of the Buddha, by the relatives of the Buddha fleeing the wrath of Prince Widudipa {wi.u-a.Ba. mn:a:}.

I'm now in the process of learning Skt-Dev, and my base language is Bur-Myan and Pali-Myan. Remember not to start with the speech or spoken language: it will immediately bring you under the Curse of Babel: don't try to learn to speak. Here I must make myself clear. To get familiar with the sounds of the language, learn to converse with taxi-drivers and hotel-waitresses. Even a few words and phrases would do: there is always the body-language to help. But to be able to carry on a more "scholarly" conversation, you need more words

UKT 190630: Now that I have renamed my work on A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary by A. A. Macdonell as
Practical Sanskrit Dictionary for Buddhists and Hindus , after including entries from BHS and Pali, I'm thinking of merging Section 6 into Section 7, leaving a section for work on Quantum Mechanics which would include, chemistry, mathematics and physics. This is based on my hunch that the Jhanic states {Zaan}, a favorite of the Gautama Buddha into which he went just prior to his physical death at age 80. Prince Siddhartha before he became enlightened as a buddha as a grownup , had gone into the First Jhanic State even as a child of 6 or 8. It seems he was born with extraordinary intelligence, whereas most of us was born with ordinary intelligence {aaN}.

Student's Pali-English Dictionary, by Maung Tin (name later changed to U Pe Maung Tin), (ref: UPMT-PEDictxxx). Downloaded copies in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- UPMT-PaliDict1920<> / Bkp<> (link chk 190114) 

UKT 190114: I'm now using the downloaded version of U Pe Maung Tin's dictionary to help me bridge Skt-Dev to Pal-Myan in Section 07,

Boadkric {boaD~hka.ric}

Pix on right shows Mdaw Thurathati {u-ra~a.ti m-tau}, the anthropomorphised human-knowledge, known and yet to be known. She is not a Dvi: not a female dva. She is just a Mother {m-tau}, an anthropomorphic form of something such as a country, or even the terrestrial Earth on which the humans and animals live. Unless you are always thinking of sexual-intercourse - a sex-maniac, you don't have to marry her to anyone - not even to Mahabrahma-dva.

Mdaw Thurathati {u-ra~a.ti m-tau} is in everyway, someone worth being worshipped. In Bur-Myan, such worshipfuls are known as {nt}. You "worship" or pay the "highest form of respect" to such entities, either real or axiomatic, whether out of "respect" or out of "fear". If you are living under a tyrant you still have to "worship" him out of fear even though you hate him from the bottom of your heart.

On the other extreme, I worship Gautama Buddha as the wisest of all out of respect for his "wisdom". Likewise, Mdaw Thurathati {u-ra~a.ti m-tau} representing the whole body of human-knowledge, including the "knowledge of Buddha's wisdom is worshipped. But remember, Gautama Buddha was a human-being - a real person, whereas the Mdaw is an axiomatic entity - a figment of imagination. Both are worshipfuls or {nt}. We call the Mdaw as {u-ra~a.ti m-tau nt a.mi:}. Unlike YHVH, God, and Allah, they cannot fulfill your prayers.

The worship of the Buddha and Mdaw amounts to paying respect. Many Myanmar Theravada Buddhists, wishing someone to grant their wishes, worship the Nats {nt} of the Folk-religion. I personally know many Burmese Theravada-Buddhists married to Burmese Christian spouses, worshipping in Christian churches. Many of their off-springs, who may become either Buddhists or Christians, following both religions have earned themselves the name of Boadkric {boaD~hka.ric} from "Buddha", and "Christ", and they are expected to say at the end of their chants Amensadhu {a-mn a-Dhu.} from a combination of "Amen" and "Tha-du". 

See also Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Style_(manner_of_address) 180312
" The Worshipful all other Mayors or other municipal governors
His/Her Worship (oral address Your Worship) municipal leaders in Commonwealth realms."

The Old Magadhi - the Tib-Bur (Tibeto-Burman) language, heavily under the influence of Sanskrit, still survives mainly in Kathmandu valley in Nepal [ Lumbini लुम्बिनी lumbinī was Gautama Buddha's birthplace.]. The language known as Nwari is still spoken by the blood relatives of the Buddha. My interest is in the Nwari language neither politics nor religions. Nwari (short: New) was written in Asokan Brahmi script at one time, but now written in Devanagari script. It still retains its Tib-Bur characteristics which I identify by the more numerous presence of the aksharas, ख {hka.}, घ {Ga.}, and झ {Za.}. Note: I will use only Romabama transliteration, neither IAST nor IPA, to avoid unnecessary confusion.

UKT 180226, 181203: I've been developing a Lakkwak on Magadhi-Asokan since 160416. Based on the shapes of r1c1 {ka.} and r4c1 {ta.}, the basic form of is both square and triangle. How to attach the vowel-diacritic to the consonant, and how to form the vertical conjuncts are clues to shapes of every akshara in the matrix. I need to standardize the forms to study, Shin Kic'si Pali Grammar.
  - Francis Mason & Eisel Mazard (馬大影) version of Shin Kicsi Pali Grammar, 1st distribution in 2015
  - FMasonMazard-PalGramm<> / Bkp<> (link chk 171218)
UKT 190417: Remember for writing Kagyi-khakwe I had to come up with the scheme w7xh7. There is nothing wrong with it: it has been used for 20 yrs. However, I still need a scheme for Latin alphabet whenever I am unable to use regular English fonts.

Though the present official language of the country of Nepal is Nepali , there is confusion due to the presence of the former official language known as Nepalbhasa नेपाल भाष {n-pa-la. Ba-a.}, as can be seen from the different spellings of the Kathmandu Valley (Gau: काठमाडौं उपत्यका, New: स्वनिगः, नेपाः गाः).
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kathmandu_Valley 170704
See also: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newar_language 160119

To avoid further confusion, I will use the word Gorkhali {gau} derived from the ethnic group whose kings had overran the area, as an alternate name for the present official language. I base my usage on:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gorkha_Kingdom 170704

Since, Nwari (New) had been written in Asokan Brahmi it was probably the same as Pali-Myan. The Buddhist faith as well as the language, Nwari (Tib-Bur), were almost wiped out by the Shaivite-Hindus in Nepal. Note: The Vaishnavite-Hindus were more friendly towards Buddhism, because they take the Buddha to be one of the reincarnations of their administrator-god Vishnu-dva, one of the Timurti headed by: Mahabrahma (creator), Vishnu (administrator), and Shiva (police). Shaivite-Hindus were not friendly towards either Buddhists and Vaishnavites, because they take their god Shiva-dva to be the Supreme God (creator, administrator, destroyer - all in one), and had viewed at one time the Buddhists and Vaishnavites as heretics. With this short background I will study the languages and cultures based on the following dictionaries.

Nepali-IE aka Gorkhali in Akshara order:
A Comparative and Etymological Dictionary of Nepali Language
by R L Turner (ref: Turn-Nepxxx )
  - http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/turner/ (link chk 160119)
  Files from Univ. Chicago in TIL HD-nonPDF and SD-nonPDF libraries:
  - Turn-NepalDict<> / Bkp<> (link chk 170729) 
  Downloaded files from Govt. College in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
  - RLTurner-NepalDict<> / Bkp<> (link chk 171224)
  To refer to this dictionary use: Turn-Nepxxxx
Nepali-IE aka Gorkhali in Alphabetical order:
Npali-English Dictionary
by Karl-Heinz Krmer, 2007.
  Downloaded files in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
  - KHKramer-NepalDict<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180104)

Newari-TibBur aka Nepal-Bhasa in Alphabetical order: 
English to Nepal Bhasa Dictionary
(Tib-Bur) by Sabin Bhuju सबिन भुजु , 2005
Downloaded files in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
  - SBhuju-NewarDict<> / Bkp<> (link chk 171218)

It is my conjecture that Newari (Tib-Bur) directly descended from Old Magadhi (Tib-Bur) - the mother tongue  of Gautama Buddha, and Pali-Myan (Tib-Bur) speech written in Myanmar script - probably the forerunner of Asokan Brahmi script - are closely related. The most interfering language is Skt-Dev (IE), and through Skt-Dev I expect either to prove or disprove my conjecture. It is one of my main reasons why I am going through Macdonell's A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary. For the political background see: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nepal_Bhasa_movement 170705

In both languages, Gorkhali and Newari, you will find words beginning with {gna.} ङ.
 from non-nasal r1c5, which in Bur-Myan: {gna.}/ {ng}, {gna}, {gna:}
In Newari you will find <fish> न्या ; ङा - the same as in Bur-Myan, except for the length of the vowel.

UKT 140209: Burmese, and Pali (mostly on Buddhism), and Sanskrit (mostly on Astrology) are so interwoven that you cannot learn one without learning some words of the other two. Listen and watch a video on Theravada Buddhism explained in a classical song known as {t:Bon-mha.}, a favorite of my father U Tun Pe :
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yzqEGnn4tfY 140209 
Remember there are many disciplines under the name of Astrology. The discipline in which Bur-Myan and Skt-Dev was known as Hindu Astrology aka Vedic Astrology. Again there are quite a few systems which may be differentiated by the charts used. We, in Myanmarpr use a square divided into 12 sections as shown. The names can be found on TIL version of Macdonell's Sanskrit Dictionary
- MC-indx.htm > MCc2pp-indx.htm > p101.htm (link chk 171102)

UKT 190228: For a standard work on Astrology, see Brihat Jataka  बृहज्जातक = ब ृ ह ज ् ज ा त क (from बृह् bṛhat adj. - big, great, large).
Brihat Jataka of Varaha Mihira, transl. by N. Chidambaram Iyer, 1885, in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- NCIyer-BrihatJataka<> / Bkp<> (link chk 190226)
"There is probably not one subject which is so ill-understood, which so many people pretend to know, and on which so many are prepared to express an opinion, as the subject of Astrology." - Introduction.
I, UKT, fully supports this opinion of N. C. Iyer. In Chapter 09, p092-109, you'll read something on Astakavaga - my speciality when I was a part-time astrologer. In the chapter, on p103 to the end you'll find Sarvashtaka Varga by which I summed up a person's life.

Foreigners beware: never think lightly of Buddhism and Astrology when you are dealing with a native of Burma, especially in the country Myanmarpr.

Pali is an artificial language invented to serve the Theravada Buddhists who had taken a firm foothold in Ceylon now known as Sri Lanka or simply Lanka. It is derived from Old Magadhi (the mother tongue of Gautama Buddha spoken in Magadha Mahajanapada now split up into India and Nepal) and Lankan speech.

It is my conjecture that Old Magadhi was known in northern Myanmarpr being brought in thousands of years ago by King Abhiraza {a.B.ra-za mn:}. The king was  probably a participant (and loser) in the Battle of Ten Kings दाशराज्ञ युद्ध - a war mentioned in the Rig Vda. The second time the language was brought in, was by Buddha's own relatives. They were fleeing the wrath of Prince Viḍūḍabha {Viḍūḍabha } of Kosala kingdom who dethroned his father King Pasenadi in the life time of Gautama Buddha.

UKT: The spelling of the notorious prince who dethroned his father and cause the father's death is not certain. See Wikipedia articles with different spellings:
Viḍūḍabha - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pasenadi 180929
Virūḍhaka - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virudhaka 180929

Pali now spoken in Myanmarpr (Pal-Myan) is the Old Magadhi heavily influenced by Lankan Pali (Pal-Lanka) - the artificial language. Since the so-called International Pali is derived from Lankan Pali written in Latin script or to be exact in IAST, I am calling it Pal-Lat.

Since Buddhism rests firmly on the Principle of Anatta the opposite of the Principle of Atta aka Immutable Soul, the Bur-Myan non-nasal word {gna} /ŋ/ 'I, my, me' referring to Atta is the principle obstacle to all attempts in transcribing the Bur-Myan speech. Listen the song {t:Bon-mha.} and keep a look out for the word {ngaa.} - the word with only half eye-blink vowel duration. Hindi and Sanskrit speakers cannot pronounce this sound and they had to substitute it with {na:.} नः //.

Ancient peoples in the Indian subcontinent extending into South-East Asia - including Ancient Pyus in the mainland of Myanmarpr - had worshipped the Mother-Goddess(es) (Maa or Mdaw) during the Brass Age. (Note: Brass, an alloy of Zinc and Copper, is softer than Bronze, the alloy of Tin and Copper. It is not suitable for making weapons of war. It was treated as a Metal of Peace by Ancient Jews, and used in the construction of articles and altars of worship.) .

UKT 180108: From time to time bits of long forgotten info came back to my mind. One such info was about an ancient people of Burma who were named "Ticul" by the Arabs. This info might simply be wrong. But I have to check first. I came across the name Eudoxus of Cyzicus in 2 pdf papers which are now in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
#1. PKeyser-EudoxusAstronomerPg344to346<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180108)
#2. MALinton-HistNavigat<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180108)
From #2: "Greek navigator Eudoxus of Cyzicus explored the Arabian Sea for Ptolemy VIII, king of the Hellenistic Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt. According to Poseidonius, later reported in Strabo's Geography, the monsoon wind system of the Indian Ocean was first sailed by Eudoxus of Cyzicus in 118 or 116 BC. [14]"
Again from #2: "The earliest known reference to an organization devoted to ships in ancient India is to the Mauryan Empire from the 4th century BCE. The Arthashastra of Emperor Chandragupta Maurya's prime minister, Kautilya, devotes a full chapter on the state department of waterways under a navadhyaksha (Sanskrit for "superintendent of ships"). The term, nava dvipantaragamanam (Sanskrit for sailing to other lands by ships) appears in this book in addition to appearing in the Buddhist text Baudhayana Dharmasastra."

UKT 190824: My interest in the Pyus of ancient Myanmarpr has made me go further into antiquity, to the time of the Indus-Saraswati civilization and its connection to the sea. Remember that time was, before the elevation of land in central Burma which eventually led to eruption of Mt. Popa {poap~pa: tan} around 444 BC

Note: I remember this important date because of a mnemonic, , which I've come across a long time ago.  I've asked my friend Ko (Dr.) U Tun Tint. He does not remember coming across it. Since there is a mix-up of a Burmese event and the Christian era, I was probably its author because I'm fond of mnemonics and coined them from time to time.

and the cutting up of the proto-Irrawaddy into two: the northern half becoming   the Samoan River {sa.moan hkyan:} and the southern into the Sittang River {sic-tan: mric}. At that time there was no Irrawaddy Delta and the Indian Ocean reached into land as far north as the present day city of Prome {pr mro.} - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_maritime_history 190824
"The region around the Indus river began to show visible increase in both the length and the frequency of maritime voyages by 3000 BCE. | [14] Optimum conditions for viable long-distance voyages existed in this region by 2900 BCE. [15] Mesopotamian inscriptions indicate that Indian traders from the Indus valleycarrying copper, hardwoods, ivory, pearls, carnelian, and goldwere active in Mesopotamia during the reign of Sargon of Akkad (c. 2300 BCE). [1] Gosch & Stearns write on the Indus Valley's pre-modern maritime travel: [16] Evidence exists that Harappans were bulk-shipping timber and special woods to Sumer on ships and luxury items such as lapis lazuli. The trade in lapis lazuli was carried out from northern Afghanistan over eastern Iran to Sumer but during the Mature Harappan period an Indus colony was established at Shortugai in Central Asia near the Badakshan mines and the lapis stones were brought overland to Lothal in Gujarat and shipped to Oman, Bahrain and Mesopotamia.

The cutting up of rivers, such as the proto-Irrawaddy has had happened before, in geologic time, when the Himalayas were (and are still) building up. See Section 08: Myanmar: what the Earth has to say
- earth-indx > geol-indx (link chk 190824)
and go to: Large rivers and orogens: The evolution of the Yarlung TsangpoIrrawaddy system and the eastern Himalayan syntaxis https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1342937X13002281 180530, 190824


It is accepted that in the distant past, IE speakers such as the those speaking Sanskrit started filtering into the areas of the Mother-Goddess (Maa or Mdaw {m-tau) worshippers. They brought with them weapons made of Iron and defeated those with Bronze weapons bringing the Bronze-age to an end. They brought with them male-gods and "made" the goddesses of the Bronze-age, consorts of their male-gods. The conquered were made to serve them and their male-kings and their priests as servants and slaves. Time-line in India: 1200 BC - 200 BC: About 1000 years before the Time of Gautama Buddha or Buddhist Era
See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iron_Age 151110

UKT 160516, 170710: Mother-Goddesses (Maa or Mdaw {m-tau) need not be of the category of Dva-Dvi of the Hindu Pantheon. They are the anthropomorphic names for the native  country. They have no need for husbands nor sex. They are being "created" by the natives or worshippers even to this day. The most recent entity is Bharat-Mata aka Mother-India comparable to {a.mi. mrn-ma}. As she is the mother to all peoples of the land including Buddhists, Christians, Hindus, Islams, etc. (in alphabetical order), I hope no self-styled religionist authority would come forward and claimed that Bharat-Mata is the wife of his foremost god.

Now what is the Buddhist Era (shortened to BE, to be compared to CE the Gregorian calendar of the West)? See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buddhist_calendar 170427
"Burmese system has followed a variation of the Metonic cycle. It is unclear from where, when or how the Metonic system was introduced."

To understand fully the Burmese Buddhist Era (used all over SEAsia thanks to Burmese Empire-builders like King Anawratha and King Bayinnaung who had influenced the whole area), you must know the Metonic cyle (of Greek astronomer Meton of Athens, ca. 5th century BC, who probably got it from the Babylonian astronomers)
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metonic_cycle 170427

Burmese calendar-ists (Arigyis of northern Myanmarpr - the brethren of Tibetan monks. One of the latter invented an Abugida-Akshara language - the Phagspa script - for use by Chinese on behest of Kublai Khan). The Burmese probably based their astronomical calculations on the Babylonians rather than on the Indians.

How was the Metonic cycle introduced into northern Myanmarpr is of the same genre of the question of Myanmar თ {ta.} getting to Georgia:
თ (U10D7: consonant "Tan"), and ი (U10D8: vowel "In")
See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%27Phags-pa_script 170427

The difference between BE and CE to be 543 or 544 depending on the month of the Buddhist Era.

However, it is probable that the invading Sanskrit speakers adopted the more ancient ideas of the indigenous people and took up the study of the Vedas. I base my conjecture on the difference between Vedic language and Classical Sanskrit of Panini. Using the idea of "renunciation" to bring an end to "desire", they have given us the Bhagavad Gita.

Contents of this page

Pali Dictionaries

Burmese-Myanmar Buddhist (Bambi Index) - BMBI-indx.htm - update 17May 
   in honour of the Deer Park where Gaudama Buddha declared his Non-Axiomatic
   Scientific Buddhist Religion comprising of the First Four Principles, and
   Annata Principle - by Seindamani U Chit Maung.
   The original printed index presented "teachings" {ta.ra:} in groups of 1, 2, 3, etc.
   A helpful Wikipedia article for BMBI index is:
   - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buddhist_cosmology_of_the_Theravada_school 151102
   My edited version is in the BMBI folder: Thirty-One Planes of Existence - Thirty1-indx<> (link chk 170508)
In honour of my Christian friends, I hope to compile a similar index - BMCI-indx.htm.
   It will be based on the work of Rev. Adoniram Judson (1788-1850) work on translating
   the Christian Bible into Burmese, and its modern versions, which will be useful in my work,
   on inter-transcription (translation) of Bur-Myan into English-Latin. See also:
   - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adoniram_Judson 160706
The principal Pal-Myan dictionaries I use are:
  - U Hoke Sein, Pali-Myanmar Dictionary (in Pal-Myan) (UHS-PMD),
  - U Hoke Sein, The Universal Burmese-English-Pali Dictionary, (UHS-BEPD)

190810, 190827 : The Student's Pali English dictionary , by U Pe Maung Tin, 1920.
- (ref: UPMT-PEDxxx).  Downloaded copies in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- UPMT-PaliDict1920<> / bkp<> (link chk 190113)
UKT 190810: To be more useful, I've digitized it in HTML, and have moved the HTML version to
Section 07: Sanskrit  Dictionary
Involving in Pali spoken in Myan, Pali-Myan, means Romabama must be prepared for what are known as Vowel-Letters, present in International Pali (Pali-Latin), Myanmar Pali (Pali-Myan), and Sanskrit (Skt-Dev). Languages vary from each other not only in spoken vowels but also in written aksharas. A prominent example is in the Vowel-Letters of Bur-Myan and Mon-Myan.

U Myat Kyaw (UMK) & U San Lwin (USL), A Pal-Myan-Engl Dict. of Noble Words of Buddha 
- PED-MK-indx.htm - update 140630
Buddhist Dictionary of Pali Proper Names (mostly from PTS Dictionary of Pali Names  by G P Malalasekara (1899-1973))
- http://www.palikanon.com/english/pali_names/dic_idx.html 171213
PTS Pali-English dictionary, 1921, PTS-indx.htm - vowels complete
PTS Pali-English dictionary, by T. W. RhysDavids, reprint 1952 
  - TWRhysDavids-PTSDict58MB<> / Bkp<> (link chk 171224) 
PTS dictionary version from Abhidhamma.com stored in Bk-candl PED-PTS folder
  - TWRhysDavids-PTSDictAbidhama9MBԻ / Bkp<> (link chk 171224)
Pali suffixes and derivations,
  - http://www.buddha-vacana.org/toolbox/suf.html  190108


UKT 180701: The Pali dictionaries that I intend to use as a bridge from Sanskrit (Skt-Dev) to Pali (Pal-Myan) are:
A Dictionary of the Pali Language, by R.C. Childers, reprint 2007 available in TIL library in Research Center in Yangon.
The above as downloaded text from 1875 ed. in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
  - RCChilders-PaliLangDict<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180701)
Buddhist Dictionary of Pali Proper Names, by G. P. Malalasekera (1899-1973)
  - http://www.palikanon.com/english/pali_names/dic_idx.html 170410
Note: To use this dictionary, go on line, and click on the above link.

UKT 181217: When I first learn Skt-Dev, I had first planned to begin with what I'd called TIL-SED from
Online Sanskrit Dictionary , February 12, 2003 -
Glossary - https://sanskritdocuments.org/dict/dictall.html 110810, 140805, 190701
Note: The online html version of the above allows me to copy and paste the words into my work. Unfortunately, the English transliteration is in ITRANS, because of which I'm giving my rendition in Bur-Myan and Romabama transcription. My ref. to this source is - SktDoc Glossary. Downloaded files in TIL HD-PDF & SD-PDF libraries
- SktDoc-OnlineSktDict<> / Bkp<> (link chk 181217)
It has been suspended to concentrate on Macdonell's. I'll be merge the two eventually. The link to my suspended work is:
- SED-indx.htm (link chk 181217)


Pali Grammars

An Elementary Pali Grammar course (in English) - previous update: 070211
  - Ven. Narada Thera (1898-1983), online : www.buddhanet.net
  - downloaded 234pdf-pp file in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries: 
  - NaradaLanka-Pali<> / Bkp<> (link chk 171224)
I had been learning Pali grammar from the above: half way through I've temporarily stopped to learn Sanskrit.
  - NaradaLanka-indx.htm - update 160930

A Pali grammar on the basis of Kaccayano aka Shin Kic'si {shin kic~s:} [alternate title: Kaccayana Vyakarana]
  - PEG-indx.htm - update 150630
  - by Rev. F. Mason, 1868 
  - on line: http://archive.org/details/apaligrammar... 180411
  Downloaded versions of 251 pdf pages are available in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
  - FMason-KicsiPalGramm<> / Bkp<> * (link chk 171224)
  - FMason-KicsiPalGramm-German<> / Bkp<> (link chk 171224)
  - Francis Mason & Eisel Mazard (馬大影) version of Shin Kicsi Pali Grammar, 1st distribution in 2015
  -  FMasonMazard-PalGramm<> / Bkp<> (link chk 171218)
Kicsi Pali Grammar from Burmese point of view, 1872.
  - FMason-PaliLangBurView<> / Bkp<> (link chk 170313)
  "THERE are two schools of Pali. One takes for its basis the Pali derived from the oldest Burmese manuscripts [UKT: I hold that this Pali-Myan is "Old Magadhi" , and the other the language as it now exists in books and manuscripts in Ceylon, [UKT: Pal-Lanka is the corrupt version] condemning everything as irregular which differs from Singalese standards."

Rev. Mason quoting Gautama Buddha: "Monks Priests, from among my clerical disciples who are able to amplify in detail that which is spoken in epitome, the most eminent is the Great Kachchayano." 

* UKT 171204: Rev. U Zawtika of Zya'thuhka monastery of Sanchaung has presented me with his own copies of Shin Kicsi's Grammar when he realizes that I am very serious of my study of Pali and Sanskrit. The first book is entirely in Pali and the other the Bur-Myan version by Sayadaw U Za'nakabi'wuntha of Amarapura.

We find Shin Kicsi's interpretation of Buddha's teachings: the Bur-Myan version p003 is the exact equivalent of FMason-KicsiPalGramm<> "The First Pali Grammar" p036. "The signification is known by akshara letter". Because of this interpretation by Shin Kicsi, Buddha declared to his disciples that Shin Kicsi is the most eminent.

Practical Grammar of the Pali Language (in English)
  - Charles Duroiselle, 1906, 3rd ed 1915. Latest ed in 1997 by U Dhamminda, Buddha Dharma Edu. Asc. Inc.
  - online www.buddhanet.net .
- downloaded file in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF library
- CDuroiselle-PaliGramm<> / Bkp<>  (link chk 171224)
Pali Grammar (in Burmese) by James Gray, British Burma Press, 1918 is in TIL SD-Library.
  Unfortunately, the pdf version was not properly done, and it is not worth referring to.
Pali Grammar by Rev. B. Clough, Wesleyan Press, Colombo, 1824. It is the oldest book I have
  so far. It is not suitable as a reference because the Pali words are in Lanka script which I could not read.

Eastern Monachism by Rev. R. Spence Hardy, the Wesleyan missionary from Ceylon, 1860, is a well written book on Buddhism. Though a lengthy book, pp444 pdf pp464, Preface alone, is well worth reading. He opened his chapter 01: Gotama Budha : "About two thousand years before the thunders of Wycliffe [John Wycliffe (c. mid-1320  - 1384), - English reformer - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Wycliffe 170313] were rolled against the mendicant orders of the west, Gtama Budha commenced his career as a mendicant in the east, and established a religious system that has exercised a mightier influence upon the world than the doctrines of any other uninspired teacher, in any age or country. ..."
Downloaded papers in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
- RSHardy-EasternMonachism<> / Bkp<> (link chk 171224)

Contents of this page

Section 7: Sanskrit {n-SkRRi.ta.} dictionaries, and grammars

UKT 151114, 161103, 170313, ... , 180818  

Sanskrit Dictionaries

My aim is to bring out the relationship in script {sa}, between Skt-Dev (Sanskrit-Devanagari), and Pal-Myan (Pali-Myanmar). There is very little relation in speech {sa.ka:}, and if we were to include raw speech - colloquial spoken language - we came under the Curse of Babel. My work, therefore, is based on the phonetic-script of King Asoka the Great - Asokan-Brahmi - the forerunner of both Skt-Dev and Pali-Myan.

My main source (corpus) of Skt-Dev is:
A Practical Sanskrit dictionary (in Skt-Dev) by A. A. Macdonell, 1893. The present TIL expanded version is based on the complete 384 pages of the ink-on-paper book, and its online versions.
Sanskrit as a language is also used by Buddhists of northern India, and from it translated into languages of China, Korea, and Japan.

My dictionary is to be read with Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit (in International Sanskrit), by F. Edgerton, 1953:
- FEdgerton-BHSD<> / Bkp<> (link chk 190702)

UKT 190624, 190805: My ultimate aim is to include Latin, and name my dictionary as Practical Sanskrit Dictionary for Buddhists, Christians and Hindus. I need Latin to come up with a transcription of Burmese into English, and back. Alas, I am getting old, and it may never materialize. For the present, I must be content with
Practical Sanskrit Dictionary for Buddhists and Hindus:
  - primary source: A Practical Sanskrit dictionary (in Skt-Dev) by A. A. Macdonell, 1893.
  - MC-indx.htm - update 2019Sep  
Sanskrit Glossary for Buddhists and Hindus
  - primary source: Sanskrit Documents ||संस्कृत शब्दार्थ || sanskrit@cheerful.com . 12/22/2018
  - SktGloss-indx.htm - update 2019Aug 

UKT 190923: Since my aim is to present Pali-Myan and Skt-Dev together I have to include Pali-Lat (as in Student's Pali-English Dictionary by U Pe Maung Tin) and Pali-Myan (as in Pali-Myanmar Dictionary by U Hoke Sein) as given below.

Student's Pali-English Dictionary (in International Pali), by Maung Tin (U Pe Maung Tin), (UPMT-SPED)
  - with ref. to U Hoke Sein, Pali-Myanmar Dictionary (in Pal-Myan) (UHS-PMD), by U Hoke Sein, Min. of Religious Affair, Burma Govt., 1954.
   The present work is in sections with the TOC as in Bur-Myan dictionaries which is in accordance with the Sonority scale: Consonants are easiest to compare, whilst the vowels are the most difficult. TIL entries are in the form: kaṇṭaka, {kN~Ta.ka.} (International Pali - Myanmar Pali - Romabama).

My work on this comparison of International Pali (a discipline in Myanmar secular universities) and Pali-Myan (used by Theravada Buddhist monks and layman - the majority of the people of Myanmarpr) brings out some interesting points which the historians and academics have totally ignored.

Inclusion of Myanmar-Pali glyphs makes the files difficult to edit which forces me to split up consonants as r1c1, r1c2, r1c3, ...
  - Consonants,
---- p061 - p081-1 - UPMT-PEDr1c1.htm - update 2019Sep 
---- p080-2 - 175 - UPMT-PEDc.htm (to be split further)
  - Approximants, p175-251 - UPMT-PEDa.htm
  - Vowels, p001-061 - UPMT-PEDv.htm
UKT 190805: The above dictionary and glossary are in the same folder, uploading SED-MC folder to the internet will cover both.

UKT 190828: An observation which I haven't made before is on the Similar vowels: that {I.} is a front-vowel and {U.} is back-vowel. Both uses a single-circle. However in the present Dissimilar vowels, {} is a single-circle, but {AU} is a double-circle. My suggestion is to:

Change the shape of {AU} of Vowel-Letters
from double-circle --    
to single-circle ------- -  
similar to {U.} -------- -- --

I've arrived at this observation only after the study of Student's Pali-English Dictionary, by Maung Tin (U Pe Maung Tin)
- Consonants, p061-175

UKT 181126: Burmese speech in Devanagari script:  Since both Myanmar and Devanagari are phonetic scripts, we should be able to transcribe - or at least transliterate - Burmese speech and BPali speech, in Devanagari akshara.

My idea is not entirely new, since Sanskrit has been written in Myanmar script. You can see it in U Hoke Sein's Pali-Myanmar dictionary. After coming across Shin Kicsi's "motto", I've started implementing my idea into practice, because of which don't be surprised to find a few BPal-Myan (and Bur-Myan) words written in Bur-Dev. Only remember that in reading Bur-Dev, you must follow the Bur-Myan phonology. Even if you do not know Bur-Myan phonology, which is the same as BPal-Myan phonology you would know what the message is especially if it is on Buddhism.

My bridges between Skt-Dev and Pal-Myan are:
A Comparative and Etymological Dictionary of Nepali Language , by R. L. Turner, to be a bridge to Pal-Myan.
TIL libraries have 2 different versions: PDF and non-PDF
Downloaded files from Govt. College in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
  - RLTurner-NepalDict<> / Bkp<> (link chk 171224)
Downloaded from: - http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/turner/ (link chk 181208)
in in TIL non-PDF libraries.
  - TurnNepalDicIndx<> / Bkp<>

Bur-Myan Orthography, by U (Dr.) Tun Tint, MLC, 1986

The BHS-Lat (Buddhist-Hybrid-Sanskrit transliterated in Latin-script), and the Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary, by F. Edgerton.
- BHS-vol01-indx.htm - update 160229
- FEdgerton-BHSD<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180627)

Student's Pali-English Dictionary, by Maung Tin (U Pe Maung Tin), in TIL PDF libraries
(UPMT-SPED) - UPMT-PaliDict1920<> / Bkp<> (link chk 171224)
Since UPMT has based his work mostly on
 A Dictionary of the Pali Language, by R.C. Childers, 1875 ed. in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
  - RCChilders-PaliLangDict<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180701)

Buddhist Dictionary of Pali Proper Names, by G. P. Malalasekera (1899-1973)
  - http://www.palikanon.com/english/pali_names/dic_idx.html 170410
Note: To use this dictionary, go on line, and click on the above link.

UKT to TIL html editor 181125: Bookmarks for Skt, Pal, Myan: kRRRi, kRRi, kri .

Roots and Verb-forms in Sanskrit, by W. D. Whitney, 1885.
Downloaded txt in TIL PDF libraries:
Single-page format - WDWhitney-RootsVerbFormS<> / Bkp<> (link chk 171229)
Double-page format - WDWhitney-RootsVerbFormD<> / Bkp<> (link chk 171229)
Sanskrit Verbal Roots List with English Translation , by Yoga Vidya, in TIL non-PDF libraries.
 - YogaWiki-SktVerbRoots<> (link chk 181219)
Student's English Sanskrit Dictionary, by V. S. Apte, 1893:
  Being a dictionary by one of the natives, it is one of those I would like to refer to. Unfortunately,
  it is in alphabetical order. It is in TIL PDF libraries:
  - VSApte-StudentSktEngDict<> / Bkp<> (link chk 171224)
Lexicon of Names, Essential terms and Sanskrit words:
  - http://bhagavata.org/glossary/index.html 171222
The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary, by V. S. Apte, 1890. It has about
  a thousand pages and my attempt to download a PDF version have failed.
  Instead, you can use, Univ. Chicago : http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/apte/ 171120
  Searching the above is the same as for A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary, by A A Macdonell
Indian Buddhism by A. K. Warder, 1970
Downloaded txt in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- AKWarder-IndianBuddhism<> / Bkp<> (link chk 171224)
Aśvaghoṣa's Buddha Carita "Life of Buddha" by E. B. Cowell, 1894
- EBCowell-BuddphaCarita<> / Bkp<> (link chk 171224)
Example: Book 01, p07, Bhagavatprasūtiḥ "The Birth of the Holy One" :
mahībṛtāṁ mūrdhni kṛtābhiṣekaḥ śuddhodano nāma nṛpo 'rkabaṁdhuḥ |
adhyāśayo vā sphuṭapudarīkaṁ purādhirājaṁ tadalaṁcakāra || 1.9
9. A king, by name Śuddhodana, of the kindred of the Sun, anointed to stand at the head of earth monarchs, -- ruling over the city, adorned it, as a bee-inmate a full-blown lotus.

Glossary of Sanskrit Terms ||संस्कृत शब्दार्थ || from https://sanskritdocuments.org/dict/dictall.html
Downloaded document is in TIL non-PDF folder:
- GlossaryOfSktTerms<>

Other references which I use occasionally:
H. H. Wilson, 3rd ed. translation of Kalidasa's Megha-Duta (Cloud Messenger), 1867,
   containing a Vocabulary by Francis Johnson, p089-179 (downloaded PDF in TIL SD-library) -- for future work
Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English dictionary, 1899. MW-indx.htm - complete
TIL Sanskrit-English dictionary - SED-indx.htm
   downloaded pdf file in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries
   - dictall-SktGlos<>2003 / Bkp<> (link chk 171224)
   (main links checked, and temp. suspended while working on Macdonell)
   A baby learns a language by listening to conversations without knowing the meaning. Listen to
   Sanskrit conversations, संवागमाला - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h1_3TnyHmBE 140821
Goddesses (or Mothers) in Ancient India - by P K Agrawala - mei-tau-indx.htm 
   UKT 140806: The book which I bought in Canada through Amazon is in TIL library.
   It is an important source of info for BEPS work, and will be part of this website.


Sanskrit Grammars

I am learning Skt-Dev (Sanskrit-Devanagari pronunciation from online sources, fully realizing that Sanskrit is a dead-language and the original pronunciation is lost. The speech that I could get online is mainly of Hindi-speakers of IE and Tamil-speakers of Aus-Asi language-groups.

I am going thru A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary by A A Macdonell, comparing some to the Pal-Myan from Pali-Myan Dictionary by U Hoke Sein and Npali & Nwari dictionaries.

We must realize that Eng-Lat (IE), Skt-Dev (IE), Mon-Myan (Aus-Asi) have have no Palatal plosive-stops. They have Palatal affricates. On the opposite end Bur-Myan (Tib-Bur) has no lisping endings. To handle Skt-Dev and Bur-Myan and other similar languages, I have to include Dental-fricative hisser {Sa.} ष / {S} ष् into Romabama. The Dental-fricative hisser is different from Palatal-plosive stop {sa.} च /{c} च् . Now we can come up with a class of vl-consonants such as: {Spa.}, {Sta.}, {Ska.}, {Sma.}, {Sna.}, etc. - all derived from {Sa.} ष / {S} ष् .

UKT 181007: For BEPS words in Myanmar script, remember to differentiate:

Palatal {sa.} / {c}
Dental {Sa.} ष / {S} ष्

TIL editors should take note of how I differentiate them in bookmarks.

The Eng-Lat words, <sp>, <st>, <sk>, <sm>, <sn>, etc. are actually spelled with Dental {Sa.} ष / {S} ष् . It is useful to remember this in transcription (different from transliteration) of Eng-Lat into Bur-Myan and Pal-Myan. 

Notice how I am avoiding the IPA and IAST transcriptions, because they are non-ASCII (i.e. not suitable for email and internet). They are based on foreign-phonologies. Romabama {ro:ma.ba-ma} - the back-bone of Bur-Myan language has a unique phonology which is even different from Mon-Myan, a language of Aus-Asi (Austro-Asiatic aka {mwun-hka.ma} group) .

R. L. Turner, A Comparative and Etymological Dictionary of Nepali Language :
Romabama is not Romanized-Burmese or Burglish.
For the present, just listen to a SND clip of recitation of Bhagava Gita (in Sanskrit-Dev) : bk-cndl-Gita18-2<))
Listen to the rhythm to help you to memorize the text:

श्रीभगवानुवाच śrī-bhagavān uvāca 'the Supreme Personality of Godhead said';
काम्यानां kāmyānāṁ 'with desire' /
  कर्मणां karmaṇāṁ 'of activities'
न्यासं nyāsaṁ 'renunciation' /
  सन्न्यासं sannyāsaṁ 'the renounced order of life'
कवयो kavayaḥ 'the learned' /
  विदु: viduḥ 'know'
सर्वकर्मफलत्यागं sarva 'of all'
------------------karma 'activities'
------------------phala 'of results'
------------------tyāgam 'renunciation'
प्राहुस्त्यागं prāhuḥ 'call'
------------tyāgam 'renunciation' /
  विचक्षणा: vicakṣaṇāḥ 'the experienced'

The above script, Bg18.2, is from a video clip. You can also get it, with translation and purport from: Bhativedanta VedaBase - https://www.vedabase.com/en/bg 170327

Listen carefully, such as to bhagavān which is clearly related to the word bhagavā. The two words are clearly related to each other by having a common root and stem.

Remember: A root is the part of a word that cannot be changed, and when added to creates different forms of the word, e.g. <walk> from which we get <walks>, <walked>, and <walking>, and new words like <sidewalk>.

Such a change is found in both nouns and verbs which is utterly foreign to Bur-Myan. Dictionaries only give one form of the word, which means to understand inflexional languages, I must study the roots and stems. I have included Roots and Verb-forms in Sanskrit, by W. D. Whitney, 1885, (ref. as Whitxxx) in my A. A. Macdonell A Practical Sanskrit dictionary (in Skt-Dev) 1893, given below . See  W. D. Whitney, Roots and Verb-forms in Sanskrit, 1885. Downloaded files in TIL HD-PDF & SD-PDF libraries
 - WDWhitney-RootsVerbFormsS<> / Bkp<> (link chk 171224)

See also https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bhagavad_Gita 151112 
See also a cartoon clip in TIL SD-Library from Meghaduta मेघदूत meghadūta 'Cloud Messenger' by Kālidāsa in downloaded files in TIL HD-VIDEO and SD-VIDEO libraries:
- Meghaduta-cartoon<> / Bkp<> (link chk 180104)

UKT 170417: Today, 170417, is Bur-Myan New Year day of 1379 BE. I was born in 1296 BE, and I'm now 83 years old. We have just ended the 4 days of Thin'gyan 'hair washing' which is commonly called 'Water Festival', marking the Sun's transit from the last the 12th Rasi of the Luni-solar calendar to the first Rasi. I celebrate the New Year day by giving the link to a series of spoken grammar lessons from: Shaale.com: School of Traditional  Indian Arts and Literature
- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mAbHLSL4kFs&list=PLZ83joYJYmWSFgcg-r0nOwnWPEqmvoaN4 151120
Watch and listen to downloaded files in TIL HD-VIDEO libraries
- SktDevGramLect-indx.htm (link chk 170611) 
Start from the very beginning - Lesson101<> (link chk 181109)
The problem for Bur-Myan speakers is for {a.} /θ/: Skt-Dev has 3: {sa.}, {Sa.}/{S} and {sha.} /ʃ/
and listen to 109. GuNitakshara गुणिताक्षराणि guṇita akshara 'augmented akshara' in Sanskrit
- Lesson109<> - Lesson109<)) (link chk 171224)

Skt-Dev grammars that have been brought to my notice:
A Sanskrit Grammar, including both the classical language and the older dialects, of Veda and Brahmana - by W. D. Whitney, Leipzig, 1897 in TIL PDF libraries
- WDWhitney-SktGramm<> / Bkp<> (link chk 171224)
- WDWhitney-SktRootsVerbForms<> / Bkp<> (link chk 171224)
Sanskrit Grammar, Part 1 & 2, by Dr. P Rajagopal, Shaale.com: School of Traditional   Indian Arts and Literature,
- https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL-ZRhg4pEMrNHVgVUKqpqKJ2FWBbusosK 170520
- downloaded by rewritten for Bur-Myan speakers by U Kyaw Tun (primarily for self-learning as a student)
- MC-indx.htm > MCspeech-indx.htm > SktDevGramLect-indx.htm
> SktGrammPt1.htm & SktGrammPt2.htm (link chk 170908)
  http://sanskritdocuments.org/learning_tutorial_wikner/ 130517
  - http://sanskritdocuments.org/learning_tutorial_wikner/wikner-rm.pdf 130517(suspended work)
learnsanskrit.org http://learnsanskrit.org/ 130911


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Section 8. Myanmar: what the Earth has to say

- UKT 190508: While working on Pali and Sanskrit dictionaries, I got so sick of unseen entities such as gods & goddesses, devas and devis, and all the authoritative ancient texts on stone and on paper written by humans, that I have to turn to natural sciences now and then. I want to know about my birth country, Myanmarpr, not from human mouths, but from the Earth itself.

Earth Sciences is the topic of this section. - earth-indx - update 2019Jun

The following and others generally included in Earth Sciences are in this section.
Cosmology - to trace the beginnings Geology - {Bu-mi.b-Da.} Geography {pa.hta.wi-wn} Paleoanthropology  {sh:ma.noa~a.b-da.}

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Section 9 : Para-Medicine

UKT 141026: The word "Para-Medicine" is my coined word from
Bur-Myan {pa.ra.hs:} - MLC MED2006-252
The word {pa.ra.hs:} is probably derived from the name of an ancient pioneer, Parāśara (3100 BCE?).
This section was under the name MYANMAR MEDICINAL PLANTS , and it needs a thorough review, and I am going through it very slowly because of other works and also because of its large size.

UKT 170308: Bk-cndl-indx.htm has 6 main folders: 1.MP-KS, 2.MP-LSR, 3.MP-PARA, 4.TAXON, 5.MP-VR, and MMPD, which alone is separated from the rest. Consequently, I have renamed it as 6.MP-MMPD.
Of the 6 folders, 2.MP-LSR and 6.MP-MMPD are very old folders and have nested folders.
TIL editor must be careful in sorting them out

2.MP-LSR has nestlings-child: Agri2000 & LSR, which themselves have nestling-grandchild.
  Agri2000 has: FAMILY; GENUS-SPECIES; r1c1ka, r1c2hka, r1c2nga, r2c1sa, r2c2hsa, ... , r7c4a'

6.MP-MMPD, the oldest main folder of the lot, also has nestlings which need to be checked
  and deleted if redundant.
They need to be realigned to get rid of the nesting.

I am splitting the above into the following:

  Para-Medicine {pa.ra.hs:} -- MP-Para-indx.htm - update 141130 (link chk 170719)
A Checklist of Botanical Names of Myanmar Plants of Importance
- Planning section, Agricultural Dept, Govt. of Union of Myanmar, 2000.
A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs, and Climbers of Myanmar
- H.G. Hundley and U Chit Ko Ko, et.al. 
Botanical Names of Myanmar Plants of Importance
- LSeikShin 
Medicinal Plants of Myanmar
- Dr. Kyaw Soe & Daw Tin Myo Ngw -
Plant Taxonomy
- George H. M. Lawrence
MMPD Bur-Myan Akshara index
- U Kyaw Tun, U Pe Than, and staff of TIL. 
Vṛkṣāyurveda (Plant Science)
- Parāśara (3100 BCE?)
: Plant of interest - Orthosiphon aristatus {i.kra:ma.keiT} - treatment of inflammatory disorders and ailments of urogenital tract.

UKT 180609: I need to find more info on a plant, planted as a gift by U Tin Thein, an indigenous medicine practitioner: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vernonia_amygdalina 180609
Bur-Myan name given by him: {da.h~a.ken:}.

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If you are a Theravada Buddhist

UKT 150624, 181014:

For Theravada Buddhists, you may start your day by taking the Five Precepts from a Sri Lanka monk : - bk-cndl-LankaPali<))

I've been asked by my niece, why I haven't chosen taking the Five Precepts from a Bur-Myan monk. To her and others, I must answer:

This is not a website on religion: it is on the correspondence between four languages of BEPS aka Binpathak. {ba.n-pa-ak}.

However, we will come across references to religions, such as Christianity and Hinduism.

Mainland of Myanmarpr at one time was populated by Pyu ethnics, who were Tib-Bur speakers. I hold that they were closely associated with the Ancient Indus-Saraswati civilization. Even in early Pagan period when the Pyus had intermarried the Bamahs, they had worshipped the Naga or Nag - the crested serpent-like mythical creatures equated to the Dva-gods. Most of us may not love ordinary serpents, but most of us do have a respect for Naga, the lord of the snakes.

Even today there are a number of Buddhist pagodas in which the wild pythons have found sanctuary. And also there are still a few hermitages with hermits with unshaven heads and beards, and wearing hats.

The Hermits are not Rahans and are not bounded by Viniya Rules. They are probably the descendants of the ancient Vdic Ii (which in Sanskrit would be Rishi - the same word with Pali "Ii" but spelled with very Rhotic Sanskrit Vowel ऋ ). In Bur-Myan they are called {ra..}. A Rishi to a Hindu is quite different from a Burmese-Buddhist Rishi. A Hindu-Rishi has a family and sing songs, whereas a Buddhist-Rishi is celibate and does not sing songs - the difference can be seen in the case of Narada Rishi. In Hinduism, he is reduced to the status of singer singing praises to Vishnu. To the Buddhist he was a Buddha-to-be and his story is told in the Ten Major Birth stories.

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Burmese-Myanmar calendar

- UKT 181017

See Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burmese_calendar 181014

Make your plans for the next month. In all probability you (and I) do not know that the present year 2018 AD corresponds to Bur-Myan (Burmese-Myanmar) Luni-solar year of 1379-1380 BE.

Being an educational website it is deemed proper to open with a recitation of Mora Sutta Paritta
by Rev. Jandure Pagngnananda Thero (釋明高) from www.youtube.com - bk-cndl-Chinese<))
  UKT 180712: Probably derived from BHS (Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit)
by a noted monk of Theravada {ht-ra.wa-da.}, Skt: Sthaviravada, Mingun Sayadaw - bk-cndl-Mingun<))
Gayatri Mantra of Hinduism directed to Rising Sun (equiv. to Mora Sutta) by Anuradha Paudwal  - bk-cndl-gayatri<))

Click to see:
2018: 01.Jan, 02.Feb, 03.Mar, 04.Apr, 05.May, 06.Jun, 07.Jul, 08.Aug, 09.Sep, 10.Oct, 11.Nov, 12.Dec
2019: 01.Jan, 02.Feb, 03.Mar, 04.Apr, 05.May, 06.Jun, 07,Jul, 08.Aug, 09.Sep, 10.Oct, 11.Nov, 12.Dec
2020: 01.Jan,
UKT171113: September (Roman month) (from Latin septem, "seven") was originally the seventh of ten months on the oldest known Roman calendar, with March (Latin Martius) the first month of the year until perhaps as late as 153 BC. [2]. - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/September 171113.
The word "September" is {t~ta.ma.} 'seventh' where Bur-Myan {a.} /θ/ has been changed into IE /s/. "October" - {T~HTa.ma.}, "November" {na.wa.ma.}, "December" {da.a.ma.}.

Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gayatri_Mantra 170702
quotes, Shutts, Brett (May 2014) in J. of the Oxford Centre for Buddhist Studies, 6, 119:
"In Samyutta Nikaya 111, Majjhima Nikaya 92 and Vinaya i 246 of the Pali Canon, the Buddha refers to the Agnihotra as the foremost sacrifice and the Gayatri mantra as the foremost meter:

'aggihuttamukhā yaā sāvittī chandaso mukham.
Sacrifices have the agnihotra as foremost; of meter the foremost is the Sāvitrī. [6] ' "

UKT 170702: Noting that the mantra is recited by the Brahmins {poaN~Na:} to the rising Sun in the morning, "Sāvitrī" aka "sāvittī" can simply mean the Sun - the source of Energy, not to any Hindu Creator-god. Similarly, as Mora Sutta is addressed to the rising Sun in the morning, and setting Sun in the evening, Buddhists can accept it. Because of this fact, I maintain "Gayatri Mantra" and "Mora Sutta" are equivalents.

Outside Myanmarpr, only few knows what a modern Burmese calendar looks like. As I (U Kyaw Tun) grow more aged, I am returning to my roots - Burmese traditional customs and draw on the latent energies of my forefathers - both Burmese & Mon, and I for one need a Burmese calendar, even on my trips outside Myanmarpr, to observe the customary holidays of my childhood. What I am giving below is intended only for those outside the Motherland and who have no income such as monks, nuns, and aged men and women who are literally living on charity. If you are a Buddhist, you can uphold Sila {i-la.} - at least the Five Precepts on traditional Sabbath days: Full-moon, New-moon, and the 8th day after.
- Five Precepts by a Sri Lanka monk - bk-cndl-LankaPali<))


The Bur-Myan Luni-solar calendar is quite unique, and is different from that of Indians, because of the Burmese use of Metonic cycle of 19 years (nearly a common multiple of the solar year and the synodic (lunar) month, first discovered by Babylonian astromers long before the Greeks), although both the Indians and Burmese use calculations based on SuryaSiddhanta
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Babylonian_astronomy 170515
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surya_Siddhanta 170428
Downloaded translation SuryaSiddhanta by E. Burgess, 1860 in TIL HD-PDF and SD-PDF libraries:
- EBurgess-SuryaSiddhata<> / Bkp<> (link chk 171218)
See also: - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burmese_calendar 170428
"One key difference from Indian systems was that the Burmese system followed a 19-year intercalation schedule (Metonic cycle). It is unclear from where, when or how the Metonic system was introduced".
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metonic_cycle 170428
Named after Greek astronomer Meton of Athens (5th century BC):


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Immediate Family

U Kyaw Tun and Daw Than Than - update 130928
Founder and president of Tun Investment Limited, incorporated in Ontario, CANADA
Retired Professor of Chemistry
Interests: Linguistics. Chemistry and Chemical Technology.
  Computer and Internet Tech
Daw Than Than (1931-2004)
Co-founder of TIL
Retired Instructor in Chemistry
Interests: Than's Gallery: Room 1 | Room 2 | Room 3
[UKT 130928: Daw Than Than's home page moved into UKT folder. ]
Who we are : more about the family and
read a poem by Daw Than Than: the Mother's wish
who knew she was going to die shortly.
[UKT 130928: moved into UKT folder.]

Dr. Zin Tun
National Research Council Canada
Interests: Physics. Neutron scattering
See a list of publications by Dr. Zin Tun from 1982 to the present (2012) is included.

Daw Nini Tun
Technical Manager, TIL Computing and Language Centre, Yangon, Myanmar
Interests: Sample of webpages designed by TIL team in Yangon.
   Teaching of Biology at high school level
Distance Education -- Daw Nini Tun, Daw Thetthet Theinthan
  Sample of teaching biology on Internet 

Maung Kan Tun

Maung Thit Tun
Tun family home in Canada


Extended Family & Friends

U Khin Maung Latt
Lecturer and author

Daw Khin Myo Chit
Author - See Biographical sketch by her son Dr. Khin Maung Win
Some publications:
  Her Infinite Variety and other stories - preface
  Stories and Sketches of Myanmar - preface
  Thirteen Carat Diamond and other stories - preface
  Electra Triumphs
  - Electra-triumphs.htm (link chk 141031)
  Facets of Life at Shwedagon Pagoda
Facets_at_Shwedagon.htm (link chk 141031)

See: Tun family home in Canada
Update: 2019-09-27 04:02 AM -0400
jtun@bell.net - Canada home
tunzinni@gmail.com - Yangon office

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